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拖拉机机手操作存在的问题及对策


拖拉机机手操作存在的问题及对策

2.1 启动后马上投入作业

2.1 initiated immediately after put into operation

若起步后马上投入作业,由于此时机温较低(特别 是冬季),突然加大油门会使发动机燃油燃烧不完全,排 气管冒黑烟,气缸积炭。另外,刚启动时各运动机件表面 润滑油膜尚未完全形成,润滑油黏度较大,不易流动,必 然会加速运动机件的磨损。正确方法是拖拉机启动后, 应在小油门位臵适当运转 10 min 左右,待冷却水温升至 45 ℃后起步,水温升到 60 ℃时正式投入作业。

If start immediately after put into operation, due to the low temperature this time (especially in winter), all of a sudden step on the gas can make the engine fuel oil incomplete combustion, exhaust smoke, cylinder carbon deposit. Also, just started the movement parts surface oil film has not yet fully formed, lubricating oil viscosity is bigger, not easy flow, is bound to accelerate moving parts

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wear and tear. Right way is the tractor starts, should be in the small throttle position

appropriate running around 10 min, when the cooling water temperature rise to 45 ℃ , the water temperature rise to 60 ℃ when officially put into operation.

2.2 起步前猛松离合器

2.2 fierce to loose the clutch before starting

有些机手在实际操作中,起步时猛松离合器,由于 冲击力大,会加速磨擦片、传动件(如链条、齿轮、轴) 及拖拉机配带农机具零件的损坏。正确方法是拖拉机起 步时,离合器接合应缓慢、柔合、平顺,分离时要迅速、 彻底[3]。

Some machinist in practice, started fierce loose coupling, because of the huge impact, will

accelerate the friction piece and transmission parts (e.g., chain, gear, shaft) and damage of tractor equipped with agricultural machinery and

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parts. Right way is the tractor started, clutch engagement should be slow, soft, smooth, to quickly and thoroughly separation [3].

2.3 作业时突变油门

2.3 mutations throttle when working

有些机手操作时,突然加大或减小油门,这样会给 机车造成不良后果。因为突然加大油门,不仅燃油与空 气混合不均匀,燃烧不完全,排气冒黑烟,油耗增加,产 生积炭,加速气缸磨损,而且由于积炭多,易堵塞启运喷 孔及针阀喷孔,导致发动机启动困难。另外,由于转速突 变,曲柄连杆机构受力不均匀,羟丙基甲基纤维素连杆 大头与连杆轴颈离心力增大,易产生连杆变形,缸套偏 低,发动机压缩比下降,还易发生曲轴折断事故。正确方 法是拖拉机作业时,应根据作业负荷情况,缓慢地加大 或减小油门,不可突变油门。

Some operation on the machinist, sudden increase or decrease the throttle, so that can cause bad consequences to the locomotive. Because all of a

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sudden step on the gas, not only the fuel and air mixing uneven, incomplete combustion, exhaust smoke, fuel consumption increase, produce carbon deposit, accelerate the cylinder wear, and because the carbon deposit, easy to plug nozzle and nozzle needle valve of shipment, lead to engine starting is difficult. Mutations in addition, due to the rotational speed, and connecting rod bearing uneven, with connecting rod big end shaft neck centrifugal force increase, easy to produce

deformation of connecting rod, cylinder liner, engine compression ratio drops, also break

accident prone to the crankshaft. Right way is the tractor operations, should be based on work load case, slowly increase or decrease the throttle, mutations in the throttle.

2.4 停车时猛轰油门

2.4 fierce detonation throttle when parking

在实际操作中,有的机手在熄火前猛轰几下油门,

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企图将气缸里余油烧尽,其实适得其反,危害极大:由于 油门忽大忽小,转速会忽高忽低,连杆大头与连杆轴颈 受交变冲击的载荷也忽大忽小,易产生疲劳而导致曲轴 断裂;经常猛轰油门,会引起连杆变形,产生缸套偏磨, 发动机启动困难,马力下降;由于供油量忽多忽少,燃油 燃烧不完全,气缸积炭,会加速磨损;造成缸盖、机体平 面等处内应力集中,会产生漏气,冲坏气缸垫。正确方法 是发动机熄火前,将油门由大到小慢慢关闭。

In practice, some tractor driver before stall fierce boom a few the accelerator, and burn more oil in the cylinder to, actually backfire, great harm: due to throttle the big and small, speed will be high and low, with connecting rod big end shaft neck is impacted by the alternating load is big and small, easy to produce fatigue causes the crankshaft fracture; Fierce detonation throttle frequently, can cause deformation of connecting rod, cylinder liner eccentric wear, engine

starting difficulties, horsepower decline; Due to the fuel supply quantity more and less, incomplete combustion, fuel oil cylinder coke, accelerated

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wear and tear; Cause the place such as cylinder head, the body plane stress concentration and produce gas leak, broken cylinder pad. Right way is before the engine off, will slowly closed throttle from big to small.

2.5 发动机长时间怠速运转

2.5 a captain time idle running

不少机手在实际操作中常常让机车长时间怠速运 转,这会带来如下害处:由于长时间怠速运转,不仅运动 机件受强烈冲击负荷,而且润滑不良,形成半液体摩擦, 加剧机件磨损;由于转速较低,降低了可燃混合气的形 成速度和质量,燃油燃烧不完全,增加了气缸积炭;气缸 温度较低,工作时易产生电化学反应,易使机件材料变 质、 变脆和产生麻点剥落。 正确方法是拖拉机在使用中, 如需临时停车,怠速运转一般不宜超过 15 min。

A machinist in practice often let the engine idle speed for a long time, it brings the following disadvantages: due to idle for a long time, not

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only moving parts by the strong impact load, and poor lubrication, forming half liquid friction, intensified parts wear and tear; Due to the low speed, reduce the formation of combustible mixture speed and quality, fuel oil incomplete combustion, increases the cylinder carbon deposition; Cylinder temperature is low, easy to produce

electrochemical reaction at work, easy to make the parts material deterioration, produced pitting and spalling. A correct way to tractor in use, if you need temporary parking, idle operation should not be commonly more than 15 min.

2.6 用离合器停车或减速

2.6 with the clutch to stop or slow down

有些机手在实际操作中习惯用分离离合器的办法 进行临时停车或减速行驶,这样会造成离合器摩擦片剧 烈磨损、扭曲甚至烧损。正确方法是离合器用于接合或 切断机车动力。

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Some machinist in practice used to separate the clutch temporary ways to stop or slow down, this will cause the clutch friction plate severe abrasion, distortion, and even loss. Right way is the clutch used for joint or cut off the engine power.

2.7 平地高速行驶或犁刀仍留在土壤时急转弯

2.7 the ground high-speed or sharp turn coulter remained in the soil

若机手高速急转弯易造成轮胎磨损、机件损坏、发 生横向翻倾事故。还有些新机手在田间作业进行机车转 弯时不将旋耕机的犁刀及时升起,这样会造成旋耕机机 件损坏。 正确方法是拖拉机在平地行驶时应平稳、 缓慢、 低速度转弯[4]。

If the machinist high-speed turn easily tire wear, parts damaged, causing transverse inclination accident. Also some new machinist job in the field of locomotive turn without the rotary tiller

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coulter timely rises, so will cause rotavator gear damage. Right way is the tractor in flat roads turning should be smooth, slow, low speed [4].

2.8 水箱“开锅”时急于加冷却水

2.8 water tank "boiled" eager to add cooling water

拖拉机在作业中,水箱水缺少引起“开锅”时,不能 立刻添加冷却水,因发动机高温时突然遇冷极易造成机 体开裂。正确的做法是先让发动机熄火,待水温降至 50~60 ℃时再加冷却水。

Tractor in operation, tank water without cause "boiled", can not add water immediately, because the engine temperature suddenly when it was easy to cause the body cracking. The right thing to do is to let the engine flameout, temperature drop to 50 ~ 60 ℃ and cooling water.

2.9 机车超速行驶

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2.9 the locomotive speeding

有些机手在实际工作中普遍出现超速行驶,这样危 害很大,如车速不易控制、加速发动机运动件及底盘机 件的磨损断裂、缩短轮胎的使用寿命等。正确的做法是 不超过规定的行车时速。

Some machinist widespread speeding in the actual work, this damage is very big, such as the speed of the car is not easy to control, acceleration of engine moving parts and chassis parts wear fracture, shorten the service life of tires, etc. The right thing to do is not in excess of the prescribed driving speed.

2.10 机车超载作业

2.10 overload operation

不少机手致富心切,普遍出现超载现象。其结果是: 燃油燃烧不完全,排气管冒黑烟,油耗增加,气缸积炭; 由于机温上升,充气系数下降,功率降低,润滑油变稀,

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加剧了机件磨损;轮胎磨损加剧,甚至爆裂;极易发生翻 车事故,特别是当机车爬坡时。 正确的做法是东风-12 型 手扶拖拉机按照规定要求,装载重量不得超过 1 t。

Many machinist ranks, generally appear overload phenomenon. The result: incomplete fuel combustion, exhaust smoke, fuel consumption increase, the cylinder carbon deposition; Because the engine temperature rises, inflatable coefficient

decreased, power is reduced, oil is thinning, exacerbating the parts wear and tear; Tire wear, and even burst; Rollover accident happens easily, especially when the locomotive climbing. The right thing to do is type dongfeng - 12 walking tractor, in accordance with requirements of the regulations, loading weight must not exceed 1 t.


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