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2015 年高考英语阅读理解题及答案(9 套) Our brains work in complex and strange ways.There are some people who can calculate the day of the week for any given date in 40,000 years, but who cannot add two plus two.Others can perform complex classical piano pieces after hearing them once, but they cannot read or write. Dr.J.Langdon Down first described this condition in 1887.He called these people idiot savants.An idiot savant is a person who has significant mental impairment (损伤) , such as in autism ( 孤独症,自闭症 ) or retardation.At the same time, the person also exhibits some extraordinary skills, which are unusual for most people.The skills of the savant may vary from being exceptionally gifted in music or in mathematics, or having a photographic memory. One of the first descriptions of a human who could calculate quickly was written in 1789 by Dr.Benjamin Rush, an American doctor.His patient, Thomas Fuller, was brought to Virginia as a slave in1724.It took Thomas only 90 seconds to work out that a man who has lived 70 years, 17 days, and 12 hours has lived 2,210,500,800 seconds.Despite this ability, he died in 1790 without ever learning to read or write. Another idiot savant slave became famous as a pianist in the 1860s.Blind Tom had a vocabulary of only 100 words, but he played 5 ,000 musical pieces beautifully. In the excellent movie Rain Man, made in 1988 and available on video cassette, Dustin Hoffman plays an idiot savant who amazes his brother played by Tom Cruise, with his ability to perform complex calculations very rapidly. Today we more clearly recognize that the idiot savant is special because of brain impairment.Yet not all brain impairment leads to savant skills.Some studies have shown that people who have purposeful interruption of the left side of the brain can develop idiot savant skills.However few people wish to participate in such experiments.There are many excellent reasons for not undergoing unnecessary experimentation on one's brain.The term idiot savant is outdated and inappropriate.Virtually all savants have a high degree of intelligence and are thus not idiots. 72.What does the passage mainly talk about? A.Idiot savants have areas of outstanding abilities. B.Human Beings have complicated thinking process. C.The brains of the idiot savants are partly impaired. D.The reasons why people have wonderful skills vary. 73.Which of the following can be done by Rain Man? A.He can play wonderful pieces of classical music. B.He can guess out exactly the length of a man's life. C.He can memorize the contents of the pictures fast. D.He can count matches dropped on the floor quickly. 74.What can you infer from the passage? A.Idiot savants have real talents for art and math. B.Dr.Down is the first person who found idiot savants. C.Few people wish to risk becoming savants by brain operations. D.Intentional left brain impairments will surely lead to idiot savants. 75.Which of the following shows the structure of the passage? 答案:72—75 ADCB

Laws that would have ensured pupils from five to 16 received a full financial education got lost in the ‘wash up’. An application is calling on the next government to bring it back. At school the children are taught to add up and subtract(减法) but, extraordinarily, are not routinely shown how to open a bank account — let alone how to manage their finances in an increasingly complex and demanding world. Today the parenting website Mumsnet and the consumer campaigner Martin Lewis have joined forces to launch an online application to make financial education a compulsory element of the school curriculum in England. Children from five to 16 should be taught about everything from pocket money to pensions, they say. And that was exactly the plan preserved in the Children, Schools and Families bill that was shelved by the government in the so-called “wash-up” earlier this month — the rush to legislation before parliament was dismissed. Consumer and parent groups believe financial education has always been one of the most frustrating omissions of the curriculum. As the Personal Finance Education Group (Pfeg) points out, the good habits of young children do not last long. Over 75% of seven- to 11-year-olds are savers but by the time they get to 17, over half of them are in debt to family and friends. By this age, 26% see a credit card or overdraft(透支) as a way of extending their spending power. Pfeg predicts that these young people will “find it much harder to avoid the serious unexpected dangers that have befallen many of their parents' generation unless they receive good quality financial education while at school.” The UK has been in the worst financial recession(衰退)for generations. It does seem odd that — unless parents step in — young people are left in the dark until they are cruelly introduced to the world of debt when they turn up at university. In a recent poll of over 8,000 people, 97% supported financial education in schools, while 3% said it was a job for parents. 61. The passage is mainly about _____________. A. how to manage school lessons B. how to deal with the financial crisis C. teaching young people about money D. teaching students how to study effectively 62. It can be inferred from the first two paragraphs that __________. A. the author complains about the school education B. pupils should not be taught to add up and subtract C. students have been taught to manage their finances D. laws on financial education have been effectively carried out 63. The website and the consumer campaigner joined to _________. A. instruct the pupils to donate their pocket money B. promote the connection of schools and families C. ask the government to dismiss the parliament D. appeal for the curriculum of financial education 64. According to Pfeg, ___________. A. it is easy to keep good habits long B. teenagers spend their money as planned C. parents are willing to pay the debt for their kids D. it will be in trouble if the teenagers are left alone

