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高中英语完形填空解题技巧及专题训练


完型填空的训练及解题技巧(含答案)
完型填空 一、文章特点 科技信息类文章是指介绍当前科学领域的最新科技成果或者正在研发的科技项目的文章。 2007 年广东高考完形 填空题的短文就属这类文章。这类文章有清晰、客观、准确、精练和严密等特点。如果考生对该技术有所了解,对 解题是有一定帮助的,但是归根结底还是取决于对文意的透彻理解、对词语的意义和用法的掌握,也离不开解答完 形填空的一些技巧。 二、解题技巧 1. 把握语境,一气呵成。 完形填空是要求考生根据上下文语境来进行确定最佳选项的。做题前,必须要结合上下文所给的提示(明示或 暗示),对文章整体进行理解和把握。因此,快速浏览全文,掌握短文大意和文中用词习惯,才能在解题时做到一 气呵成。 2. 先易后难,各个击破。 做题时碰到有充分把握的先做,不确定的姑且先放一放,待处理完其它的答案时,再回头处理,这时由于对文 章有了进一步的理解,往往可能会眼前一亮,有“山重水复疑无路,柳暗花明又一村”之效。 3. 善用文中信息,进行逻辑推断。 做几何证明题时,需要有足够的条件,才能推导出结果。做完形填空时也是如此,需要搜罗证据,再进行逻辑 推断,才能得出正确的答案。如 2007 年广东省高考完形填空的第 21 空就是应用该能力推敲出来的。 证据一:...we didn’t have to remember passwords. 证据二:...uses face recognition technology to log you on to windows. 证据三:...all you need is a webcam and your pretty face. 收集了这三个证据后,推断出 automatically 就顺理成章了。 4. 善用关联词语,把握逻辑关系。 文章的逻辑关系大多通过一些过渡性的关联词来实现,这些关联词能给考生指明答题方向。常见的表示逻辑关系的 关系词有: 表并列关系的 and, also, as well as 等; 表转折关系的 but, however, yet 等; 表因果关系的 because, because of, as, since, for that reason, so, therefore, thus, as a result 等;表递进关系的 besides, in addition, additionally, moreover, furthermore, what’s more 等;表选择关系的 or, either…or 等。 5. 养成阅读习惯,丰富背景常识。 丰富的常识及文化背景知识有利于解题,考生平时要养成课外阅读习惯以扩大自己的知识面。如考生是电脑软 件的发烧友,解答 2007 年广东省高考完形填空题就顺利得多。 三、实例分析 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 21—30 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将 该项涂黑。

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Researchers in Japan have designed a robot that can taste and identify dozens of different wines, cheeses and hors d’oeuvres. The ability to___21___ good wine from bad, name the specific brand from a tiny sip and recommend a complementary cheese would seem to be about as ___22___ a skill as there is. In Japan, robots are doing it. All foods have a ___23___fingerprint. The robot uses that data to identify what it is inspecting right there on the spot. When it has identified a wine, the robot speaks up in a childlike voice. It names the ___24___ and adds a comment or two on the taste, such as whether it is a buttery chardonnay or a full-bodied Shiraz, and what kind of foods might ___25___well on the side. The robots could be “personalized”, or ___26___ to recognize the kinds of wines its owner prefers and recommend new varieties to fit its owner’s___27___. Because it is analyzing the chemical composition of the wine or food placed before it, it can also alert its owner to possible health issues, gently___28___ against fatty or salty products. The 2-foot-tall robot also is ___29___. Buying one of these would cost about as much as a new car. There is no plan yet to actually ___30___the robot, though the sensor could be available as early as next year. 21. A. know 22. A. machine 23. A. unique 24. A. fingerprint 25. A. match 26. A. programmed 27. A. choice 28. A. defending 29. A. inexpensive 30. A. advertise 四、即时练习 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 21—30 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将 该项涂黑。 (2) B. tell B. robot B. special B. cheese B. mix B. specialized B. taste B. fighting B. expensive. B. present C. judge C. human C. vital C. brand C. come C. trained C. ability C. warning C. dangerous C. develop D. recognize D. wine D. useful D. robot D. go D. identified D. brand D. protecting D. unique D. market

