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高考英语总复习 倒装句与省略句用法_图文

倒装句与省略句用法
第一,倒装句用法 英语的基本句型是主语 + 谓语。如果将主语与谓语调换, 称倒装句。倒装句分全倒装句和半倒装句。 一、全倒装: 主语与谓语交换位置不需任何助动词, 叫全倒装。全倒装有以下三种情况: 1、当 here, there, out, in, up, down 等副词放在句首时, 句子需全倒装: There goes the bell! 铃响了! There lived an old man in the village.村里有一位老汉。 Here comes the bus.汽车来了。 注意: ①在这种情况下倒装仅限于不及物动词或 be 动词, 像 go, come, rush,march 等。 ②主语如果是代词时不需倒装如 Away he went. 他走远了。 2、方位状语在句首, 如: In front of the house stopped a police car.房前停一辆警车。 Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island.附近有两只小船,他们乘着来到 这个小岛。 Under the tree sat a boy.树下坐着一个小男孩。 3 、直接引语在句首, 这种情况可倒装也可不倒装 “What does it mean?” asked the boy 或 the boy asked. 二、半倒装: 主语与谓语的助动词交换位置称半倒装, 有以下数种情况: 1、 否定意义的词在句首, 句子半倒装, 例如: little, never, not, no, hardly, rarely, seldom 等。 Never shall I forget you.我绝不会忘记你。 At no time was the man aware of what was happening. 这人绝不知道发生了什么事情。 Little did I understand what he said to me at that time. 当时我不知道他对我说什么。 2、 几对并列连词如 not only…but also, hardly… when 等连接两个并列句, 连词在句首, 前句半 倒装, 后句不倒装: Not only was everything he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship was taken away. No sooner had I got to the bus stop than the bus started. 注意: ①not only…but also 连接两个并列主语时不需倒装, 如: Not only you but also I like playing chess. ②neither…nor 在句首时, 前后两句都需倒装, Neither do I have a sister nor does my husband. 3、only 在句首强调状语, 主句半倒装: Only then did I realize that I was wrong. Only in this way can I learn from my fault. Only when the war was over in 1918, was he able to get back to work. 注意: only 强调主语不倒装: Only the teachers can use the room. 4、so…that 句型, so 在句首时, 主句倒装, that 从句不倒装: So easy is it that a child can learn it. So hard did he work that he finally won the fame.

I saw the film, so did he. 1、倒装句(Inversion) 英语的基本语序是“主语+谓语”。 如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前, 这种语序称为“倒装”。 一、倒装的类型 类型 完 全 倒 装 部 分 倒 装 例 句 说 明 Out rushed the students to welcome the foreign friends. 整个谓语移至主语之前。 学生们涌出去欢迎外国朋友。 Seldom does he go to school late.他上学很少迟到。 只把系动词,情态动词,助 动词或表语放在主语之前。

二、倒装结构的基本用法 1、由于语法结构的需要而使用的倒装 情 况 疑 问 句 中 例 句 说 明 Have you got a dictionary?你有一本字典吗? 用完全或部分倒装, 但以疑 Where did he go last Monday?上星期一他去什么地方了? 问词或疑问词修饰的名词 Are you listening to the radio?你在听广播吗? 作主语的疑问句要用正常 Who told you the news?谁告诉你那个消息的? 语序。 Which boy broke this glass?哪个男孩子把这个玻璃打破 了?

