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Research Progress on the Application of the Edible Fungi Polysaccharide To Aniamal Breeding


Research Progress on the Application of the Edible Fungi Polysaccharide As Immunoenhancer To Aniamal Breeding Quan weifeng, Wang jie, Xue jin, Liu guangjian, Ji honggeng
JiangSu SuWEi Microbiology Research CO.,LTD , Wu Xi , 214063, China E-mail:qwfwxjs@163.com Abstract: The Edible Fungi Polysaccharides not only have a significant effect on regulation body’s immune system and enhancing disease risistance, but also have some characters such as safety, non-toxic etc. Because of these Advantages, Edible Fungi Polysaccharides were apllied to animal breeding, and good results were achieved. This paper reviews the principle and the progress on the application of The Edible Fungi Polysaccharide as immunoenhancer to animal breeding. The Edible fungi polysaccharides can promote body’s cell factors, activate immune cells, and activate non-specific immune system of animals. For example, 1% Cordyceps polysaccharides and Coriolus Versicolor were added in the feed , through continuous feeding, determination nipponense serum phenoloxidase activity, study of two kinds of polysaccharide immunodeficiency nipponense role. And Chinese caterpillar fungus polysaccharide PSK significantly enhanced serum nipponense phenoloxidase activity. Edible Fungi Polysaccharides were applied to the intensive animal breeding in the following aspects: It can enhance the immune effect of the vaccine with the use of vaccines, improve the performance of animal production, daily gain, as well as the capacity of anti-stress as the animal growth promoters, improve the animal’s survival rate, as antibiotics and some antiviral drugs alternatives to reduce the use of antibiotics. At present many Edible Fungi Polysaccharides were developed such as Lentinan,Coriolus Versciclor polysaccharides, Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharide, Polyporus Umbellatus polysaccharides, Schizophyllum Commune polysaccharides, Fronda polysaccharides etc, which were applied to the chicken, fish and shrimp breeding. With the further and in-depth studies on the Edible Fungi Polysaccharides, Fungi Polysaccharides will be used more and more widely in animal feed in the application of intensive farming. Key words: Edible Fungi; Polysaccharides; Immunoenhancer In recent years, The Edible Fungi Polysaccharides as nutrition immunoenhancer in the animal intensive, large-scale breeding, especially in preventing and controlling animal diseases in the research and application at home and abroad have become increasingly attracted attention, research has shown that it can activate one or a variety of immune cells, and enhance the body of animals which has specific and non-specific immune function, inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria breeding, anti-infective, anti-disease, enhance its resistance to disease, improve animal survival, reducing the use of antibiotics in animal breeding , promote the growth of animals and improve the quality of animal products, improve feed utilization, and when mixed with the vaccine but also as an adjuvant to, enhance vaccine potency of the antigen and the role of aging. So the Edible fungi polysaccharide has a bright future in application area. First Author: Quan Wei Feng, M, (1978 -), assistant researcher, main research directions: Breeding of edible fungi.

1.

conception

1.1 Immunoenhancer: Immunoenhancer refers to a number of organisms used alone that can cause a temporary enhancement of the immune function of the material, and some can be used with the antigen, some immunoenhancer adjuvant itself is [1]. With the scientific and technological progress and enhanced sense of public health, immunoenhancer role of medical and health care is receiving increasing attention, to determine characteristics, highly efficient, stable, non-toxic, non-polluting and non- residues, immunoenhancer will be the next ideal material to resist disease and enhance the body's main. In the feed industry, immunoenhancer is gradually replaced by feeding antibiotics developed a new kind of feed additives. Immunoenhancer include chemical compounds, bacterial derivatives (α-glucan, peptidoglycan, etc.), carbohydrates (chitosan, oligosaccharides, mushrooms polysaccharides), micronutrients (vitamins, selenium, etc.) [2]. 1.2 Polysaccharide: polysaccharide also known as PG, is the degree of polymerization of more than 10 polysaccharide, is more than a single sugar molecule from the glycosidic bond to a combination of the natural macromolecular compounds. Polysaccharide is widespread in vivo a large class of biological macromolecules, with the promotion of livestock and poultry immunity, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, reducing lipid and improving animal production Performance and many other biological functions. Polysaccharide widely found in animals, plants and micro-organisms, it has a synthetic polymer does not have special biological activity, there are a variety of biological functions, is the life of an important component of the organism. Can be divided into microbial polysaccharide based on the source of polysaccharides, chitin and chitosan, plant polysaccharides, microbial polysaccharides can be divided into fungi and yeast polysaccharide (dextran), bacterial polysaccharide (peptidoglycan, LPS) . 1.3 The Edible fungi polysaccharides: The Edible fungi polysaccharides of Edible fungi from fresh fruitbody, mycelia, isolated from fermentation broth, and to control cell division, differentiation, regulating cell growth activity of a class of aging polysaccharide in the regulation of immune function plays an important role. Since the 20th century 70's, the original Japanese scholars Chihara Haneda Lentinan for the first time that the anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from fungi at home and abroad in biology, medicine, physics, food science and other fields to a great deal of research. So far, both at home and abroad from the nearly 300 species of fungi (belonging to more than a 7O Section 5l) screened more than 200 kinds of biological activity of polysaccharide material, in which our country found to have significant value 3O a variety of fungal polysaccharide. At present, more research is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide, PSK, lentinan, Grifola frondosa polysaccharide, Agaricus blazei polysaccharide, in addition to tinctorius polysaccharide,