The Shenzhou-7 space module, carrying three taikonauts, landed safely by parachute on Sept. 28 in China's northern grasslands after a 68-hour flight. The ___21___included the first ever spacewalk by a Chinese astronaut. Chinese scientists on Monday___22___ a box of solid lubricant (润滑剂) samples that were ___23___the Shenzhou-7 spacecraft. The solid lubricant samples, ___24___outside the Shenzhou-7 capsule in the ___25___space for long hours and retrieved (重新找回) by astronaut Zhai Zhigang during his spacewalk, weighed about 2.2 kg. They will study the material for the next six months. Two types of solid lubricant samples, after being ___26___ to outer space for 44 hours during the Shenzhou-7 space journey, had shown ___27___changes. The appearance of the two types of samples has either turned dark or become

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rougher. Solid lubricants are widely used in spacecraft to___28___ friction because they withstand high temperatures. Scientists hoped to improve the stability and lifetime of the materials by studying the test samples taken to outer space. Scientists would ___29___the samples with those exposed to a simulated space environment in the laboratory. If scientists discover the difference between the two exposed lubricants, they might be able to ___30___ how other materials change in outer space. 21. A. job 22. A. break 23. A. aboard 24. A. gathered 25. A. out 26. A. taken 27. A. different 28. A. reduce 29. A. experiment 30. A. compare B. mission B. damage B. abroad B. landed B. outer B. uncovered B. special B. increase B. compare B. advise C. responsibility C. remove C. along C. loaded C. outside C. stuck C. obvious C. remove C. test C. tell (3) D. task D. unsealed D. under D. used D. inner D. exposed D. rough D. forbid D. mix D. test

This year’s Nobel Prize in medicine will go to three researchers who found a way to learn about the duties of individual genes. They discovered how to ___21___, or knock out (猛烈击打), single genes in laboratory animals. The result is known as “knockout mice”. Capecchi and Oliver Smithies, will ___22___the one and one-half million dollar prize with Martin Evans of Britain. They will receive what is ___23___called the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine at a ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden, on December In the 1980s, Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies both studied cells in mice to find how to ___24___ individual genes for changes. But the kinds of cells they ___25___studied could not be used to create gene-targeted animals. Martin Evans had the ___26___. He developed embryonic stem cells that could produce mice that carried new genetic material. The research greatly ___27___knowledge about embryonic development as well as aging and disease. It ___28___to a new technology--gene targeting. And this has already produced five hundred mouse models of human conditions. Knockout mice are used for general research and for the development of new ___29___. International efforts aim to make them ___30___ in the near future for all genes. 21. A. share 22. A. present 23. A. individually 24. A. create 25. A. independently 26. A. resolution B. study B. share B. inactively B. target B. willingly B. development C. target C. receive C. officially C. develop C. secretly C. treatment D. inactivate D. produce D. willingly D. research D. officially D. solution

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27. A. display 28. A. exposed 29. A. efforts 20. A. available

B. expressed B. led B. changes B. individual

C. expanded C. applied C. cells C .active (4)

D. produced D. owed D. treatments D. independent

Alfred Nobel became a millionaire and changed the ways of mining,construction,and 学科网 warfare as the inventor of dynamite(炸药).On April 12,1888,Alfred's brother Ludwig died of heart attack.A major French newspaper _21_ his brother for him and carried an article is dead.”the article read.“Dr.Alfred 学科网 Nobel,who became _23_ by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before,died 学科网 yesterday.” _22_ the death of Alfred Nobel. “The merchant of death

Nobel was _24_ to find out not that he had died,but that,when his time was up, he would be thought of only as one who profited from _25_ and destruction. 学科网 To make sure that he was _26_ with love and respect.Nobel arranged in his _27_ to 学科网 give the largest part of his money to _28_ the Nobel prizes, which would be awarded to people who made great _29_ to the causes of peace, literature, and the sciences.So _30_ ,Nobel 学科网 had to die before he realized what his life was really about. 学科网 21.A.found 22.A.introducing 23.A.famous 24.A.upset 25.A.death 26.A.repaid 27.A.book 28.A.establish 29.A.additions 30.A.generally B.misunderstood B.announcing B.sick B.anxious B.disease B.described B.article B.form B.sacrifices B.basically C.mistook C.implying C.rich C.excited C.trouble C.supported C.will C.develop C.changes C.usually D.judged D.advertising D.popular D.pleased D.attack D.remembered D.contract D.promote D.contributions D.certainly

