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英语文体学2012n


Introduction to English Stylistics

Instructor: Chen Rongquan
Office of International Exchange and Cooperation

Tel: 2055729 E-mail: rongquanchen@126.com

Course requirements: Class attendance is required, not optional.

Course evaluation: At the end of the course, each student is to submit a term paper related to stylistics.

Course description:

Stylistics is a branch of linguistics which applies the theory and methodology of modern linguistics to the study of style. In a much broader sense, it deals with the study of all kinds of writing/varieties of English.

In a narrower sense, it is an interdisciplinary subject. It is a study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation, that is, from a linguistic point of view (literary stylistics). Therefore, it differs from linguistics and literary criticism in that it essentially links these two.

? Major

topics to be discussed:

1. What is stylistics? What is stylistics meant to do? What is style? 2. Phonological stylistic markers 3. Lexical stylistic markers 4. Grammatical stylistic markers 5. Norm and deviation 6. Varieties of English 7. Practical style

Reference books: 《英语文体学引论》,王佐良,外研社。 《英语文体学教程》,徐有志,高等教育出版社。 《英语文体学教程》,张德禄,高等教育出版社。 《英语语体学》,裴文,安徽大学出版社。 《实用英语文体学》,钱瑗,外研社。
《文体学概论》,秦秀白,湖南教育出版社。

Patterns in Language: Stylistics for Students of Language and Literature---Thomborrow, J., 1998. Style in Language---Sebeok, T. A. (ed.), 1960. The Five Clocks--- Joos, M. , 1962. Linguistics and Style---Enkvist, N.E. & Spencer, 1964. Investigating English Style---Crystal, D & D. Davy, 1969. Stylistics—Turner, G. W., 1973. Style in Fiction--- Leech, G. & M. Short, 1981. The Stylistics of Fiction---Toolan, M., 1990.

The goals, components, and procedure of stylistic inquiry Goals The first goal of stylistics is to help readers understand a text better. In other words, it provides insights into the meaning of the text. The second goal is to explain why and how one text is better than another one. That is to say, stylistics is more directly concerned with interpretation of a text.

Components Description +interpretation +evaluation The most important thing is to remember there is actually no rigid and fixed procedure of stylistic analysis of literary work. Linguistic observation and literary insight proceeds from each other and enhances each other and they form a cyclic motion.

Procedure: Analytic phase +interpretative phase The nature of stylistic analysis Generally, the stylistic analysis is mainly concerned with the uniqueness of the language use in a given text. That is to show what is peculiar to the language in a text. This is determined by the nature of style itself. This naturally involves comparison between the language used in the text under investigation and the language used in a conventional way. So essentially speaking, stylistic study is essentially comparative in nature.

Generally, the procedure of stylistic analysis is often sequenced in two steps: a) linguistic description, b) contextual factors analysis.
Linguistic description can be done at phonological, graphological, lexical, syntactical, semantic and textual level. Contextual factors analysis include the following aspects: field of discourse, tenor of discourse and mode of discourse.

?A

checklist of linguistic description ? Phonological category: a. elision (omission of sound (s) b. sound patterning c. rhyme d. pause e. stress f. length g. tempo (the speed of speaking) h. intonation i. onomatopoeia

? Graphological

category:

a. punctuation b. capitalization c. paraphrasing (the way a text is divided into paragraphs) d. italics e. format of printing f. graphic signs (size of shape of letters, tables, pictures, diagrams, drawings etc.)

? Lexical

category: whether the lexis used is a. general or specific b. Anglo-Saxon or Latinate c. simple or hard d. descriptive or evaluative f. formal or informal g. standard or nonstandard h. dynamic or static i. archaic or neologism j. abstract or concrete

? Syntactic

/ grammatical category:

(how words are ordered and connected into sentences) a. sentence types b. sentence length c. clause types (SV, SVA, SVO, SVOA, SVOO, SVOC; finite/nonfinite; ) d. normal order of inverted e. tense (the prevailing tense) f. voice (active or passive)

? Semantic

category: a. figures of comparison (simile, metaphor, analogy, personification) b. figures of replacement (metonomy, synecdoche, euphemism, overstatement, understatement, etc.) c. figures of repetition d. figures of contrast (antithesis, oxymoron, paradox, climax, anticlimax etc. ) e. figures of double meaning (pun, irony)

The aim of this course is two-fold: 1) To offer a chance to deepen / facilitate your understanding of the knowledge of linguistics you have just acquired and put it to practical use. 2) To cultivate stylistic awareness or insight into different styles of writing /varieties of English; to develop the ability to do stylistic analysis and hopefully pursuing a better understanding or appreciation of literary works and other styles of writing.

Chapter 1 I. Definition of stylistics ―The study of that variation in language which is dependent on the situation in which the language is used. Although stylistics sometimes includes investigation of spoken language, it usually refers to the study of written language, including literary texts. Stylistics is concerned with the choices that are available to a writer and the reasons why particular forms and expressions are used rather than others.‖ (Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics)

? Stylistics

is the study of varieties of language whose properties position that language in context. For example, the language of advertising, politics, religion, individual authors, etc., or the language of a period in time, all belong in a particular situation.

? Stylistics

also attempts to establish principles capable of explaining the particular choices made by individuals and social groups in their use of language, such as socialisation, the production and reception of meaning, critical discourse analysis and literary criticism.

Widdowson provides a more informative definition: ―By stylistics, I mean the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation and I shall take the view that what distinguishes stylistics from literary criticism on the one hand and linguistics on the other is that it is essentially a means of linking the two‖

G. Leech defines style as the study of the use of language in literature, a meeting-ground of linguistics and literary study.

In short, stylistics is defined as the study of discourse or text on the basis of modern linguistic theories.

The development of stylistics 1. Modern stylistics got its development in the 19th and 20th centuries from rhetoric and from the interpretation of literature. The first book on stylistics was written by a French scholar Charles Bally, student of F. D. Saussure in 1902, was considered a landmark of modern stylistics. Later, Spitzer, a German scholar began to analyze literary works form a stylistic point of view, and was often considered as the ―father of literary stylistics.

2. From the beginning of the 1930 to the end of the 1950s stylistics was developing slowly and was only confined to the European continent. During this period, the Russian formalists, the Prague School and the French structuralists all contributed to the development of stylistics.

3. From the end of 1950s to the present time, modern stylistics reached its prosperity. This can be further divided into roughly four periods: a. From the end of the 1950s to the end of the 1960s, formal stylistics prevailed. b. The second period is the 1970s, in which functional stylistics predominated. c. In the 1980s, discourse stylistics flourished. d. In the 1990s, the socio-historical/ socio-cultural stylistics or contextualized stylistics developed quickly.

Three movements that promote the development of stylistics: 1.Modernist movement in art and literature, which lasted from 1890 to World War I. This movement is characterized by its break away from the tradition. This break away lifted all restraints upon the content and language used in art and literature. This led to the tolerance, acceptance, and appreciation of the different kinds of language that appear in literature and art.

2. Another revolution occurred in the field of literary criticism, which had a profound radical influence upon stylistics. The most important proponent of this revolution is I. A. Richards, who was dissatisfied with the criticism of his age for in his opinion the critics of his time had given too much attention to the moral aspect of literature, and he suggested that a more objective approach should be taken towards literary criticism. He based his approach upon close reading of the literary text and linguistic analysis of the language of the text.

3. The third revolution that had helped the emergence of stylistics is the one that took place in the science of linguistics in the late 1950‘s. This revolution was initiated by the work of Noam Chomsky and Michael Halliday whose thoughts were directly or indirectly influenced by the linguistic theory of F. De Sassure. And generally speaking, the development in the domain of linguistics provided the stylisticians with effective and new tools for analyzing the language in both literature and other types of discourse.

2. Classification of stylistics
general stylistics
?

stylistics
literary stylistics

general features of various types of language use unique features of literary works

Theoretical stylistics

the theories, origin, trend, historical development of stylistics

In a broad sense: different kinds of writing /varieties of writing in a narrow sense: literary writing, including the study of writing style of writers
II. The definition of style Manners indicating prominent linguistic features, devices or patterns, most (or least) frequently occur in a particular text or a particular variety of language.

II. The main job of stylistics
? to

show why and how certain works can get its particular meaning; namely, what does the text mean? How does the text mean what it means? Why is the text valued as it is? ? the study of how to use language effectively / appropriately instead of focusing on correctness

Appropriateness vs.Correctness
?

The following examples show us the relationship between appropriateness and correctness eg: a. (Suppose you meet a foreign teacher on campus and greet him by asking:‖ Hi, Mr. Johnson, have you had your meal? b. ( suppose a person tries to comfort a young lady whose husband died and he says to her ) ―I‘m terribly sorry to hear that your husband has just died, but don‘t let it upset you too much. You are an attractive, young woman. I‘m sure you will find someone else soon.‖

Comment: Grammatically correct but a violation of the convention or customs in using the language. Native speakers of English would never say that way. In this sense, it is against the rule of appropriateness however correct the form is.

Discussion question: The following 4 sentences concern the way a housewife talks to a milkman. Which one do you think is the most appropriate? 1) Can you leave one bottle and four yoghourts tomorrow please? 2) Leave one bottle and four yoghourts tomorrow and don‘t forget. 3) It would be greatly appreciated if you kindly leave one bottle and four yoghourts tomorrow. 4) Would you leave one bottle and four yoghourts tomorrow, just for me.

Also compare:

1. When his dad died, Pete had to get another job. 2. After his father‘s death, Peter had to change his job. 3. On the decease of his father, Mr. Brown was obliged to seek alternative employment.

III. Levels of style
Three levels of style: high, middle and low. Middle style will serve perfectly well for most of your writing. It is the style in which most of the world‘s writing gets done.

High Style and Hard Words The high style aims at loftiness and grandeur. Today‘s readers are likely to find it too ornate and ceremonious for all but a few occasions, but at certain periods in the past it was used more freely. Here, from two centuries ago, is High Style at its highest–Samuel Johnson ruminating on the dangers of the imagination:

To indulge the power of fiction and send imagination out upon the wing is often the sport

of those who delight too much in silent speculation. When we are alone we are not always busy: the labor of excogitation is too violent to last long, the ardor of inquiry will sometimes give way to idleness or satiety. He who has nothing external that can divert him must find pleasure in his own thoughts , and must conceive himself what he is not , for who is pleased with what he is? He then expatiates in boundless futurity, and culls from all imaginable conditions that which for the present moment he should most desire, amuses his desires with impossible enjoyments,…

Comment:

1.High style differs sharply from the style of everyday conversation. Usually it differs by virtue of its solemnity, its resounding rhythms, and the elaborate structure of its sentences.
2.Difference in the sophistication of its wording. Very seldom does daily conversation contain such a phrase as ―to indulge the power of fiction‖ or ―silent speculation‖ or the ardor of inquiry‖

3. Middle Style, as opposed to high style, doesn‘t aim for loftiness or grandeur, but for clarity and simplicity

Low Style e.g. I‘m fed up with the way gals get treated in the latest flicks. For one thing, there aren‘t many of them around anymore. The best flicks you see these days are mostly about guys: Patton, Godfather, The Sting. And when women do get a piece of the action, they‘re either whores like the woman played by Linda Lovelace or bitches like Mrs. Robinson in The Graduate or stupid … You‘ll hear people laugh at the female stereotypes in the flicks of the forties and fifties, but women were at least important in a lot of those old flicks, and besides, the stereotypes were sort of interesting.

Comment: One of the features of Low Style is the use of colloquialisms. Although such diction fits perfectly well into casual conversation, the Middle Style uses it sparingly because it sounds so much like casual talk. The passage also contains slang—specifically flick, bitches, and dig. Slang words are colloquialisms so extreme that they must be used even more cautiously and less frequently. The right slang in the right place can add just the right touch of humor, realism, or localism.

Chapter 2
I. Phonological stylistic functions/ style marker in phonology

1).Stress and intonation Words have weight, sound and appearance; it is only by considering these that you can write a sentence that is good to look at and good to listen to. ( W. Somerset Maugham ) ―The sound must seem an echo to the sense.‖ (A. Pope)

a. Stress: Word stress and sentence stress eg.: John bought that new car yesterday . 1 2 3 4 5 6 Question: What difference does it make if each of the words in the sentence is stressed?

If ―John‖ is stressed, it means: It was John (not anybody else ) who bought the new car yesterday. If ― bought ― is stressed, it means: a. He had been wandering to buy that new car and he did buy it yesterday . b. You said that he wouldn‘t buy that new car , but he bought it yesterday. c. He bought that new car yesterday; he didn‘t steal it .

If ―that‖ is stressed, it means: rather than this one here
If ―new‖ is stressed, it means: He didn‘t buy a second – hand car. If ―car‖ is stressed, it means: What John bought was a car, not a truck or a cart or a bicycle.

If ―yesterday‖ is stressed, it means:

a.….., and see what a mess it is here today. b. …, but it doesn‘t work properly today. c. …. , not the day before yesterday. d. …., but it seems to me that he had had it for a long time.

Another example: Do it now . If ―do‖ is stressed, it means: Don‘ just talk, you should do something. If ―it‖ is stressed, it means: Don‘t do anything else, you should do this thing now. If ―now‖ is stressed, it means: No loitering/No wasting the time! Don‘t put it off till later time.