polysaccharide ghost hair-pin and multi-mill bisporus sugar in the further study. 2.fungal polysaccharides as a feed additive in animal breeding application Find new ways, by improving the body's own immune capacity, so as to achieve antibacterial, antiviral aim is a study in today's world hot spots. As a result of fungal polysaccharide with high-efficient, non-toxic, enhance immunity, anti-bacterial anti-viral, non-residue, such as the characteristics of green feed and green culture with the requirements of culture, can be used as a new natural green feed additive. Fungal polysaccharide as nutrition immunoenhancer, can enhance the immune function of animals, the immune system of animals has a significant role in the regulation. 2.1 The function to cell factor The Edible Fungi polysaccharide can promote the emergence of a variety of cell factor, not only can affect the cycle of blood cytokine levels, but also can affect the in vitro secretion of cytokines in lymphocytes, spleen lymphocytes and the promotion of IL-, IFN-secretion and enhancing effects of cytokines. Such as Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can significantly enhance the secretion of body cell factor to enhance the body immune system [3] -[5]. Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide can promote interleukin IL-1 produced [6]. 2.2 The function to lymphocytes Lymphocyte is an immune system of animals an important part of the process, in the immune response plays a central role, fungal polysaccharide enhances the function of T lymphocytes and promote the transformation and proliferation of lymphocytes. Chen Chun-Xia [7] by subcutaneous injection of 50mg/kg d × ld carboxymethyl pachymaran to mouse, phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index increased by 70.83percent and 112percent, it showed that the polysaccharide could significantly increase the tumor-bearing mice peritoneal macrophages phagocytosis of macrophages. GONG Xiao-Jian
[8]

,had maken a carbon granules clearance test, results showed

that intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides of the cordyceps can significantly increase the carbon clearance index K and the phagocytic index a, enhanced mouse monocyte macrophage phagocytosis. Wu xianRui and so on
[9]

reported that Auricularia polysaccharides can obviously

increase in rat spleen weight, spleen index increased 0.43 times than that of the control group. Such as Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides can enhance the ablity of B cell producing specific antibody
[10]

.

Coriolus Versicolor Polysacchaiede administration in vitro can significantly

promote the mouse T, B lymphocyte proliferation, markedly enhance the ability of neutrophil TNF phagocytosis red blood cells, improved the activity of cell factor IL-l
[11]

. Lentinan edodes

Polysaccharide is a typical T-cell activator, in vitro and in vivo which can enhance the normal or immunocompromised mice’s delayed-type hypersensitivity to promote cytotoxic T lymphocyte

(CTL) generation, to raise anti-CTL vitality, enhance the antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (AD.DC) activity
[12],[13]

. In addition to the above described fungal polysaccharides, the
[14]

polysaccharides of Flammulina velutipes Polysaccharide
[16]

, Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide

[15]

, Grifola
[17]

, also can enhance monocyte-macrophage system. Yu Min, etc.

with

Polysaccharide from wild Hallimasch Shoestring administered mice, tha tcan enhanced monocyte-macrophage system’s phagocytic function, enhanced delayed type hypersensitivity in mice, promote the formation of hemolysin, and enhance immune function. 2.3 The fucton to immune cells The immuncyte can clear away foreign matter, and play a role of an immune response, fungal polysaccharide can activate natural killer cells and improve blood mononuclear cells, neutrophils and macrophages phagocytic capacity. For example , the Coriolus Versicolor Polysaccharide (PSK) can induce selenium glutathione peroxidase and non-selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase’s activity in mice peritoneal macrophages enhanced, and made its mRNA increased jinwen such as
[19] [18]

