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湖北省襄阳市第四中学人教版高中英语必修五:Unit 1 Great scientists 语法归纳 过去分词作表语和定语 学案

§语法归纳 过去分词作表语和定语
1.过去分词作定语 过去分词作定语与所修饰词之间存在两种意义关系:一是及物动词表被动意义(或已完
成的被动动作);二是不及物动词表示完成意义。 an organized trip 有组织的旅行(被动) The question discussed was very important. 被讨论的问题非常重要。(即表被动又表完成) boiled water 开水(完成) fallen leaves 落叶(完成)
(1) 单个的过去分词作定语一般放在被修饰的名词之前,有时也放在被修饰的名词之后。 My friend is a returned student. 我的朋友是个归国的留学生。 The excited people rushed into the hall. 激动的人们冲进大厅。 There is no time left. 没有多少时间了。
(2) 过去分词短语作定语要放在被修饰的名词后面,作后置定语,作用相当于一个定语从句。 The student dressed in white is my daughter. =The student who is dressed in white is my daughter. 穿白色衣服的学生是我的女儿。 Is there anything planned for tonight? =Is there anything that has been planned for tonight? 今晚安排了什么活动没有? The book, written in 1957, tells the struggle of the miners. =The book, which was written in 1957, tells the struggle of the miners. 这本书是 1957 年写的,讲的是关于矿工斗争的故事。
2.过去分词作表语 过去分词作表语,表示主语所处的状态(用作表语的过去分词大多已形容词化)。这种
结构从形式上看与被动语态相同,但后者表示主语所承受的动作。 He is very tired after a long walk. 走了很长的路,他感到很累。(系表结构) This window is broken.这个窗户破了。(系表结构) This window was broken by the naughty boy there. 这个窗户是被那边那个顽皮的男孩打破的。(被动语态)
3.现在分词和过去分词作定语的区别

现在分词作定语表示主动意义,过去分词作定语一般表示被动含义。 现在分词作定语表示动作正在进行,过去分词作定语表示状态或动作已完成。 The child standing over there is my brother. 站在那儿的男孩是我弟弟。 The room facing south is our classroom. 朝南的房间是我们的教室。 He is an advanced teacher. 他是位高级教师。
4.现在分词和过去分词作表语的区别 v. -ing 形式表示“令人……的”,多用来修饰物;v.-ed 形式表示“某人感到……的”,多
用来修饰人。 The book is very interesting. 这本书很有趣。 He is very interested in the book. 他对这本书很感兴趣。 This is a moving story. 这是一个感人的故事。 We were deeply moved by the story. 我们被这个故事深深地打动了。 The news is very exciting. 这消息太激动人心了。 I was excited at the news. 听到这个消息我很激动。
注意: (1) v.-ing 形式也可以修饰人,v.-ed 形式也可以修饰物,要根据句意选择适当的形式。
the worried expression 忧虑的表情 the disappointing boy 令人失望的孩子 (1) 英语中一些表示心理变化的动词,其中 v.-ing 和 v.-ed 形式通常起形容词作用,在句中作 定语或表语,常用的这类词有: ??exciting令人激动的
?
??excited感到激动的 ??delighting令人高兴的
?
??delighted感到高兴的 ??disappointing令人失望的
?
??disappointed感到失望的 ??encouraging令人鼓舞的
?
??encouraged感到鼓舞的

??pleasing令人愉快的
?
??pleased感到愉快的 ??puzzling令人费解的
?
??puzzled感到费解的 ??satisfying令人满意的
?
??satisfied感到满意的 ??surprising令人惊异的
?
??surprised感到惊异的

[语法练习]

一、单项选择。

1. Alexander tried to get his work _______ in the medical circles.

A. to recognize

B. recognizing

C. recognize

D. recognized

2. A great number of students _______ said they were forced to practice the piano.

A. to question

B. to be questioned

C. questioned

D. questioning

3. Mrs. White showed her students some old maps _______ from the library.

A. to borrow

B. to be borrowed

C. borrowed

D. borrowing

4. So far nobody has claimed the money _______ in the library.

A. discovered

B. to be discovered

C. discovering

D. having discovered

5. In April, thousands of holidaymakers remained _______ abroad due to the volcanic ash cloud.

A. sticking

B. stuck

C. to be stuck

D. to have stuck

6. I’m calling to enquire about the position _______ in yesterday’s China Daily.

A. advertised

B. to be advertised

C. advertising

D. having advertised

7. With the government’s aid, those _______ by the earthquake have moved to the new

settlements.