2. Length a. Expressing a certain feeling. e.g.: Get out. / Do it now.

If read quickly and with a high pitch, the sentence means the speaker is angry. If read slowly and with a low pitch, the sentence means a kind of threat.

b. Length can also influence rhythm: long vowels and diphthongs can slow down rhythm while short vowels can accelerate or quicken rhythm. E.g. 1)The rain whipped the window. 2)…, he sees the cobra emerge and make for the bowl of milk. Screams ring out as he jumps to slam the veranda doors safely shut.

3) The sea is rough. 4) The slow rolls of the surges on the sea. 5)The old man jumped back as if he had been stung and blood rushed into his wrinkled faced.

6) ….Now it was being burned to a crisp. The water holes were dried up and we saw dead cattle lying here and there on the treeless, rolling range. Some farmers were hauling water out to their thirsty stock daily; others were trying to drill deep wells.‖

7).True ease in writing comes from art, not chance. As those move easiest who have learn‘d to dance, ? Tis not enough no harshness gives offense, The sound must seem an echo to the sense, Soft is the strain when zephyr gently blows, And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows; But when loud surges lash the sounding shore, The hoarse, rough verse shou‘d like the torrent roar.

3. Pause a. Pause can be further divided into structural pause and emotive pause Pause can make a direct effect on the speed of delivery and style. In informal style, pause can add weight and thus the effect of rhythm can be achieved still further to achieve artistic effect. For example, in the sentence: The first award has been won by …Helen Smith. The best female singer of the year goes to ....Celine Dion.

b. Pause is also a distinctive feature to distinguish formal spoken discourse from informal spoken discourse. In casual conversation, there will always be more pauses than in formal spoken discourse.

e.g. 1) Yes, er, one feature of, a or a, a trip into the country or a holiday in the country er in Britain, of course, is that you can erm sit on the landscape literally. You know, you… you can climb over a gate and erm and spread a cloth a …and sit on the grass er an ..and have a picnic. Erm, this in several countries that I‘ve lived in is just not, on, Er one just wouldn‘t sit down be cause, er well, er per ..perhaps it was too hot and the .. there was no shade anywhere near, or if you did you knew jolly well that within 30 seconds you were going to be bitten o…., er all over by ants and this kind of thing.

2) Good afternoon everyone. On our way down river to the Tower of London, there are quite a few places of interest that we pass as we go along. I will point out some of them to you. First of all now over on the right –hand side there‘s the Royal Festival Hall, opened in 1951 as part of the Festival of Britain celebrations. It‘s one of the finest concert halls in Europe. Over here on the left the large white building with the clock is Shellmex House, owned by Shell and Britain Petroleum. The clock there is the second largest in the world. It‘s three inches smaller than the Times Clock in Times Square in New York.

4. Intonation . Intonation is accounted as soul of a language . There exist three elements in intonation, namely, pitch height, pitch movement and pitch range. According to the formation of intonation, it can be further divided into falling tone, rising tone and falling – rising tone. Falling tone can be divided into low fall and high fall, and rising tone can be divided into low rise and high rise. Generally speaking, falling tone denotes definiteness, certainty and completeness. Rising tone denotes lack of definiteness, certainty, subordination and incompleteness; falling-rising tone denotes contrast, reservation, concession, tentativeness, hesitation, warning and contradiction.

e.g. : 1) I should \go. 2) I should / go. 3) \ I should go.

4) I \ should go.
5) I \/ should go.

5. Onomatopoeia / sound imitation
Definition: The word onomatopoeia is derived from the Greek word ―onomatopia‖ meaning. Onomatopoeia can be further divided into primary onomatopoeia which suggests a basic connection between sound and meaning and secondary onomatopoeia. which suggests a kind of association between sound and meaning.

Examples of primary onomatopoeia:

cat----meow, cock—cockadoodledoo/crow hen—cluck/chuck,bull—bellow/boo/moo/low cow—moo/low, chicken –cheep pig –grunt/squeal/, duck –quack dog—bark/yelp/yap/bowwow goat—bleat/baa

Onomatopoeia

Human beings and movement

animals

Natural objects

Ouch- used for pain or displeasure ow-used in response to sudden pain aha-used for surprise, pleasure

Apes-gibber bears- growl flies-buzz frogs- croak turkeys –gobble wolves- howl

The booming of artillery the jingling of the bell the clang of the hammer

Examples of secondary onomatopoeia a. sniff, snuff, snort, snare: imitation of the sounds resulting from breathing. b. sl: 滑 such as slide, slip, slither, slush, sluice, sleek. c. sk: 与表面的接触 E.g. skate, skim, ski,

d. /wh/:表示 “剧烈” 如:whip, whirl
e. cl: 金属碰撞声,如:clang, clink, click

f. gl: 发光,如:glitter, glare, glimmer, glister, glow h. /s/: hiss, whisper, rustle, whistle

Examples of onomatopoeia: 1) The crowd began to hiss and boo him for his unsportsmanlike conduct, but he sat unmoved. Another great outburst of applause was Danny‘s as he walked back across the ring. When Danny stirred, there were ohs, and ahs, of delight.

2) I see advancing upon all this in hideous onslaught the Nazi war machine, with its clanking, heelclicking, dandified Prussian officers, its crafty expert agents fresh from the cowing and tying down of a dozen countries. (Speech on Hitler‘s Invasion of U.S.S.R.)

3) The clatter, clatter up the stairs.

4) And from that day on, as soon as the table was cleared and the dishes were done, Mother would disappear into the sewing room to practise. The slow tap, tap, tap went on some nights until midnight. ( Gerald Moore, The Day Mother Cried) 5) And then the party drove off and vanished in the night shades, and Yeobright entered the house. The ticking of the clock was the only sound that greeted him, for not a soul remained. (Thomas Hardy, The Return of the Native)

A) The stream flows through the woods. Dasi started laughing. The door was pushed open. Heavy rain drops fell on the tent.

B) The stream is murmuring through the woods. Dasi started giggling . The door crashed open. Heavy raindrops began pitter-pattering on the tent

Suggested Chinese version :
小溪带着潺潺的流水声穿过树林。 戴西咯咯地笑了起来。 门砰地一声开了。 沉重的雨点啪嗒啪嗒地落到帐篷上。

Other examples:

e.g. He banged the door . The telegraph ticked out a message. They hissed him off the stage.
?He was eating an apple, and giving a long, melodious whoop, at intervals, followed by a deeptoned ding-dong-dong, ding-dong-dong, for he was personating a steamboat. (M.Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer)

6. PUN: Pun means playing on words, or rather to play with the form and meaning of words, for a witty or humorous effect, and is often used in literary works and ads. A pun is a word employed in two or more senses, a word used in a context that makes the reader think of a second term resembling it in sound. There are many words in English which look or sound alike, but have different senses, or connotations.

Homonyms, homophones, and homographs are mostly the means whereby pun is constructed. 1) Homonyms: identical to another word in pronunciation and spelling but not in meaning. E.g. bark--/ba:k/ a round or spherical object bark-/ba:k/ to make a sharp and abrupt cry (of a dog) 2) Homophones: identical to another word in pronunciation but not in spelling and meaning. E.g. write-/rait/ to mark symbols representing words with pen or pencil on paper rite -/rait/ a religious observance/ ceremony right-/rait/ just, morally good, correct

3)Homographs: identical to another in spelling but not in pronunciation and meaning. E.g. minute-/`minit/ sixtieth part of an hour minute-/mai`nju:t/ very small, delicate, detailed

e.g. : 1)Then there was the man in the restaurant. ―You are not eating your fish, ― the waitress said to him. ― Anything wrong with it?‖ ― Long time no sea (see ), ― the man replied. 2)I finally figured out how government works. The Senate gets the bill from the House, the President gets the bill from the Senate, and we get the bill for everything.

3)‖ Fourth floor, ― shouted the passenger to the elevator. ‖ Here you are, son.‖ ‖ How dare you call me ?son‘?‖ ‖ Sir, I called or whatever, I‘ve brought you up, anyway.‖ 4)‖ My Faith is gone!‖ cried he, after one stupefied moment . (Nathanieal Howthorne: Goodman Brown) 5)On Sunday they pray for you and on Monday they prey on you. 6)We must all hang together, or we shall hang separately. (Benjamin Franklin )

7)A man sits down at a table in a restaurant and asks, ― Do you serve crabs here?‖ The waiter says, ― Sure , sit down. We serve anybody.
8)—I would like to borrow a book, please.

--Something light? --That doesn‘t matter. I have my car with me.

9)—Why is the Middle Ages also called the Dark Ages? -- Because there were many knights.
10) We have a course to make grown men young and young men groan.( A sign on a Men‘s Gym door)

11. Ben Battle was a soldier bold, And used to war‘s alarms; But a cannonball took off his legs, So he laid down his arms. (T. Hood. Faithless Nelly Gray) Some examples of pun in Chinese: 12. 杨柳青青江水平, 闻郎江上唱歌声。 东边日出西边雨, 道是无晴却有晴。 (刘禹锡:《竹枝词》 13. 歇后语: 山顶滚石头——石(实) 打石(实)。 老虎拉车——谁赶(敢)?

7. Sound patterning
? Referring

to the matching of identical or similar sounds between two or more words. ? will-woe (alliteration, 头韵) cut-run (assonance, 腹韵) fits-starts (consonance, 辅韵) sing-song (pararhyme, 头尾韵) brain drain (rhyme, 韵)

? Alliteration:

repetition of the initial consonant of a word
?Magazine articles: “Science has Spoiled my

Supper” and “Too Much Talent in Tennessee?” ?Comic/cartoon characters: Beetle Bailey, Donald Duck ?Restaurants: Coffee Corner, Sushi Station ?Expressions: busy as a bee, dead as a doornail, good as gold, right as rain, etc...

?Assonance:

Repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrases or sentences
?The sound of the ground is a noun.
?Hear the mellow wedding bells. (Poe) ?And murmuring of innumerable bees

(Tennyson) ?The crumbling thunder of seas (Stevenson) ?Dead in da middle of little Italy, little did we know that we riddled some middle men who…

? On

the morning of February 12, a Sunday, the granny woman was there at the cabin. And she and Tom Lincoln and the moaning Nancy Hanks welcomed into the world of battle and blood, of whispering dreams and wistful dust, a new child, a boy. (Carl Sandburg, Nancy Hanks)

Chapter 3 Lexical stylistic functions/ style marker in words

I. Style and diction What words to select in the creation of a text will be significant in creating stylistic effect. Swift said, ―Proper words in proper places make true style.‖ Generally, the following situational factors, features of register are of special importance

? Field:

It is concerned with what is happening, including the subject matter, the events, goings-on, content, etc. ? Tenor: It is concerned with who is taking part in the communication, the relationship between the speaker and the listener. ? Mode: It is concerned with how the interaction is conducted, that is whether it is written or spoken. ? In terms of field, words of different domains such as law, maths, philosophy, daily life, etc may manifest a particular style of text.

? Generally

speaking, words of Latin, French origin are words of science, religion and official communication. Words of AngloSaxon origin make up the basic vocabulary. Formal words are used in legal document, diplomatic papers and academic report; non–standard words and slang words in conversation or literary works.

Style determines diction.
Discuss the following dialogue between a young girl and an old country woman.

She( the young girl ) said, ―Take an egg, and make a perforation in the base and a corresponding one in the apex. Then apply the lips to the aperture, and by forcibly inhaling the breath the shell is entirely discharged of its contents. ― Hearing this, the old lady said, ― when I was a gal they made a hole in each end and sucked.‖ .

? The

United Nations shall establish under its authority an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent individual agreements. These territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories.

? Archaic

words: hereinafter, thereunder ? Latin words: unite, establish, authority, system, administration, supervision, territories, place, subsequent, individual, agreement, refer ? In short, many of the words are formal ones. It is of formal style.

? A.

Door! B: Shut the door! C: May we have the door shut please? D: I wonder if you would mind closing the door. E: I am sorry to trouble you, but could I ask you to close the door, please.

? Visitors

would make their way at once to the upper floor by way of the staircase. ? Visitors should go up the stairs at once. ? Would you mind going upstairs please? ? Time you all went upstairs now. ? Up you go, Chaps!

2 . Colloquialisms and Literary Words 1). General statement: Different style of writing requires different choice of words ( diction ).Words that are used in one style may not be necessarily appropriate in the use of another style of writing. Question: How are the following words horse, steed, charger, courser, palfrey, nag and plug different from one another?

colloquialism fire begin alibi crowd building get-up lively same brave thin fat answer

literary words conflagration commence excuse concourse edifice costume vivacious identical valorous emaciated corpulent rejoinder

3). formation of colloquialisms
a. abbreviated words: ad, lab, prof, comfy,specs, brolly,

b. words ended with diminutive suffix: granny , daddy, doggy, fatty, birdie, booklet, lassie c. words ended with –y: toasty (暖洋洋的), actressy, Christmasy, goosey ( stupid , clumsy ), bossy,

3. Slang: According to the range of intelligibility, it belongs to non-standard language. The stylistic color of slang is that it is effective in achieving vividness, novelty, expressiveness. Guess the meaning of the following slang words: cancer stick, cut class, apple-polishing/er clock watcher, killjoy, high-brow, chap, grass(er), smoke eater, He is just a booker. You‘re nuts.