65. A poll is mentioned to ___________. A. stress the necessity of the curriculum reform B. show the seriousness of the financial recession C. make the readers aware of burden of the parents D. illustrate some people are strongly against the proposal 答案:61-65 CADDA uropeans should try to stay indoors if ash from Iceland's volcano starts settling, the World Health Organization warned Friday as small amounts fell in Iceland, Scotland and Norway. WHO spokesman Daniel Epstein said the microscopic(微小的) ash is potentially dangerous for people when it starts to reach the Earth because inhaled(吸入) particles can enter the lungs and cause respiratory problems. And he also said Europeans who go outside might want to consider wearing a mask. Other experts, however, weren't convinced the volcanic ash would have a major effect on peoples' health and said WHO's warnings were "hysterical." They said volcanic ash was much less dangerous than cigarette smoke or pollution. Volcanic ash is made of fine particles of fragmented volcanic rock. It is light gray to black and can be as fine as talcum powder. During a volcanic eruption, the ash can be breathed deep into the lungs and cause irritation even in healthy people. But once it falls from a greater distance — like from the cloud currently hovering above Europe — its health effects are often minimal, experts say. "Not all particles are created equal," said Ken Donaldson, a professor of respiratory toxicology at the University of Edinburgh, "In the great scheme of things, volcanic ash is not all that harmful." And he said most Europeans' exposure to volcanic ash would be negligible and that only those in the near districts of the Icelandic volcano would likely be at risk. Dr. Stephen Spiro, a professor of respiratory medicine and deputy chair of the British Lung Foundation, said the further the particles travel, the less dangerous they will be. "The cloud has already passed over northern Scotland and we haven't heard of any ill effects there," he said. Spiro said to wear masks or stay indoors to avoid volcanic ash was "over the top" and "a bit hysterical." 60. The text is mainly about . A. the effect of volcanic ash B. the health risk of volcanic ash C. the disadvantages of volcanic ash D. the opinions on health risk of volcanic ash 61. Which one is true according to Paragraph3? A. The volcanic ash’s effects on Europeans were little. B. The ash caused irritation even in healthy people. C. Other experts thought WTO’S warnings were useful. D. The volcanic ash was more dangerous than cigarette smoke or pollution. 62. The underlined word “hysterical” in Paragraph4 most probably means . A. amazing B. practical C. valuable D. overstated 63. What can we learn from the passage? A. The volcanic ash wouldn’t be harmful to people. B. All experts thought the volcanic ash did great harm to our health. C. People close to the volcano would likely be at risk according to some experts. D. Europeans should stay indoors because Iceland's volcano starts settling.

答案: 60.D. 主旨大意题。本文主要就火山灰对人的健康的危害问题世卫组织和其他专家给出 不同观点。A 太笼统;B 不能体现不同的观点;C 与文章内容无关;D 符合题意。 61. A. 细节理解题。第三段最后一句可知 A 是正确的;由第三段中 During a volcanic eruption ?? in healthy people. 可知 B 错误 ; 由第三段中 Other experts, however, weren't convinced?? cigarette smoke or pollution 可排除 C D。 62. D. 词义猜测题。 由上文中 volcanic ash is not all that harmful 和下文中 only those in the near vicinity of the Icelandic volcano would likely be at risk 可知 D 正确, 夸大的, 言过其实的。 63.C. 由第三段 But once it falls from a greater distance?.. effects are often minimal 和第 四段中 only those in the near vicinity of the Icelandic volcano would likely be at risk 以及第五 段中 the further the particles travel, the more diluted and less dangerous they will be 可知 C 正 确。ABD 观点表达绝对。 Fear and its companion pain are two of the most useful things that man and animals possess if they are used. If fire didn’t hurt when it burned, children would play with it until their hands were burned away. Similarly, if pain existed but fear didn’t, a child could burn itself again and again because fear would not warn it to keep away from the fire that had burnt it before. A really fearless soldier—and some do exist—is not a good soldier because he is soon killed; and a dead soldier is of no use to his army. Fear and pain are therefore two guards without which man and animals might soon die out. In our first sentence we suggested that fear ought to be properly used. If, for example, you never go out of your house because of the danger of being knocked down and killed in the street by a car, you are letting fear rule you too much. The important thing is not to let fear rule you, but instead, to use fear as your servant and guide. Fear will warn you of dangers; then you have to decide what action to take. In many cases, you can take quick and successful action to avoid the danger. For example, you see a car coming straight towards you; fear warns you, you jump out of the way, and all is well. In some cases, however, you decide that there is nothing that you can do to avoid the danger. For example, you cannot prevent an airplane crashing into your house, and you may not want to go and live in a desert where there are no airplanes. In this case, fear has given you its warning, you have examined it and decided on your course of action, so fear of the particular danger is no longer of any use to you, and you have to try to overcome it. 60. Children would play with fire until their hands are burnt away if _________. A. they were not well educated at school B. they had never played with fire before C. they had no sense of pain D. they were fearful of pain 61. People sometimes succeed in timely avoiding danger because _________. A. they have gained experience B. they are warned of the danger and take quick action C. they jump out of the way in time D. they are calm in face of danger 62. What is implied but not stated in the passage? A. Too much fear is harmful B. Fear is always something helpful C . Fear is something that can be avoided D. Fear ought to be used as our guide in our life 63. The best title for this passage should be __________. A. No Pains, No Gains B. Pain and Actions

