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人教版英语必修五 Unit 1 Great scientists


人教版英语必修五 Unit 1 Great scientists 重难点 【重点】 (1)了解著名医生 John Snow、钱学森、哥白尼等科学家以及他们的作为和故事。 ( 2)学习表示意愿、希望和建议的句型。 (3)学习过去分词作定语和表语的结构。 (4)学习写好“persuasive writing”,以训练学生的逻辑思维及写作能力.

一、重点单词

1、characteristic n. 特征,特性 2、expose vt. 暴露,揭发,曝光(摄影) 3、defeat vt. & n. 击败;战胜; 4、cure vt. & n. 治愈,治疗法 5、blame vt. 责备,归咎 6、 backward adj. & adv. 向后 7、conclude vt. & vi. 结束,总结

二、重要词组句型

1、in addition 此外 2、apart from 除……以外(except for);除……外,还有(besides) 3、be strict with sb. 对某人严格 4、lead to 导致,通向(to 为介词) 5、link…to… 将……和……连接起来 6、keep sb /sth +doing /done /adj. 让某人或事物做……

三、课文长句难句 1、In addition, he found two other deaths in another part of London that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. 2、To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all water supplies be examined and new methods of dealing with polluted water be found. 2

四、语法知识——过去分词的用法 【词汇积累】 1. put forward 提出 2. draw a conclusion 得出结论 3. be/get under control 在……控制下 be/get out of control 失去控制,不能操纵 4. be absorbed in 专心 5. be to blame 应该受责备(用 主动形式表示被动) blame sb. for sth. 因某事责备 某人 6. in addition 也,另外,此外 7. link...to... 将…和…连接或联系起来 8. die of 因…而死亡(内因) die from 因…而死亡(外因) 9. lead to 导 致,通向 10. make sense 有意义,说得通 11. apart from 除…之外,此外 12. contribute to 为…

作贡献或捐款,导致,有助于 13. be enthusiastic about 对…热情 14. be curious about 对…好奇 15. cure sb. of illness 治好某人…病 16. point of view 态度,观点,看法 17.(be)strict with sb. 对某人要求严格

【重点单词用法精解】 1. characteristic n. 特征,特性 The chief characteristic of human being is that they can think. 人类主要的特征是 他们会思考。 2. expose vt. 暴露,揭发,曝光(摄影) Don’t expose the baby to the burning sun. 切勿将小孩 曝晒。 注:expose sb/sth to…中的 to 为介词。 3. defeat vt. & n. 击败;战胜; The army defeated the enemy in the end. 军队最终战胜了敌军。 Tom suffered the defeat in the English examination. 汤姆英语考试失败了。 辨析:win 的宾语是 game, prize 等物 (不是人) ;beat 和 defeat 的宾语是人; hit“打一下”; beat“ (连续地) 打”;strike “重击”。 3 4. cure vt. & n. 治愈,治疗法 There is no known cure for AIDS. 还无治疗艾滋病之法。 It is possible to cure the sickness. 治愈这种疾病还是可能的。 辨析:cure“治愈”,强调结果;treat“治 疗”,强调动作过程;说 cure sb of sth. 但 说 treat sb for sth. 5. blame vt. 责备,归咎 The teacher blamed me for my being late for school again. 老师因我 又迟到批评 了我。 注:blame sb for sth=blame sth on sb. 6. backward adj. & adv. 向后 We turn backward(s) then rightward(s). 我们向后转然后向右 转。 搭配:a backward turn 向后转 7. conclude vt. & vi. 结束,总结 The teacher concluded the class by one sentence. 老师以一句 话总结了这节课。 8. absorb v. 吸收(液体);承受;承担 (费用等) Use the cloth to absorb the spilled ink. 吸干撒的墨水 We will not absorb these charges.我们不能承担这些费用. absorb…in/by..吸引注意 I was absorbed in a book and didn’t hear your call.专心看书 absorb…into…吸收… The big company has gradually absorbed these small companies into its own organization.这家大公司逐渐将这 些小的公司吞并了。

【重要词组句型例析】 1.in addition 此外 In addition, the speaker gave us more information about the topic. 另外, 这个演 讲者就主题给了我一些信息。 注:in addition to(=besides)是短语介词,后接名词、代词和动 名词。 I visited many places in addition to the Great Wall. 我参观了许多地方,除了长 城以外。 2. apart from 除……以外(except for);除……外,还有(besides) 4 Apart from being short, Tom is smart. 除了个子矮了点,Tom 还是挺帅气的。 Apart from the cost, it will take a lot of time. 除 了花费钱以外,它还需要不少时 间。 3. be strict with sb. 对某人严格 Father is always strict with his sons. 父亲对子女经常要求严格。 比较:be strict in sth. 对某事物要求严格 Teachers are strict in students’ homework. 老师对学生 的作业要求严格。