4. Archaism and neologism
Archaism: rarely used in daily conversation but can often be found in legal English and religious English and poetry as well.

a. Archaisms can be found in legal English. E.g.: hereat( because of this), hereof( concerning this), hereon (upon this thing), wherein ( in what; in what place or aspect), whereupon (upon this)

b. Sometimes archaisms also appear in journalistic writing or reportorial writing with the purpose of getting reader‘s attention. E.g.: 1) That tradition is beginning to fade, albeit slowly, as Japan‘s women become more assertive. ( Time) 2) Such circumstances brought me to the brink of despair and well –nigh made me put an end to my life: nothing but my art held my hand. (Ludwig Van Bethoven)

c. In novel , archaisms are also used to reveal characterization
1) ―I pray you, good Sir,‖ said he, ―who is this woman‖ and wherefore is she here set up to public shame? 2) ―Wouldst thou avenge thyself on the innocent baby?‖ whispered she. 3) ―Never sayest thou?‖ rejoined he, with a smile of dark and self-relying intelligence. ―Never know him! Believe me, Hester, there are a few things, --whether in the outward world, or, to a certain depth, in the invisible sphere of thought, ---few things hidden from the man who devotes himself earnestly and unreservedly to the solution of a mystery. Thou

Mayest cover up thy secret from the prying multitude. Thou mayest conceal it, too, from the ministers and magistrates, even as thou didst this day…. ―Why dost thou smile so at me?‖ inquired Hester, troubled at the expression of his eyes. ―Art thou like the Black Man that haunts the forest round about us? Hast thou enticed me into a bond that will prove the ruin of my soul?‖

d. In poetry: When I am dead, my dearest, Sing no sad songs for me; Plant thou no roses at my hand, Nor shady cypress tree; Be the green grass above me| With showers and dewdrops wet; And if thou wilt, remember, And if thou wilt, forget. ( C. G. Rossetti, ?When I Am Dead‘)

5. Neologism: With the development of science and technology, many new words have appeared. New words ended with –er , -y, e.g. footballer, third-placer, preschooler, secondguesser, attention–getter, eye –opener, Chimerica, sit-ins, weatherwise, dollarwise, figurewise , housingwise , Watergate, netizen, netiquette, netsurfer. 杯具,楼歪歪,躲猫猫,顶,蜗居,蚁族,月光 族,被增长, 斑竹,东东,剩女,大侠,菜鸟, 烘焙鸡,outman

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Linsanity– 林疯狂是目前最热的一个词,来源于 insanity. Linsanity(林疯狂,林来疯)= Lin + insanity(n. 疯狂,错乱) Lincredible– 林以置信,来源于难以置信incredible Linderella- 林黛瑞拉,来源于灰姑娘辛黛瑞拉 Cinderella Lindex– 林指数,林书豪热推动相关行业经济,词源 是index Linflation– 尼克斯门票和相关商品价格暴涨, inflation通货膨胀变成林货膨胀。 Lindustrial - 林产业,因林书豪而受益的industry如 体育,运动品,电视,酒吧等。 Linja Turtle– 林者神龟,原词ninja turtle. Shao Lin master– 少“林”大师 Linicks– 林尼克斯,原词Knicks.

Linbama– 林巴马,奥巴马总统成为林迷以后,网友推 出的新词。 Linspiration– 林激励,他的故事是鼓舞人心的 inspiration. Linsational– 林轰动,来源于sensational Linvincible - 林无敌,来源于invincible Linfinity– 林无极,来源于 infinity Linergizer– 林能量。来源于energizer Lincentive – 林刺激,来源于 incentive Linnovation- 林革新,来源于innovation ? Linteresting– 林有趣,来源于interesting Lindisputable -无可争议的林书豪,来自于 indisputable Linternet– 林特网,林书豪话题主导的因特网internet
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6. Technical words , jargon , cant
a. technical words: words used in politics, economy, culture and science and less emotional. In most cases technical words are characterized by fixed prefix or suffix. e.g. eco--: ecocide, ecoactivity, ecocatastrophe; super--: superalloy (超 级合金刚, supertanker (超级油轮), superconductor, supersonic jet;

? micro:

microray,microwave ? ology: pathology, anthropology, archaeology, phrenology, sinology, morphology. itis : arthritis, bronchitis, tonsillitis

b. jargon: words used by a particular group of people of society such as farmer, hunter, fisherman, porter, musician, and so on. e.g. leather lungs: a term used to describe a man who is not affected by smoke oyster: the youngest man or newest man on a fire fighting force proby: a fireman on probation because he is new on the force

c. Cant: words used by perverted people of the lower class such as thief , confidence man etc. e.g. : ― Barkers (pistol )for me , Barney , ― said Toby Crackpit . ― Here they are , ― replied Barney , producing a pair of pistols. ― You loaded them yourself .‖ ― All right !‖ replied Toby , stowing them away . ― The persuaders (dagger ) ?‖ ― I‘ve go ?em .‖ replied Sikes . ― Crape (钳子), keys (万能钥匙), center—bits ( 特 种万能钥匙), darkies –nothing(有遮光装置的提灯) forgotten ?‖ (Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist )

Chapter 4 Syntactical stylistic functions/ style markers in syntax

I. Elliptical Sentence: An Elliptical sentence is used to avoid mentioning the information the listener already knows or can be found in the present situation, and also to avoid redundancy. So it is typically used genres likes telegraph, slogan, sayings, news headlines, ads, settings in a play, drama, novel, and also in oral language.

? e.g.

: Low in price, fine in quality, good in service, prompt in delivery. Construction site! No Admittance! No parking! No littering! No spitting! Mind your head/step.

In literary works, it can be used to describe the mental activities, and to increase tempo and speed of action being described. And it dramatic narration, it serves to heighten tension and help to create a sense of danger and urgency.

? E.g.:

What would she like? A pair of slippers perhaps. Or a new cardigan. A cardigan would be lovely. Blue‘s such a pretty color. Jim had always liked her in blue. Or a table lamp. Or a book, a travel book, with pictures, or a little clock, with clear black numbers. So many lovely things. ---- The Present

I hardly heard, I could scarcely wait. I was so happy, so thrilled. I rode off up the street. Such a beautiful pony. And mine. ( A Miserable, Merry Christmas )

Fog everywhere. Fog up the river, where it flows among green aits (island) and meadow; fog down the river, where it rolls defied among the tiers of shipping and the waterside pollutions of a great ( and dirty ) city. Fog on the Essex marshes, fog on the Kentish heights. Fog creeping into the cabooses of collier–brigs, fog lying out on the yards, and hovering in the rigging of great ships; fog drooping on the gunwales of barges and small boats. Fog in the eyes and throats of ancient Greenwich pensioner, wheezing by the firesides of their wards; fog in the stem and bowl of the afternoon pipe of the wrathful skipper, down in his close cabin …(Charles Dickens, The Bleak House )

No, not like that. A barren land, bare waste. Volcanic lake, the dead sea; no fish, weedless, sunk deep in the earth. No wind would lift those waves, grey metal, poisonous foggy waters. Brimstone they called it raining down; the cities of the plain; Sodom. Gomorrah. Edom. All dead names. ---James Joyce, Ulysses

II. Compound sentence and complex sentence
1) Compound sentence: A combination of two or more simple sentences through the use of conjunction or semi-colon. The sentence pattern is characterized by the beauty of balance.

E.g. Anna felt unwell and Mary stayed the whole evening.

More examples: 1)The two girls thought it would be a nice thing to dress in our very best for such a big occasion, and so they both got new hats. Mother trimmed both the hats, and they looked fine, and Father had bought four – in –hand silk ties for himself and us boys as a souvenir of the day to remember Mother by. We were going to get Mother a new hat too, but it turned out that she seemed to really like her old grey bonnet better than a new one, and both the girls said it was awfully becoming to her.

2) The night crawled slowly like a wounded snake, and sleep did not visit Rainsford although the silence of a dead world was on the jungle. ( Richard Connell, The Most Dangerous Game) 3) The job was soon finished, and he threw himself down behind a fallen log a hundred feet away. ( Richard ---Connell, The Most Dangerous Game )

III . Rhetorical question:A rhetorical question is to use the form of a question to express a strong emotion or to emphasize a particular effect. It is a question that does not need an answer, for the answer is suggested or implied by the speaker. e.g. : 1) Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? ( William Shakespear )

2) Isn‘t it a fact known to everybody?

3) They tell us, sir, that we are weak; unable to
cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance, by lying on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot? (Patrick Henry: Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death)

4) Well, then, what sort of men are the mine owners? What have they done in the past? ….. Are the mine owners lawabiding citizens? Do they believe in law? Do they uphold the law?
( Jack London, Something Rotten in Idaho )

5) Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions?-fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same disease, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die? And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? (Shakespeare: The Merchant of Venice)

6)… ?Do you think I can stay to become nothing of you? Do you think I am an automation? –a machine without feelings? And can bear to have my morsel of bread snatched from my lips, and my drop of living water dashed from my cup? Do you think, because I am poor, obscure, plain, and little, I am souless as you, -- and heartless?—You think wrong? –I have as much soul as you, - and full as much heart! And if God had gifted me with some beauty and much wealth, I should have made it as hard for you to leave me, as it is now for me to leave you. 7) Was I not at the scene of the crime?

8) 醉卧沙场君莫笑,古来征战几人回?(王翰: 《凉州词》. 9)寒蝉凄切,对长亭晚,骤雨初歇。都门帐饮无绪, 留恋处、兰舟催发。执手相看泪眼,竟无语凝噎。 念去去、千里烟波,暮霭沉沉楚天阔。 多情自古 伤离别,更那堪、冷落清秋节!今宵酒醒何处? 杨柳岸、晓风残月。此去经年,应是良辰好景虚 设。便纵有千种风情,更与何人说?

(柳咏:雨霖玲)

Rhetorical questions serve various purposes. 1) Serving the purpose of laying an emphasis, the rhetorical question is forceful and used in argument and persuasion. E.g.: Can we sit idle when all others are working like a horse on fire? If winter comes, can spring be far behind? Can the leopard change its spots?

2) Functioning as a transitional device. In such case, it suggests that the answer or explanation to the question may come after it. E.g.: ―Were young people really so wild?‖ Present-day students ask their parents and teachers. ―Was there really a Young Generation Problem?‖ The answers to such inquiries must of necessity be ―yes‖ and ―no‖--―yes‖ because the business of growing up is always accompanied by a Young Generation Problem; ―no‖ because what seemed so wild, irresponsible, and immoral in social behavior at the time can now be seen in perspective as being something considerably less sensational than the degeneration of our jazzmad youth. ( The Sad Young Men)

3) Used as an emotive device to suggest the speaker‘s outburst of emotion E.g.: And shall we allow these untruths go answered? No!

IV. Long and Short Sentence
Long sentence: A long sentence is good to provide the detailed descriptions, and is good to reveal the mental activities of the speaker. So it is used to produce a vivid, rich, exuberant, luxurious style. ? complex in structure ?suitable for the presentation of important facts and ideas ?used often in technical writings and argumentative writings.

e.g.: We the peoples of the UN, determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold suffering to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person , in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, and for these ends, to practise tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of economic and social advancement of all peoples, have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims.

The said Eliza, John and Georgiana were now clustered round their mama in the drawing room: she lay reclined on a sofa by the fire-side, and with her darlings about her ( for the time neither quarrelling nor crying) looked perfectly happy. Me. She had dispensed from joining the group; saying; ?She regretted to be under the necessity of keeping me at a distance; but that until she heard from Bessie, and could discover by her own observation that I was endeavoring in good earnest to acquire a more sociable and child-like disposition, a more attractive manner, -something lighter, franker, more natural as it were—she really must exclude me from privileges intended only for contented, happy little children.

2) Short sentence: A short sentence is used to refer both to the sentence containing fewer words and the sentence which is structurally simple, such as simple sentences. The high frequency of occurrence of short sentences can produce direct, terse, concise, clear effect or continuous, swift effect, so that it creates certain atmosphere, and leaves a deep impression on the listeners or the readers.

? ?characterized

by brevity and conciseness and swiftness in action and rhythm ?emphatic and clear ? ?often used in proverbs, advertising, sign, etc. e.g. Rolling stone gathers no moss. Rome is not built in a day. New broom sweeps clean. More examples: 1) The sails, in that light breeze, made ? but a faint fluttering noise. It ceased.

2) He stepped into the stream. It was a shock. His trousers clung tight to his legs. His shoes felt the gravel. The water was a rising cold shock …. There was a tug on the line. Nick pulled against the taut line. It was his first strike. Holding the now living rod across the current, he brought in the line with his left hand. The rod bent in jerks, the trout pumping against the current. Nick knew it was a small one. He lifted the rod straight up in the air. It bowed with the pull…

3) His mouth dry, his heart down, Nick reeled in. He had never seen so big a trout. There was a heaviness, a power not to be held, and then the bulk of him, as he jumped. He looked as broad as a salmon. Nick‘s hand was shaky. He reeled in slowly. The thrill had been too much. He felt, vaguely, a little sick, as though it would be better to sit down. (E. Hemingway, Big Two—Hearted River )

4) People think I am foolish and ignorant, but I‘m not. I listen. I Hear. I see. I think. I read. I walk alone by myself.
5) Leaves wiggle. Grass sways. A bird chirps, pecks the ground. (William Grass , In the Heart of the Hearts of the Country ) 6) Night fell. Midnight drew on. Few scouting six pilots went to their bunks. (Herman Wouk, War and Remembrance )

7) I went out into the hall. It was a bare hall with two windows and closed doors all down the corridor. It smelled of hospital. I sat on the chair and looked at the floor and prayed for Catherine. (Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms ) 8) Christmas was coming. I wanted a pony. To make sure that my parents understood, I declared that I wanted nothing else. ( A Miserable, Merry Christmas ) 9) I hardly heard, I could scarcely wait. I was so happy, so thrilled. I rode off up the street. ( A Miserable, Merry Christmas )

10) He sat there on the porch reading a book on the war. It was a history and he was reading about all the engagements he had been in. It was the most interesting reading he had ever done. He wished there were more maps. He looked forward with a good feeling to reading all the really good histories when they would come out with good maps. Now he was really learning about the war. He had been a good soldier. That made a difference. ( E. Hemingway, Soldier’s Home)

A summary of long and short sentences There is no point in saying whether a long sentence is superior to a short sentence. It all depends on the writer‘s purpose. No sentence is effective unless its meaning is clear. A safe way is to alternate short and long sentences and write sentences of varying pattern and length. In other words, a short sentence can be refreshing after one or two long sentences.

