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DELL问题解决培训--资料_图文

Problem Solving
Key to Continuous Improvement
Workshop
1

Six Steps Problem Solving Process
1. Identify concerns 2. Analyze the problem (facts) 3. Evaluate Alternatives 4. Propose and Implement Solution 5. Analyze the Outcome 6. Improve the Process
2

The Six Step Problem Solving Process Model
1. Identify Concerns and problem

6. Improve the Process

2. Analyze the Problem

5. Analyze the Outcome

3. Evaluate the Alternatives

4. Propose and Implement the Solution
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Six Steps Problem Solving Process
Step 1. Identify Concerns
(How urgent or important is this?) ? Identifying the gap ? Smoke out the issues to the team or organization
? Use analysis reports such as check sheets, Pareto charts ? Use questions to probe for understanding of real issues which
require further investigation
? List areas of concern and the consequences of not taking action eg. Defects, tardiness, attitude
? Proceed to identify concerns
? Keep asking to surface the real issues ? Team to get agreement on area of mutual concern
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Six Steps Problem Solving Process
Step 2. Analyze the Problem
? Investigate in Detail (gather and evaluate the facts)
? Write a statement that identifies the root problem
? Use appropriate tools and techniques
? Checksheets, reports, observations ? Brainstorming (Alex F. Osborne, Applied Imagination, 1957) ? Force Field Analysis (Kurt Lewin, Field Theory in Social
Research, 1955) ? Cause and Effect Diagram or Fish Bone Diagram
? Ensure active participation
? Build consensus
? Proceed to analyze the problem
? Team agreement that area of mutual concern has been sufficiently analyzed
? Allow for constructive criticism and concerns to be shared
6

Steps One and Two
Analysis Summary
Key things that the team should have:
? Looked for patterns or trends during the analysis.
? Recurring themes point toward a definition
? Define barriers, as necessary.
? A clear definition of these barriers is necessary when preparing an action plan
? Used brainstorming techniques to open up discussion
? All ideas are acceptable ? Get as many as possible ? Involvement leads to ownership and commitment
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Six Steps Problem Solving Process
Step 3. Evaluate alternatives (most critical step)
? Test your problem analysis ? Establish priorities and ? Set criteria in an effort to establish a goal (refer next
slide)
? Enables a wider perspective of possible solutions which tend to be more mutually acceptable by team. This in turn leads to higher commitment by the group
11

Step Three – Evaluate Alternatives Tool

1. Establish priorities

List absolute requirements (points value)

Pts Reqmt M

N

O

10 <6 wks

<$300

8

>6-7 >$300 - $400

6

>7-8

>$400-$500

4

>8-9 >$500 - $600

2

>9

>$600

For Alternative 1,
Example of Requirements
M = timeframe to complete N = cost of implementation

List Desirable Objectives (points value)

Pts Reqmt x

yz

10 >0.50

8 >0.40

6 >0.30

4 >0.20

2 >0.10

Example of Requirements
x = UMH

13

Step Three – Evaluate Alternatives Tool
2. Establish Priorities - Evaluate Alternatives

Alternative 1: Alternative 2: Alternative 3:

24 pts

18 pts

Absolute Requirements

Pt value

8

Reqmt

M

Desirable Objectives

Pt value

10

Objective

x

6 N Pt. Total
14
Pt. Total 10

66
M N Pt. Total 12

6

x

Pt. Total

6

Pt. Total Pt. Total

14

Step Three – Evaluate Alternatives Tool
3. Criteria of this Alternative
? Set your criteria
1. Does this alternative express your desired achievement? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
2. Does this alternative express what you need to preserve? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
3. Does this alternative express what you need to avoid? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
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Six Step Problem Solving Process
Step 4. Propose and Implement the Solution ? Develop a plan of action
1. Specify steps to be completed 2. Determine resources needed to implement plan 3. Group member responsibilities to be agreed
upon 4. Determine timeline of events 5. Provide for emergencies and/or contingencies 6. Determine expected impact and actual impact 7. Plan for assessment of your proposed plan
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Step Four – Solution Creation Tool

Suggested Solutions

Does it meet Need for Is it workable? change? How/why? How?