4. lead to 导致,通向 (to 为介词) Hard work leads to success. 努力通向成功。 All roads lead to Rome. 条条道路通罗马。 5〃link…to… 将……和……连接起来 Can you link the clues to the criminals? 你能把线索和罪犯 联系起来吗? 6. keep sb /sth +doing /done /adj. 让某人或事物做…… I’m sorry to have kept you waiting so long. 对不起,让你久等了。 You must keep your jewels locked up. 你得把珠宝饰物锁好。 Keep the classroom clean. 要保持教室清洁。(adj.作宾补) 注:用 doing 强调与 sb/sth 是主动关系且与 谓语动词是同时或一直进行的; done 强调与 sb/sth 是被动关系且业已完成; adj.强调 sb/sth 的 用 用 状态。 7.“so+ be/have/助动词/情态动词+主语”是一种主谓倒装形式,表示另一主语与前 一主语的动作或状 态有着相同的肯定概念,“也这样”,“也如此”。 Football is very important to me,but so is our friendship. ?6?1 I study in this school and so does my brother. 我在这所学校学习,我的弟弟也在。 ?6?1 He can speak English, so can we. 他会讲英语,我们也会。 ?6?1 They had a good time last night. So did I 昨晚他们玩的很痛快,我也是。 比较:“so + 人 称代词 + be/have/助动词/情态动词”,意为“的确如此”。 ?6?1 ----These books are really well written. ----So they are. --这些书确实写得很好。-- 的确如此。 5 ?6?1 ----You forgot to close the door. ---- Oh, so I did. --你忘了关门。 -- 哦, 是的。 8.Who invented the way of giving electricity to everybody in large cities?是谁发明 了把电带给大城市 中的每个人的办法? ?6?1 the way of doing sth.= the way to do “做…的方法” ?6?1 She showed us the way of cleaning it.= She showed us the way to clean it. ?6?1 the way 引导的定语从句的引导词有三种, 可以用 that;可以用 in which;还可 以省略. ?6?1 I don’t like the way (that/ in which) you speak to your father. 知识拓展: by the way 顺便说 lose one’s way 迷路 no way 没门,别想 feel one’s way 摸黑走,谨慎从事 on one’s way to…在去…的路上 in this way=by this means=with this method 用这种方法 9.Who put forward a theory about black holes? (1) to offer (an idea, suggestion etc.) for consideration 提出(建议等) (2) 推荐某人或自己任职位;提名 May I put your name forward as our monitor?我能 否提名你当我们的班长? put away 抛弃;舍弃 put down 写下来;记入名单; put on 穿上;戴上;增加 put off 耽误;延期 put out 熄灭(灯);扑灭 (火) put up 建立;建造 put up with… 忍受…… ?6?1 You can take anything from the shelf and read, but please ______ the books when you’ve finished with them. A. put on B. put down C. put back D. put off 10.--so famous, indeed, that he attended Queen Victoria to ease the birth of her babies. 1) to be present at, to go to 出席, 参加 6 ~a meeting , ~a ceremony, ~a funeral, ~ a lecture, ~school, ~church Your attendance at the meeting will be welcome. 2) to look after, care for, serve 照顾,看护 Which doctor is attending (to/ on) you? There is a doctor in attendance on me. 11.But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. 在句中

是过去分词作后置定语,表示被动.意为“患霍乱的”.如:The book written by Luxun is very popular. expose v. (1) to make visible 暴露 “expose ….to….” He exposes his skin to the sun. 他把皮肤暴露在阳 光下. (2)to reveal the guilt or wrong doing of …揭露;揭发 He exposed their plot.他揭穿了他们的 阴谋. I threatened to expose him ( to the police).我威胁要(向警察)揭发他. 12.This was the most deadly disease of its day. die (v.) dead (adj.) death (n.) deadly adj. 1.dangerous; likely to cause death 危险的;致命的 a deadly disease/weapon 2. highly effective against sth. or someone 强有力的;致命的 a deadly remark 击中要害的评论 3. aiming to kill or destroy 意在杀死的;不共戴天的: a deadly enemy 不 共戴天的敌人 adv. 1. Very 极度;非常;十分: deadly serious 十分认真 2. like death 死一般 地: deadly pale 死一般苍白 13.So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. Every/each time 是连词,引导时间状语从句, “每次,每当” Every time I meet him, I always think of the things happened between us. the moment, the minute, the second, immediately, the moment, directly, instantly 等都 可以作连词,引导时间状语从句,意为“一……就……” 7 I will give the letter to him the second/ immediately I see him. I came directly I got your letter. The moment I catch a cold, I have a pain in my back. 14. He knew it would never be controlled until its cause was found. control v. to have power over, rule, direct 统治, 控制 The government tries its best to control prices. n. 控制, 统治, 掌握 1) lose control of/ be (go) out of control 失去控制 The driver lost control of his car and it knocked into a tree. 2) in control of 在…控制下 Mr. brown is in control of the money. 3) under the control of 被…控制着 The money is under the control of Mr. brown. 4) under control 受控制, 帄静无事 The fire was finally under control.