“there be” There are three wells in our village. 使用完全倒装结构。 结构中 我们村里有三口水井。 There stands a big paper making factory by the river. 河边有座大型造纸厂。 在 以 here, Here is a letter for you.这儿有你一封信。 使用完全倒装结构。 there, now, There goes the bell. 铃响了。 但如果主语是代词则用正 then, in, Now comes your turn to play.现在轮到你玩了。 常语序。 away, up down Away went the crowd one by one .人们一个一个地离去。 等副词开头的 Look, there he comes! 看,他来了。 句子中 Down she went 她下来了。 在以 neither I can’t swim, nor (neither)can she . 表 示 …… 也 不 这 样 , nor 或 no 我不会游泳,她也不会。 neither 和 nor 意思相同, more 开 头 的 He hasn’t been to the countryside, neither does he 可以替换使用,no more 表 句子中 want to go there.他没有去过农村,他也不想去那里。 示动作的程度并不比前面 He did not turn up. No more did his wife.他没有来,提到的稍强。意为也不…。 他妻子也没有来。 用 在 as ( 尽 Proud as the nobles are, he is afraid to see me. 从属连句 as 用于特殊语 管)引导的让 尽管这些贵族很傲慢,他却害怕见我。 序 , 含 义 与 though, 步状语从句中 Young as he is, he knows a lot.虽然他年轻,却知道很 although 相同,但“as” 多东西。 这种结构可表示非常强烈 Child as he is, he can speak three languages.虽是 的对照,必须用倒装(表语 个孩子,他会说三种语言。 提前) 2、为了加强语气而使用的倒装。 (使句子更加流畅,更加生动) 情 况 例 句 说 明 含 有 否 定 意 义 Never before have we seen such a sight.以前我们从 常 用 否 定 词 有 :

情 况









的 副 词 或 连 词 来没有见过这样的情景。 never, not, hardly, 放在句首时 Little did I think that he could be back alive. scarcely seldom, little, 我没有想到他竟能活着回来。 not until, not only…but Not until New Year’s Day shall I give you a gift. also, no sooner …than, 我要到元旦那天才能给你礼物。 hardly (scarcely)…when Not only was everything that he had taken away from 等。 一般主句用部分倒装结 him, but also his German citizenship was taken away. 构。 不仅他所有的一切被没收了, 而且连他的德国公民权也被 剥夺了。 副词 only 放在 Only then did he realize his mistakes.只有在那时,only 起强调作用,其句型 句首时 他才认识到自己的错误。 为 “only + 状 语 + 部 分 倒 Only in this way can you learn maths well.只有用这 装”。 种方法,你才能学好数学。 Only Mother can understand me.只有母亲最理解我。 如置于句首的 only 修饰主 Only three of us failed in the exam.我们中只有三个 语,则不用倒装结构。 人考试不及格。 虚 拟 语 气 条 件 Were they here, they would help us.他们要是在这儿, 把从句中 if 省略将 were, 从句中 他们会帮助我们的。 had 或 should 放在主语的 Had I been informed earlier, I could have done 前面。 something.我要是早得到通知,我就能干事了。 Should you fail, take more pain and try again. 万一你失败了,就要更加刻苦,重新再干。 直 接 引 语 的 全 “He is a clever boy.” said the teacher.老师说: 主句主语和谓语次序颠倒, 部 或 一 部 分 放 “他是个聪明的孩子。” 用完全倒装。 在句首时 “Go, Dick, go!”cried Tom,“Go home and get 但如果主句主语为代词时 help”“走, 狄克, 走! ”汤姆呼喊着, “快回家去求援” 或谓语部分比主语长, 一般 “What do you think of the film? ”he asked. 不用倒装。 他问“你认为这部电影怎么样?” “I’m leaving for Hongkong next month”Mary told me yesterday.玛利告诉我“我下月要去香港”。 表 示 祝 愿 的 句 May you succeed! 祝你成功。 谓语动词或谓语的一部分 子中 Long live the Communist Party of China.中国共产党 放在主语的前面。 万岁! 副词 so 在句首 He is interested in pop-songs, and so am I.他对流 表示前面所说的情况也适 行歌曲感兴趣,我也如此。 合于另一个人或另一事物 They will learn chemistry next term, so will I . 的肯定句中。 他们下学期学化学,我也学。 I can drive a car, so can my younger brother. 我会开汽车,我弟弟也会开车。 —Tom won the first prize for the English competition. -So he did. 英语竞赛汤姆获得了一等奖。确实如此。 如果后面的句子只是单纯 重复前句的意思, 不表示也 适用于另一人或事, 则不用 倒装结构。