C. The Value of Fear D . The Reason Why People Fear 答案:60—63 CBAC Imagine a mass of floating waste is two times the size of the state of Texas. Texas has a land area of more than 678 000 square kilometers. So it might be difficult to imagine anything twice as big. All together, this mass of waste flowing in the North Pacific Ocean is known as the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch. It weighs about 3 500 000 tons. The waste includes bags,bottles and containers—plastic products of all kinds. The eastern part of the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch is about l 600 kilometers west of California. The western part is west of the Hawaiian Islands and east of Japan. The area has been described as a kind of oceanic desert,with light winds and slow moving water currents. The water moves so slow that garbage from all over the world collects there. In recent years, there have been growing concerns about the floating garbage and its effect on sea creatures and human health. Scientists say thousands of animals get trapped in the floating waste,resulting in death or injury. Even more die from a lack of food or water after swallowing pieces of plastic. The trash can also make animals feel full,lessening their desire to eat or drink. The floating garbage also can have harmful effects on people. There is an increased threat of infection of disease from polluted waste,and from eating fish that swallowed waste. Divers can also get trapped in the plastic. Its existence first gained public attention in l997. That was when racing boat captain and oceanographer Charles Moore and his crew sailed into the garbage while returning from a racing event. Five years earlier,another oceanographer learned of the trash after a shipment of rubber duckies got lost at sea. Many of those toys are now part of the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch. In August,2009,a team from the University of California,San Diego became the latest group to travel to it. They were shocked by the amount of waste they saw. They gathered hundreds of sea creatures and water samples to measure the garbage patch’s effect on ocean environment. 51.How did the writer introduce the topic of the passage? A. By giving an example. B. By listing the facts. C. By telling a story. D. By giving a comparison. 52.What do we know about the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch? A. It is made up of various kinds of plastic products. B. It is a solid mass of floating waste materials. C. It lies l60 000 kilometers east of California. D. It is described as a kind of oceanic desert. 53.Why do people pay attention to the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch? A. Because it may prevent the flow of ocean water. B. Because the polluted plastic articles will move up the food chain. C. Because it may be from an island in the pacific. D. Because ships may be trapped in the floating waste. 54.Which column can you find the passage on a newspaper? A. Sports and entertainment. B. Media and culture. C. Environment and society. D. Science and technology. 55.The purpose of writing this passage is to____________. A. warn people of the danger to travel in the pacific