E.g. We are not so easily misled by vision. Most of the things before our eyes are plainly there, not mistakable for other things except for the illusions created by professional magicians and, sometimes, the look of the lights of downtown New York against a sky so black as to make it seem a near view of eternity. Our eyes are not easy to fool.( Lewis Thomas)

Chapter V Syntactic Incongruity

I. Periodic sentence and loose sentence 1. periodic sentence: A periodic sentence is used to create suspense, or expectation, thus drawing the listener‘s attention to the end of the sentence. It is used to produce humorous and emphatic effect. e.g. 1)The great question that has never been answered, and which I have not yet been able to answer despite my thirty years of research into the feminine soul, is this, ― what does a woman want?‖

2.) It comes as a great shock to discover that the country which is your birthplace and to which you owe your life and identity has not , in its whole system of reality, evolved any place for you.

3) To believe your own though, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men ----that is genius. (Ralf Waldo Emerson ) 4) That hundreds of thousands of white peoples are living, in effect, no better than the ― niggers ― is not a fact to be regarded with complacency. 5) It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in procession of a fortune must be in want of a wife. (Jane Austin, Pride and Prejudice )

6) Just before I went away to college , my father took me aside, as I had expected, and said, as I had not expected, ― Now, son , if a strange woman comes up to you on a street corner and offers to take your watch around the corner and have it engraved, don‘t do it.‖
7) Whoever wishes to be made well acquainted with the morbid anatomy of governments, whoever wishes to know how great states may be made feeble and wretched, should study the history of Spain.

8) …if Hitler imagines that his attack on Soviet Russia will cause the slightest divergence of aims or slackening effort in the great democracies who are resolved upon his doom, he is woefully mistaken. 9) The past, with its crimes, its follies, and its tragedies, flashes away. ( Winston Churchill, Speech on Hitler’s Invasion on USSR )

Comment: a. A periodic sentence is opposite to a loose sentence. It is a sentence in which the subordinate idea comes first and the main idea comes last.
b. It is useful for creating tension or building toward a climatic or surprising ending. It is in compliance with the Theme-Rheme pattern and information structure. Given New

2. Loose sentence: A loose sentence puts the major idea first and then the illustration. Such a sentence is easy to grasp. It can produce direct and clear effect. The focus of the sentence appears at the beginning rather than at the end. Basic statement: The bell rang. Loose sentence: The bell rang, filling the air with their clangor (a loud resonant repeating noise), startling pigeons into flight every belfry (a bell tower; usually stands alone unattached to a building), bringing people into the streets to hear the news.

Compare:
a. I am willing to pay slightly higher taxes for the privilege of living in Canada, considering the free health care, the cheap tuition fees, the low crime rate, the comprehensive social programs, and the wonderful winters. b. Considering the free health care, the cheap tuition fees, the low crime rate, the comprehensive social programs, and the wonderful winters, I am willing to pay slightly higher taxes for the privilege of living in Canada.

More examples: Basic statement: The teacher considered him a good student. Loose sentence: The teacher considered him a good student, steady if not inspired, willing if not eager, responsive (readily reacting to suggestions and influences) to instruction and conscientious about his work.

Features of loose sentence: 1)―A Loose sentence is characteristic of a literary style which aims at natural simplicity and directness‖( Leech & Short). The qualities associated with it are easiness, relaxation and informality. 2) A loose sentence can be complex ( in terms of number of words, clauses) without causing difficulty of comprehension.

? Inverted

sentence: An inverted sentence is used to change the normal words order to produce some emphatic effect. What is put to the initial part of the sentence is usually the focus of information of the clause. So it is especially highlighted.

a. to serve the purpose of foregrounding or emphasis. e..g.: 1) All I said he turned a deaf ear to. 2) Talent Mr. Micawber has, capital Mr. Micawber has not. ( Charles Dickens, David Copperfield) 3) Out of the bosom of the air, Over the cloud-folds of her garments shaken, Over the woodlands brown and bare, Silent, and soft, and slow Descends the snow. (H. W. Longfellow, Snowflakes)

b. to achieve balance e.g.: Out there in the garden sits a man whose name remains anonymous all his life.
c. to achieve coherence They laugh together, and with that laughter ended all serious discourse . She felt that only one thing now was needed: she must be firm. And firm she was. She found him perfect; and perfect in her sight he remained.

II. Repetition
In ordinary use, repetition should be avoided so as to avoid redundancy and monotonousness. But repetition is frequently used for the sake of emphasis, to highlight a particular meaning.

1. Repetition of words and phrase: a. Lear: And my poor fool is hanged. No, no, no life! Why should a dog, a horse, a rat, have life, and thou no breath at all? Thou‘ll come no more. Never, never, never, never!

沉默呵,沉默呵,不在沉默中爆发,就在沉默中灭亡。 (鲁迅《纪念刘和珍君》) 寻寻觅觅,冷冷清清,凄凄惨惨戚戚。 (李清照《声声慢》)

b. A thin man in a thin overcoat watched them out of their thin, emotionless. eyes.
c. The world watches. The world listens. The world wants to see what we will do.( A Toast Given by President Nixon on His First Visit to China in 1972)

I love everything that‘s old: old friends, old times, old classmates, old books, old wine; and, I believe, Dorothy, you‘ll own I have been pretty fond of an old wife. With this faith, we‘ll be able to work together; to play together; to struggle together; to go to jail together; to stand up for freedom together knowing that we will be free one day. -----Marthin Luther King, I Have a Dream

He did. He ran sprints, he ran hurdles, he ran distance races. He high-jumped, he broad-jumped. He threw the javelin and the shot. ---Steve Gelman, Jim Thorpe

Happy are those who know they are spiritually poor; the Kingdom of heaven belongs to them! Happy are those who mourn; God will comfort them! Happy are those who are humble; they will receive what God has promised! ( The Sermon on the Mount )

2. Repetition of clause/ sentences a…. Even though large tracts of Europe and many old and famous states have fallen or may fall into the grip of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not fail. We shall go no to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island…,we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight on the beaches and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.

e.g. : And so I say to you today that I still stand by nonviolence. And I am concerned that it is the most potent weapon available to the Negro in his struggle for justice in this country. And the other thing is that I am concerned about a better world. I‘m concerned about justice. I‘m concerned about brotherhood. I‘m concerned about truth. And when one is concerned about these, he can never advocate violence. For through violence you may murder a murderer but you can‘t murder murder. Through violence you may murder a liar but you can‘t establish truth. Through violence you may murder a hater, but you can‘t murder hate. Darkness cannot put out darkness. Only light can do that.

Classification of repetition
immediate repetition intermittent repetition anaphora repetition epiphora / epistrophe simploce anadiplosis

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Immediate repetition: referring to the way words, phrases or sentences are repeated without intervals. E.g.: a. ―Stop it, stop it, stop it‖, the woman cried. (Ernest Hemingway, The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber)

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b. ―Would you please please please please please please please stop talking‖.( Ernest Hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants)

? Intermittent

repetition: the repetition of words, phrases separated by some other words, phrases or clauses. a. We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty. (John F. Kennedy: Inaugural Address)

? E.g.

? b.

Now is the time to make real the promises of Democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God‘s children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.

Anaphora: the repetition of the same word at the beginning of successive clauses. Syntactically, the two clauses are parallel. Semantically, the order of importance ascends. ? E.g. 1). But in a large sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecurate, we cannot hallow this ground. (Abraham Lincoln) ? 2) We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall… ( W. Churchill, Report the Miracle of Dunkirk)
?

? Anaphora

in proverbs: ? Easy come, easy go. Many men, many minds. ? Nothing venture, nothing gain. Out of sight, out of mind. Love me, love my dog. New lords, new laws. Early sow, early mow.

Epiphora: the repetition of the same words or phrase at the end of successive lines, or clauses. ? E.g.1) … this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from the earth. (Abraham Lincoln) 2) Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready; and writing an exact man.( Francis Bacon) 3) If slavery is wrong, nothing is wrong. 4) Grasp all, lose all.
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III . Parallelism and Antithesis

1. Parallelism: The same structure is repeated two or more than two times and the meanings of all the structures are similar and related. Such a device is called parallelism. The uniform structure can produce some aesthetic effect: patterned and in rhyme, good to read. It is easy to express strong emotions, emphasize the meaning expressed. Often it forms a climax, and makes one‘s expression more prominent.

? e.g.

: 1) To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affection; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. 2) We shall fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we shall fight him in the air.

3) I know with my patience, knowledge and skill I can handle any cases under my share.
4) The department of Justice began a vigorous campaign to break up the corporate empires, to restore the free and open market, and to plant the feet of industry firmly on the road to competition.

2. Antithesis: The same structure is repeated and the meanings of all the structures are contrastive. Such a device is called antithesis. It is used to make the contrast more prominent and effective apart from its aesthetic function.

? e.g:

1) I had walked into the reading room a happy healthy man. I crawled out a decrepit wreck. ? 2) It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity; it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness; it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing behind us.

? 3)

Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country. (John F. Kennedy) 4) Where there is a marriage without love, there will be a love without marriage. 5) You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time. (A. Lincoln) 6) United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do, for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.

IV. Climax and Anti-climax

1. Climax ( cumulative sentence ): the Greek word meaning ―ladder‖. Climax is the arrangement of words, phrases, clauses in ascending order of importance.

E.g. a.: What light is to the eyes, what air is to the lungs, what love is to the heart, liberty is to the soul of man. c. Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. d. Some books are to be tasted, other to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

e. I came, I saw, I conquered. f. We want peace. We want freedom. We want a better life. (Ronald Reagon) g. I was born a Chinese; I live a Chinese; I shall die a Chinese. h. Isolation breeds insecurity; insecurity breeds suspicion and fear; suspicion and fear breed violence. ( Brzezinski)

? i.

…Soapy listened to the music, looked at the moon and murmured to himself: ―There is time yet. I will reform. I will become an honest man. I will get out of the mire. I will…‖ Soapy felt a hand laid on his arm. He looked quickly round into the broad face of a policeman. (O. Henry, The Cop and the Anthem) j. 保卫家乡,保卫黄河, 保卫全中国。

k. Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. l. Some books are to be tasted, other to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

2. Anti-climax: Opposite of climax, referring to a sudden drop from the dignified or important thought to the commonplace or trivial for humorous effect and often used in literary works.

E.g.: a. As a serious young man, I loved Beethoven, Keats and hot dogs. b. For God , for America and for Yale. c. She had a warm and sympathetic personality, a quick perceptive intelligence, beautiful features, and real skill at bowling.

d. Religion , credit and the eye are not to be touched 宗教、荣誉和眼珠, 三者都不能亵渎。 e. You manage a business , stocks , bonds , people .And now you can manage your hair f. He lost his empire, his family and his fountain pen.

g. Where shall I find hope, happiness, friends, and cigarettes? h. There were no heroic deeds to do, no lions to face, no judges to defy, but a few rooms to tidy up. i. I love my motherland, I love my people, I love my wife and my son and daughter, I also love my pretty little dog. j. The duties of a soldier are to protect his country and peel potatoes.

k. The explosion completely destroyed a church, two houses, and a flowerpot. l. ―Seldom has a city gained such world renown, and I am proud and happy to welcome you to Hiroshima, a town known throughout the world for its –oyster. m. He sprang to his feet, flung off his coat, drew his sword, jumped upon the enemy, and burped.

V. Deviation in Lexical Collocation: Oxymoron, Transferred Epithet, Syllepsis, Zeugma 1. Oxymoron: An oxymoron is a compressed paradox, formed by the conjoining of two contrasting, contradictory or incongruous terms, as in ----bitter –sweet memories ----proud humility: this refers to the quality of being humble, but not servile ---orderly chaos ----a damned saint, an honorable villain

a.) adj. +n. : a living death ; conspicuous absence ; tearful joy b) adj. + adj. : cold pleasant manner ; poor rich guys ; c ) adv. +adj. : dully bright ; mercifully fatal d) v. + adj. : hasten slowly ; shine darkly e ) n. + n ..: a love –hate relationship

More examples: 1) New York has the poorest millionaires, the littlest great men, the naughtiest beggars, the plainest beauties, the lowest skyscrapers, the dolefulest pleasures of any town I ever saw.
2) The parental discipline can be described as cruel kindness.