第一节 完形填空 (共 10 小题;每小题 2 分,满分 20 分) 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 21—30 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项 涂黑。 (5) Tales of the supernatural are common in all parts of Britain. In particular, there was (and perhaps still is) a belief in fairies(仙女). Not all of these 21 are the friendly, people-loving characters that appear in Disney films, and in some

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folktales they are

22 and cause much human suffering. This is true in the tales about the Changeling. These tell the story 23 and pale and has changed so much that it is almost 24 to the parents. It was

of a mother whose baby grows then 25

that the fairies had come and stolen the baby away and

26 the human baby with a fairy Changeling. There

were many ways to prevent this from happening: hanging a knife over the baby’s head while he slept or covering him with some of his father’s clothes were just two of the recommended 27 . However, hope was not lost even if the baby had been 28 . In those cases there was often a way to get the 29 baby back. You could ___30___the Changeling on the

fire--then it would rise up the chimney, and you would hear the sound of fairies’ laughter and soon after you would find your own child safe and sound nearby. 21. A. babies 22. A. powerful 23. A. sick 24. A. uncomfortable 25. A. feared 26. A. covered 27. A. cases 28. A. missed 29. A.1ittle 30. A. seize 答案与解析: (一)日本的科学研究人员研制出一种能品酒并鉴别和说出多种葡萄酒名的机器人,非常人性化。它还能说出 哪种食品与那种葡萄酒相配味更美。 21. B。由上文的 identify(识别,鉴别)可知,此处是指区分酒的优劣的能力;表示“鉴别,区别”是 tell...from。 22. C。由下句 In Japan, robots are doing it 可推知,本题是指人类(human)独有的技巧。 23. A。每样食物都有其“独特的,独一无二的(unique)”指纹编码。 24. C。由第二段 name the specific brand…可知。 25. D。句意是指何种葡萄酒和何种食品相配就非常对味,指两种食品配在一起对味或好吃,用 go well (with)。 而 match 往往指两件东西搭配起来相不相称(此时也可用 go with),如领带和西装相称与否;mix 只是将两种或两种 B. believers B. cruel B. slim B. unbelievable B. predicted B. changed B. tools B. stolen B. pale B. burn C. fairies C. frightened C. short C. unacceptable C. heard C. replaced C. steps C. found C. sad C. place D. supermen D. extraordinary D. small D. unrecognizable D. reported D. terrified D. methods D. lost D. real D. hold

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以上的东西混在一起。 26. A。由表示进一步解释的 or 可知,既然“机器人能够‘个性化’”,也就是说,“可以根据主人的口味来 设定程序(programmed),以便为主人推荐适合主人口味(taste)的品牌”。 27. B。指给主人介绍适主人口味合的新的酒类。 28. C。指机器人能够温和地向主人发出警示(warning)不要吃肥腻或多盐的东西。 29. B。由后一句 Buying one of these would cost about as much as a new car 可知。 30. D。由上文的 buying 和后部分的 available 等可知,现在还没有打算将这种机器人投放到市场。此处 market 是及物动词,意为“将……投放市场销售(offer for sail)”。 答案与解析 (二)神七安全着陆后,科学家在紧锣密鼓地进行着一系列的研究工作,对润滑剂的研究就是其中之一。科学家 试图发现物质暴露于外太空之后变化会是什么样的。 21. B。指“太空飞行任务(the flight into space)”,是 The mission。 22. D。打开(unseal)润滑剂才能研究它。 23. A。只有 aboard 才表示“在(飞船/飞机/火车)上”。 24. C。指装载(loaded)在飞船外面的固态润滑剂样品。 25. B。因 outer space 在下文中有。 26. D。上文提到润滑剂装载于飞船的外面。 27. C。从后一句 The appearance of the two types of samples has either turned dark or become rougher 可以推断出是 明显的变化(obvious changes)。 28. A。润滑剂用于减少摩擦是常识,不能去掉摩擦(remove friction)。 29. B。科学家通过比较曾暴露于外太空的润滑剂和一般的样品润滑剂来得出试验结论。 30. C。此处 tell 表示“断定”之意。 (三)今年诺贝尔医药方面得奖者由三名科学家获得,他们研究单个基因的职责,发现如何在实验室动物的身上 阻止基因活动的方法。 21. D。由下文 knock out 可知,inactivate 的意思是 make …inactive(阻止活动)。 22. B。由常识可知,诺贝尔奖每年颁奖一次,有奖金颁发,有时由两个人或以上共享(share)奖金。 23. C。诺贝尔奖是正式的官方称谓。 24. B。 由下文 gene targeting 可知, 此处 target 的意思是 choose someone or something as your target or goal(把…… 选为目标)。 25. A。由上下文可知,他们各自(independently)研究的那些细胞。 26. D。 由后文 He developed embryonic stem cells that could produce mice that carried new genetic material 可推断出 该句的意思是 Martin Evans 有了解决办法。 27. C。由上文可推断出他们的这一科学成果扩大了人们的知识领域。