情 况









It was cold yesterday. So it was. 昨天,天气冷。的确冷。 在 频 度 状 语 Often did we warn them not to do so.我们曾多次警告 often, 他们不要这样做。 always, many a Many a time has she helped me with my English. time 等开头的 她不止一次地帮助我学习英语。 句子中 在 方 式 状 语 Thus ended his life.这样结束了他的生命。 thus 开头的句 So loudly did he speak that even people in the next 子 中 及 程 度 状 room could hear him.他讲话的声音那样大,连隔壁屋子 语 so 放句首 里的人都听得见。 介 词 短 语 作 状 In the middle of the room stood a little girl. 语,放在句首 在房间中央站着一个小女孩。 In the distance was a horse.马在远处。 在 强 调 表 语 的 Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great 表语提前,不仅为了强调, 句子中 achievements.阿尔伯特·曼因斯坦就是这样一个人,一 而且为了使句子结构达到 个纯朴而又取得巨大成就的人。 平衡协调, 或使上下文紧密 Such is life. 生活就是这样。 衔接。 Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island.附近有两只他们来这个岛乘坐的独木船。 第二,倒装句典型错误例析 1 误:As Tom is young,he knows a lot. 正:Young as Tom is ,he knows a lot. 【简析】由 as(尽管,虽然)引起的让步状语从句其特点是:把从句里的表语、状语或(原形)动词提到 句首,然后是 as ①Busy as he is,he often helps me with my English.尽管他很忙,还是经常帮助我学习英语。 (表语 +as+主语+……) Child as he is,he can speak three languages. ②Hard as he worked,he failed the exam.尽管他学习很努力,然而还是没有考及格。 ( 状语+as+主语+ ③Try as you may,you will not succeed.虽然你可以试一试,但不会成功的。 (实义动词+as+主语+……) 2 误:Many a time he went swimming alone. 正:Many a time did he go swimming alone. 【简析】always,often,many a time,well,thus,such 等词位于句 Always did he come to help me when he had time. Often had I advised him not to smoke. Such was my study plan. 3 误:Mike is a middle-school student and studies hard and so is Jane.

误:Mike is a middle-school student and studies hard and so does Jane. 正:Mike is a middle-school student and studies hard and so it is with Jane. 正:Mike is a middle-school student and studies hard and it is the same with Jane. 【简析】如果前景句为肯定的陈述句,其谓语含有 be 动词和实义动词,这种情况也适合于其他人或物时, 用 so+倒装语序已经难以表达,要用 so it is with…或 it is the same with 4 误:Man can't live without air or water. Neither animals and plants can. 正:Man can't live without air or water. Neither can animals and plants. 【简析】如果前景为否定的陈述句,这种情况也适合于其他人或物时,应用 neither/nor+助动词(be,do, have,can,will…)+主语。例如: Walking and riding your bike count, and so do school sports. 行走和骑自行车就算,在学校例进行 的体育活动也算。 5 误: “My son is a student,but he doesn't study.” “So is my son. 误: “My son is a student,but he doesn't study.” “Neither does my son. 正: “My son is a student,but he doesn't study.” “So it is with my son. 正: “My son is a student,but he doesn't study.” “It is the same with my son.” 【简析】如果前景句包含肯定和否定的意思,此种情况也适合于某人或物,用 so+倒装语序或 neither+倒 装语序无法表达时,可用 so it is with…或 it is the same with…(……也是一样) ① —Tom is a student. —So is she./So it is with her./It is the same with her. ② —Tom isn't a student. —Neither is she./So it is with her./It is the same with her. 6. “现在学生学习很用功。 ” “这确实。 误: “The students study very hard.” “So do they. 正: “The students study very hard.” “So they do. 【简析】如果前景句为肯定的陈述句,而后一句对前一句句意的重复,用以强调时,用“so+主语+助动词 (be,do,have,will,can 7 误:In no case we should look down on the disabled. 正:In no case should we look down on the disabled. 【简析】有否定含义的短语in no way(决不、毫不),in no case(决不),at no time (从不,决不),by no means(决不,一点也不),under no circumstances(决不,无论如何不) 等放在句首时,该句应用部分倒 Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state. 8 误:Look! Here the bus comes. 误:Look! Here is coming the bus. 正:Look! Here comes the bus. 【简析】在以 here,there 开头的句子中,主语是代词时,主语和谓语的语序不变;但主语是名词时,主 Here you are. 给 There goes the bell.

