当前位置:首页 >> 经管营销 >>

The Ugly Truth About Beauty


The Ugly Truth About Beauty -Like It or Not, Looks Do Matter By John Stossel

We like to think of America as a meritocracy. A lot of us think we value people because of what they accomplish, or their character, or generosity, or intelligence-that's what we thought mattered, but are we just putting blinders on? 相貌歧视 - 不管喜欢不喜欢,相貌确实很重要 丁夏林 译 郭昌晖 校注 我们爱把美国看成一个精英荟萃的国家。我们许多人认为,自己之 所以看重别人是因为他们有成就,或人品好,或宽厚仁慈,或天资聪明 ——过去我们都认为这些是至关重要的, 但现在我们是不是都戴上障眼 物了呢? More often than not it seems qualities other than skill, intelligence or character pay off. Here's an example. Anna

Kournikova is ranked 37th in women's tennis, and has never won a major singles championship. So, why is it that Kournikova makes millions more dollars from endorsements than players ranked higher? [2] Looks don't only make a difference for women. Does New York Giants' cornerback Jason Sehorn get so much attention just because he's a top athlete? Is that why he was featured in Sports Illustrated for Women? [3] You probably know about the famous Kennedy-Nixon debates-people listening on the radio thought Richard Nixon had won. Those watching TV thought the handsome John F.Kennedy won. [4] When Texas Sen. Phil Gramm sought the Republican nomination for president in 1996, he said :“ The real question is whether someone as ugly as I am can be elected. ” Within months, Gramm dropped out of the race. [5] Did the press cover JFK Jr. so relentlessly solely because he was the son of a president? Would we have cared so much about Princess Di if she had looked like, say, Princess Margaret? 看来,给人们带来好处的往往不是技术、智力或人品,而是其他一 些特质。安娜·库尔尼科娃就是一个例子。她在女子网球的世界排名中

位列第 37 ,而且还从未获得过重要的单打冠军。那么,为什么库尔尼 科娃从广告中获得的收入要比排名靠前的球员多几百万美元呢? [2] 美貌不仅对妇女管用。 纽约巨人橄榄球队的角后卫贾森·泽霍 恩如此受人关注,难道仅仅因为他是一名顶级运动员吗?《妇女体育画 报》对他进行报道也只是因为上述那个原因吗? [3] 你也许了解肯尼迪和尼克松之间那场著名的电视辩论的情况 ——听收音机的人认为理查德·尼克松获得了胜利, 而看电视的人则认 为赢家是英俊潇洒的肯尼迪。 [4] 得克萨斯州参议员菲尔·格拉姆在 1996 年竞选共和党的总 统提名时曾说过:“真正的问题是像我这样相貌不佳的人能否被选 上。”几个月后,格拉姆就退出了竞选。 [5] 媒体连篇累牍地报道小肯尼迪的情况, 仅仅因为他是总统的儿 子吗?比如说,假如戴安娜王妃与玛格丽特公主一样相貌平平,我们还 会这么关注她吗? Beauty and the Brain [6] It may seem obvious to most of us that people would prefer to look at beautiful faces. While beauty itself may be only skindeep, studies show our perception of beauty may be hardwired in our brains. In studies conducted at Massachusetts General

Hospital ,Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers Itzhak Aharon, Nancy Etcoff, Dan Ariely, Christopher F. Chabris, Ethan O'Connor, and Hans C. Breiter have used magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) technology to look at the activity in men's brains when they were shown pictures of beautiful women's faces. Breiter and his colleagues found that the same part of the bain lights up as when a hungry person sees food, or a gambler eyes cash, or a drug addict sees a fix. Essentially, beauty and addiction trigger the same areas in the brain. [7] Some researchers link this addictive pursuit of good looks to evolution. Anthropologist Helen Fisher, suggests that primitive man might have unconsciously thought that a pretty woman had a better chance of bearing healthy children. 美貌与大脑 [6] 显然,在我们大部分人的心目中,漂亮的脸蛋看似更诱人。虽 然美貌本身也许只是表面一层皮,但种种研究表明,我们的审美观可能 和我们的大脑密切相关。在马萨诸塞州总医学院进行的各项研究中,研 究人员伊扎克·阿哈龙、南希·埃特科夫、丹·阿列力、克里斯托 弗· F ·夏布里斯、伊桑·奥康纳和汉斯· C ·布赖特运用了磁共振 成像技术来观察男士在面对美貌女士照片时大脑的活动情况。 布赖特和