15.…the cholera was so severe that more than 500 people had died in 10 days. (1) so serious; so bad (人、纪律)严厉的, 严格的 I think you are too severe on the boy. His severe looks frightened me. (2) very harmful or painful (疼痛)剧烈的 He has a severe pain in his leg. (3) be severe with: be strict with 对…要求严格 He is severe with himself.

16. It seemed the water was to blame. be to blame 应受谴责, 应受处罚 You are to blame. Who is to blame for the failure? 注意该词组无 be to be blamed 的形式 ?6?1 blame sb for sth./ blame sth on sb ?6?1 Do you blame him for the accident? 8 ?6?1 Do you blame the accident on him?

17. In addition, he found two other deaths in another part of London that were linked to the

Broad Street outbreak. in addition adv. as well as, besides 另外 In addition, the course also produces practical experience. 此外,这门功课还提供 了实践的基础. A number of people came to the zoo in addition to Peter and Paul. 彼得和保尔以 外,还有许多别的人来到动物园.

18. In addition, he found two other deaths in another part of London that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. link vt. 连接 These two cities were linked by a railway. link… to… (connect…to…)把…与…连接起来= be linked to I can’t link my computer to the internet. Fingerprints linked the suspect to the crime.

19. With this evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the disease. announce v. 1) To make known publicly 发表、告知、宣布 The news was announced to the public on TV. 2)to state in a loud voice (the name of a person or thing on arrival, as of people at a party or aircraft at an airport) 宣布 (客人的名字、到达) His servant announced Mr. and Mrs. White. 3) To make clearly known (事情)显示……;预告 Warm sunshine announces the coming of spring.

20. Apart from the construction mentioned above, you have also learned the following phrase. apart from “ 除了…之外”,主要与 n.和 v-ing 连用。 Apart from a few faults, he is a trustworthy teacher. (except for) Apart from sport, my other interest outside class is music. (besides) Apart from some spelling mistakes, the composition is fairly good.

21. Only if you put the sun there did the movement of the other planets in the sky 9 make sense. make sense 讲得通; 有道理 Here, read the sentence. It doesn’t seem to make sense. 看这里,读这个句子, 好像一点二也讲不通。 Your story doesn’t make sense to me. 你编的故事我 听不明白。

【课文长句难句剖析】

1. In addition, he found two other deaths in another part of London that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. 剖析:句中的 that 引导一个定语从句,修饰先行词 two other deaths;先 行词 与定语从句之间被介词短语 in another part of London 所分隔。 译文:除此之外,他发现在伦敦 的另一个地方有两个与 the Broad Street 爆发 的霍乱有关的死亡病例。 2. To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all water supplies be examined and new methods of dealing with polluted water be found. 剖析:To prevent 为表示目的的不定式短语;prevent…(from) doing sth 意为“阻 止……做某事”,其中 prevent 可与 stop, keep 互换;suggest 表示“建议”的,其宾 语从句的谓语用“should +动词原形”, 句中的 should 被省略了。 译文:为了防止这种情况的再次发生,John Snow 建议所有的水源都要经过 检 测,而且要寻找处理污水的新方法。

【语法知识归纳】——过去分词的用法 1. 构成:done(规则动词的过去分词与过去式变化相同,都是在 动词原形后加 ed, 如:print—printed—printed; follow—followed—followed; 不规则动词的过去分 词 需要记忆, 如:begin—began—begun;ea—tate—eaten) 2. 意义:完成、被动 (1)不及物动词 的过去分词表示完成的状态,不表被动意义,如:fallen leaves (落叶) ,fall 为不及物动词,此处只表 示落叶的状态; fallen leaves 落叶 returned students 归国留学生 newly-arrived visitors 新到的 客人 10 (2)及物动词的过去分词表示被动和完成,如:polluted water(污水),pollute 为及物动词, water 和 pollute 之间是被动关系且动作业已完成。 the cold boiled water 冷开水 a developed country 3. 语法功用 在句中作定语、表语、宾语补足语和状语。不能单独作谓语。