Any disadvantages?

Decided upon solution:
17

Step Four – Action Planning Tool

Steps to be completed
Chronologic al order

Needed Resources

Whose responsibility?

Begin date and
completion date

Expected Impact

Actual Impact

Possible emergencies

Plan to assess Action Plan results : (list tools used eg Pareto charts, trend charts etc)
18

Six Step Problem Solving Process
Step 5. Analyze the Outcome ? Follow through is critical
1. Analysis follow through
1. Validate the entire process 2. Dissemination and analysis of improvement results
2. Determination of new problems that surfaced 3. Revisit the process as necessary 4. Problem Recurrence Prevention intervention 5. Institutionalization
19

Step Five – Analyze the Outcome Tool
Detail level of improvement (or non-improvement)
Can improvement process be institutionalized or action planning stage to be revisited? List observations.
Do reports reveal any possibility of problem reappearing? Detail action plan to see this does not happen.
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Six Step Problem Solving Process
Step 6. Improve the Process ? Continue the improvement
– Link to Step 1 – Identify Concern (initiates the process again)
– Step 6 also verifies your commitment to continuous improvement
? Evaluate what you do on a daily basis ? Rethink and change the way you do things ? Eliminate non-value added activities ? Accept responsibility and ownership for problems
for which you are part of the solution
Problem Solving is an ongoing process
21

Six Steps Problem Solving Process

Important Considerations

Project selection

– Project clearly defined

– Customer oriented

– Business Impact

Analysis technique

– Thorough and appropriate analysis techniques used

– Benchmarking of best practices

Remedies

– Use the simplest tools

– Alternative solutions seriously explored

– Remedies consistent with analysis

– Implementation plans thorough and well defined

Results

– Verified improvements measured

– Customer satisfaction results evident

Institutionalization

– Improvements sustainable and permanent

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No. of Occurences

Radar Chart

6 5

1 2

4 3

Pareto Diagram

50

100.0%

40

80.0%

30

60.0%

20

40.0%

10

20.0%

0

0.0%

B

C

A

D

Ca te gorie s

TOTAL

Cum Percent

Line chart

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Quantity

The Problem Solving Analysis Tools

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL

A
// /////
7

B ///// /////

C ////

///// // 17

///
//// 11

D
///// 5

TOTAL 4 10
9 3 5 9 40

To analyze the situation and look at important questions. Uses : ? To grasp the past and present situation ? To stratify ? To grasp the changes through time ? To confirm the standard
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No. of Occurences

Cummulative Percent

50 40 30 20 10
0

Pareto Diagram

100.0%

80.0%

60.0%

40.0%

20.0%

0.0%

B

C

A

D

Ca te gorie s

TOTAL

Cum Percent

From the tally sheets, identify the few main problems to tackle. Uses : ? To grasp the problem better ? To grasp the past and present situation of the problem ? To stratify ? To confirm the improvement results

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B

A

Effect

D

C

The Effect (results which is influenced by the main factors or Causes) are placed in a fish bone diagram. Using this diagram will help to identify the real causes Uses : ?To grasp the causal relationship between cause and effect ?To stratify ?To analyze the possible causes
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BPI Project Example Analyze: Root Cause and Proposed Solutions

MAN

MACHINE

MOTHER NATURE

Lack of Training (Sales force, Drivers etc.) H M H
Complex order entry systems H H H Sorting errors M M H Theft/Missing L H H Damaged L H H Customer not there H H H Short Ship (human error) L M H

Multiple order entry systems H H H 2 WIP systems (Tandem & Speedway) M H H Break in EDI link L H H Short Ship (system error) H H H Address change (order entry and Speedway) H H M

Addresses not input correctly H M H

Bad Weather L H H Holidays (Public & Customer) L L L Strikes L H H Viruses L H H Customs Delays (exams) L H H
Improved Delivery Time