9 误:Then the three years' natural disaster followed. 正:Then followed the three years' natural disaster. 【简析】在以 in,out,up,down,now,then,away 等副词开头的句子中,以表示强调,主语是名词时 The door opened and in came a woman,who was our head teacher. 门开了,走进一位女人,她就是我 们的班主任。 10 误:Only then I realized that I was wrong,but it was too late. 正:Only then did I realize that I was wrong,but it was too late. 【简析】only Only in this way can you learn English well. Only when he was ten,was he able to go to school. 11 误:Scarcely they had reached the bus stop when the bus started. 正:Scarcely had they reached the bus stop when the bus started. 【简析】表示否定意义的 hardly,scarcely,barely 12 误:So young he is that he can't go to school. 正:So young is he that he can't go to school. 【简析】在“so+adj./adv.+that”结构中,如果“so+adj./adv.”位于句首,要用倒装语 So fast did he run that he could keep up with the bike. 他跑得很快能跟上自行车。 13 误:Many hours did she spend planning for something nice for her husband. 正:Many hours she spent planning for something nice for her husband. 14.我们使用洋油的日子一 误:Gone the days are when we used the foreign oil. 正:Gone are the days when we used the foreign oil. 【简析】表语位于句首时,通常用倒装语序。其结构为“表语+连系动词+ Present at the meeting were Professor Li and Professor Wang. Among the goods are Christmas trees,flowers,candles and toys. 货物中有圣诞树、花、蜡烛和玩 15 误:Down did the hammer come and out did the sparks fly. 正:Down came the hammer and out flew the sparks. 【简要】当表示方位的状语位于句首,句子的谓语动词是 come,go 等表示位置转移的动词,同时主语又 比较长的时候,句子常常倒装,把动词直接移到主语前,不用助动词 do,does,did。倒装后不仅使状语得 16 误:It should rain tomorrow,I would not go. 正:Should it rain tomorrow,I would not go. 【简析】在书面语中,虚拟条件从句中如有 were,had 或 should,可以不用连词 if,但要将 were,had

或 should Were I in your position,I would not give it up. (=If I were in your position,I would not give it up.) Had he found it,he would have sent it. (=If he had found it,he would have sent it.) 17 误:Word that the prices of foods will go up comes. 正:Word comes that the prices of foods will go up. 【简析】 “that…”这一同位从句,按常例应紧跟它所修饰的词 word,但这里从句过长,把主谓语隔得太 远,而主句中的谓语仅仅是 comes 一个词,显得头重脚轻,因此须把从句后移。 18 误:The harder you practise,you'll make the greater progress. 正:The harder you practise,the greater progress you'll make. 【简析】句型 the more…the more The happier he is,the more he says.他越高兴话越多。 19 误:Class 1 take an active part in the learn-from-Lei Feng and so Class 2 do. 正:Class 1 take an active part in the learn-from-Lei Feng,and so do Class 2. 【简析】如果前景句为肯定的陈述句,表示前面所说的情况也适合于其他人或物,应用 so+倒装语序。其 句型是:so+助动词(be,do,have,can,will…)+ Lei Ping is a three-good student. So is his brother. Tom can speak Chinese and so can Mary. 选择填空 从 A,B,C,D 四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 1. that we all went out, lying in the sun. A.The weather so fine was B.So fine was the weather C.So the weather was fine D.So was fine weather 2.Under his arm a pair of shoes which he had bought from the shop a few days before. A.is B.are C.was D.were 3. who had arrested him three times for carrying drugs. A.Before George stood the policeman B.Before George the policeman stood C.Before the policeman stood George D.Before George did the policeman 4.Then we had been looking forward to . A.came the hour B.the hour came C.comes the hour D.the hour is coming 5.Only when he started to explain the reason for this. A.she realized B.did she realize C.she had realized D.had she realized 6. succeed in doing anything. A.Only by working hard we can B.By only working hard we can C.Only by working hard can we D.Only we can by working hard 7.Not for a moment __ the truth of your story.