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28. B。由上文可推断出这个研究产生了一项新技术,即 gene targeting。 29. D。 上文曾提到这三位科学家取得诺贝尔医学奖, 自然是为研发新药或疗法 the development of new treatments。 30. A。由 available 的词义“(of things) that you can get, buy or find”可知,从市场上可买到这些药。

(4) 21. C。因 mistake A for B (将 A 误以为 B)是固定搭配。 22. B。由常识可知,报社应是“发布”消息,故用 announce (give information about)。 23. C。由首句 became a millionaire 可知。 24. A。根据常识,看到自己本来死却报道死了这样的消息,特别是说自己通过 kill more people faster 来发财的评 论,应当是“不高兴,苦恼(unhappy or annoyed)”,不可能是“兴奋的(excited)”“高兴的(pleased)”“渴望的(anxious)”。 25. A。与 destruction(毁灭)并列的应是 attack(攻击),上文的 warfare (战争), kill more people 也都说明要选 D。再 说,根据有关 dynamite (炸药)的特点与运用的常识也可选出正确答案。 26. D。 由后文设立奖金可知, 是为了改变自我形象, 要设法“被别人充满爱与尊敬地铭记(be remember with love and respect)”。 27. C。由最后一句 Nobel Ks5uhad to die before he realized…可知,是在“遗嘱(will)”中作的安排。 28. A。根据与名词 the Nobel prizes 的搭配,又结合常识,应当是“设立”诺贝尔奖金。 29. D。奖金应当是将给那些为世界和平、文学和科学等领域作出过巨大贡献的人。make contributions to…(对…… 作出贡献)是固定搭配。 30. A。遗嘱中安排设立奖金,因此,“普遍(by or to most people, widely)”认为,他到死时才意识到他的人生的真正 意义。 本大题中由理解空格所在句本身即可选出答案的有 21(固定搭配)题,22 题(常识),24 题(常识),26 题(固定 搭配与常识),28 题(动宾搭配与常识),29 题(固定搭配)等 6 道题,占总数的 60%。由上文信息和常识即可选出正 确答案的有 23 题、25 题(并列关系也很重要)、30 题(so 暗示了上下文的因果关系,还涉及到词语辨析),共 3 个小 题;由下文信息可选出正确答案的有 27 题。本大题固定搭配和常识题较多,应当属中等偏易;其中最难的可能是 第 30 题。 (5)

本文主要是说英国的神话故事中非所有仙女都是善良的,有的很残酷,常给人们带来痛苦。

21. C 结合前句可知,本句意为“并不是所有的仙女(fairies)都像迪斯尼电影中出现的人物那样友善、讨人喜爱”。

22. B 与前面的 friendly 相对,后面的 and cause much human suffering 也说明了这一点。

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23. A 由与之并列的 pale (苍白)可知,是有病的婴儿。

24. D 因为“变化如此之大”,所以父母也“无法识别,辨不出来”。

25. A 孩子变得辨认不出来了,这时“人们担心(it is feared that…)”被仙女来换了一个孩子了。

26. C 由前文 stolen the baby away 可知, 是用 a fairy Changeling 来取代了 the human baby; 表示“取代”用 replace = take the place of。

27. D 由前文的 many ways 可知,与 ways 同义的是 methods。

28. B 由前文 stolen the baby away 可知。

29. D 与用来取代的假的相对,应当为“真的”。

30. C 把 the Changeling“放到”火上面。

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