(1)作定语: 过去分词如是单个词语, 则位于中心词前; 如是短语, 则位于中 心词后, 作后置定语。 如: Many terrified people died in turmoil. 很多受惊的人死于荒乱之中。 单个过去分词或 adv.-p.p 作前置定 语 : He is a respected leader. a recently-built house home-grown vegetables man-made fibers 过去分词短语作后置定语 : Young people brought up in the new society can’t imagine the bitter life in the old days. 作定语时可用定语从句代替: He is a respected leader.= He is a leader__who is respected__. Young people brought up in the new society can’t imagine the bitter life in the old days. = Yong people _______who were brought up in the new society____can’t imagine the bitter life in the old days. 真题:Don’t use words, expressions, or phrases____ only to people with specific knowledge. (上海) A being known B having been known C to be known D known 解析: words, expressions, phrases 与 know 在逻辑上是被动 关系,要用过去分 词短语作定语,故选 D。

(2)作表语:用在系动词后。如: I am interested in reading English novels. 我对阅读英国小说感兴 趣。 My teacher got annoyed when I was late for school again. 我上学又迟到,老师为 此很恼怒。 be 动词和系动词 11 1、be 动词 2、表示变化的动词:become, get, turn, go, grow 等 3、感官动 词:look, feel, smell, taste, sound 等 4、还有 seem, appear, stay, keep, remain, turn out 等 有 的已成为固定搭配 : be covered with 被……覆盖 be lost in thought 陷入沉思 be caught in the rain 被雨淋 be separated from 从……分离 be interested in 对…感兴趣 be absorbed in 专心致 志于…

(3)作宾语补足语:用在宾语后面。如: I had my dress washed already. 我已经把衣服洗了。 注: 能带过去分词作宾语补足语的动词还有:get, hear, see, make, keep, find 等。 如: I found the door broken. 我发现门坏了。 真题:Laws that punish parents for their children’s against the laws get parents_____. (重庆) A worried B to worry C worrying D worry 解析:“使得家长们感到担 心”,用过去分词作宾语补足语,选 A。 (4)作状语:一般置于句首或句末。 The teacher came into the classroom, followed by some students. 老师和几位同 学走进教室。(the teacher 与 follow 是被 动关系) ※与所修饰的词是一种动宾的逻辑关系 ①过去分词的一般式(已经完成的) The patient operated on will soon be allowed to go home. ②不定式的被动式(即将发生的) The patient to be

operated on is Mr. Smith. ③-ing 的被动式(正在进行的)being done The patient being operated on is Mr. Smith. The patient having been operated on is Mr. Smith.(× ) 12 → The patient operated on is Mr. Smith.(√) 必修 5

测试题

填空 1. In some Muslin countries, women do not _______their faces in the public. A. reveal B. uncover C. expose D. disclose 2. If I take this medicine twice a day, it should _____my cold. A. recover, B. hold C. restore D. cure 3. The boy is often found _____in reading books. A. absorbs B. is absorbed C. absorbing D. absorbed 4. My watch has stopped. Can you get it ______ for me? A. to go B. going C. go D. gone 5. ___to complete the job on time, they set out to work immediately. A. Determined B. Be determined C. Having determined D.To be determined 6. Don’t trust such people ___ praise you to your face. A. who B. that C. which D. as 7. The students expected ____ more reviewing classes before the exam. A. there to be B. there are C. there being D. there to have 8. You shouldn’t keep silent when ____ A. speaking B. spoken to C. spoken D. speaking to 9. The storms did a lot of _____and caused some______. A. damage, deaths B. damages, deaths C. damage, deaths D. damages, death 10. With a lot of difficult problems_____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settling 11. After being ____,he was told he was suffering from cancer. A. checked B. tested C. examined D. treated 12. It rained for two weeks, completely _____ our holiday. A. ruined B. to ruin C. ruining D. to ruining 13. The way he suggests to us doesn’t make______ A. difference B. opinions C. use D. sense 14. She felt rather _______that she should drive the car at such a___________ speed. A. frightening, frightening B. frightened, frightened 13 C. frightening, frightened D. frightened, frightening 15. Cleaning women in big cities get _____ by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay


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