He had a sandy-colored moustache, a wrinkled forehead and hardly any hair. He looked at me with an air of ______disapproval, as a colonel might look at a private whose bootlaces were undone. (surprising, surprised, surprise )

2.Transferred epithet: A transferred epithet is a figure of speech where an epithet is transferred from the noun it should rightly modify to another to which it does not really belong. Generally, the epithet is transferred from a person to a thing or a idea.
e.g. : 1)a sleepless night / a happy life / smile 2) Helen spoke with lazy calmness 3) The curfew tolls the knell of parting day, The lowing herd winds slowly o‘er the lea , The ploughman homeward plods his weary way, And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

4) The children listened to his story with open–mouthed astonishment. 5) The boy‘s surprised look impressed me a lot.
6) When a man spent a long day with very primitive weapons in stalking a deer with the hope of dinner and when at the end of the day, he dragged the carcase triumphantly to his cave, he sank down in contented weariness, while his wife dressed and cooked the meal.

3. Syllepsis : Syllepsis is derived from the Greek word ―sullepsis‖, meaning ―taking together‖. It is a construction in which the word that governs two or more other words means differently when it is collocated with these words separately.

E.g. He took his hat and his leave.

Literal meaning

Figurative meaning

.

e.g.: 1) While the Vietnam vet was fighting, and losing limb and mind, and dying, others stayed behind to pursue education and career. (one verb+ two or more nouns) 2) Mike advised us to keep our public image intact and our students in their seats. ( one word+ two or more object complements) 3) The senator picked up his hat and his courage. 4) He left in high spirits and a Cadillac.( one prep. + two or more noun phrases)

5) Side by side for seven years we had mined, ranched, sold patent churns, hearded sheep, took photographs and other things, built wire fences, and picked prunes. 6) Clothes that fit the man and the times. 7) Miss Bolo rose from the table considerably agitated, and went straight home, in a flood of tears and a sedan chair. 8) … Old people gathering in the social hall for comradeship and a hot a hot lunch.

4. Zeugma: In Greek, the word ―zeugma‖ means ―yoke‖. Zeugma is a figure of speech in which a word is used to modify or govern two or more words although its use is not grammatically or logically correct with all of them. E.g. 1) At noon, Mrs. Turpin would get out of bed and humor, put on kimono, airs, and the water to boil for coffee. 2) Ten minutes later, the coffee and commander Dana of Naval Intelligence arrived simultaneously.

Exercise: Identify the syntactical devices. 1) He caught a bus and a cold.

2) In 1931, ten years ago, Japan invaded Manchukuo—without warning. In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia– without warning. In 1938, Hitler occupied Australia – without warning. In 1939, Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia –without warning. Later in 1939, Hitler invaded Poland—without warning. And now Japan has attacked Malaysia and Thailand— and the United States—without warning.

3) Nothing venture, nothing gain. 4) Nothing in the world he is interested in. 5) Are they not typical international robbers and pirates? 6) Simon is a great statesman, a great warrior, a great poet, and a good neighbor. 7) It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a large fortune must be in want of a wife. 8) Love and cough can not be hid. 9) He had some cheerful wine at the party. 10) There was an audible stillness, in which the common voice sounded strange.

Chapter VI Norm and Deviation
Deviation and style: Style is deviation of the norm. I. Deviation at four levels: phonological deviation, graphological deviation, syntactic deviation and lexical deviation Phonological deviation

Omission
a. Aphesis---the omission of an initial part of a word. E.g.: Thou on whose stream, ‘mid the steep sky‘s commotion

b. Syncope---the omission of a medial part of a word, e.g. A voice so thrilling ne‘er was heard In spring-time from the cuckoo-bird, Breaking the silence of the seas Among the farthest Hebrides. (Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper)
c. Apocope– the omission of a final part of a word, e.g.

A, Read, Red Rose

O, my luve is like a red, red rose, That‘s newly sprung in June, O, my luve is like the melodie, That‘s sweetly played in tune,
As fair art thou, my bonnie lass, So deep in luve am I, And I will luve thee still, my dear, Till a‘ the seas gang dry.

Till a‘ the seas gang dry, my dear, And the rocks melt wi‘ the sun! And I will luve thee still, my dear, While the sands o‘life shall run

And fare thee weel, my only luve, And fare thee weel, a while! And I will come again, my luve, Tho‘ it were ten thousand mile!

d. Mispronunciation and sub-standard pronunciation In order to vividly describe a character, the writer may choose to let his character pronounce certain words or simply pronounce them in sub-standard ways. For example, a.―May God starve ye yet,‖ yelled an old Irish woman who now threw open a nearby window and stuck out her head. ―Yes, and you,‖ she added catching the eye of one of the policemen. ―You bloody murthering thafe! Crack my son over the head, will you, you hard-hearted, muthering divil? Ah, ye---‖ (T. Dreiser, Sister Carrie) b. I‘m jist a reg‘lar mountaineer jedge. ( The Trial that Rocked the World)

e. Special pronunciation For convenience of rhyming, the poet may give special pronunciation to certain words, e.g. The trumpet of a prophecy! O, Wind, If winter comes, can spring be far behind?

Graphological deviation By graphological deviation is meant the encoding of meaning in visual symbols. Graphological deviation can occur in any sub-area of graphology such as the shape of the text, the type of print and punctuation. E.g.: 1) ---Think you are in Heaven? Well-you‘ll soon be in H E L L---

2) 40--middle couple ten when game and go the will be tween

Love
aged playing nis the ends they home net still be them

middle aged couple playing ten game and go still be tween

/d/ /d/ /k/ /p/ /t/ /g/ /d/ /g/ /t/ /b/ /t/

3) This Is Just to Say
I have eaten the plums that were in the icebox and which you were probably saving for breakfast

Forgive me they were delicious so sweet and so cold (William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say)

Syntactic deviation: Syntactic deviation refers to departures from normal (surface) grammar. These include a number of features such as unusual clause themes, unusual phrase structures. Unusual clause theme The expected or unmarked theme of a main clause is: Subject of an indicative clause: She got a new dress. Auxiliary in a yes-no question: Did she get a new dress. Wh-element in a wh-question: Which dress did you get? Main verb in a imperative clause: Get her a new dress.

However, literary writers go beyond this and may place any of the rest of clause elements in the thematic position for certain literary effect. The theme thus produced is unusual and is therefore called a ?marked‘ theme. E.g.: a. My opinion of the coal trade on that river is, that it require talent, but it certainly requires capital. Talent, Mr. Micawber has; capital, Mr. Micawber has not.

2) Behold her, single in the field, You solitary Highland Lass! Reaping and singing by herself; Stop here, or gently pass! Alone she cuts and binds the grain, And sings a melancholy strain; O listen! for the vale profound Is overflowing with the sound.
( W. Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper)

3) Out of the bosom of the Air, Out of the cloud-folds of her garments shaken, Over the woodlands brown and bare, Over the harvest-fields forsaken, Silent, and soft, and slow Descends the snow. (Snowflakes)

Lexical deviation: In literature lexical deviation refers almost exclusively to neologisms or coinage. In the coinage of new words, the literary writers usually employ affixation and conversion. 1) affixation a. They were a balconyful of gentlemen. b. New York has the poorest millionaires, the littlest great men, the naughtiest beggars, the plainest beauties, the lowest skyscrapers, the dolefulest pleasures of any town I ever saw. c. They my-loved and my-deared each other. (W. Thackery) d. It is easy to marry than unmarry. (J. London)

2) Conversion a. ―Don‘t be such a harsh parent, father!‖ ―Don‘t father me!‖ b. I was explaining the Golden Bull to his Royal Highness. ―I‘ll Golden Bull you, you rascal!‖ roared the Majesty of Prussia. c. Margaret Thatcher handbagged her European counterparts. d. 因为爱着你的爱,所以梦着你的梦。因为快乐着 你的快乐,悲伤着你的悲伤。因为路过你的路,所 以苦过你的苦…快乐着你的快乐, 幸福着你的幸福。

Semantic deviation: referring to the semantic illogicality. This can be found in English metaphors as in Speech is silver, silence is gold. You are the apple of my eye. 菊花残,满地伤,你的笑容以泛黄。花落人 断肠,我心事静静躺,北风乱,夜未央,你 的影子剪不断,徒留我孤单在湖面成双。

Discussion question: Talk with your partner and figure out the semantic deviation in the following poem. My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky; So was it when my life began; So be it when I shall grow old, Or let me die! The child is father of the man; And I could wish my days to be Bound each to each by natural piety. (W. Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps up)

Chapter 7 Varieties of English---Englishes
User’s language Individual dialect Temporal dialect Regional dialect Social dialect User’s use of language Field of discourse Diatypic varietyies Tenor of discourse (registers) Mode of discourse

Dialectal varieties

?

Context of situation

Varieties in relation to social factors
People of different classes, different sex, age, race, occupation, education, doing different jobs, or receiving different education, tend to speak differently—use different words, different sentence structures and even different grammatical rules.

e.g. 1) ―This is quite good.‖ ―This is not bad either, but a little too heavy.‖ ―Excuse me, I do not believe I have the pleasure of knowing you. Undoubtedly you have mistaken me for someone else,‖ … ―Kindly pack me up this one here. I will take it with me.‖

2) ―My husband and I find strong smoke offensive. Would you kindly put that out.‖ ….― Pretty neat setup you folks got.‖ Taking his time, Ogilve removed the offending cigar, knocked off the ash and flipped the butt toward an ornamental fireplace on his right. He missed, and the butt fell upon the carpet where he ignored it.…. ―I imagine you did not come here to discuss décor ―….The obese body shook in an appreciative chuckle. ― No, ma‘am; can‘t say I did. I like nice things, though. ― … ― In what conceivable way does our car concern you?‖

Black English Vernacular (BEV) as a variety

Black English is a special variety social variety which is gaining increasing attention nowadays, especially in the United States. Some typical features of Black English: 1) Phonological features: a. loss of postvocalic r e.g.: carrot ----/ /, Paris----/ / b. initial th: / /-- /t/ as in think final th: / /-- /f/ as in mouth, nothing c. loss of /l/ as in coal, goal, soul

Grammatical features of Black English: a. the omission of the link verb, e.g.: Mary absent today. That my pen. b. The word be is used to show habitual action, e.g.: she be tired. c. the omission of inflectional endings like –s, ‘s e.g.: two book, the dog leg d. multiple negation BE: Can‘t nobody do nothing for me. SAE: Nobody can do anything for me.

e. question transformation SAE: Did he leave? BEV: He left?

SAE: Where is the car? BEV: Where the car is? SAE: I want to know where he went last night. BEV: I want to know where did he go last night.

1) …. I went and grabbed her wrist. ― What do you want ?‖ I says ― None of your damn business, ― she says. ― You turn me loose. ― Dilsey came in the door. ― You, Jason, ― she says . ― You get out of here, like I told you, ― I says, not even looking back. ― I want to know where you go when you play out of school.‖ I says. ― You keep off the streets, or I‘d see you. Who do you play out with? Are you hiding out in the woods with one of those damn slick –headed jellybeans? Is that where you go?‖ ― You –you old goddamn !she says. She fought, but I held her. ― You damn old goddamn!‖ she says. -----William Faulkner, The Sound and The Fury

2) He bounced up and stared at me wild. Then he drops down on his knees, and puts his hands together and says : ― Doan‘ hurt me ---don‘t ! I hain‘t ever done no harm to a ghos‘. I alwuz liked dead people, en done all I could for ?em. You go en git in de river agin, whah you b‘longs, en doan‘ do noffin to Ole Jim, ?at ?uz awluz yo‘ fren.‖ Well, I warn‘t long making him understand I warn‘t dead, I was ever go glad to see him. I warn‘t lonesome, now. I told him I warn‘t afraid of him telling the people I was. I walked along, but he only set there and looked at me; never said nothing. Then I says.

― It‘s good daylight. Le‘s get breakfast. Make up your camp fire good.‖ ― What‘s de use er makin‘ up de fire to cook strawberries en such truck?‖ But you got a gun, hain‘t you? Den we kin git sumfn better den strawberries.‖ ―Strawberries and such truck, ‖says I. ― Is that what you live on?‖ ― I couldn‘ git nuffin else, ― he says. ― Why, how long you been on the island, Jim?‖ ― I come heah de night arter you‘s killed. (Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckeberry Finn)

Varieties in relation to attitude There are various degrees of formality. Leech divides the degrees of formality into three levels: formal, informal, with common core in between. Martin Joos‘s classification of degrees of formality in The Five Clocks, is of five levels: frozen, formal, consultative, casual and intimate.

Compare:

1. When his dad died, Pete had to get another job. 2. After his father‘s death, Peter had to change his job. 3. On the decease of his father, Mr. Brown was obliged to seek alternative employment.

Pair work:
If you are asked to write your sister a note, telling her to stay at home until your mother returns from the store. Try the five styles just mentioned and give five sentences respectively.

Suggested answers:
a. Remain a moment longer at the family residence, so that Mother‘s arrival precedes your departure. b. Would you please await the return of Mother before leaving the house? c. Mother is at the store. Please wait for her to return home before you leave. d. Do not leave before Mom goes home. e. Stay home till Ma gets back.

Formal vs. informal style: Formal style differs sharply from informal style phonologically, lexically, syntactically and textually..

I. Differences in sound
He dunno.– He doesn‘t know. Whatcha wanna is … --What you want is… I wanna go now– I want to go now. He is gonna make it.—He is going to make it. Gimme the bottle.—Give me the bottle. ‘Cos I‘ve been there.– Because I have been there.