MATERIAL

Technical Issues (Truck,

EMF 2 & 3 difference (Dock doors,

Ferry, Plane) L H H

volume, products, Manifest, etc.) M H H

Customs Delays (Documentation) L M H

Production by product (not destination) L H L Futuristic orders H H H

Split shipments (EMF 2 & 3) L H H

Inaccurate Customer order statusing

Shipping mis-route M M H

Truck departure policy H H H

METHOD

MEASURE

Mis-use of reason codes L L L
Inconsistent data by Carrier H H L Data lags real time; not ‘on-line’H H H
A) Occurrence B) Difficulty of Control C) Impact

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Y

.

......

.

.... .

. ....

.... .. .. .

. .

.

X To study the correlation between X and Y
Utilizing two sets of data to plot them onto the vertical axis and horizontal axis. From the analysis of the situation, we can see the congenial relationship of the data Uses : ?To grasp the past and present situation ?To grasp the correlation
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His togram

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Data has a tendency to be centered upon a maximum of large numerical value, and from there it spreads out, gradually decreasing. The analysis of the situation is placed in columnar form Uses : ?To grasp the past and present situation ?To stratify ?To identify the extent of the problem ?To confirm the improvement results
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UCL
LCL
A line graph used to grasp the variation in the data which is entered through planning the control limit lines of a centre line, an upper control limit and a lower control limit.
Uses : ? To discover the variables ? To grasp the control situation
30

Radar Chart
Pie Chart

6 5

1 2

4 3

Radar chart

1 60

6

40 Quantity2

20

0

5

3

4

Line chart

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Quantity

Useful information about control and improvement is plotted onto diagrams which are visual and easily comprehensible. Column graphs, line graphs, pie charts, belt charts, radar charts and others. Uses : ? To analyze the cause ? To record the time and contents ? To record the time and schedule control ? To grasp the large and small numbers and time changes ? To track trend
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10

9

6

Cause 1
2 Problem
Area

8

5

74

3

To solve problem by rationally seeing the relationship between “Cause – Results”, and “Objective – Measures”, where complicated circumstances are interwoven into the problem Uses : ?To grasp the causal relationship between cause and effect ?To grasp the relationship between objectives and measures ?To grasp the problem areas

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Enforced Problem Solving

6 Ws and 2 Hs
Look at current processes, systems, methods and ask questions!

6W ? Why ? What ? Where ? When ? Who ? Which

2H ? How ? How many

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Problem Solving Process Key Components
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Problem Solving Process
Info

No Enough?
Yes Use Tools & Techniques

No Solved?
Yes Monitor

It’s about information processing. It is about getting the right information!!
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Input
Information Experience Judgment Knowledge

Thinking

Process
Gather Sort Organize Analyze Confirm

Action
Creativity Decision Making Speed of Execution

Results
Concern Resolved

Questioning & Listening Skills
Making decision and taking action are critical to learning and understanding the problem resolution

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The Human Side of Problem Solving
39

Team Member Interaction Styles
The Power of Group Diversity

Contributors
People who concentrate on individual, task-oriented effort
? Synthesize ideas ? Assess risks ? Summarize process status ? Provide expertise

Collaborators
People who see the big picture, the ultimate goal of the team
? Set standards/rules ? Generate ideas ? Test ideas ? Negotiate solutions

Communicators
People who ensure everyone’s views are expressed and keeps
everyone talking ? Encourage participation ? Provide compromise ? Reflect feelings ? Support others

Challengers
People who question the leaders and members to keep the team on track
? Provide ideas ? Criticize answers ? Defend ideas
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The Human Side of Problem Solving
Communications
41

Communication Skills
Questioning
Unraveling the unknown
Listening
Building trust and respect Learning from others
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Questioning
Unraveling the unknown
43

