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从“合作”及“礼貌”原则看外交委婉语


重庆大学 硕士学位论文 从“合作”及“礼貌”原则看外交委婉语 姓名:吴长旗 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:外国语言学及应用语言学 指导教师:向朝红 20040508

中文摘要





委婉谬是一釉人们在社会交往中为谋求理想躲交繇效果露露怠《造瓣一穆语言 形式。作为英语词汇中不可分割的一部分,英语委婉语一直引超人们的关注。为 了瑟这耱添言理象进行充分系统的舔释帮淡龌,多年来许多语言学家黎学蛰分裂 从不同角度诸如语义,文化和语甩等方面对这一语言现象进行研究(Rawson,1981;
Allan and

Burridge,1991:陈望道,1997;柬定芳,1989/1995;粱红梅,2001;徐莉

娜,2002簿)。总体来说,这些人除对委婉语的定义,分类,功能和特征等进行研 究外,他们的研究(梁红梅,2001:徐莉娜,2002等)也说明委婉语在使用中是 遗鹜合{乍爨则的蚤个准则,委婉语的选择鞠理解帮依赖予~定款谖境嚣虽遵薅着 礼貌原则。他们的研究对委婉语的撒写,使用和对委婉语进彳亍解释起了一定的作 蠲。僵是德稠豹礤究大多是对广义上懿焉不是菜一特殊领域的蚕婉谮进行怒握帮 研究;另一方面,他们的大多数研究也由于数据有限而缺乏一定的依据。 委婉语可以依据不同的标准雨翻分为多种,稻外交委婉谮虢是按照语域而翊 分出的一釉委婉语。出于外交委婉谮所具窍的独特特点靼功能,它经常在瓤阉发 布会等交际场合被外交人员们使用。本文作者借整前人对委婉语的定义,分类等 硬究成果,铁语赐学中台终暇烈及袍貔原剿的角度试霪对外交委婉谗在交黪中特 别照在新闻发布会上遵循的原则和使用方法进行探索性的研究。 合俸瑟粼{警为语丽学蕊瓒论基石之一,是摇游入稻语言交舔的鞭刘之~。合 作原则可以很好地解释话语的字面意义和实际意义的关系,而这对予外交娄婉语 显得尤为藏要。但是由于外交委婉语具有其特殊憔,合作原翊有时候不能很好的 解释外交委婉语的使磁,因此也需要聿L貔娠则来瓣其进霉子鼹释。也就是说,合作 原则和礼貌原则可以使交际双方在交际中例如新闻发布会上很好的使用外交委婉 语,达到掇互理艇的耍豹,扶蠢蠖会活霉戳蹶剥迸嚣。必了黠终交委蕊语进行逶'瑟1
分析,本文选用了五篇新闻发布会的内容。通过分析,本文试图解决以下几个问

题:(1)矫交入爨褒奁獗阕黢布会上使用外交委婉语翡频率是多少?<2)外交委
婉语和合作原则的各个次则的关系;外交获婉语在多大程度上违反含作原则的各

个次剐,哪~个次刚违反得最多?(3)为什么外交委婉语违庾合作琢刚的备个次 则?(4>於交娄婉语程交际中遵循的基本原则楚什么? 基于委婉语的定义及特点,本文用台作原则和礼貌原则的诸准贝U对材料中的 委媲语遘行语震分辑。逶过熬理鄂分撰,翻步缮爨以下缭论:(1)羚交委婉语在 新闻发布会中被外交人员广泛使用,他们的话语中大约有50%都在使用委婉语,因 诧对羚交委婉谮进李亍谮菊分析缀有妊要。(2)舞交委婉语击予替代,掩饰,稻礼

重庆大学硕士学位论文

貔簿原因主要违反了合作原则中的质,爨和方式三个次则,而基本上是遵循了台 {肇原翅中戆穗关原剐以及藐虢原羽。(3)通过分辑氇发现有懿露谈一个委婉谬可 以嗣时被看作魁违反合作原则的两个次则。(4)本研究同时也证安合作原则和礼 貌原则是外交潞婉语在诸如新闻发布会等交际中所遵循的两个基本原则。 逶过对毙辑交可醴发璇癸交委燕语褒交际过程中并不是麴弱赘久(粱鲤瓷, 200l;徐莉娜,2002等)所流的委婉语豹使用是违背含作原则的湖个准则的;本 文研究也说明有时候一个外交委婉语可以同时违反合作原则的两个准则;本文的 戮究同时说明外交委婉语的使用和广义一b舱委婉语的使用一样是邋循羞袍貌原剡 的诸准鼷懿。 必键词:外交蚕婉语,合作原则,礼貌原则,语用分析

