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高二英语上单词unit10-grammar_图文

Unit10 grammar

简单句中的省略
1、省略主语
祈使句中主语通常省略;其它省略主语 多限于少数现成的说法。

(1) (I) Thank you for your help. (2) (I) See you tomorrow.

(3) (It) Doesn’t matter.
(4) (I) Beg your pardon.

简单句中的省略
2、省略主谓或主谓语的一部分 (1) (There is) No smoking .

(2) (Is there) Anything wrong ?
(3) (Will you) Have a smoke ? (4) What/How (do you think) about a cup of tea ? (5) Why (do you) not say hello to him ?

简单句中的省略
3、省略作宾语的不定式短语,只保留to,但如果 该宾语是动词be或完成时态,则须在之后加上be 或have:
(1) –Are you going there? --Yes, I’d like to (go there).

(2) He didn’t give me the chance, though he had promised to (give me the chance).
(3) –Are you an engineer? --No, but I want to be.

(4) –He hasn’t finished the task yet. --Well, he ought to have.

简单句中的省略
4、省略表语 (1) –Are you thirsty? --Yes, I am (thirsty). (2) His brother isn’t lazy, nor is his sister (lazy). 5、同时省略几个成分 (1) Let’s meet at the same place as (we met) yesterday. (2) –-Have you finished your work ? ---(I have) Not (finished my work) yet.

主从复合句中的省略
1、主句中有一些成分被省略
(1) ( I’m ) Sorry to hear you are ill. (2) ( It’s a ) Pity that he missed such a good chance.

2、从句中有一些成分被省略
(1) –Is he coming back tonight? --I think so.

(2) –She must be busy now? --If so, she can’t go with us.
(3) –Is she feeling better today? --I’m afraid not. (4) –Do you think he will attend the meeting? --I guess not. 这种用法常见的有:How so? Why so? Is that so? I hope so. He said so.及I suppose/believe/hope not.

并列句中的省略
两个并列句中,后一个分句常省略与前一分句 中相同的部分。 (1) My father is a doctor and my mother (is) a nurse. (2) I study at college and my sister (studies) at high school. (3) When summer comes, the day is getting longer and longer, and the night (is getting) shorter and shorter.

其他省略
1、连词的that省略
(1)宾语从句中常省略连词that,但也有不能省略的情况。 (2) 在定语从句中,that在从句中作宾语时可省略.另外,凡 是进行时态和被动语态的定语从句都可省略关系代词和 be 动词。

2、在某些状语从句中,从句的主语与主句的主语 一致时,可省去“主语+be”部分
(1) When (he was) still a boy of 10, he had to work day and night.

(2) She tried her best though (she was) rather poor in health.

(3) If (you are) asked you may come in.
(4) If (it is) necessary I’ll explain to you again.

其他省略
3、不定式符号to的省略
(1)并列的不定式可省去后面的 to.

I told him to sit down and wait for a moment.
(2) help 当“帮助”讲时,后面的宾语或宾补的不定式符号to 可带可不带.

I will help (to) do it for you.
I will help you (to) do it.

(3)介词but前若有动词do,后面的不定式不带 to.
The boy did nothing but play.

其他省略
(4) 某些使役动词(let, make, have)及感官动词(see, watch, hear, notice, observe, feel, look at, listen to等)后面作宾 语补足语的不定式一定要省去 to, 但在被动语态中须将 to 复原。

I saw the boy fall from the tree.
The boy was seen to fall from the tree. The boss made us work 12 hours a day. We were made to work 12 hours a day.

其他省略
(5) 主语从句中有动词do,后面作表语的不定式的 to可带可 不带。 All we can do now is (to) wait. (6) find 当“发现”讲时,后面作宾语补足语的不定式符号to 可带可不带。 We found him (to) work very hard at the experiment.

但如果是不定式 to be,则不能省略。
She found him to be dishonest.

其他省略
4、连词if在部分虚拟条件句中可省略,但从句要 倒装。
(1) Had they time, they would certainly come and help us. (2) Were I you, I would do the work better. (3)Should there be a flood, what should we do?

5、主句和从句各有一些成分省略。
The sooner (you do it), the better (it will be).

1.She can hold her longer than I can hold my breath. 2.Do not bathe if you do not want to bath.
3.She could not decide whether to go on a trip or not to go On a trip. 4.They had a meal ,they went out for a walk and they came Back to sleep.

e.g. 1. Generally speaking, ________according to directions, the drug has no side effect. B when taken A. when taking B. C. when to take D. when to be taken 2. Though ________ money, his parents managed to send him to university. A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in C 3. When ________, the museum will be open to the public next year. A A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed 4. The research is so designed that once ______ nothing can be done to change it. A. begins B. having begun D begun C. beginning D.

D 1.If_____,we’ll continue our experiment after office hours. A.being necessary B.be necessary C.is necessary D.necessary D 2.Raining hard,____? A doesn’t it B.dose it C.is it D.isn’t it 3.Have you been here long? (A) A.No, not very B.Not much C. Yes,only little D. No, only yesterday 4.------Does your brother intend to study German? ------Yes, he intends______. B A/ B.to C.so D.that

Exercises

5. If ________ the same treatment again, he's sure to get well. A. Giving B. give C. C given D. being given 6. While building a tunnel through the mountain, ________. A. an underground lake was discovered B. there was an underground lake discovered C. a lake was discovered underground D D. the workers discovered an underground lake

7. --- You should have thanked her before you left. --- I meant ________, but when I was leaving I couldn't find her anywhere. B to A. to do B. C. doing D. doing it 8. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ________. A. A not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to 9. --- I'll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat? ---Not at all. ________. A. I've no time B. I'd rather not C. I'd like it D. D I'd be happy to

10.What would have happened ________, as far as the river bank? A. Bob had walked farther B. if Bob should walk farther C C. had Bob walked farther D. if Bob walked farther 11. --- Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend? --- ________. A. I don't believe B. I don't believe it C. I believe not so D. D I believe not 12. ---What do you think made Mary so upset? ---________her new bicycle. A. As she lost B. Lost C C. Losing D. Because of losing

13. One of the sides of the board should be painted yellow, and________. A. the other is white B. another white C. D. another is white C the other white 14. --- Would you like some wine? --- Yes, just ________. A. little B. very little C C. a little D. a few

Exercises:
Finish all the exercises at Pages 78, 79 & 147.



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