Problem Solving Skills
Questioning
Questioning Is a Key Skill
Success in process depends on using a systematic approach and asking questions effectively
Effective questions understand :
? Intent behind their questions ? The assumptions they have made ? The importance of choosing words carefully ? Where they are likely to get the answers
44

Characteristics of an effective question
? Clear
– for easy communication
? Relevant
– to the time and topic in discussion
? Specific
– to the point in discussion
45

Types of Questions and Uses
? Open – to explore, understand further, solicit information
– Begin with What, When, How, Which, Where, Why, Who – Require explanation/description in the answer
? Closed – to confirm agreement, to move on to next topic
– Lead to a yes or no answer – Elicit only the answer to that specific question
? Reverse – to clarify, evaluate ideas,/views, seek ideas/opinions
– Asking back the question and getting associates to think for themselves
? Leading – direct flow to desired direction
– Indicates the desired/expected response
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Probing Questions ? 5Ws + 1H ? Why 5X
48

The Problem Solving Techniques and Tools
49

Brainstorming Technique
Brainstorming – getting maximum group participation
“The best way to get a good idea is to get a lot of good ideas” – Linus Pauling ? Use for generating alternative solutions to a problem ? Leader describes the problem ? Everyone takes a few minutes to think ? Capture ideas visibly ? Group or categorize ideas (eg. use fish bone daigram) ? Lastly, evaluates the best ideas
Rules :
? Go for quantity ? Allow for the absurd. Fantasy etc ? Do not criticize, challenge, question or pre-judge idea yet ? Piggy back on each idea ? Use open-ended questions to stimulate more ideas ? Go round fast when seeking ideas ? Encourage full participation – round robin technique ? Write ideas visibly (on flip chart)
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The Various Problem Solving Methodologies
52

The Six Step Problem Solving Model
Identify Concerns and problem

Improve the Process

Analyze the Problem

Analyze the Outcome

Evaluate the Alternatives

Propose and Implement the Solution
53

The BPI Problem Solving Process

Define
(Plan Project)

Report
(Document & leverage outcomes)
Control
(Maintain critical factors at required level)

BPI Problem Solving Model

Measure
(Collect data & ideas)

Analyze
(Identify critical factors)

Improve
(Critical factors to Improve or eliminate)

54

Ford 8 D Problem Solving
Problem Resolved

Steps

8

Recognize Project Team

7

Prevent Problem Recurrence

6 Implement Corrective Actions

5

Develop and Verify Solution

4

Identify Root Causes

3

Implement Containment Actions

2 Define Problem

1 Initiate Project Team

55

Kepner-Tregoe Problem Solving and Decision Making Process

Problem Analysis

Avoid Jumping to Cause

Sort out Priority Concern

Situational Appraisal

Decision Analysis

Balance Benefits and Risks

Potential Problem Analysis

Avoid Reactive Action
56

Problem Solving & Decision Making Model
Problem Analysis
2. Analyze the problems

Situation Appraisal
1. Identify concerns or issue

Decision Analysis
3. Generate and evaluate alternative solutions 4. Propose and Implement Solution
Potential Problem Analysis
5. Analyze the outcome 6. Improve the process
57

Tools At Each Step

1. Identify Concerns and problem

6. Improve the Process
Trend chart, Control chart

Check Sheet, Yield Log Sheet

Pareto Diagram Questioning Techniques

2. Analyze the Problem

Stratification, C&E diagram, Histogram

Relationship diagram, Force Field Analysis

Questioning, Brainstorming Techniques

5. Analyze the Outcome

3. Evaluate the Alternatives

Trend chart, Control Chart, Paired Pareto diagram, Paired Histogram,
Radar Chart, Graphs, Scatter Diagram Improvement Analysis tool

Evaluate alternatives tool, Prioritization tool, Criteria (requirements, objectives) evaluation tool, Experiment or simulation, Questioning Techniques

4. Propose and Implement the Solution

Solution Creation Tool

Action Planning Tool

Gantt Chart

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Problem Solving
Key to Continuous Improvement
Thank You
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