Il

Abstract

ABSTRACT
Euphemism is
communication.As form of language created in social relations
to



achieve ideal

031

indispensable and natural part of English language,English

euphemism has been arousing wide interest and many linguists and scholars have
studied the linguistic phenomenon from different perspectives like and pragmatics

semantics,culture

etc。(Rawson,1981;Allan

and Burridge,1991;Shu Dingfang,1995;Lin
to

Lifang,1 998;Liang Hongrnei,2000

and Xu Li’ha,2002 etc,).As

the study of

euphemism from the perspective of semantics,their research explores the
processes by

semantic

means of which English euphemisms are formed,the intemal mechanism
use

governing the

of euphemism and also discusses the semantic changes of euphemism
study ofeuphemism from the perspective
as

(Gu Tongqing,2001 etc.).Concerned with the

of culture.their research analyzes the functions of euphemism as well cultural elements closely related to these

linguistic

and

functions(zhu Shi&Zheng Yuqi,2001 ere.).

As to the study of euphemism from the perspective of pragmatics,besides the

definition,classification,formation etc.of euphemism,meir research shows that
generally the
use

of euphemism largely depends

on

the context and it violates the

Quality,Quantity,Relevance and Manner Maxim
used in
specific field,that is


of the CP

and basically

it observes the
on

maxims of the PP。On the other hand,few of their researches have been focused
euphemisms


to

say,most ofthose researchersjust studied

the euphemisms from

broad sense.And the second problem is that most of their

studies were mainly theory.一oriented rather than empirical studies and hence their
researches 1ack adequate evidence to support.

Euphemism

carl

be classified into different types according to different angles
one

and

standards.Diplomatic euphemism is

of them

and

is mainly classified according to

register.Due to its’special characteristics,English diptomatic euphemism has been used by the diplomats

and statesmen in press conferences.Based


on

the others’research

achievements,the author will have
with the theories of Cooperative
an

pragmatic

analysis

of the diplomatic euphemisms
also

Principle(Cp)and Politeness Principle(pP)and

exploration of the principles and ways of using English diplomatic euphemisms in

the question-answer patterns by the diplomats and statesmen ete.in press conferences.
In order to have


pragmatic analysis of the diplomatic euphemisms

with

the

theories of CP and PP,the author chooses five transcripts in press conferences+ThiS

Ill

重庆大学硕士学位论文

paper is mainly aimed to achieve the following

objectives:(1)What

is the frequency of

using diplomatic euphemisms by diplomats and statesmen in English press conferences?

(2)To what

extent do diplomatic euphemisms violate the maxims of the CP in press

conferences and which is the mostly violated

one?(3)Why

do these diplomatic

euphemisms violate the
use

maxims of CP?(4)What are

the basic principles that govern the

of diplomatic euphemisms in press conferences after we have analyzed the materials

with the theories ofCP and PP? Cooperative Principle,the cornerstone theory of pragmatics,is
one

of the main

principles that guides people’S communication.The Cooperative Principle and its’

maxims
and

can

explain what is the literal

meaning

and its real intention in communication

ensure

that in

an exchange

of conversation,like the of

question—answer patterns

in

press conferences,the right conducted in


amount

information

is provided and the interaction is
on

Irnthful,relevant

and perspicuous manner.Based author will
to
see

the research

objectives,the theories and

thesis data,the

analyze

the diplomatic

euphemisms used in press conferences with CP and PP between diplomatic euphemisms

what is the relationship
etc..

and

CP

and

PP respectively

and

The results of this study indicates that diplomatic euphemisms are often used by diplomats

and statesmen in
are

press conferences;the Cooperative Principle and the

Politeness Principle

the

two

main principles that govem the

use

of diplomatic

euphemisms

or

euphemistic expressions in the

question—answer

patterns in English

press conferences.Generally speaking,diplomatic euphemisms in press conferences

violate the

Quality,Quantity and Manner Maxim of the

CP due to different

reasons

like

substitution,disguise

etc.and

basically diplomatic
can

euphemisms

observe the Relation


Maxim and the PP.From the analysis,it
euphemism

be also found that sometimes

diplomatic

Can be

regarded

as

violation

oftwo maxims

ofthe CP at the same time.