In informal context, assimilation, liaison and elision are common while in formal context very rare. 1.assimilation e.g.: Who has been there? /‘hu:z ?bin hi?/ 2.liaison e.g.: for instance / f?‘ r instns/ 3. elision e.g.: a good deal / ? ?gu ?di:l/

II. Differences in vocabulary The origins of English vocabulary: AngloSaxon, French, Latin and Greece. Anglo-Saxon French Latin fire flame conflagration fear terror trepidation small petite diminutive holy sacred consecrated rise mount ascend eat dine ingest

Exercise: Match the words in column A with the words in column B. A B domicile end commence sweat dismiss buy conclude house inform tell inquire tired perspiration begin reside go fatigued ask purchase fire proceed live

Compare the following sentences 1. a. The concert concluded with a performance of Beethoven‘s 5th symphony. b. They ended the concert with Beethoven‘s 5th symphony. 2. a. The police are investigating the case of murder. b. The police are looking into the case of murder.

Also compare: advertisement photograph telephone television laboratory representative

ad photo phone TV lab rep

III. Differences in grammar 1. a. It is I who am to blame. b. It is me who‘s to blame. 2. a. At last there was something about which to write home. b. At last there was something to write home about. 3. a. Whom are you writing to? b. Who are you writing to?

4. a. If she was happy, I would ask her to stay the whole evening. b. If she were happy, I would ask her to stay the whole evening. 5. a. It has been noted with concern that the stock of books in the library has been declining alarmingly. b. The number of books in the library has been going down. 6. a. What a day! b. What a day it is!

Question: Tell which of the two sentences in each group is formal and which is informal. 7. a. He‘s older than me. b. He is older than I. 8. a. Much higher altitudes were achieved by this method. b. This method achieved much higher altitudes. 9. a. It is more time that we need. b. We need more time. 10. a. Living in the country, we had few social visits. b. We lived in the country, so nobody visited us.

11. a. If time permits, we‘ll go picnicking tomorrow. b. Time permitting, we will go picnicking tomorrow. 12. a. Her mother being ill, she had to stay at home and take care of her mother. b. Because her mother is ill, she got to stay at home and take care of her mother.

13. a. She failed the exam, and we were surprised. b. Her failure to pass the exam surprised us.

IV. Differences in textual cohesion Despite the discouragement I had received, I continued to study. I kept pursuing my interest in science partly to prove that I could do it and partly because I enjoyed it. However, that enjoyment had decreased very much during my college years. The constant discouragement and pressures that I received as a woman had their result. I became less interested and my work suffered. All the energy that I had put into fighting these pressures distracted me from my work. Eventually, I believed the quality of work was lowered. However, I managed to finish school and then attempted to apply my skills.

Dear Pete, Thanks for the letter. It was nice to hear from you again and get all the news. That holiday of yours must have been marvelous. We keep thinking about fixing something up and in fact Ann has been trying to persuade me to book up for Spain again, but I can‘t say I‘m very keen---I‘m all for staying in this country for a change. As it happens, we probably won‘t have all that much time for a holiday, though –we‘ve just taken a lease on a flat, and it‘ll take us from when we move in until…

The following text (Text A) is informal in some ways. Try rewriting it and make it more formal.

Text A
We won‘t formally extend the time you have to do your assignments, but if you can‘t hand your assignment in on time because something has gone wrong or because you didn‘t plan properly, then you can hand it in within the next 14 days. If it is late because something happened to distract you and you couldn‘t have foreseen that would happen, it will not be punished.

Suggested version:
Text B

Formal extension of time is not granted as such, but if, through bad luck and planning, an assignment can not be submitted on time, it may be submitted within the next 14 days. If it is late because of some unforeseen distraction, it will not be penalized.

Comment:
1) Text B is a formal written discourse, characterized by its high lexical density whereas Text A is a loose spoken discourse, characterized by its low lexical density and more clauses. 2) )It is true that nominalization of Text B makes the formal discourse. 3) In Text B, we can also find adjectivization also does its part in making the discourse what it is. we can see that the underlined words unforeseen are of this kind.

Please translate the sentence: 定期复习将有助于提高考试成绩。

定期复习将有助于提高考试成绩。 A. If a person reviews regularly,his performance on tests will be improved. B. A person reviews regularly and he will improve his performance on tests. C. Reviewing regularly will help a person improve his performance on tests. D. By reviewing regularly, a person will improve his performance on tests. E. Regular review will lead to improved performance on tests.

Varieties in relation to mode—Spoken vs. written language 1. Differences in terms of grammar: a. Grammatically in spoken texts, sentences tend to be short, characterized by a large number of loosely connected clauses. Elliptical sentences are frequent; many sentences are incomplete. E.g.: What are you doing here—On holiday? Want some drink? Last night‘s party go well?

b. The structure of nominal groups are simple, composed of ?determiner +adj. + n., with little post modifier. Within the nominal group, relative pronoun is often omitted in the relative clause, as in The man (whom) I met c. The preposition in the relative clause is put at the end, as in The workers you talked to

d. Frequent use of contractions, mouth-filling words, and verbs like get, as in He’ll be here in a minute. You got a cold? Well, I got all the way through the village, you know.

In written language, sentences are usually complete and tend to be longer than the average spoken sentences. Clauses are closely connected. E.g..: That individual writers or speakers may in certain circumstances be identified through specimens of their discourse has given rise to another highly influential notion of style– as a set of individual characteristics. Taken to extremes, this view ends up by equating an individual with his style: the style is said to be the man. More moderately, and more usefully, the notion has been applied to some sub-set of the total linguistic characteristics rather than to the whole observable range.

a. One of the striking traits of written language is that the relative clause within the group usually retains the relative pronoun, as in The man whom Smith met the other day b. The preposition in the clause is often put at the beginning, as in The workers to whom the president talked

2. Differences in vocabulary In spoken discourse: a. Frequent use of simple words and idioms like get, go, really, cos, I see, I mean, you know, kind of, sort of b. a large number of phrasal verbs like come across, let down, put up with, make up. c. lexical hyperbole like absolutely, awfully, lovely, marvelous, magnificent, superb, terrific, horrible. d. slang words like buck, breadwinner. In written texts, vocabulary tends to be carefully weighed and accurate in meaning. There can be many learned and technical words.

? Varieties

in relation to genre

? English

of public speech Public speech is a general genre, which includes varieties of genres according to the field of discourse, the content, and the tenor of discourse, the audience, the purposes. They consist of the following types: preach, lecture, inauguration address, etc.

? Preach:

Preaches take place in a church, talking about religious matters, to the people in church, in a tone of piety, using language which is formal and even archaic, etc. Lectures take place in a classroom to the students learning the subject. They are well-prepared, and the language should be formal and specialized, but not too difficult to understand. There are lots of further explanations, illustrations, definitions and repetitions as well.

? Lecture:

? Inauguration

address: Inauguration addresses are very formal, carefully prepared, to all the people of the country, stirring and stimulating, highly rhetorical.

? Rally

speech: Rally speeches are very formal, well-prepared, to all the people attending the rally, stirring, stimulating and high rhetorical.

? Scope

of Public Speech

? In

terms of field: manager explaining next year‘s budget, military officer briefing subordinates, teacher lecturing in class (passing on information), president‘s inaugural address/ weekly address on radio (fact and question: reasoning), speech of introduction, presentation, commemorative speech (on special occasion) etc.

In terms of functional tenor: informative & persuasive In terms of personal tenor: can be formal, less formal and informal; In terms of mode: impromptu speech (speech made on the spot), extemporaneous speech (speech with notes or an outline to jog the memory), speech from reciting etc.

? General ? a.

features of public speech:

Persuasive speeches usually take place on formal occasions. They present features of formal written language while exhibiting characteristics of the spoken. b. Public speeches make full use of prosodic and paralinguistic features for expression.

? c.

Public speaking shows the characteristics of the written mode with its highly logical organization of thoughts, closely-knit structure and formal language.

? Stylistic

features of public speech

? Text

structure: It consists of the following elements a. A short introduction to the main issue or issues concerned b. The declaration of one‘s attitude and position in the matter. c. Reasoning, explanation d. conclusion

? Syntactic

features: a. Sentence structure: Sentences are usually longer than usual; more complex than usual; often beginning with adverbials: the marked theme to make the adverbial elements more prominent. b. verbal groups: Verbal groups are simple, with mostly simple present tense, and some past tense and future tense. c. Noun phrases: few pre-modifiers, but more post-modifiers, such as ―of phrase‖ and ―which phrase‖ to give more detailed description.

? d.

Sentence types: All are complete sentences, and most are declarative sentences. Other types are rhetorical devices, such as inverted sentences and imperative sentences.

? Vocabulary:

a. Big words are often used in complex structures, and there are also nominalized words and abstract words. b. Most pronouns are first person, then second person, but rarely the third person.

? Phonological

features: a. Phonological devices are used to achieve special effects, such as intonation, rhythm, pause, etc. b. All words are clearly pronounced, fewer swallowed sounds, compressed sounds. c. Readable and rhythmic.

? Rhetorical

devices: a. syntactic devices: parallelism, antithesis, periodic sentence, loose sentence, repetition, etc. b. Phonological devices: alliteration, rhyme, assonance, consonance, etc. c. Semantic devices: metaphor, simile, metonymy, synecdoche, etc.

Stylistic Features of Public Speech -An Analysis of Where Do We go from Here
The speech, Where Do We go from Here by Martin Luther King, is more of an argumentative one focusing upon reasoning and persuasion than an emotion-driven one calling on people into certain actions. In terms of style of the speech, it is high style ,as is shown through sounds, words, sentence patterns and cohesive devises.

Phonological level: alliteration: moral convictions and concerns(para7), sympathy and support (para. 17), face the fact(para21) military might(para24),the lion lying down with the lamb consonance: high blood pressure of creeds and an anemia of deeds

Lexical level: big words: conspire (plot), manacle (handcuff), edifice (building), conviction (belief), abolish( do away with)

Syntactic level: 1.Antithesis: e.g.1). Ossie Davis has suggested that maybe the English language should be reconstructed so that teachers will not be forced to teach the Negro child sixty ways to despise himself, and thereby perpetuate his false sense of inferiority, and the white child 134 ways to adore himself, and thereby perpetuate his false sense of superiority. 2) buoyancy of hope … fatigue of despair 3) Let us be dissatisfied until the tragic walls that separate the outer city of wealth and comfort and the inner city of poverty and despair shall be crushed…
?

2. Repetition
a. I am concerned about a better world. I‘m concerned about justice. I‘m concerned about brotherhood…

b. Let us be dissatisfied until America will no longer have a high blood pressure of creeds and an anemia of deeds. Let us be dissatisfied until the tragic walls…. Let us be dissatisfied until those that live on ….. Let us be dissatisfied until….

3.Periodic sentence Once they are placed in this position, we need to be concerned that the potential of the individual is not wasted.
4.Loose sentence The dignity of the individual will flourish when the decisions concerning his life are in his hands, when he has the means to seek self-improvement.

Rhetorical devises used in the speech
1.Metaphor e.g.: Olympian manhood, the junk heaps of history, dark yesterdays of segregated schools, bright tomorrows of integrated education, the long night of physical slavery buoyancy of hope … fatigue of despair
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2.Simile e.g.: justice will roll down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream

3.Synecdoche
E.g.: the decisions concerning his life are in his own hands 4.Biblical allusion the lion and lamb shall lie down together (meaning peace and goodwill prevail; enemies are reconciled) Isaiah 11: The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid. 4. Climax: … if a man will lie, he will steal. And if a man will steal, he will kill.
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5. Analogy A juror came to Jesus and he wanted to know what he could do to be saved. Jesus didn‘t get bogged down in the kind of isolated approach of what he shouldn‘t do. Jesus didn‘t say, ―Now Nicodemus, you must stop lying‖ He didn‘t say, ―Nicodemus, you must stop cheating if you are doing that,‖ He didn‘t say, ―Nicodemus, you must not commit adultery.‖ He said something altogether different, because Jesus realized something basic– that if a man will lie, he will steal. And if a man will steal, he will kill. So instead of just being bogged down in one thing, Jesus looked at him and said, ― Nicodemus, you must be born again.‖

He said, in other words, ―Your whole structure must be changed.‖ A nation that will keep people in slavery for 244 years will ?thingify‘ them– make them things. Therefore they will exploit them, and poor people generally, economically…And I am saying today that we must go from this convention and say, ―America, you must be born again!‖

The English of Science and Technology

It has long been known to bacteria experts that the tubercle bacillus is the germ in milk which most strongly resists heat treatment. To destroy this organism it is necessary to heat milk to about 60°c for 15 minutes, and its destruction has always been taken as a way of testing the efficiency of pasteurization. A heat treatment of this kind destroys about 99% of the common bacteria in milk, including nearly all those which cause milk to turn sour.

Compare: 1. The tubercle bacillus is the germ in milk which most strongly resists heat treatment. And this has long been known by experts who study bacteria. 2. Experts who study bacteria have long known that tubercle bacillus is the germ in milk which most strongly resists heat treatment. 3.It has long been known to bacteria experts that the tubercle bacillus is the germ in milk which most strongly resists heat treatment.

Also compare: a. The cast acted brilliantly so that the audience applauded for a long time. b. The cast‘s brilliant acting drew lengthy applause from the audience.

c. Prolonged exposure will result in rapid deterioration of the item. d. If the item is exposed for long, it will rapidly deteriorate.

Comment: Comparing the two sentences, we can find that there are two clauses containing 6 form words and 7 lexical words in sentence a, while there is one clause containing 3 form words and 7 lexical words in sentence b.