B. analyze what caused the waste patch in the pacific C. give advice on how to recycle waste in the ocean D. introduce the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch 答案: 51.D。推理判断题。根据第一段”Imagine a mass of floating waste is two times the state of Texas.Texas has a land area of more than 678 000 square kilometers.So it might be difficult to imagine anything twice as big.”可知,作者拿得克萨斯州与大量的垃圾漂浮物进行比较,所 以选 D 项。 52.A。细节判断题。根据第二段中的”The waste includes bags,bottles and containers— plastic products of all kinds.”可知,这些垃圾漂流物是塑料制品。 53.B。细节理解题。根据第五段中的”There is an increased threat of infection of disease from polluted waste,and from eating fish that swallowed waste.”可知受污染的塑 料制品会通过食物链来影响人类。 54.C。 推理判断题。 根据本文内容可知, 这篇文章最有可能出现在报纸上” 环境与社会” 这个栏目里。 55.D。作者意图题。本文通过介绍太平洋上漂浮的大量的塑料垃圾废物的情况,指出了 它们对海洋中的生物以及人类的影响,所以 D 项正确。 With all the wars, fighting and sadness in the world today, it's not only necessary, but also essential to have a good sense of humor just to help us get through each and every day of our lives.Putting a smile on someone's face when you know they are feeling down in the dumps ( 处 于沮丧中), as the saying goes, makes me feel good and warms my heart. How would you feel if you could not joke around with your wife, husband, child, co-worker neighbor, close friend, or even just someone that you are standing in line with at your comer store? I am always saying things that make others smile or laugh, even if I don't know the person I'm joking around with.My Grandma always found humor in everything she did, even if it was the hardest job anyone could imagine.This not only relieves stress in any situation, but also is common courtesy (礼貌) to speak to others that are around you. I know of a few people that don’t have a funny bone in their bodies, as they say.Everyone around them could be rolling on the floor after hearing a great joke and they would sit there without the slightest smile on their face.They don't get the joke that makes others laugh.I am busting a gut while they just sit there, looking at me as if I were from outer space.How can people not get a really funny joke? Laughing is essential to keep your stress levels under control.Without humor we would find ourselves with a lot of psychological problems, or on a lot of medications to keep us from going crazy.There is too much sadness in this present world.It drives people crazy.We all need to find a way to bypass the sadness and bring a little light into our lives.So, I believe our best medicine is to get together and tell some jokes and have some fun laughing together. 51.According to the author, humor is useful in the aspect that ____________. A.it makes people more confident B.it can pick up people' s spirits C.it can help get rid of the cruelty in the world D.it can help people get on well with others 52.The author answers the question in the second paragraph with ___________. A.facts and descriptions B.evidence and argument

C.examples and conclusion D.stories and persuasion 53.The phrase “busting a gut" in the third paragraph can be replaced by __________. A.explaining carefully B.speaking loud C.keeping silent D.laughing hard 54.In writing the passage, the author mainly intends to __________. A.talk about his own understanding of humor B.encourage people to be humorous in daily life C.introduce a practical way to get through daily life D.convince people of the power of being optimistic about life 55.What is the author' s attitude towards the present world? A.Positive. B.Critical. C.Satisfied. D.Indifferent. 答案:51—55BCDBB Sometimes you’ ll hear people say that you can’ t love others until you love yourself.Sometimes you ’ ll hear people say that you can ’ t expect someone else to love you until you love yourself.Either way, you’ve got to love yourself first and this can be tricky.Sure we all know that we’re the apple of our parents’ eyes, and that our Grandmas think we’re great talents and our Uncle Roberts think that we will go to the Olympics.but sometimes it’s a lot harder to think such nice thoughts about ourselves.If you find that believing in yourself is a challenge.it is time you build a positive self-image and learn to love yourself. Self-image is your own mind’ s picture of yourself.This image includes the way you look, the way you act, the way you talk and the way you think.Interestingly, our self-images are often quite different from the images others hold about US.Unfortunately, most of these images are more negative than they should be.Thus changing the way you think about yourself is the key to changing your self-image and your whole world. The best way to defeat a passive self-image is to step back and decide to stress your successes.That is, make a list if you need to, but write down all of the great things you do every day.Don’t allow doubts to occur in it. It very well might be that you are experiencing a negative self-image because you can’t move past one flaw or weakness that you see about yourself.Well, roll up your sleeves and make a change of it as your primary task.If you think you’re silly because you aren’t good at math, find a tutor.If you think you’ re weak because you can’ t run a mile, get to the track and practice.If you think you’re dull because you don’t wear the latest trends, buy a few new clothes.But remember, just because you think it doesn’t mean it’s true. The best way to get rid of a negative serf-image is to realize that your image is far from objective, and to actively convince yourself of your positive qualities.Changing the way you think and working on those you need to improve will go a long way towards promoting a positive self-image.When you can pat(拍) yourself on the back, you’ll know you’re well on your way.Good luck! 41.You need to build a positive self-image when you _________. A.dare to challenge yourself B.feel it hard to change yourself C.are unconfident about yourself D.have a high opinion of yourself 42.According to the passage, our serf-images _________.