A. affect

B. affecting

C. affected

D. were affected

8. Ladies and gentlemen, please remain _______ until the plane has come to a complete stop.

A. seated

B. seating

C. to seat

D. seat

9. For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit _______ on his own farm.

A. grown

B. being grown

C. to be grown

D. to grow

10. Now that we’ve discussed our problem, are people happy with the decisions _______?

A. taking

B. take

C. taken

D. to take

11. Throughout history, the language _______ by a powerful group spreads across a civilization.

A. speaking

B. spoken

C. to speak

D. to be spoken

12. The trees _______ in the storm have been moved off the road.

A. being blown down B. blown down

C. blowing down

D. to blow down

13. We finished the run in less than half the time _______.

A. allowing

B. to allow

C. allowed

D. allows

14. It is one of the funniest things _______ on the Internet so far this year.

A. finding

B. being found

C. to find

D. found

15. The Town Hall _______ in the 1800’s was the most distinguished building at that time.

A. to be completed B. having been completed

C. completed

D. being completed

16. “Things _______ never come again!” I couldn’t help talking to myself.

A. lost

B. losing

C. to lose

D. have lost

17. There have been several new events _______ to the programs for the 2008 Beijing Olympic

Games.

A. add

B. to add

C. adding

D. added

18. The prize of the game show is $ 30,000 and an all expenses _______ vacation to China.

A. paying

B. paid

C. to be paid

D. being paid

19. The first textbooks ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th

century.

A. having written B. to be written

C. being written

D. written

20. Don’t use words, expressions, or phrases ______ only to people with specific knowledge.

A. being known

B. having been known

C. to be known

D. known

21. The foreign guests, _______ by an interpreter, came out of the hall.

A. following

B. to follow

C. followed

D. to be followed

22. The problem _______ so quickly last evening will not be set again anywhere.

A. having been settled B. settle

C. be settled

D. settled

23. The children _______ at the hospital yesterday were seriously ill.

A. to examine

B. examined

C. examine

D. examining

24. He talked about his suggestions _______ by you yesterday.

A. been turned down B. turned down

C. to be turned down D. to turn down

25. —I’m very _______ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious.

—Mm. It does have a _______ smell.

A. pleasant; pleased

B. pleased; pleased

C. pleasant; pleasant

D. pleased; pleasant

26. The managers will again discuss the plan _______ last week.

A. carried out

B. carrying out

C. carry out

D. to carry out

27. After the heavy rain, many cars got _______ in the mud.

A. catch

B. catching

C. caught

D. being caught

28. What surprised me most was that the leader of that country got _______.

A. kill

B. killing

C. killed

D. to be killed

29. When I went in, they were _______ in a heated discussion.

A. absorb

B. absorbed

C. absorbing

D. being absorbed

30. The thief seems _______ in that cave. Let’s go and see.

A. hidden

B. hide

C. hiding

D. to hide

二、完成句子。
1. There was _________________________ (一种兴奋的表情) on his face when the actress appeared. (excite) 2. The road _________________________ (交通车辆专用) is under repair. Drivers are required to take some other routes. (mean) 3. Prices of daily goods ______________________ _______________ (通过电脑购买的) can be lower than store prices. (buy) 4. As we joined the big crowd, I ________________ ______ (和我的朋友分开了) my friends. (separate) 5. Don’t you know the girl ____________________ (穿红裙子的女孩)?(dress) 6. The girl _________________________ (被车撞倒) was sent to hospital immediately. (knock) 7. I don’t know the girl _______________________

___________________ (困在暴风雪中). (catch) 8. My sister is working in a hospital ____________ _____________________ (坐落在我们镇). (locate) 9. The pilot asked all the passengers on board to ______________________________ (保持就 坐) as the plane was making a landing. (seat) 10. He right hand _________________________ (烧伤) in that big fire.(burn) 11. Be careful when you cross this very busy street. If not, you may _________________________ (被碾过) by a car. (run) 12. Mr. Smith, ______________________________ (厌烦了无聊的演讲), started to read a novel. (tire) 13. The Olympic Games, ____________________ (最初举办) in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912. (play) 14. Hangzhou, __________________________ (以西湖闻名全国), has changed greatly. (know) 15. This package _________________________ (标明了) name and date. (mark) 16. Most of the artists ________________________ (邀请参加晚会) were from South Africa. (invite) 17. He talked to me like a _____________________ (关切的大哥哥). (concern) 18. Christmas is a special holiday when the whole family ____________________________ (应该 聚在一起). (suppose) 19. Instead of sending people, we can send robots _________________________ (装备计算机的) and other tools to the moon. (equip) 20. She ____________________________ (深爱着) her students while her students show great respect to her as well. (devote)

语法归纳

一、单项选择

1-5 DCCAB 11-15 BBCDC 21-25 CDBBD

6-10 ACAAC 16-20 ADBDD 26-30 ACCBA

二、完成句子

1. an excited look 2. meant for vehicles 3. bought through a computer 4. got separated from 5. dressed in a red skirt 6. knocked down by a car 7. caught in the snow storm 8. located in our town 9. remain seated 10. got burnt 11. get run over 12. tired of the boring speech 13. first played 14. known to the nation for its West Lake 15. is marked with 16. invited to the party 17. concerned older brother 18. are supposed to get together 19. equipped with computers 20. is devoted to