.Wang

from the mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in submerged culture of a binding

protein isolated polysaccharide (PSK), research has shown that intraperitoneal injection of PSK can increase the express of peritoneal macrophage ‘s GST. P mRNA, induced to heighten the activity of the peritoneal macrophage’s SeGpx ; the PSK enhanced IFN. 7 ’s inhibition to macrophage; At the same time PSK can reduced N-Arg on NO inhibition of cells. 2.4 The fuction to complement system Complement system is another important components of immune system, in addition to direct destruction and dissolution of bacteria, and viruses and target cells, but also has the conditioning of immune complex role and regulation of chemokine function of B, T cell immunity, and so on, while the fungal polysaccharide with marked activation of the role of the complement system. Lentinan can activate complement system and promote antibody production, so that macrophage lysosomal enzyme and 1I-1 increased secretion
[20]

. Lysozyme can hydrolyze

acetamido polysaccharide from mucopetide existing in the cytoderm and make it splittde and released, in this way, it can destroy and clear the foreign matters invadede. The level of fish and lysozyme activity of fish is directly related to immune function and health, body resistance to complement is an essential component of microbial infection, test results show that: when Coriolus Versicolor was added with a dose of 0.5g/kg, tilapia weight gain rate and specific growth rate of test group was significantly higher than that of control group, a significant reduction in food rate;a dose of 1.0g/kg, the serum lysozyme, the highest activity [21]. Fungal polysaccharides can be used as immunoenhancer activate non-specific immune system of animals, which can have a role in immune regulation. Vitality of superoxide dismutase

and catalase (CAT) activity are closely related to immune function of animals, Zhu Yue-hung, etc[22]. The research found that PSK rosenbergii can significantly enhance the organizations ‘s superoxide dismutase vitality, and enhance the hepatopancreas catalase (CAT) vitality. Were added in the feed of 1 ‰ Cordyceps polysaccharide and Coriolus Versicolor on feeding nipponense conducted through continuous determination nipponense serum phenoloxidase activity, study of two kinds of polysaccharide immunodeficiency nipponense role. And Chinese caterpillar fungus polysaccharide PSK significantly enhanced serum nipponense phenoloxidase activity, the average water temperature is 23.8 ℃ ± 3.8 ℃, the Versicolor group, Cordyceps group than the control group increased 34.52%, 84.62% [23]. 3 As a result of a clear role in immune regulation, fungal polysaccharide immunoenhancer used as animal breeding research has been concerned, about the progress of current research is mainly reflected in the following areas: 3.1 As an immune adjuvant and immune enhancer, and with the use of vaccines to enhance the immune effect of the vaccine. For example, the vaccine is immune to the early fledgling disease control an important part of the chicken, but not as a result of immune function in healthy chickens, particularly in the intensive feed, interfere with a variety of stress factors, so that after the chicken immune response is not complete, so affects the immune process of the preparation and control of disease.Xiechunfang ect [24] with fungi screened from PSK added to the feed fed to chickens, the observation of the body's response to the level of the vaccine found that PSK with the promotion of antibody production, enhance ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD) 2 vaccine immune function. Duanxianping
[25]

subcutaneous injection of 0.8% of chicks Agaricus

polysaccharide solution of 0.25mL, results showed that the experimental group after the first immunization 4 to l8 days, antibody level has been an upward trend, and in l8 days of the first antibody levels significantly higher than that of Agaricus blazei polysaccharide concentration directly as immune adjuvant to increase vaccine chicken immunity, immunity and the maintenance of long-time special. 3.2 Edible Fungi Polysacchrides Can be used as animal growth promoters to improve the performance of animal production, daily gain, as well as the capacity of anti-stress. For example, Gongquan[26]conducted tilapia Oreochromis PSK on digestive enzyme activities and digestibility of the trial found that diet plus PSK can significantly improve the foregut tilapia Oreochromis , in the intestines and stomach and hepatopancreas protease activity, add-PSK (0.5 ~ 2.5 g / kg) can inhibit fish tested in the intestines, stomach and hepatopancreas of the lipase activity, reduced fish to digest fat capacity, thereby reducing fat accumulation in the fish, effectively prevent the fish from excessive intake of fat and result in disease, and add a can be improved after PSK tilapia