A.he has doubted B.he doubts C.did he doubt D.he did doubt 8.Nowhere else in the world _ cheaper tailoring than in Hong Kong. A.a tourist can find B.can a tourist find C.a tourist will find D.a tourist has found 9. Hardly _ when the bus suddenly pulled away. A.they had got to the bus-stop B.they got to the bus-stop C.did they get to the bus-stop D.had they got to the bus-stop 10.Mary doesn’t speak French, and does Joan. A.not B.neither C.either D.so 11.—Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? —I don’t know, . A.nor don’t I care B.nor do I care C.I don’t care neither D.I don’t care also 12.Not until the early years of the 19th century __ what heat is. A.man did know B.man knew C.didn’t man know D.did man know 13.After that we never saw her again nor _ from her. A.did we hear B.we heard C.had we heard D.we have heard 14.—John won the first prize in the contest. — . A.So he did. B.So did he. C.So he did, too. D.So did he, too. 15. ,he doesn’t study well. A.As he is clever B.He is as clever C.Clever as he is D.As clever he is 16.You can never use my tape recorder. time should you touch that machine. A.At no B.At any C.Any D.No 17.Scarcely __ the room _ the phone rang. A.I had entered…when B.had I entered…then C.had I entered…when D.have I entered…when 18.Only save his life. A.can the doctor B.the doctor can C.will the doctor D.could the doctor 19.Hardly anybody __ the boy , because he is rude. A.does like B.likes C.do like D.like 20.So well __ that the teacher praised her. A.she had done her homework B.her homework had been done C.did she do her homework D.she did her homework 21.Only when __ to know him will you get along with him. A.do you come B.will you come C.you come D.you will come 22.Out _ , gun in hand. A.did he rush B.rushed he C.he rushed D.had he rushed 23.He had promised me to come to the party ,and __ . A.so did he B.so he did C.so he would D.so would he 24.Into the sky the light blue smoke. A.went up B.up went C.did go up D.had gone up 25.Little about his own life at the meeting. A.did he talk B.he talked C.he was talking D.had he talked 26.Under no circumstances __ first use nuclear weapons. A.will China B.China will C.does China D.do China 27. taken that examination, she could have passed it .

A.Were she B.Had she be able to C.If she would have D.Had she 28. tomorrow , we would put off the match till next Monday. A.Should it rained B.Were it to rain C.If it would rain D.Had it rained 29.Look, here __ . A.Mr. Brown comes B.does Mr. Brown come C.comes Mr. Brown D.Mr. Brown has come 30.Often __ us good advice. A.did she give B.she did give C.she gave D.she has given 31.Not until I began to work how much time I had wasted. A.didn’t I realize B.did I realize C.I didn’t realize D.I realize 32.Little about his own safety , though he was in great danger himself. A.does he care B.did he care C.he cares D.he cared 33. began our new lesson. A.But B.Thus C.Such D.So that 34.By no means __ look down upon the poor. A.we should B.we should not C.do we D.should we 35.Only when 30 years old to learn English. A.was he , did he begin B.he was , he began C.was he , he began D.he was ,did he begin 36.Not once _ their plan. A.did they change B.they changed C.changed they D.they did changed 37.“It’s very hot today.” “ .” A.So it is B.So is it C.So does it D.So it does 38.—A fish needs water and without water it will die. — A.So does a man B.So will a man C.So it is with a man D.So is it with a man 39.They arrived at the farmhouse, in front of which . A.sat a small boy B.a small boy sat C.is sitting a small boy D.a small boy sitting 40.Society has changed and in it . A.so have the people B.so the people have C.the people have so D.have the people so Ⅱ.改错 41.Only when was he 50 years old did he begin to learn French. 42.Little she knew Tom was badly ill 43.Turn to the right and there are you. 44.And all around the fox in a circle was dogs. 45.—You can learn English well. —So can we. 46.I daren’t climb this tall tree, but do you? 47.Not once he kept his promise. 48.Many a time he has given us some good advice. 49.Such a noise there was that I couldn’t work in the room. 50.Only does my mother understand me. 【 答 案 】 1-5BCAAB 6-10CCBDB 11-15BDAAC 16-20ACBBC 21-25CCBAA 26-30ADBCA 31-35BBBDD 36-40AACAA