他的同事们发现,此时男士大脑的某区域开始兴奋起来,此区域与饥饿 的人看到食物、赌徒看到现金或瘾君子看到毒品时大脑兴奋的区域相 同。美貌与毒瘾激活的基本上是男士大脑中相同的区域。 [7] 一些研究人员把这种对美貌的上瘾似的追求与进化联系在一 起。人类学家海伦·费希尔提出,原始人可能无意识地认为,漂亮女人 更有可能生出健康的孩子。 The Long and the Short of It [8] Likewise, evolution may have led women to prefer taller men. [9] Women will take just about any shortcoming in a man, except in the height department, according to Andrea McGinty, who founded the San Diego-based dating service It's Just Lunch. [10] McGinty helped ABCNEWS put together an experiment to test just how willing women are to date shorter men. We brought together several short men and asked them to stand next to taller men. We invited groups of women to look at the men and choose a date. [11] To see if the women would go for short guys who were successful, ABCNEWS' Lynn Sherr created extraordinary r é sum é s for the shorter men. She told the women that the shorter men

included a doctor, a best-selling author, a champion skier, a venture capitalist who'd made millions by the age of 25. [12] Nothing worked. The women always chose the tall men. Sherr asked whether there'd be anything she could say that would make the shortest of the men, who was 5 feet, irresistible. One of the women replied, “Maybe the only thing you could say is that the other four are murderers.” Another backed her up, saying that had the taller men had a criminal record she might have been swayed to choose a shorter man. Another said she'd have considered the shorter men, if the taller men had been described as “child molesters”. [13] The desire for tall men begins very young, apparently. ABCNEWS gave elementary school students a test, asking them to match a small, medium or large figure of a man with a series of words. The kids overwhelmingly linked the tall figure to the words strong, handsome and smart. They linked the short figure to the words sad, scared and weak. More than half of the kids also chose to link the short figure to the words, dumb, yucky and no friends. 高矮的是是非非 [8] 同样,人类进化可能已使女人更偏爱身材高大的男士。

[9] 安德烈亚·麦金蒂是圣迭戈一家名叫“幽情午餐”的约会服 务社的创始人。她说,女人几乎会容忍男人身人的任何缺点,唯独不能 容忍的是身材矮小。 [10] 麦金蒂帮助美国广播新闻网做了一个实验,测试女士们到底 在多大程度上愿意与身材矮小的男士约会。 我们让几个矮个子男士挨着 高个子的男士站在一起,然后邀请几组女士来看,从中选择约会对象。 [11] 为了看看女士是否会对事业有成的矮个男士有好感,美国广 播新闻网的林恩·谢里为矮个男士设计的简历都很出众。 她告诉这些女 士,矮个子男士中有一位医生、一位畅销书作家、一个滑雪冠军和一位 25 岁时就已经赚了几百万美元的风险资本家。 [12] 但这些都没能奏效。女士们总是选择高个子男士。谢里问她 们,有没有什么东西她说了就能使那个最矮小的只有 5 英尺身高的男 人具有无法抗拒的魅力。一位女士说:“也许你只有说其他 4 个人都 是杀人凶手了。”另一位女士与她的看法一致,说是只有当高个男子有 犯罪记录时,她才会转而挑选矮个男子。另外一位女士说,如果高个子 男人曾被称为“猥亵孩子的人”,她就会考虑选择矮个子男人。 [13] 显然,对高个男人的好感早在孩提时代就已形成。美国广播 新闻网在小学生中做了一个实验, 让他们想出一系列词语来描绘不同身 材的男士。结果,孩子们几乎异口同声地用强壮、英俊和聪明来描绘身 材高大的男士,而把矮个子男士与可悲、胆怯及软弱等词联系起来。一

半以上的孩子还为身材矮小的男子选择了愚蠢、 讨厌及交不上朋友等词 语。 Add ‘Lookism' to the List [14] To conduct an experiment, 20/20 hired actors-some great-looking, some not-and put them in situations to gauge how often the “lookers” would get preferential treatment. [15] In the first text, we put two women next to cars without gas in Atlanta. The women wore the same outfit. [16] Both Michelle and Tracey stood helplessly by cars with their hoods up. For the average-looking Michelle, a few pedestrians stopped but only made suggestions as the beautiful Tracey, cars came screeching to a halt. More than a dozen cars stopped and six people went to get Tracey gas. [17] The two actresses helped with our second test, at an Atlanta shopping mall calendars and teddy bears to raise money for charity. Overall, it looked as if both women were doing well with their sales. Then we counted the money and found Tracey collected 50 precent more.