Oreochromis apparent digestibility of crude protein, could significantly promote its growth. 3.3 Enhance disease resistance of animals to improve the survival rate of animals. Data show that 0.5% of use of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides used in broiler production in the whole, can effectively improve the production performance of broilers. From the survival rate, the experimental group than the comparison group the survival rate of 2.1 percent, a significant difference (0.01 <P <0.05). This shows that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides will be used in broiler production, by adjusting the body's physiological functions, enhance the body’s immunity and disease resistance, can significantly reduce the incidence of chickens, the mortality rate. Application in broiler production has proved that by the amount of 0.5% dietary mixed materialAdd Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on broiler immune antibody levels in the largest effect, ND antibody level of 1.0 log2 above, IBD-positive rate increased by 10%; chickens survived rate of 2.1 percent, while production can be significantly reduced in the stress response in broilers, broiler products no drug residues monitoring [27]. 3.4 Improve the animal body's immune capacity, and enhance the capacity of anti-infective. Pang Su-feng, etc.
[28]

will Coriolus versciclor polysaccharides, CVP by different doses added to

the Carassius auratus gibelio the basis of feed, fed for 56d, add 0.5 g / kg, 1.0g/kg The PSK, for the examination of fish blood leukocyte phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme vitality, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and complement C3 levels, with a certain degree of promotion of the role, and when its adding 1.0 g / kg at 14 ~ 21d, when the most significant effect. The results show that the Carassius auratus gibelio in the diet of 0.5 ~ 1.0g/kg carp PSK on the non-specific enhancement of immune function. CAO Liping, etc.
[29]

with Lentinan l, l0 and

100ug/mL the role of head kidney macrophages, After 24h it can significantly the induction of macrophage oxidative burst activity; Concentration of 100 and 1000ug/ml the role of the peripheral Lentinan white blood cells after 24 h significantly promoted the proliferation of carp peripheral blood leukocytes, and the role of macrophages in the 24h after 100ug/mL can significantly enhance the IL-1B-induced expression in vitro, lentinan in vitro culture of immune cells Lei has obviously activity fuction,and to promote the role of non-specific immunity ,specific immunity of carp is a potential immunoenhancer fish. 3.5 As antibiotics and some antiviral drugs alternatives to reduce the use of antibiotics. A large number of studies have demonstrated that fungal polysaccharides sulfated polysaccharide and its derivatives for many viruses, such as HIV, HSV 1 1, HSV-2, CMV, Influenza Virus, RSV, Retrovirus-es and ASV, have a strong inhibitory effect. Xiangshao, such as
[30]

study found that more obvious frondosa polysaccharide confrontation with the epidemic strain

of influenza virus and I type the role of herpes simplex virus. Lentinan of vesicular stomatitis

virus in mice infected with encephalitis caused by therapeutic effect on the Arab's ear virus and adenovirus type 12 have a stronger inhibitory effect, according to this research , its related to antiviral activity and interferon-inducible and enhance NK cell activity
[31]

. Schizophyllum

commune polysaccharides can increase Sendai virus infection the survival rate of mice, and can effectively inhibit the spread of the virus. Acid residues with a peptide of the PSK also has a significant antiviral effect, which has made the drug for clinical treatment of chronic hepatitis l, and for the prevention of liver cancer. Therefore, the fungal polysaccharide additives used in feed for aquaculture problems to solve today's problem of HIV disease is extremely important. Outlook: To sum up, in the modern livestock and poultry, aquaculture, the use of fungal polysaccharide extract as immunomodulator, can significantly increase the immune effect of the vaccine to reduce the antigen dosage, side effects and drug residue, the promotion of livestock and poultry production capacity and therefore to carry out fungal polysaccharide feed additives used in the product research is very meaningful and has a market potential. As a result of this study believe that the further and in-depth, fungal polysaccharides as additives in animal feed in the application of intensive farming more and more widely. References [1] WANG Gui-qin,ZHOU Hong-qi. Current Research Status of Fish lmmunostimulants. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University. 2005,27(3):344. [2] Scrimshaw N S , SanGiovanni J P . Syne of nutrition , infection and immunity : a overview[J]American J Clini Nutr,1997,66.464—477. [3]LIN Zhi-Bin et al. Contemporary Studies of Ganoderma lucidum.Bei Jing: The Beijing Medical University and the Chinese harmony Medical college United Publishers. 1996.150.158. [4] LEI L S,Lin Z B. Efeera of Ganaderma polysaccharides on T cell subpopulations and production of interleukin 2 inmixed lymphlcyte response[J].Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica,1992,27(5) :331 [5] Lei L S, Lin Z B. Effeet of Ganaderma polrsaccarides on the activity of DNA polymerase a in spleen cells stimulated by all antigens in mice in vitro[J].J Beijing Med Univ,1991,23(4): 329. [6]ZHANG Pei,Jin Li-Jie. Influence of GPS on the Release of Interleukin— l. Journal of JinZhou Medical College. 1995.16(3):1 3. [7]CHUN Chun-Xia. Effect of Carboxymethylpachymaran on immune function of mice. Edible Fungi. 2002,(4):39—41. [8] GONG Xiao-Jian, Hui, Shun—Gao, Shao-Ping , Ping. Effects of Polysaccharides JI LU LI LI from Cultured Cordyceps sinensis on Murine Immunologic Function. Journal 0f China Pharmaceutlcal University. 2000,31(1):53-55 [9] WU Xian-Rui,KONG Ling-Yuan,GAN Hong. Healthcare Value of Auricularia polysaeeharides . Forestry Science & Technology. 1996,21(3):32—33. [10]JIANG Zhen-You, Lin Chen. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on Mice Humoral Immune Function .Journal of Jinan university(medicine edition).24(2),51-53. [11]NIU Xiao-hui ,JI Feng-Lan et al. Effects of Polystictus Versicolor Polysaccharides on cytokines in Mice. Chinese Journal of Immunology. 2006,20:1124—1126.