Ⅱ.41.was he —he was 倒装主句不倒装从句。 42.She knew—did she know 此句为半倒装句。 43.are you —you are 此句为全部倒装句如主语是代词则不倒装。 44.was—were 主语是 dogs 。 45.so we can 主语 we 与上一句中的主语 you 所指相同故不同倒装。 46.do you—dare you 前面句中用情态,后面要呼应。 47.he kept—did he keep 48.he has—has he 49.? 50.去掉 does,将 understand 改为 understands。only 后面跟状语倒装,后跟主语不倒装。 透视省略真谛 打好应试根基 北京 程中一 省略是《课程标准》规定的重点语法项目,全国《高考大纲》列出的考点,也是历年高考必考语法项 目之一。为了帮助高三学生第二轮高效复习,笔者特作以下经典讲解。 一、省略原则 在英语中,为避免重复、突出关键词语并使上下文紧密连接,在句子中有时就省去一个或几个句子成 分,使语句简练,结构紧凑,收到一定的修辞效果,这种语法手段被称之为省略。只要不损害语法结构, 不产生歧义,能省略的就应该省略。例如: Tom is (playing for the school), Peter will be (playing for the school),and Mike might be playing for the school. 汤姆现在,彼特很快,迈克或许代表学校进行比赛。 省略的结果,不但句子结构显得紧凑,而且句子中几个关键词的意义也突出起来。例如: Some books are to be tasted, others (are)to be swallowed, and some few (are)to be digested. 有些书是应当尝尝滋味的,有些书是应当吞下去的,有少数书是应当消化的。 二、省略种类 省略分为两大类:一类是依据上下文的省略,另一类是不依据上下文的省略。凡是被省略的项目只有 在上文或下文找到的叫做简单省略。例如: My father planned (all these houses) and my brother built all these houses. 所有这些房子 都是我父亲计划,我哥哥建造的。 凡是两个或两个以上被省略的项目既有在上文同时又有在下文找到的叫做复杂省略。 例如: My father planned (all these houses)and (my father) built all these houses. 这些房子都是 我父亲计划建造的。 三、省略成分 根据省略的成分,大致可以分为以下 15 种情况。 1、省略主语 (I) Beg your pardon.请再说一遍。 (It) Sounds like a good idea.听起来是一个好主意。 (I) See you later.回头见。 (I) Thank you for your help.谢谢你的帮助。 (That) Sounds like a good idea. (那)听起来是个好主意。 (I)Haven’t seen you for ages. (我)很久没见到你了。 (It) Looks like rain. (天)像要下雨了。 2、省略主语和谓语 (1)省略人称主语+助动词

(Have you)Found the treasure? (你)找到宝贝了吗? (Would you) Like some more tea? (你要)再来点茶吗? (Do you) want to see him? (你)要见他吗? (I’ll) See you again.再见。 (2)省略人称主语+be 动词 (I’m) Sorry to hear that. 听到这事,我感到遗憾。 (This is) Tom speaking. 我是汤姆(打电话用语) 。 What exciting news (this is)!(这是)多么令人兴奋的消息啊! (3)省略主语+ 实义动词 (I beg) Your pardon. 对不起。 What a wonderful time (we had)! 我们玩得多高兴啊! (Have you) Any questions? (你们)有问题吗? 3、省略谓语或谓语的一部分 They learn French and we (learn) English.他们学法语,我们学英语。 (Is there ) Anything I can do for you ? 要我帮忙吗? Some books are to be tasted, others (are) to be swallowed, and some few (are) to be chewed and digested. 有些书是应当尝尝滋味的,有些书是应当吞下去的,有少数书是应当咀嚼和消化的。 He is a teacher, and his wife (is ) a doctor.他是位教师,他的妻子是一名医生。 4、省略表语 —Are you a teacher? 你是教师吗? —Yes, I am (a teacher).是的,我是。 Broad boats are difficult to take into the port, but narrow boats are not (difficult to take into the port). 很难将大船领进港口,但(领)小船(进港)不难。 5、省略宾语 This is the book (that) I'm looking for.这是我正在找的书。 —Is Mr. King in his office? —Sorry, I don't know (whether he is or not). 金先生在办公室吗?对不起,我不知道。 —Is Mr. Cheng in (his office)? —程先生在他办公室里吗? —Sorry, I don’t know (whether he is or not). —对不起,我不知道(他是否在办公室里。 He is fond of books. He makes notes while he reads (books). 他喜欢书,读书时总是做笔记。 6、省略主语和谓语或主谓和谓语的一部分 (Come )This way, please. 请走这边。 —What does he want to eat? —他想吃什么? —(He wants) Some rice and vegetables. —米饭和蔬菜。 In winter it is colder in Beijing than (it is )in Nanjing. 北京的冬天比南京要冷。 What a good boy (he is )! 他是多好的学生啊! What a wonderful victory (it is )for Wilma! 对威尔玛来说这是多么了不起的胜利啊! (It is) my mistake.我的错。 (Do) You understand? 你明白吗? (There is) Nothing wrong. 没有任何毛病。 (Go) This way, please. 请走这边。 7、省略主语、谓语或宾语 —To whom did you lend the book?你把书借给谁了? —To John.(I lend the book)约翰。