General Stylistic Features of EST Impersonal, objective Metaphor of mood Mood type: mostly statements Modality type: objective explicitness Metaphor of modality Wide use of nominalization High lexical density Wide use of simple present tense Wide use of technical words Frequent use of abbreviations, formulae and charts Scarcity of rhetorical devices

Internet language: Also called cyberspeak, ediscourse, e-language, netlish, netspeak, weblish, interactive written discourse. In terms of field, Internet language is mainly used in chat room, email, etc to exchange information. In terms of tenor, as participants in chat rooms are anonymous, there is no limit to participants‘ age, gender, educational background and social status.

In terms of mode, on the one hand, it is a kind of interactive and real-time communication, which is similar to face-to-face talk; on the other hand, it is the only language typed on the computer screen by means of keyboard without any non-verbal means such as body language. Therefore, it has the characteristics of both spoken and written language.

Stylistic features of Internet language:
1 Lexical features 1). Abbreviations: to save time and space; brief in form and easy to use a. Acronyms e.g.: ASL– age/ sex/ location, MorF– Male or Female WYCM—Will You Call Me? BRB—Be Right Back BF, GF, LOL, ASAP, BB, NP, POV, DYK

In Chinese acronyms are formed by the initial letters of pinyin words. E.g.: BS—鄙视, BT– 变态, DD—弟弟,GG—哥哥 mm—美眉,NHH—牛烘烘, PMP, TMD
A: 我呼了你无数C, 你怎么老是不回? B:不要J, 我在忙呢, 等一下就好! A: 我I你, 你I 我吗? B: 哈哈哈,L 死我了。 A: 真M, 还不知道我是… B: O…. O… 我要吐了… A: QQ你, 告诉我你在哪里吧!!! B: 你去S 吧! A: 你再胡说, 我就把T出去!

In Internet Chinese, there is another type of acronym, formed by some of words in phrases, but examples of this word-formation are few. E.g.: 神通– 神经病儿童, 天才– 天生蠢材 蛋白质– 笨蛋+白痴+神经质 讨厌– 讨人喜欢百看不厌,贤惠– 闲闲的什么都 不会

2). Clippings Clipping involves the deletion of one or more syllables from a word, which includes three types: back clipping: rep=reputation, corp=corporation sec=second, approx= approximately front clipping: cos=because, puter=computer deletion of vowels: ABT: about, BK: because, CHK: check, MSG: message, PLS: please TKS: thanks,

2) blending: referring to a process of wordformation in which a new word is formed by combination of the number of and letter or word. The purpose of such a word-formation is still to save time and space and also create a special stylistic effect. E.g.: B4: before, some1:someone, Any1: anyone, netizen, netiquette B2B: business to business, 4u: for you, F2F: face to face, 4GET: forget, some1: someone

In Internet Chinese, there are similar words which are formed by combination of Chinese words or English letters and numbers. E.g.: k4: 考试, 米2:Me too 3Q: thank you 3X: thanks 4a4a: 是啊是啊 别肉麻了, 我都快2了。

3) Numbered words: Not very frequent in Internet English, but in Chinese we have a large vocabulary composed of numbered words. E.g.: 88, 56, 9958, 8384, 8147, 9213, 3344, 1314925, 99: 8179, 7954。76229, 8406, 9405。7918934, 1. 91817。)

2. Grammatical features 1) Large proportion of interrogative and exclamatory sentences. This is large because chat room conversation is usually made in the form of questions and answers 2) Frequent use of short sentences According to Qian Yuan (1991), the average length of most sentences of various styles is 17.8 words. Sentences in chat room discourse are much shorter. This is because in chat room communication, topics change very quickly, participants cannot carry their discussion of any topic further. Another reason is that they are easy to understand and quick to respond.

3) Wide use of simple and elliptical sentences This is a reflection of conciseness and economy of language used in chat room communication.

Compared with Internet English, Internet Chinese has a specific stylistic features of its own grammar. a. Conversion
In Chinese some words of a certain word-class can be shifted into another word-class for economical and vivid effects. E.g.: In Internet Chinese the structure ―很+名词” is quite popular as in ―很女人”, “很书生”

b. Borrowing of English grammatical forms Chinese lacks morphological transformation, but English abounds in affixes. Sometimes Chinese can borrow some affixes from English to create humorous effect. For example: a: 你吃了吗? b: 吃ed。 a: 你在干嘛呢? b: 聊天ing。

c. Combination of English and Chinese In chat room conversation, Chinese netizens combine English and Chinese words. This is a phenomenon of code mixing. Since English words or letters are simple, it is easy to type and save time. E.g.: 这是小case。 有事E(call )我。 I服了U。 E见钟情。 这是目前最in的服装。 看看,你OUT 了吧。 Who 怕who 。

? Semantic

features: 1) Simplicity. Simplicity is one important semantic feature of Internet language. Communicating on the Internet, people have to type fast and use simple and easy-tounderstand language to convey their thoughts and feelings. Obscure and difficult –to-spell words are avoided. Also, simplified devices are used such as abbreviation, numbers, and symbols to save time and speed up the communication.

? E.g.:

a: hi b: how r u? a: cool, asl, pls? b: ok, 24, F, from US, u? a: 26, M, HK.

The English of News Reporting The English of news reporting, or Journalistic English, refers to the English used in newspapers and magazines in a broad sense.

Generally speaking, a news report consists of three parts: the headline, the lead, and the body.

Stylistic features of the English of news reporting
1) Graphologica features Graphological features of news reporting are more conspicuous than that of other varieties. In order to catch the reader‘s attention, and to highlight what is considered important in the report, the correspondent usually fully uses the graphological features, such as variation in formats, paragrahing, punctuation marks and pictures.

Paragraphing Paragraphs in news reporting are usually short. Each paragraph consists of one or two sentences.
Punctuation Quotation marks are perhaps the most noticeable markers, which are used for direct or direct quotations. The use of quotation marks aims at authenticity.

Phonological features
Hossein‘s tactic: delay and defy (The Christian Science Minitor, Oct. 20, 2005) The poison of professional politics The pain and the immense human gain

Semantic features
Frequent use of figures of speech a. Lady luck frowns on Memphis and Boston b. The old man tames the sea

Lexical features: a. The use of short powerful words, especially in the headline E.g.: White House forced to woo Democrat top dogs White House aims to curb spending b. Frequent use of abbreviations E.g.: CBS and NBS to sell reruns c. The use of neologism e.g. sit-in, clone, hippies, SARS, job-hopper

Grammatical features a. The omission of articles and the link verbs E.g.: Film‘s first days vital in fight for revenue ( The Times, Nov. 12, 2005) ?b. The use of heavily pre-modified nominal groups the blunt-spoken, Brooklyn-born Mr. Golub

?C. Past tense and present tense are often used ?The simple past tense is often used in the body text of the report, since most news reports convey information of the events that just happened. ?But in the headlines the present tense is often preferred, since the correspondents often want their reports to be vivid and true to life so as to attract the reader‘s attention.

?E.g.: Ronal Reagan dies at 93 (CNN, June5, 2007) New US bill seeks more skilled immigrants Win gives Italy reason to cheer

D. Compact syntactic structures Many of the sentences in news reporting are comparatively long— long enough to form a paragraph. This is because long sentences can convey complicated ideas, and contain as much information as possible. These long sentences may be complex sentences with various subordinate clauses, or sentences with long pre- and postmodifiers.

Try putting the following three clauses into one. a. The Government and British Coal decided to shut 31 coal mines b. This would make 30, 000 miners lose their jobs. c. The high court in London declared this unlawful.

The decision by the Government and British Coal to shut down 31 coal mines with the loss of 30, 000 miners‘ jobs was declared unlawful by the high court in London.

( The Guardian Weekly, Dec. 27, 1992)

The Language of Literature
1. Literary Language and Ordinary / non-literary Language Ordinary/non-literary Language
Literary Language

Referential, informative

Emotive, poetic

The essential difference between literary texts and non-literary texts lies in the fact that the function of the non-literary texts is to give information or to give instructions while that of literary texts is to impart pleasure and revelation. The judgment of the quality of the former is whether it truly, accurately and systematically records the historical events or not, while that of the latter is whether it is artistic, affectionate and illuminative or not.

Literary Stylistics: It is the part of linguistics that studies the language of literature. It focuses on the study of linguistic features related to literary style. Crystal (1987) observes that, in practice, most stylistic analysis has attempted to deal with the complex and ?valued‘ language within literature, i.e. ?literary stylistics‘. The scope is sometimes narrowed to concentrate on the more striking features of literary language, for instance, its ?deviant‘ and abnormal features, rather than the broader structures that are found in whole texts or discourses.

Analysis of literary language

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Foregrounding at the level of lexis Foregrounding at the level of syntax: word order, word groups, deviant or marked structures Figurative language

What is ?foregrounding‘?
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Frank Hakemulder & Willie van Peer: In a purely linguistic sense, the term ?foregrounding‘ is used to refer to new information, in contrast to elements in the sentence which form the background against which the new elements are to be understood by the listener / reader.

? In

the wider sense of stylistics, text linguistics, and literary studies, it is a translation of the Czech aktualisace (actualization), a term common with the Prague Structuralists. In this sense it has become a spatial metaphor: that of a foreground and a background, which allows the term to be related to issues in perception psychology

? The

English term 'foregrounding' has come to mean several things at once: ? the (psycholinguistic) processes by which during the reading act - something may be given special prominence ? specific devices (as produced by the author) located in the text itself. It is also employed to indicate the specific poetic effect on the reader.

? an

analytic category in order to evaluate literary texts, or to situate them historically, or to explain their importance and cultural significance. ? to differentiate literature from other varieties of language use, such as everyday conversations or scientific reports.

? Thus

the term covers a wide area of meaning. This may have its advantages, but may also be problematic: which of the above meanings is intended must often be deduced from the context in which the term is used.

The red-haired woman, smiling, waving to the disappearing shore. She left the maharajah( title of a prince in India); she left innumerable other lights o‘ passing love in towns and cities and theatres and railway stations all over the world. But God she did not leave.

Devices of Foregrounding
? Outside

literature, so the assumption goes, language tends to be automatized; its structures and meanings are used routinely. Within literature, however, this is opposed by devices which thwart the automatism with which language is read, processed, or understood. Generally, two such devices may be distinguished, those of deviation and of parallelism.

? Deviation

corresponds to the traditional idea of poetic license: the writer of literature is allowed - in contrast to the everyday speaker - to deviate from rules, maxims, or conventions. These may involve the language, as well as literary traditions or expectations set up by the text itself.

? The

result is some degree of surprise in the reader, and his / her attention is thereby drawn to the form of the text itself (rather than to its content). Cases of neologism, live metaphor, or ungrammatical sentences, as well as archaisms, paradox, and oxymoron (the traditional tropes) are clear examples of deviation.

? Devices

of parallelism are characterized by repetitive structures: (part of) a verbal configuration is repeated (or contrasted), thereby being promoted into the foreground of the reader's perception.

? Traditional

handbooks of poetics and rhetoric have surveyed and described (under the category of figures of speech) a wide variety of such forms of parallelism, e.g., rhyme, assonance, alliteration, meter, semantic symmetry, or antistrophe

Literal language and figurative language
? Friends,

Romans and Countrymen, lend me your ears… Anthony in Shakespeare‘s Julius Caesar

Simile
O, my luve is like a red, red rose, That‘s newly sprung in June; O, my luve is like the melodie That‘s sweetly play‘d in tune. Robert Burns (1759-96)

Metaphor

All the world‘s a stage, And all the men and women merely players; They have their exits and their entrances. And one man in his time plays many parts,

Metonymy There is no armour against fate; Death lays his icy hand on kings; Sceptre and Crown Must tumble down And in the dust be equal made With the poor crooked Scythe and Spade. Shirley (1596-1666)

Features of the Language in Literature:

1) Depicting the socio-economic status and disposition of the characters e.g. ― What are doing, clumsy, drunken fool? The mother cried. ― Then tha should get the famin‘ thing, thysee. Tha should get up, like other women have to, an‘ wait on a man.‖ ―Wait on you-wait on you?‖ she cried, ?yes, I see myself.‘ ―Yis. An‘ I‘ll learn thee tha‘s got to. Wait on me, yes, tha sh‘lt wait on me-‘ Never, milrod, I‘d wait on the dog at the door first.‘ -(D.H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers)

2) Artistic Manipulation of Sentence Variety ?Sentence Variety and Length: simple, compound and complex sentence; periodic & loose sentence; long and short sentence 3) Subtle Workings of Authorial Tone: overstatement, understatement, irony 4) Various Ways of Presenting Speech and Thought Direct speech ( I said, ? he has come.‘) Free direct speech ( He has come, I said.) Indirect speech ( I said that he had come.) Free indirect speech ( He had come.)

5) Employment of various points of view ?Point of view refers to an angle of vision—the point from which the people , event and other details in a story are viewed and told in the novel.
?Two kinds of point of view: first person and third person. Also called omniscient point of view; Having a narrator outside the story who refers to all characters as he or she The narrator/ author knows all and reveals what he or she wishes and give direct comment on the actions of the characters

Prevailing perspective is that of the major character/ narrator Effect: producing a personal relationship with the reader

First-person point of view: from this point of view, the story is told by one of the characters I his or her own words, that is to say, the narrator is a participant of the story. The first-person point of view is limited, since the reader is told only what this character knows and observes. Third-person point of view (non-participant): The third person narrator is an ―omniscient‖ one, in which the narrator can know everything, and can be everywhere. He or she can describe the event taking place in any place at any time, and can also describe anyone‘s mental activities.