Compared their research、^,iⅡl mine.it

Can be found that diplomatic euphemisms in

English press conferences do not violate all the four

Maxims


of CP

as

euphemisms in



broad

sense

do.This research shows that sometimes
can

diplomatic euphemism in press
SalTle

conferences

be regarded as to violate two
use

or

more maxims of the CP at the

time.It also shows that basically the
Politeness Principle as euphemisms do.

of diplomatic

euphemisms

observes the

Key words:Diplomatic Euphemism,CP(Cooperative Principle)

PP(Politeness Principle),Pragmatic Analysis

IV

竺!翌堕Q些!!!!!!!塑!!

Chapter One
1.1 Research Topic
As
an

Introduction

indispensable

and natural

part of English

language,English euphemism has

been arousing wide interest and many linguists and scholars have studied the linguistic phenomenon from the perspectives like

semantics,culture and

pragmatics etc.I think

there are mainly two weaknesses about the study of euphemism from the perspective of pragmatics.The first
from the broad specific
one

is that most of those researchers

just

studied the euphemisms euphemisms used in


sense

and few of them have been focused
second
one

on

field.And the

is that most

of their

studies

were

mainly

theory—oriented rather than empirical studies

and

hence their researches lack adequate


evidence to support.Hence this author is going to analyze euphemism used in

specific

field---?----diplomatic euphemisms with the theories of CP and PP
relationship between diplomatic euphemisms

to

see

what is the

and

the theories.

1.2 Significance
1.2.1 Empirical Significance Euphemism,as
for
a a

common linguistic phenomenon,has attracted people’S attention

long time.It exists in almost every known language every speech
to have certain notions


community,or
or

every social class for almost all cultures seem

things that

people try to avoid mentioning directly,even when there is such

term

or

notion in the

language(Shu Dingfang,1 995;Li Yong,2002 etc.).It is deeply rooted in social life and
it strongly reflects social values

and

cultural values and has long been



topic of much

interest especially to those socio—linguists because the study of euphemisms is closely related with social life as

Hyme(1964)says,“all study of language

and speech

as

part

of social life is basically one,rooted in the interdependence with social life itself’(qtd. in Li

Rui,2000).So just like what Enright(1 985:29)has stated,“A language without


euphemisms world would be

defective instrument ofcommunication”.Rawson(1981:
are

3)also affirms,“Euphemisms
even

embedded

SO

deeply in Our

language that few of US,


those who pride themselves

on

being plain—spoken,ever get through

day without

using them”.

Communic砒ion

is

important for human beings especially

to

those diplomats
or

or

statesmen because they

deal诚th

the relationships between countries

regions etc..SO

重庆大学礤士学位论文

the words that they

use are
or

more sensitive than ours.Otherwise,their communication
can even

may become difficult

break down and sometimes it

affect the relations

between countries.Since the purpose of using euphemisms is the substitution for words,
to reduce the

unpleasantness of
is natural



term

or

notion,or the function of politeness and

disguise

etc。,it
or

and

reasonable

that

diplomats
or

or

statesmen,the

announcements
resort to

publications of political organizations

governments will often

them.(Shu Dingfang,1995;Liang Hongmei,2000;Li Weihang,2002 etc.).
use

They

Can

euphemisms to”soften”harsh reality,disguise governmental inability
or

to

solve social problems

present the public



false picture etc.。In reality we

Call

also

find that euphemisms are often used in press conferences and we may also find that

sometimes communications may be di饿cult
inappropriate
use

or

even

break down because of the of diplomatic

of diplomatic euphemisms

or

the

misunderstanding

euphemisms.So the study of diplomatic euphemisms seems to be of great significance

and it Can help people like diplomats
in

etc.to avoid

misunderstandings
to

or

mistranslations

communications

and

it

carl.also

help

them

improve their intercultural

conununication competence

and ability etc—

1.2.2 Theoretical Significance
As to the study of euphemisms,we may fmd that books wnritten concerned with the
SO

far there are

many

papers

or

analysis

of euphemism from the

perspective

of

semantics,rhetoric and

culture,pragrnatics etc..In the early 1580’S,the British writer

George Blunt first used the word“euphemism”(qtd.in Shu there
are

Dingfang,1989).Later,
Burridge

many scholars,such

as

Mencken(1936),Rawson(1981),Allan and


(199t)ere.and

their researches have contributed


lot to the study of euphemism.
On

Mencken(1 936)devoted
the basis of

part to the

analysis of hundreds of English euphemisms

AmeriCan soeie够and
dictionary

historical cultural

background.Rawson(1981)also

compiled



whose preface is very valuable because of its extensive

discussion of the definitions,classifications,features and domains of euphemism etc.. Allan and

Burridge(1981)published
on



book EuphemismandDysphemism,in which
to

an

interesting perspective

the human psyche is

be gained from the study of
or

euphemism used

as

protective shield against the anger

disapproval of natural

or

supernatural beings.In their book,euphemism is also defined by reference
about face,concerns that
are

to concerns

of immense

significance

on

any occasion of language

communication。This幻文is very
pragmatic perspective.

valuable to the study of English euphemism from



曼!篓垫里Q!!!垡翌!嫂!!!

In China people have used euphemism expressions since the record of history and scientific and systematic researches have been done in this means compared with the west,the study of euphemism Chen
area

only for decades.That


began

little late in China.

Wangdao(1976)is

one

of the earliest scholars who gave the definition to in


euphemism

and studied euphemism

rhetoric perspective.Later there

are

many

scholars like Chen Yuan(1983),Shu Dingfang(1995);Lin

Lifang(1998);Liang

Hongmei(2000)and Xu Li’na(2002)etc。who have studied euphemisms from different
perspectives like semantics,culture and pragrnatics etc—Chen special chapter to the s协dy and

Yuan(1 983)devoted



analysis

of euphemism,which not only discussed the

historical and social background of euphemism,but also revealed the nature of this

social辩enomenon.Shu Dingfang(1995)explored the fundamental principles(distance, relevance and pleasant—sound)goveming the building ofnew euphemisms arid the basic
characteristics of euphemistic expressions.He also proposed that,besides
the

Cooperative Principle and the Politeness Principle,there is still principle at work in interpersonal

one

more

important

communication,namely,the
Principle,showing

defensive principle+

Liang Hongmei(2000)once anNyzed euphemisms with the pragmatic theories of
Cooperative Principle

and

Politeness

the relationship between

euphemism

and

pragmatics:Though it violates the Cooperative Principle,euphemism
as

basically observes the Politeness Principle,indirect speech act theory and face theory
well。Xu

Li’na往002)based

her analytical approach

on

the features and the roles

euphemisms play in

communication,discussed

how euphemisms are motivated and how

they are interpreted in pragmatic terms.She also held that the

formation of euphemisms,

the maxims of cooperative behavior and“the world spoken of and the world spoken in'’

and

even

the world spoken to contribute



great deal to the interpretation in its intended

orientation,besides the cultural differences which are believed to spoil the successful cross。eulture communication.

From the evidence of

pragmatic

analysis

of euphemisms,we know that these PP to

researchers have used the theories of CP

and

analyze

euphemisms(Liang

Hongmei,2000;Xu n’ha,2002 ete.).Their researches include the characteristics of
euphemism,the

formations

of euphemism and how to comprehend euphemism in
use

communication
on

etc..Their researches show that the


of euphemism largely depends

the context and has

great effect

on

daily communication.Their researches also

show that generNly the

use

of euphemism violates the maxims of CP


and

basically it

observes the maxims of PP and their researches have contributed

lot to the study of



重庆大学磁±学位论文

euphemisms.

1.3

My Research
As mentioned before that there
are

some works

or

papers written concerned with


the pragmatic analysis of euphemism and their researches contribute

tot to the study of

euphemisms。Briefly speaking,besides the definition,classification,formation and
characteristics etc.of euphemism,their research also shows that generally the euphemism largely depends
on use

of

the context and it violates the Quality,Quantity,

Relevance and Manner Maxim ofthe CP and basically it observes the maxims ofthe PP,

Liang Hongmei(2000)also
indirect speech act theory

briefly discussed the relationship between euphemism face theory
on as

and

and

well.But we may also find that few of
a a

their researches have been focused

euphemisms used in

specific field,that is to say,

most of those researchers just studied the euphemisms in represent the special characteristics
or

broad

sense

and it may not


usage of the euphemism used in

specific field.

And the second problem is that most of their studies were mainly theory-oriented rather than empirical studies and hence their researches lack adequate evidence to support

their research resdts,So from what have mentioned above,we
important

carl

say that it is quite


and

necessary to do



pragmatic analysis ofthe euphemisms used in

specific

field.Hence the author chooses five euphemisms

transcripts and

of press conferences with diplomatic

used

in the

question-answer

dialogue patterns.Generally speaking,most of given by native speakers

the questions and answers are proposed reflect the social values

and
on

they

can

and

cultures of English to some extent.Based
to

what have

mentioned,this thesis is going diplomatic

analyze euphemisms used in



specific

field……

euphemisms

with the theories of Cooperative Principle and Politeness
to

Principle.From this point of view,this thesis is mainly aimed

achieve the following

objectives:
<{,W魏毅is the frequency of using diplomatic euphemisms by diplomats and
statesmen ete.in English press conferences?

(2)To what
press conferences

extent

do diplomatic euphemisms violate the violated one?

maxims of the CP in

and which is the mostly

(3)Why-do these diplomatic euphemisms violate the maxims ofCP?

(4)What are the basic principles that govern the
press conferences after we have CPandPP?

use

of diplomatic euphemisms in

analyzed the materials

with the pragmatic theories of



Chapter One

Introduction

1.4

Main

Contents
consists of five chapters and the main contents
are as

西o pmsem thesis
Chapter One is


follows:

brief introduction to this thesis。


Chapter Two provides diplomatic language and

detailed literature review of euphemism,diplomacy,

diplomatic
etc..

euphemism.It

discusses

their

definitions,

communicative ffmctions and

Chapter丽Ⅱoe mai街Y deals with the协eoretical bases of this dissertation.It
expounds the Cooperative

Principle(CP)together with


the Politeness

Principle(Pp).In
the

this chapter the author gives

detmled

explanation of the theories and also why

author

uses

them

aS

theoretical baSes ofthis thesis.

Chapter Four is the part ofpragmatic analysis office materials the author collected.

硅is

chapter

includes黥overview of the

analysis、the data collection,data analysis and

findings etc。.This is the main part of the thesis

and finally the author gives



brief

summary of this chapter.
Chapter Five Maws


brief conclusion of this thesis.In this part it includes the

significance of this research
the present study.

and its implications and finally points

out the limitations of



Chapter Two

About

Eu曲emisms

Chapter Two
2。1 Concepts and Deftnitions
2.1.1 Deftnitions ofEuphemism
It is knowna that euphemism is relations to achieve ideal


About Euphemisms

form of language intentionally created in social
to

communication.Without them,any language would seem
use

be vulgar and rude,void of politeness and vividness to some extent.The

of

euphemism proves to be more important in diplomacy because the substance of diplomacy is
to

adjust

the relationship between states that have to be conducted in

language。In reality we know that the international conflicts are generally rather acute

and diplomats and statesmen sometimes

cannot avoid saying sharp things to
or

maintain

their respective positions in diplomatic dialogue they are not supposed to appear rude this case.they need words sound
or

press conferences etc.。However,
or

or

arrogant,still less provocative

impolite.In

phrases etc.,w}lich enable them to make unpleasant things

pleasant

or at

least less

unpleasant.These phrases are what Nicholson(1950)
are

terms‘guarded understatements’which
Hence

actually euphemisms used in diplomacy.

the skillfulness and preciseness of


language used in diplomatic language


contribute

lot to its Success.In order


to

have

better understanding of diplomatic

euphemisms,firstly

general knowledge of euphemism,diplomacy and diplomatic

language may be both

necessary

and

helpful. first recorded in English
or

The

word“euphemism'’is

in

George

Blunt’S


Gtossographia(1656),where

it is defined as“a good

favorable interpretation of

bad word”.It is derived from the Greek

prefix“eu”.meaning“well'’or“sounding
rhetorical device,“substitution of
or

good’’;and‘‘pheme'’,meaning“speech'’(qtd。in Li Rui,2000),
Euphemism is also defined in dictionaries mild
or

as a

vague

or

roundabout

expression for harsh

blunt

or

direct one'’(Concise

Oxford Dictionary,7“edition,P332).It also has
or

a concrete

meaning,“a polite,tactful
art

less explicit

term

used幻avoid the direct naming of

unpleasant,painful

or

frightening

reality”(ibid)。 Britannica(1994)also
defines euphemism as“figure of speech in
or

Encyclopedia wbSch something

of鲢unpleasant,distressing
expression‘under

indelicate nature is

described in


less

offensive terms;as in the ‘strategic movement to the

the involvement’for‘fighting

war’or

rear’for‘adjustment ofthe front”’(qta.in Li Rui.2000).