—What do you think made John so upset? 你人为什么使约翰如此难过? —(I think)Losing his wallet (made John so upset).他丢了钱包。 8、省略状语 We took soft drinks to the beach and our friends took beer (to the beach). 我们带饮料到海 边,我们的朋友带去了啤酒。 9、as…as 结构中的省略 这种结构中,从句于主句重复的词可以省略;把两个时间地点等相比较时,第一个 as 可省略。 She looked after the baby as carefully as (she looked) after her own.她就像照顾自己的孩子 一样照顾那个婴儿。 He can be( as )happy in hard times as in good days.他在艰难岁月里能像在好时光时一样幸福。 He was (as) delighted as (he was) in middle school.他就将在中学时一样快乐。 10、所有格后的名词 名词所有格所修饰的名词,若表示住宅、办公室、店铺、教堂或上文己暗示或明确指出过的事物时, 常常可以省略。 We'll go to the doctor's (clinic)in a minute.一会儿我们要到医务室去。 No dustmen come to the Turner's (street). 没有垃圾清运工到特纳家所在的街道上来。 11、状语从句中的主谓省略 ① 在以 if、when、though、unless、as、as if 等连词引导的从句中,如果从句的主语和主句的主语 一致,而且从句中的谓语动词是 be,可以将状语从句中的主谓省略。 When (he was ) walking in the street, he met a friend.他在街上走的时候,遇到了一位朋友。 He will not come unless (he is ) invited.除非邀请他才肯来。 The research is so well designed that once(it is ) begun it can never be stopped.研究设计 得如此好,一旦启动就无法停止。 When (he was) very young, he had to work for the boss. 他很小的时候,就得给老板干活。 ② 如果从句主谓语是 it is 或 it was,可以省略主谓结构, if it is possible, when it is necessary 等都是这种结构。 He ran as fast as (it was) possible.他拼命跑。 If (it is )necessary, put a comma.有必要的话,加一个逗号。 He ran away as fast as (it was) possible. 他尽快地跑开了。 注意:由 after, because, before 等词引导的状语从句一般要改写成介词短语等,用-ing 代替动词。 Because he was ill he didn’t attend the meeting. 因为他病了,所以未出席会议。 Because of being ill, he didn’t attend the meeting. Because ill, he didn’t attend the meeting.(误) 注意:表示时间、条件、方式、让步等的状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致(或从句的主语是 it) ,而 且从句的谓语中又包含 be,那么这个主语和 be 都可以省略。 Whenever (you are )in trouble, you will ask me for help. 无论你什么时候有困难,你都要向我 求援。 If (it is) necessary, I’ll go at once. 如果必要,我马上就去。 While (you are) cycling, pay attention to the traffic light. 骑自行车时,要注意红绿灯。 12、在限制性定语从句中作状语的关系副词 when、why、where 也可以省去。 This is the very reason (why) I want to kill you. 这就是我为何要杀死你的理由。 This was the first time (when) I had visited Beijing.这是我第一次参观北京。 13、当 wh-疑问从句作宾语时如果其内容与上文重复可以省略从句,只保留 wh-疑问词。 He will come back, but he doesn't know when (he will come back). 他将回来,但不知道什么时