1) Call me Ishmael. Some years ago– never mind how long precisely– having little or no money in my purse, and nothing particular to interest me on shore, I thought I would sail about a little and see the watery part of the world. It is a way I have of driving off the …. ( H. Melville, Moby Dick)

2) I caught sight of her at the play, and in answer to her beckoning I went over during the interval and sat down beside her. It was long since I had last seen her, and if someone had not mentioned her name I hardly think I would have recognized her. She addressed me brightly. ―Well, it‘s many years since we first met. How time does fly! We‘re none of us getting any younger. Do you remember the first time I saw you? You asked me to luncheon. Did I remember? It was twenty years ago and I was living in Paris. I had a tiny apartment in the Latin Quarter overlooking cemetery, and I was earning barely enough to keep my body and soul together…. But I was flattered, and I was too young to have learned to say no to a woman. (Few men, I may add, learn this until they are too old to make it of any consequence to a woman what they say.) ( W. Somerset Maugham, The Luncheon)

3) When Bill was very young, they had been in love. Many nights they had spent walking, talking together. Then something not very important had come between them, and they didn‘t speak. Impulsively, she had married a man she thought she loved. Bill went away, bitter about women. Yesterday, walking across Washington Square, she saw him for the first time in years. ―Bill Walker,‖ she said. He stopped. At first he did not recognize her, to him she looked so old. ―Mary! Where did you come from?‖…. (Langston Hughes, Early Autumn)

Analysis of literary language Foregrounding on the level of lexis ? Foregrounding on the level of syntax: word order, word groups, deviant or marked structures ? Figurative language
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Pragmatics and literature 1. The cooperative principle Grice suggests that when people converse with one another, they acknowledge a kind of agreement to cooperate. This agreement he calls the cooperative principle. 1) The maxim of quantity Make your contribution as informative as is required (for the current purpose of the exchange). Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.

2) The maxim of quality Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence or which you believe to be false. 3) The maxim of relation Make your contributions relevant to the purpose of the exchange. 4) The maxim of manner Avoid obscurity, ambiguity. Be orderly.

Violations of the maxims in literary texts a. ―Mine is a long and sad tale! Said the Mouse, turning to Alice, and sighing. ―It is a long tail, certainly,‖ said Alice, looking down with wonder at the Mouse‘s tail, ―but why do you call it sad?‖…

b. Romeo: Farewell, farewell! One kiss, and I‘ll descend. Juliet: Art thou gone so, love, lord, husband, friend? I must hear from thee every day in the hour. For in a minute there are many days. O, by this count I shall be much in year Ere I again behold my Romeo!

c. ―Why don‘t you try to sleep? I will wake you up for the medicine.‖ ―I‘d rather stay awake.‖ After a while he said to me. ―You don‘t have to stay in here with me, Papa, if it bothers you.‖ ―It doesn‘t bother me.‖ ―No, I mean you don‘t have to stay if it‘s going to bother you.‖ I thought perhaps he was a little lightheaded and after giving him the prescribed capsules at eleven o‘clock I went out for a while…. I took his temperature. ―What is it?‖

―Something like a hundred,‖ I said. It was one hundred and two and four tenths. ―It was a hundred and two, ― he said. ― Who said so?‖ ― The doctor.‖ ―Your temperature is all right,‖ I said, ―It‘s nothing to worry about.‖ ―I don‘t worry, ―he said, ―but I can‘t keep from thinking.‖ ―Don‘t think, ― I said, ―Just take it easy.‖ ― I‘m taking it easy,‖ he said and looked straight ahead. He was evidently holding tight onto himself about something.

d. O, my luve is like a red, red rose, That‘s newly sprung in June, O, my luve is like the melodie, That‘s sweetly played in tune, As fair art thou, my bonnie lass, So deep in luve am I, And I will luve thee still, my dear, Till a‘ the seas gang dry.

Till a‘ the seas gang dry, my dear, And the rocks melt wi‘ the sun! And I will luve thee still, my dear, While the sands o‘life shall run

And fare thee well, my only luve, And fare thee well, a while! And I will come again, my luve, Tho‘ it were ten thousand mile!

e. ―My husband and I find strong smoke offensive. Would you kindly put that out.‖ The house detective‘s piggy eyes surveyed her sardonically from his gross jowled face. His gaze….― Pretty neat set-up you folks got.‖

2. Speech functions and turn-taking
2.1 Speech functions

It is observed that an important feature of conversation is that the speaker and the listener constantly change their speech roles, and the speech functions change accordingly, i.e. the speaker becomes the listener and the listener becomes the speaker. In other words, the participants in a conversation take turns in speaking.

Speech functions There are basically four primary speech functions: statement, question, command, and offer. Typically, statements are most naturally realized by declarative clauses, questions by interrogative clauses and commands by imperative clauses.

E.g.: Close the door. ( imperative) However, this command can also be realized by: a. Could you close the door? (interrogative) b. Would you mind closing the door? (interrogative) c. I wonder if you could close the door. (declarative)

Look at the dialogue: a: Excuse me ma‘am, I‘m looking for 83 Wooster Street. b: Yes, Wooster Street is two blocks, and 83 is to the right.

Here sentence a superficially makes a statement, but it will not do if b takes it as a statement and responds by saying something like I know. We see that b says yes and shows the direction. Therefore, a‘s statement I‘m looking for 83 Wooster Street is actually a question Can you tell me the way to 83 Wooster Street?, and is metaphorically realized by the declarative mood.

c. ―My husband and I find strong smoke offensive. Would you kindly put that out.‖ The house detective‘s piggy eyes surveyed her sardonically from his gross jowled face. His gaze….― Pretty neat set-up you folks got.‖ Taking his time, Ogilve removed the offending cigar, knocked off the ash and flipped the butt toward an ornamental fireplace on his right. He missed, and the butt fell upon the carpet where he ignored it… ―I imagine you did not come here to discuss décor ―….The obese body shook in an appreciative chuckle. ― No, ma‘am; can‘t say I did. I like nice things, though…like that car of yours. The one you keep here in the hotel… ―In what conceivable way does our car concern you?‖

The statement I imagine you did not come here to discuss décor is a incongruent or metaphorical realization, the typical or congruent realization or expression is What are you here for? or You are not here to discuss décor, aren’t you?

2.2 Turn: Because conversations need to be organized, there are rules or principles for establishing who talks and then who talks next. This process is called turn-taking. ? Two guiding principles in conversations: Only one person should talk at a time. We cannot have silence. ? The transition between one speaker and the next must be as smooth as possible and without a break.
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The rules of turn-taking are designed to help conversation take place smoothly. Interruptions in a conversation are violations of the turn-taking rule. ?Interruption: where a new speaker interrupts and gains the floor. ?Butting in: where a new speaker tries to gain the floor but does not succeed. ?Overlaps: where two speakers are talking at the same time.

?

Minimal responses: Responses such as mm and yeah. ?These are not interruptions but rather are devices to show the listener is listening, and they assist the speaker to continue. ?They are especially important in telephone conversations where the speaker cannot see the listener's eyes and hence must rely on verbal cues to tell whether the listener is paying attention.

?

There is some evidence that women tend to use minimal responses more than men, and this is a possible reason why, in mixed conversations, men talk more than women. Without the encouragement of these minimal responses, many women will stop talking.

Short (1996) points out that turn-taking patterns and deviations from relevant turn-taking norms can become meaningful in texts.

Discussion question: Read the conversation carefully and find out the function of turn-taking. Context: Lady Britomart, a woman of about fifty, is writing at her writing desk in a rather grand room. Her son, Stephen, a young man, comes in.

Lady Britomart dominates the conversation. This can be proven by the types of speech acts employed by the two characters in the passage. Many of Lady Britomart‘s utterances are commands or statements which has the illocutionary force of commanding. Take for example the four imperatives beginning with ―Don’t‖ Don’t begin to read, Stephen. Don’t make excuses, Stephen. Don’t fiddle with your tie, Stephen. Don’t repeat my words, please.

Each of these commands prohibits Stephen from Stephen doing something. Other utterances which function as commands include: You must learn to face life seriously, Stephen. You must advise me. You assume the responsibility. I wish you would let that watch chain alone. I want something much more than your everyday matter-of-course attention. I shall require all your attention.

It may be noticed that most of the above-cited utterances express or imply criticism of Stephen. In fact, there are still other utterances by Lady Britomart that are direct criticism of him. For example: Now are you attending to me, Stephen? No; it’s not of course. Nonsense! It is a most aggravating habit.

The above analysis show that Lady Britomart is a domineering and aggressive person. In contrast, Stephen is shown to be submissive and nervous. His utterances are mostly questions, apologies and explanations.

Business English Business English is not a special language– it is simply a variety of English used in business situations between business people. In terms of genre, it includes business letters, reports, contracts and ads. In terms of field, it is concerned with all the business activities and transactions. In terms of tenor, it is mainly used between business people. In terms of mode, it is often formal written language. It can also be oral, informal language, in business negotiations, memos, notes, emails and faxes.

Stylistic features of business English:

1. Grammatical features:
1) Passive Voice Business English is characterized by its passive voice. The purpose per se is conspicuous: achieving formality and objectivity. a. This contract is made by and between the employer and the contractor. b. The employer and the contractor make this contract.

Sentence b is more of a congruent form, while in sentence a we see a transference of process: material process is transferred to relational process. And the Actor in sentence b is transferred to Circumstance in sentence a and the range contract is realized as Carrier as a result of the employment of passive voice.

2) Use of affirmative sentences The use of affirmative sentences is one grammatical feature of business English. Sometimes in order to soften the tone of language, we should try to avoid negative sentences Compare: 1. a. You fail to tell us b. Please let us know 2. a. We cannot help you unless… b. We shall be pleased to help you if… 3. a. We have not heard from you. b. We should appreciate hearing from you.

3) Inverted sentences In formal business letters and contracts, sometimes inverted sentences are used to achieve emphatic effect. E.g.: a. Should there be any breakage, please let us know. b. Enclosed is the brochure you asked for. c. Attached is sample of the latest design.

4) Nominalization
Business English has a high frequency of nominalization. E.g. a. The company’s financial performance has improved tremendously in the recent five years b. The recent five years have seen tremendous improvement in the company’s financial performance. In sentence b, The recent five years is metaphorically realized as Sensor, improve is nominalized and realized as Phenomenon, and The company’s financial performance is realized as Circumstance.

In addition to nominalization, other means like verbalization and adjectivization are also a marker of such style. E.g. A partnership is an extended form of the proprietorship. It is organized by the contractual agreement between individuals to share resources and operations in a jointly run business. Rather than one owner, a partnership has two or more coowners. These partners –who are team membershare financing of capital investments and, in return, the firm‘s residual claims to profits.

5) Inverted sentences In formal business letters and contracts, inverted sentences are used to achieve emphatic effect. E.g.: a. Should there any breakage, please let us know. b. Enclosed is the brochure you asked for. c. Attached is a sample of the cloth No. 21 from us.

Lexical features 1) Concrete words In business English we should use more concrete words than abstract words to make information conveyed clearly, accurately and easy to understand. E.g.: a. We will amend the contract as soon as possible. b. We will amend the contract on October 12.

2) Technical terms and abbreviations Using technical terms and abbreviations can avoid long and tedious explanation, which is one lexical feature of business English. For example, the following technical terms: license, offer, discount, and abbreviations: L/C – letter of credit, FOB—free on board, COD– cash on delivery, and so on are often use.

Compare and comment on the two possible versions of each sentence and explain which one is more appropriate 1)不断发展的全球化迫使各公司千方百计地收购海外公司,以保 持竞争力。 a. With globalization being quickened, companies are trying hard to acquire overseas companies in order to remain competitive. b. The acceleration rate of globalization has left companies desperately seeking overseas acquisition in order to remain competitive. 2) 如果不把名字与脸对上,你可能失去赚大钱的生意机会。 a. If you can not connect a name with a face, you will lose a rare opportunity of making big money. b. Failure to connect a name with a face can cost you a lucrative business opportunity.

3) 报告周五前得完成。

4) 必须马上采取措施。
5) 据发现,987号商品所含的化学成分没有达到合同规定的 要求。

3) a. You must complete the report by Friday. b. Will you please complete the report by Friday? 4) a. You must take action immediately. b. It is essential that action be taken immediately. 5) a. We found that the chemical content of Item 987 is not up to the contract stipulation. b. It was found that the chemical content of Item 987 is not up to the contract stipulation.

Comment: Business English is of formal register, requiring accuracy. Grammatically, version a in each of the five sentences is acceptable, but not quite appropriate in the context of business English. Sentence 1) and 2) have something in common: they don‘t fit the style of business writing, and sound like everyday get-things-done language. The reason for this is the poor use of logical metaphor or rather nominalization in this case. In version b of sentence 1), Circumstance is metaphorically realized as Actor, and ―acquire‖ is nominalized as ―acquisition‖. The result of it is that lexical density is high and sentence is condensed and sounds formal. There is something inappropriate with sentence 3) in terms of mood. The violation of Politeness Principle is the reason for the inappropriateness, while in version b the statement is metaphorically realized as question.

Sentence 4) and 5) deal with the same problem. In business English, oftentimes, metaphors of modality are in frequent use to avoid subjectivity. In version a of sentence 4), statement is used to give a command, appearing rather blunt and impolite. Nevertheless, version b is appropriate in that explicit objectivity in the cleft sentence erases doer of such action, thus sounding polite and impersonal. The same is true of sentence 5), in which explicit objectivity hides doer of action.


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