A.have positive effects B.are probably untrue C.are often changeable D.have different functions 43.How should you change your serf-image according to the passage? A.To keep a different image of others. B.To make your life successful. C.To understand your own world. D.To change the way you think. 44.What is the passage mainly about? A.How to prepare for your success. B.How to face challenges in your life. C.How to build a positive self-image. D.How to develop your good qualities. 45.Who are the intended readers of the passage? A.Parents. B.Adolescents. C.Educators. D.People in general. 答案:41—45CBDCB What should you think about when trying to find your career? You are probably better at some school subjects than others. These may show strengths that you can use in your work. A boy who is good at mathematics can use that in an engineering career. A girl who spells well and likes English may be good at office work. So it is important to know the subjects you do well in at school. On the other hand, you may not have any specially strong subjects but your records show a general satisfactory standard. Although not all subjects can be used directly in a job, they may have indirect value. A knowledge of history is not required for most jobs but if history is one of your good subjects you will have learned to remember facts and details. This is an ability that can be useful in many jobs. Your school may have taught you skills, such as typing or technical drawing, which you can use in your work. You may be good at metalwork or cookery and look for a job where you can improve these skills. If you have had a part-time job on Saturdays or in the summer, think what you gained from it. If nothing else, you may have learned how to get to work on time, to follow instructions and to get on with older workers. You may have learned to give correct change in a shop, for example. Just as important, you may become interested in a particular industry or career you see from the inside in a part-time job. Facing your weak points is also part of knowing yourself. You may be all thumbs when you handle tools; perhaps you are a poor speller or cannot add up a column of figures. It is better to face any weakness than to pretend they do not exist. Your school record, for instance, may not be too good, yet it is an important part of your background. You should not be apologetic about it but instead recognize that you will have a chance of a fresh start at work. 46. We can infer from the first paragraph that ________. learning better at school shows power in your job the better you are at school subjects, the more helpful they are in your career. learning each subject well is an ability in many jobs. we should think about how to find our career 47. From the passage we learn that if a student’s school performance is not good, he will _____. A. have no hope in his future work B. be hopeful to find a suitable job C. regret not having worked harder at school D. have an opportunity of a new beginning in his future work 48. All the subjects may have direct value for job hunting except _________.

A. mathematics B. English C. history D. technical drawing 49. The underlined phrase “be all thumbs” (in Paragraph 3) probably means “_________” . A. heavy- handed B. the best C. important D. skilled 50. The passage mainly discusses ___________. A. The relationship between school performance and career B. how to get a job C. How to show strengths in your work D. working experience and knowledge at school 答案:46- 50 BDCAA In modern society there is a great deal of argument about competition. Some value it highly, believing that it is responsible for social progress and prosperity, others say that competition is bad; that it sets one person against another; that it leads to unfriendly relationship between people. I have taught many children who held the belief that their self – worth relied (依赖) on how well they performed at tennis and other skills. For them, playing well and winning are often life – and – death affairs. In their single – minded pursuit ( 追 求 ) of success, the development of many other human qualities is sadly forgotten. However, while some seem to be lost in the desire to succeed, others take an opposite attitude. In a culture which values only the winner and pays no attention to the ordinary players, they strongly blame competition. Among the most vocal are youngsters who have suffered under competitive pressures from their parents or society. Teaching these young people, I often observe in them a desire to fail. They seem to se ek failure by not trying to win or achieve success. By not trying, they always have an excuse: “I may have lost, but it doesn’ t matter because I really didn’ t try.” What is not usually admitted by themselves is the belief that if they had really tried and lost, that would mean a lot. Such a loss would be a measure of their worth. Clearly, this belief is the same as that of the true competitors who try to prove themselves. Both are based on the mistaken belief that one’ s self – respect relies on how well one performs in comparison with others. Both are afraid of not being valued. Only as this basic and often troublesome fear begins to dissolve (缓 解) can we discover a new meaning in competition. 41.What does this passage mainly talk about? A.Competition helps to set up self – respect. B.Opinions about competition are different among people. C.Competition is harmful to personal quality development. D.Failures are necessary experiences in competition 42.Why do some people favor competition according to the passage? A.It pushes society forward. B.It builds up a sense of duty. C.It improves personal abilities. D.It encourages individual efforts. 43.The underlined phrase “the most vocal” in Paragraph 3 means . A.those who try their best to win B.those who value competition most highly C.those who are against competition most strongly D.those who rely on others most for success 44.What is the similar belief of the true competitors and those with a desire to fail ? A.One’s worth lies in his performance compared with others. B.One’s success in competition needs great efforts.

C.One’s achievement is determined by his particular skills. D.One’s success is based on how hard he has tried. 45.Which point of view may the author agree to? A.Every effort should be paid back. B.Competition should be encouraged. C.Winning should be a life – and – death matter. D.Fear of failure should be removed in competition. 答案:41.B 42.A 43.C 44.A 45.D

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