间。 13、在状语的独立分词结构中,分词往往可以省略 The meeting (being)over, they walked out of the hall.会议结束了,他们走出了大厅。 The work (having been) done, he left the office.做完工作后,他离开办公室。 14、省略不定式后面的动词 —Would you go with me? —你愿意和我一块去吗? —I’d be glad to (go). —我很高兴去。 Don’t bathe if you don’t want to (bathe) 如果你不想洗澡,那就不要洗了。 注意: (1)不定式结构作表语时,通常带 to,但是当主语部分有一个动作动词 do 时(这个 do 可以是限定 动词形式,也可以是非限定动词形式,而且不论是什么时、体形式均可) ,用作表语的动词不定式中的 to 也可以省略。例如: What we need to do is to reduce our use of energy and use natural forms of energy which are free and which will last for ever. 我们要做的是减少能源的消耗和利用各种天然能源。天然能源是既 不花钱,又取之不尽,用之不竭的。 All I did is (to) empty the battle. 我只需倒空瓶子。 What he has done is (to) serve the people. 他做的事就是救人。 All we have to do is (to) push the button. 我们只需要按一下按钮。 (2)在同一句或联系紧密的对话中,为了避免重复,作宾语、补语的动词不定式再次出现时,to 后面 的内容常常承前省略(to 留下) ,但如果有助动词 have 或 be 的任何形式,应该保留原形 be 或 have。 例如: —Who’d like to go with me? —I’d like to.—谁想跟我一起去?—我。 China is not what it used to be.中国已经不过去的中国了。 —You are late. You ought to have come five minutes ago.你迟到了。你应该五分钟以前到。 —I know I ought to have.我知道我应该。 15、冠词、关系代词、连接代词和固定形式等的省略 The men and (the) women are the teachers of Beijing No.2 Middle School. 那些男男女女都北 京二中的教师。 Is the baby a boy or (a) girl? 这婴儿是男孩还是女孩? I will never forget the days (that) I spent with Eric. 我决不会忘记我和艾莉科一起度过的日 子。 I think (that) he is kind to others. 我认为他与人为善。 四、高考链接 单项填空 从 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 1. NO matter how frequently ______ , the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world. A. performed B. performing C. to be performed D. being performed 2. —Have you got any particular plans for the coming holiday? —Yes, _______, I’m going to visit some homes for the old in the city. A. If ever B. If busy C. If anything D. If possible 3. —Who should be responsible for the accident? —The boss, not the workers. They just carried out the order _______. A. as told B. as are told C. as telling D. as they told 4. When asked ______ they needed most, the kids said they wanted to feel important and loved.

A. what B. why C. whom D. which 5. The lawyer rarely wears anything other than jeans and a T-shirt _______ the season. A. whatever B. wherever C. whenever D. however 6. _______ , the experiment is sure to succeed . A. If carefully doing B. If it done carefully C. If carefully done D. If it doing carefully 7. —I hear that Tom can't afford his schooling this fall . —_________ , let's do something for him . A. If so B. Where possible C. When necessary D. What a shame 8.________ told to stop, the excited children kept on talking in class. A. When B. Thought C. As D. While 9. This is an illness that can result in total blindness _________ left untreated. A. after B. if C. since D. unless 10. No matter how frequently ________ , the work of Mozart always attract large audience. A. performing B. to be performed C. being performed D. performed 11. Children must be taught to act with good manners when ________ . A. speaking to B. spoken to C. are speaking D. spoken of 12. The boy always comes to school late although his teacher tells him again and again ________ . A. not to B. not to be C. not to do D. don’t be 13. He told me he would not go to the party ______. A. unless was invited B. until inviting C. without inviting D. if not invited 14. You must act ________. A. like you are told B. as you are told to C. that you are told to D. you are told to 15. —Will you go home tomorrow evening? —No, I am going to a lecture, or at least I am planning _________. A. it B. that C. to D. on 16. —What’s the matter with John? —He didn’t pass the test but he still ________. A. hopes to B. hopes to C. hopes it D. hopes that 17. —May I keep the light on when I leave the office? —I think ________. A. you’d better not B. you’d better not to C. you’d better not to do D. you’d better to 18. —I hope that John will not play football tomorrow. —Yes, I _______. A. hope it too B. hope too C. hope that too D. hope so too 19. —They will be very busy tomorrow, I think. — _______, we’ll have to put the meeting off. A. If they so B. If it they may be so C. If so D. So

Key:1-5ADAAC 6-10CABBD

11-15BADBC 16-19BADC