[18] What if we tested something requiring qualifications, like getting a job? Looks shouldn't matter then but would they? [19] 20/20 hired two men and two women to apply for jobs. The clearest difference between them was looks while they shared similar education and work experience backgrounds. To match them up more closely, we rewrote their r é sum é s to match. [20] Mark, who was our more attractive applicant, and Mike, the more ordinarylooking one, both had corporate experience and had run their own companies. Donia, our more attractive female applicant, and her counterpart, Amy, both had been secretaries and saleswomen. A consultant trained them so their behavior matched. [21] Hidden cameras captured interviewers being warmer and friendlier to the better-looking applicants and being less friendly to the other applicants. With Amy and Donia, for example, one job interviewer told Amy employees got a 45-minute lunch break but with Donia the interviewer said there was a flexible policy about lunch. Who got the job offer? Donia. Amy never even got a call back.

[22] We ran similar tests using Mike and the especially good-looking Mark. Would looks make less of a difference when the interviewers were judging men? Apparently not. On the first interview, for a sales job, the interviewer told Mike he'd call him later but he never called. With Mark, the interviewer was eager to have him return for a tryout day. [23] “It's a non-conscious process,” said Tom Cash, a psychologist at Old Dominion University. “They assume that more attractive people have an array of valued characteristics.” [24] We should add the bias of “lookism” to sexism and racism. It's just as bad but we don't need a federal program. “以貌取人”也是一种歧视 以貌取人” [14] 为了搞一次实验, 美国广播新闻网 20/20 栏目雇了几名演员 ——有的很漂亮, 有的相貌平平——把他们放在不同的场合以测试“美 人儿”受人厚待的几率。 [15] 在第一项测试中,我们让两位女士站在亚特兰大街头,身边 是汽油耗尽的私家车。她们穿的衣服完全一样。 [16] 车的前盖向上支着,米歇尔和特蕾西站在车旁,一副无能为 力的样子。有几个行人走过来,在相貌平平的米歇尔前站住,但只示意

她可以步行去哪里买到汽油。而面对漂亮的特蕾西,十多辆小车先后戛 然而止,有 6 个人下车帮她搞到了汽油。 [17] 那两位女演员协助我们进行了第二项实验。她们在亚特兰大 的一个购物中心搭起了一张桌子, 出售日历和玩具熊, 为慈善事业筹款。 总体来看,好像两个人销售情况都不错。在点了钱数后,我们发现特蕾 西筹集的钱款比米歇尔多了 50% 。 [18] 如果我们测试一下需要资历的事情,比如找工作,会出现什 么情况呢?相貌总不该再管用了吧,但真是如此吗? [19]20/20 栏目雇了两男两女,让他们去找工作。他们有相同的教 育背景和工作经历,只是相貌完全不同。为了让他们更般配,我们改写 了他们的简历。 [20] 马克是我们那位英俊的求职者,而迈克相貌平平。他们都有 在公司工作的经历,并都经营过自己的公司。在女性求职者多尼娅和埃 米中,多尼娅更妩媚动人;她俩都当过秘书和营业员。一个咨询顾问对 他们进行了培训,以使他们的行为与经历吻合。 [21] 暗藏的摄像机发现,面试人员对美貌的求职者更热情、友好, 而对其他应聘者则较冷淡。 以埃米和多尼娅为例, 一位面试者告诉埃米, 雇员的午餐休息时间是 45 分钟, 而他却对多尼娅说午餐的时间问题是 可以变通的。最后谁得到了这份工作?多尼娅。埃米甚至连回电也没有 接到。

[22] 我们用迈克和相貌英俊的马克做了同样的实验。当面试人员 评选男性时,相貌是否不怎么起作用了?显然不是。在第一个招聘销售 人员的面试中,面试人员对迈克说回头再给他电话答复,但他根本没有 答复。马克就不同了,面试人员急于让他来试工。 [23] 弗吉尼亚大学的心理学家汤姆·卡什说:“这是一个下意识 的过程,他们认为漂亮的人具有许多有价值的特点。” [24] 除了“性别歧视”和“种族歧视”外,现在还应再加一条 “相貌歧视”。它同样有害,只是我们无需发起一场全国的运动来反对 它。


赞助商链接
相关文章:
研究生英语教材翻译Beauty_and_the_Beast
it’s easy—and tempting—to overlook this other side, the ugly side, ...But nothing could be further from truth. There are people in Belfast today...
单元检测答案
to the short dialogs, and then choose the correct answers to the questions...A. An ugly duckling. B. A traditional beauty. C. A beauty in a ...
Beauty Does Not Equal A Beautiful Appearance
Beauty Does Not Equal A Beautiful Appearance_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。外...“The Answer Is Pretty Ugly.” 3 August, 2012. <http://www.huffington...
Beauty英文话剧剧本
Beauty) 廖子綾 Anthony (Prince) 廖健博 three Fairies three Devils the King...an ugly princess?Ha!Ha!Ha! ?!!! Anthony:How dare you say that?Let's...
更多相关标签: