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A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.(一鸟在手胜过双鸟在林。) 1.at first sight 乍一看(之下) 2.take into consideration 考虑到,顾及 3.hand in hand 手拉手;密切关联的 4.get across 传播;为人理解 5.appeal to 有吸引力;呼吁;上诉 6.keep an eye out for sb./sth. 留心或注意某人或某物 7.make sense 有意义;有道理;讲得通 8.apply... to... 运用;应用 9.lose heart 泄气;灰心 10.take it easy 别紧张;放松点 11.keep up 维持;保持;使某事物处于高水平 12.common sense 常识;情理 13.leave behind 忘带;留下 14.lose one’s way 迷路 15.come to an end 结束;中止 16.live through sth. 经历某事物而幸存 17.tie up 系;拴;捆 18.stand for 代表,代替;象征,意味着 19.have a strong/great influence on...对……有重大影响 20.be fond of 喜欢 21.be to blame 该受责备;应负责 22.be upset about... (对……感到)不安的;不快的;心烦意乱的 23.associate... with... 使发生联系;使联合 24.protect... from... 保护……免于…… 25.be promoted with (用……手段来)宣传,推销 26.create/form a positive image of 塑造/形成一个正面的形象 27.point out 指出 28.think twice 重新考虑 29.believe in 相信;信仰 30.set off for... 出发,动身到…… 31.be accustomed to 习惯于…… 32.in face of 面对……,在……面前,不顾…… 33.in favor of 支持……,赞同……;为有利于…… 34.in praise of 称赞…… 35.in hope of 抱着……的希望 36.in charge of 掌管,负责 37.in memory of 为了纪念;为追悼…… 38.in honor of 为了纪念 39.in search of 搜寻 40.in need of 需要

achieve v. succeed in doing something good, usually by working hard 取得,实现 He has achieved all its goals. 他已经实现了所有的奋斗目标。 Never say die. You will achieve what you need. 绝不能言弃。你会取得预期的目的的。 8. aim n. the purpose of doing something, and what you hope to achieve: 目标,目的 Living without an aim is like sailing without a compass. 生活没有目标,犹如航行没有罗盘。 The aim of the project is to help the poor. 这个项目的目的是帮助穷人。 take aim: point a weapon towards someone or something 对准,瞄准 The policeman took careful aim at the murderer and fired. 警察小心翼翼地瞄准谋杀者,然后开了枪。 v. point or direct (a weapon, shot, remark, etc.) towards somebody or something; direct one's efforts or intend to 瞄准;目的在于 I aim to be a writer when I grow up. 我立志长大了要当一名作家。 【考点 3】announce 的用法 ▲ 构词:announcement n. 公布,(口头)通知 ▲ 搭配: ① announce meeting 通知开会 ② make an announcement 通知 ▲ 句型: ① announce sth to sb = announce to sb sth 向某人宣布 某事 ② announce (to sb) that... (向某人)宣布?? ③ It is announced that... 据宣布/据通知?? ▲辨析:announce;declare 两词均意为“宣布” ,但 announce 意为“宣告,宣布,通知” ,指官方或公众的 言论,内容可以是权威性的或知识性的。不跟双宾语。 declare 意为“宣布,声 明” ,指明确、有力的断言,公开宣布某事。其后不跟不定式和双宾语,可跟名 词、代词、从句或复合结构。例如: Everyone was silent as he announced the result. The US declared war on England in 1812.1812 年美国向英国宣战。 【考例 3】 Fifty years ago, Chairman Mao ____ the founding of the People's Republic of China. A. announced B. said C. commented D. declared [考查目标] 考查动词在实际语境中的运用。 [答案与解析]D 结合上下文的意思可以知道, “50 年前,毛主席宣布了中华人 民共和国的成立” 。 11. apply v. ask officially for something,often by writing; put 0r bring into use;(cause to) have an effect;be directly related 申请;应用;(使)产生作用;有关系 I will apply for a joy tomorrow.

明天我要去申请一项工作。 This law only applies tomarried people. 这项法律只适应于已婚者。 【考点 2】arrange 的用法 ▲ 构词:arrangement n. 安排;筹备;准备 ▲ 搭配: ① arrange for 安排 ② arrange with 与??约定 ③ have an arrangement with sb 和某人协商 ④ make some arrangements 做些安排 ▲句型: ① arrange to do sth 安排/约定/准备做某事 ② arrange for sb to do sth 安排某人干某事 ③ arrange that... 商定??;安排?? ④ arrange sb for sth 为??安排?? ⑤ It was / has been arranged that... 已安排好?? 【考例 2】It has been ____ the meeting will be held tonight in the hall. A. said which B. decided what C. arranged that D. announced [考查目标]考查主语从句中的动词的选择与运用。 [答案与解析]C It is / has been + that-clause 是主语从句的固定句型,其中 that 不 担任成分,一般也不省 5. arrange: put in order 安排;筹划;整理;布置。 She's good at arranging flowers. 她擅长插花。 I arrangedthe books on the shelves. 我把书摆在书架上。 Before going away, he arranged his business affairs. 他在离开之前,把事情安排妥当了。 I've arranged for a car to meet them at the station. 我已经安排了一辆车去车站接他们。 【考点 6】attention 的用法 ▲构词: ① attentive adj. 注意的 ② attentively adv. 注意地;聚精会神地 ▲搭配: ① pay / give / bring much / more / special / close / lit— tle / no attention to sth (非 常/特别/一点都不)留心; 关心;关注 ② give / turn one's / much / more attention (=mind) to sth (主语和 one's 指同一 人)注意(到) ③ fix one's attention on / upon sth (主语和 one's 指同 一人)专心于??某人把注 意力集中在??上 ④ with attention = attentively 注意地、专注地、聚精会神地 ▲句型: ① sb call / draw / attract / win one's attention to sth =

sb bring sth to one's attention = sb bring one's attention to sth (主语和 one's 不指同 一人)使/叫某人注意某事;引起某人对某事的注意;吸引某人对??的注意力 ② sth draw / attract / catch / absorb / engage one's attention (to...) ??吸引了某人 的注意力; ?? 引起某人对某事的注意/关注; ?? 很受某人欢迎 ③ sb hold one's attention 使某人集中注意力才(主语和 one's 不指同一人);吸引 某人(注意力) ④ Attention, please. = May l have your attention, please? 请注意!(主要用于口头通 知) ⑤ Attention! = Stand at attention! 立正!(口令用语) ⑥ be all attention 十分专心 【考例 6】Enough ____ should be paid to the impor—tant conference. A. attend B. attendance C. attention D. attending [答案]C pay enough (more, little, much,etc.) attention to sth 为固定短语搭配。 2. daily adj. & adv. happening or produced every day or once a day: 每天的(地) The shop is open daily from 8: 00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m.. 这家店铺每天开放时间是上午 8 点到下午 6 点。 This is connected with our daily life. 这与我们的日常生活息息相关。 n. a newspaper that is published every day except Sunday: 日报 No mention of the explosion was printed in any of Sunday's daily. 星期天的日报都没有报导那次爆炸。 7. failure: failing person, attempt, or thing that fails 失败;失败的人(事) His plans ended in failure. 他的计划以失败而告终。 Martin was not deeply affected by his failure. 马丁没有因为他的失败而受到很大的影响。 You learn through failures. 你通过失败而学习。

虚拟语气是语法中很微小的一部分,属于相对独立的语法项目,但在使用过 程中不易分辨,隐蔽性较强,解题时很容易出现错误。高考中经常会出现虚拟语 气,分数虽然不多,要是对虚拟语气掌握不好,便不知道从何处入手,分数自然 得不到。因此,系统了解一下虚拟语气是非常重要的。
非真实条件句中的虚拟语气(以动词 do 为例) 前提 条件句(if) 1.与现在事实相反 2.与过去事实相反 did( be---were) had done (1)did( be----were) 3.与将来事实相反 (2)should do (3) were to do Had, should, were提前 Had he recognized me, Were I you, Should it happened, 5.含蓄虚拟条件 Should/would/could/might+do 同上 he would have come over. I would go. what would you do?

主句 Should/would/could/might+do Should/would/could/might+have done


标志词:With, without, but for, but, but that, or, otherwise ,under等 I am really busy, otherwise I would certainly go with you. Without your help, we could not have succeeded. But for electricity, there would be no modern industry. If she hadn’t trained so hard, 6.主从句错综时间 If I were you, If you had not watched TV so late last night, 7. 省略条件句 8. 省略主句 If my old friend were with me! He doesn’t passed the examination. He should have studied hard. Even if it should get stormy, I will go. 9. 虚拟真实并存 I would have bought it yesterday, but I had no money. I was ill that day. Otherwise, I would have taken part in the meeting. Should anyone phone, please tell them I’m busy. She wouldn’t be able to run so fast . I would have taken his advice. You would not be so sleepy now. You could have done it yourself !

一.虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中 1. 表示与现在事实相反或不可能发生:条件状语从句: 一般过去时(虚拟语气中 be→were) 主句用:would(should, could, might)+动词原形。 If we had time now, we would read it again.

If I were you, I would work hard. 2. 表示与过去事实相反或不可能发生:条件状语从句:had+过去分词; 主句:would(should, could, might)+have+过去分词。 If he had taken my advice, he would have succeeded in the test. If I had known your telephone number then, I would have called you. 3. 表示与将来的事实可能相反或不可能发生: 条件状语从句:①一般过去时②should +动词原形③were to+动词原形; 主句:would(should, could, might)+动词原形。 If it should rain, the crops would be saved. If it were to snow tomorrow, they would not go out. P.S 虚拟条件句的特殊情况 (1)混合/错综型虚拟语气 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时, 称为‘错综条件句’, 动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整。 If you had followed my advice, you would be better now. (从句说的是过去,主句是现在) If I were you, I would have taken his advice. (从句是现在,主句是过去) (2)省略 if 的虚拟语气 如果从句中含有 were/ should/ had 时,则可以把这三个词置于句首, 省略 if.采用倒装语序。 If it should happen, what would you do? Should it happen, what would you do? If he had recognized me, he would have come over. Had he recognized me, he would have come over. (3)含蓄虚拟条件句 有时候假设的情况不以 if 引导的条件从句形式表现出来, 而是通过一个介词短语,连词或其他形式表示。 常用的词或短语有:without, with, but for, otherwise, or, but 等。 Without your help(=If we had not had your help),we could not have succeeded. But for electricity(=If there were no electricity, there would be no modern industry. He felt very tired yesterday, or/ otherwise he would have attended the party. (4)在 if it were( had been )not for ….句型中的虚拟语气 常用于‘if it were/(had been) not for ….’句型中,意为‘要不是由于…’。 If it were not for peace, we could not be living a happy life today. If it had not been for your timely help, I would have gone bankrupt. 二.虚拟语气用在名词性从句中 1.主语从句中的虚拟语气

这种虚拟语气主要用在 it is+形容词 (名词, 过去分词) +that+主语+should+ 动词原形 (should 可以省略)这种结构中。 常见形容词有:advisable, anxious, better, desirable, surprising, natural, necessary, strange, important, regretful. 常见过去分词有:decided, demanded, recommended, requested, desired, required, ordered, suggested. 常见名词有:duty, pity, no surprise, no wonder, regret, shame. It was suggested that he(should)join the club activities. It is strange (surprising, disappointing) that she (should) not have been invited. It is a pity that he (should) refuse to accept the offer. 2. 宾语从句中的虚拟语气 ① wish 后面所跟宾语从句谓语动词用虚拟语气(意为要是,但愿 …就好 了) , 其形式主要有三种: 表示对现在情况的虚拟:wish 后接一般过去时的从句 表示对过去情况的虚拟:wish 后接过去完成时/should,could have done 表示对将来情况的虚拟:wish 后接 would,could+动词原形 I wish it were spring all year round. I wish it would be fine tomorrow. She wished she had stayed at home. ② 在表示建议,命令,要求等动词后的从句要用(should)+动词原形。 此类动词有:suggest, advise, propose, demand, require, insist(要求), order, prefer, command, ask, request. The teacher ordered that all the books (should) be handed in on time. P.S. 当 suggest 表示‘暗示,说明’之意;insist 表示‘坚持认为,坚持说’之意 时, 从句不用虚拟,用正常的陈述语气。 The man insisted that he had never stolen the money. The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with life. 3. 表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟语气 在表示建议,命令,要求的名词后的表语从句或同位语从句中的谓语动 词要用 (should)+动词原形。常见名词有:advice, desire, request, demand, proposal, suggestion, preference, requirement, order. He gave orders that the guests (should) be hospital entertained. His proposal is that we (should) get rid of the bad habits. 三.虚拟语气在其他情况中的使用 1.在 as if/ as though 引导的状语从句中,若从句与事实相反,则要用虚拟 语气。 其形式如下:

主语+as if/ though +主语+一般过去时(从句的动作与主句同时发生) 主语+as if/ though +主语+would/could+动词原形 (从句的动作相对主句来说在将来发生) 主语+as if/ though +主语+过去完成时(从句的动作先发生于主句动作之 前) He talks as if he knew all about it. She speaks English well as if he had studied in America. He learns English so hard as if he would go abroad. 2.在 it is (high) time that …句型中也用虚拟语气,从句常用过去式, 有时也用 should +动词原形,表示早该做而没做的事,含建议的意味。 It is time that we went home. P.S.此句型中,注意与‘It/This is the +序数词+time that+现在完成式的 区别。 This is the first time that I have been here. 3.would rather 后接动词原形,但接从句时要用虚拟语气(宁愿,但愿) 。 Would rather +主语+一般过去时(表示与现在或将来相反) Would rather +主语+过去完成时(表示与过去相反) I’d rather he didn’t go now. I’d rather you hadn’t done it. 4. if only 后接从句也用虚拟语气,其形式与 wish 的用法一致。 5. 动词 hope, intend, mean, plan, want, think 等词用过去完成的形式, 表示的意思为‘本想,本打算,本认为’ He had meant to buy the furniture last week, but it rained. (他上周本打算去买那件家具,但却下雨了)

历年高考虚拟语气 1. Look at the trouble I am in! If only I ___ your advice. (2003上海春) C A. followed B. would follow C. had followed D. should follow 2. Oh, I’m not feeling well in the stomach, I __ so much fried chicken just now. (2002上海 春) C A. shouldn’t cut B. mustn’t have eaten C. shouldn’t have eaten D. mustn’t eat 3. How I wish every family __ a large house with a beautiful garden! (2002上海春) B A. has B. had C. will have D. had had


It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ____ in love, at the age of seven,

with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. (2002上海) B A. wouldn't have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall 5. What would have happened _____, as far as the river bank? (2001上海) C A. Bob had walked farther B. if Bob should walk farther C. had Bob walked farther D. if Bob walked farther He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he ___a goal. (2001上海春) D A.had scored B.scored C.would score D.would have scored 7. I would love _____to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a 6. report. (1997全国)B A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 8. Yesterday,Jane walked away from discussion. Otherwise she ___ something she would regret later. (1996上海) D A. had said B. said C. might say 9. D. might have said

When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it_____.(1995全国) C A.breaks B.has broken C.were broken D.had been broken 10. I didn't see your sister at the meeting. If she ______ , she would have met my brother. (1994 全国)D A.has come B.did come C.came D.had come 11. —If he___, he___ that food. (1993全国) B —Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. A. was warned; would not take B. had been warned; would not have taken C. would be warned; had not taken D. would have been warned; had not taken 12. -We could have walked to the station; it was so near. (1992全国) A -Yes. A taxi ______ at all necessary. A. wasn't B. hadn't been C. wouldn't be D. won't be 13. If it _____ for the snow, we ______ the mountain yesterday. (1991全国) C A. were not; could have climbed B.were not; could climb C.had not been; could have climbed D. had not been; could climb 14. If my lawyer _____ here last Saturday, he ______ me from going. (1989全国) A A. had been; would have prevented B. had been; would prevent C. were; would prevent D. were; would have prevented 15. I insist that a doctor _____ immediately. (1988全国) D A. has been sent for B. sends for C. will be sent for D. be sent for 16. The rice _____ if you had been more careful. C A. would not be burning B. would not burn C. Would not have been burnt D. would not burnt 17. If she had worked harder, she ______. (1986全国) D A. would succeed B. had succeeded C. should succeed D. would have succeeded 18. The guard at the gate insisted that everybody _____ the rules. (1985全国) B A. obeys B. obey C. will obey D. would obey 19. If there were no subjunctive mood, English ______ much easier. (1984全国) D A. will be B. would have been C. could have been D. would be 2010高考情态动词与虚拟语气

1.(全国I 29).Just be patient .You_____________ except the world to change so soon. A. can’t B. needn’t C. may not D. will not 2.(全国II 17)I’m afraid Mr.Harding ____ see you now . he’s busy. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. shouldn’t D. needn’t 3. (安徽卷32) Jack descried his father, who _____a brave boy many years ago, as a strong-willed man A. would be B. would have been C. must be D. must have been 4.(北京卷23)---Good morning. I've got an appointment with Miss Smith in the Personnel Department. ---Ah, good morning. You be Mrs. Peters. A. might B. must C. would D. can 5.(北京卷34) ----T he weather has been very hot and dry. ----Yes. If it had rained even a drop, things would be much better now! And my vegetables . A. wouldn't die B. didn't die C. hadn't died D. wouldn't have died 6.(福建卷29)Teachers recommend parents their children under 12to ride bicycles to school for safety. A. not allow B. do not allow C. mustn’t allow D. couldn’t allow 7.(湖南卷29) If he __________my advice, he wouldn’t have lost his job. A. followed B. should follow C. had followed D. would follow 8.(湖南卷23)You_________ buy a gift , but you can if you want to. A. must B. mustn’t C. have to D. don’t have to 9.(江苏卷25).---I haven’t got the reference book yet, but I’ll have a test on the subject next month. ---Don’t worry. You______ have it by Friday. A. could B. shall C. must D. may 10.(江苏卷34) George is going to talk about the geography of his country, but I’d rather he_______ more on its culture. A. focus B. focused C. would focus D. had focused 11.(江西卷23). I have told you the truth. I keep repeating it? A. Must B. Can C. May D. Will 12.(辽宁卷26). Doctors say that exercise is important for health, but it _______ be regular exercise. A. can B. will C. must D. may 13.(山东卷25). I_______ have watched that movie —it’ll give me horrible dreams. A. shouldn’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. mustn’t 14.(陕西卷23)----May I take this book out of the reading room? ----No, you . You must read it here. A. mightn`t B. won’t C. need’t D. mustn`t 15.( 四川卷 3). — I take the book out? —I'm afraid not.A. Will B. May C. Must D. Need 16(天津卷9). Mark _______ have hurried. After driving at top speed, he arrived half an hour early. A. needn’t B. wouldn’t C. mustn’t D. couldn’t 17.(天津卷15). ---- John went to the hospital alone.---- If he _______ me about it, I would have gone with him.

A. should tell

B. tells

C. told

D. had told

18.(重庆卷 21).You park here! It’s an emergency exit. A. wouldn’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. mustn’t 19.(浙江卷17). "You __ have a wrong number," she said. "There's no one of that name here. " A. need B. can C. must D. would 20. (浙江卷10) . Had I known about this computer program, a huge amount of time and energy __ . A. would have been saved B. had been saved C. will be saved D.was saved 21.( 上海卷29). -- Sorry, Professor Smith. I didn't finish the assignment yesterday. -- Oh, you have done it as yesterday was the deadline. A. must B. mustn't C. should D. shouldn't Keys 1.AADBD 6.ACDBB 11.ACADB 16.ADDCA 21.C