[12] Zhou Ai-wu,Ge Zhi-dong,Liang Jun-shan.Immunomodulatory effects of lentinan.Chin Phann,1995,11:157-159. [13] Deng Pu-jiang, Zhen-xiang. Influence of cell imnmatmosuppressive factor and lentinan Yao on T lymphocyte proliferation.Acta Universitatis Scientiae Medicinae Chongqing,2000,25: 121.122. [14] CUI Yu-Hai, KONG, Xiang-Hui, HAO Xue-Zhi. Study of Anti-inflammator and Immunological Test of flammulina velutipes polysaccharides..Primary Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1999,13(1):17—18. [15] Yang Yan, Zhou Chang-yan ,Wang Cheng-guang et al. Studies on Immunoregulatory Function of Hericium erinaceus Polysaccharide .Acta Edulis Fungi. 2000,7(1):19—22. [16] Gao Mei,Xie Shu-sheng,Qin Feng-hua,et a1.Improve action of immuno regulation of polytpom umbellatuspolysaccharide onmice.China J.Immuno,1991.7:185.188. [17] YU Min,SHEN YeShou. Study on effects of polysaccharide from the rhizomorph of Armillaria mellea on immunity.Journal of Biology.2001,18(4):16-18 [18] u F,Ooi V E C,Fung MC,et .Analysis of immunomodut--ating cytokine mRNAs in the mouse induced by Mushroompolysaeeharides[J].Life Science.1999.64(12):1005—101 1. [19]Wang Jin-wen.Chen Yuan,Zhou Mei et al. Effect of protein-bound polysaecharide on inhibition of LDL oxidation induced by maerophages and their relation with iNOS gene expression. Journa of First Military Medical University.1999,19(4):292—295. [20] Miyakoshi H,Aoki T,Mizukoshi M .Acting mechanisms of Lentinun in human, 11.Enhancement of non-specific cel1.mediated cytotoxicity as an interferon inducer.Int J Immunopharmaco1.1984,6: [21] Gong Quan, Xu Guohuan.Effect of Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharide Levels in Dietary on Growth, Serum Lysozyme Activity and Complement Activity of Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus ) .Freshwater Fishereies.2008,38(1)16-19. [22]Zhu Yue-xiong,Wei Yu-hong. Effect of Krestin on Macrobrachium Rosenbergii’s Two Kinds of Anti-aoidation enzyme action. Inland Fisheries. 2000(10) :6-7. [23] Chang Mingxian ,Chen Xiaoxuan. Effects of Two Kinds of Polysaccharide on The Phenoloxidase Activity in Macrobrachium Nipponense.Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica.2003,27(3): 3269-271. [24]Xie Chunfang,HangYiqun,Pan Jie et al.Effect of chicken on ND、IND Immune Response After added Krestin. Shanghai Journal of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine. 1997(5): 22. [25]Duan Xianping,Zhao Suohua.Effect of Injecting Agarcus Blazei Murill Polysaccharides on Vaccine Immunity and Red cell immunologic function of Chicken.Gansu Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2006(2) :3-5. [26]Gong Quan,XU Guohuan.Effect of Krestin on Digestibility of Hybrid Tilapia.Feed Industry.2007,28(20):22-23. [27] Pang Sufeng, Wu Zhixin. Effect of Coriolus versciclor Immune Function in Polysaccharides on Non-specific Carassius auratus gibelio. Freshwater Fishereies.2008,38(2):17-22. [28]Liu Guoqin,XU Guiying. Immuning Effects of Ganoderma Lucidump Polysaccharides on Broiler. Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine.2003,20(11):56-58. [29] Cao Liping, DING Wei-dong. Effect of Lentinan on the Activation of Immunological Cell Culture In vitro in Cyprinus carpio.Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology. 2008,16 (4):616-621

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