重庆大学硕士学位论文

强sum
the
llse

up。the employment of euphemisms is traditionally
as

v!ewed
or

positively

as

ofwords ofgood omen,or negatively

the evidence ofunlucky

inauspicious

words. Howevet some recent trends in English euphemisms have gone beyond the traditional definition of euphemism,such
as

those comfortable words used to uplift the
up the

lovely professions and cosmetic words to problems etc.and hence euphemisms
are

cover

social,economic and political
or

often used by politicians


statesmen as
as a



means

to cover

up

or

beautify

their actions etc..In

sense,euphemism


figure of way.In

speech,therefore,is more than
the words ofBelloc:
The euphemismis


just

saying something unpleasant in

pleasant

recognitionbym8fftofman’s ownimperfection,and atthe saffle

time,a recognition by man that he belongs to better things.It is play acting,but
none

the worse for that.囊is



false wo斑substituted for the wo堪in order
Feng

to

soften

the shock

ofreality.(qtd.in

Cuihua,1995)

2。1.2 Definitions ofDiplomatic Euphemism
2.1.2,l Diplomacy

Diplomats,statesmen and diplomatic theorists differ in defining“diplomacy'’.The

word‘diplomacy’o.omes from the ancient Greek%vord‘diploma’which means
document used for identification



folded

and

request for favor

or

privilege.The classification
C雒Tle to be known
as

and evaluation ofsuch
French

papers

dealing谢氇international matters
these

in

as‘diplomatique’and

later in English‘diplomatic’.From this we may assume used for identification.Although


that the earliest diplomatic documents were

different people have different definitions of diplomacy,the author wilt quote influential ones.The following is what
States

few

Watson and Methuen f1982)wrote:
are

which№aware
enter

that their domestic policies merely
to

affected by‘everything that

happens’outside,are
the need to into

not content


observe

one

another at

distance.They

feel

diMogue with

one

another.This dialogue between independent

states——the machinery by which their governments conducg

and the networks of
out

promises,contracts,institutions and codes of conduct which deveIop the substance ofdiplomacy.(qtd。in Guo Hong&Peng

of

it—is

Xiaodong,1999)

Roy(1984:18—19)also gives the definition ofdiplomacy as follows:
Diplomacy has always played


very great role in

adjusting international policies.

It is evident that very few problems in international

relations can be erased completely,

强e Majority

of them have to be

adjusted

or

settled through

compromise.强is can be



里!型璧塑!垒!!堕兰!艘!竺!!竺!
done through diplomacy.In this respect Richard

Wt Sterling’S observation deserves

notice.He says,“Diplomacy is,indeed,the politics of international relations;it is international politics in the most precise Also the Oxford
sense

of the

terrn."(ibid).
as

Dictionary(1985)gives

its definition ofdiplomacy

follows:

Diplomacy is the management ofinternational relations by negotiation;the method
by which these relations business
or art are

adjusted

and

managed by ambassadors and envoys;the

ofthe diplomat(ibid).
US see

Least ofall,let

what

Eban(1983:391)says
130

about it.
at

‘Ambassadors’,said Demosthenes,‘have infantry
or

battleships

their disposal,or heavy

fortresses,Their weapons

ale

words and opportunities…’In the stage of semantic precision has

deterrent strategy the importance of rhetorical talent and

increased‘‘’Since much ofdiplomacy is now conducted through public communication,

the significance of pictures of jntention conveyed in words has

never

been greater. part of the

Words

do move armies

or

prevent them from being moved.They

are

substance,not the form,ofthe diplomatic enterprise. (qtd,in Guo Hong&Peng Xiaodong.1999)
2.1.2.2 Diplomatic Language 2.1.2.2.1 Definition
Just like the definition of diplomacy,different people have different ideas of the

definition of diplomatic

language.According

to what Guo Hong&Peng Xiaodong

(1999:5)wrote:
Diplomatic language is what


diplomat

c躲say,㈣mean and Can do verbally;it is




part ofthe social system and has grown up in associated with


certain culture;it is



meaning

potential

particular type of social content(consisting of the situational factors:

field of discourse,tenor of discourse and mode of general features of diplomatio

discourse)which determines the
also


language,Diplomatic language is
tO

social dialect

defined

as a

variety according

its users,it is



language

used

on

various diplomatic

occasion and it has undergone several stages of development and each stage has been
imprints
on

its structure,

So in



broad sense,diplomatic

language is the lingua franca between

states

or

we

may say that it is the

language used in diplomatic activities.Hence the expression
sense,
or

’diplomatic language’generally is used to denote three different things.In its ftrst

it refers to the actual language,which is used by diplomats in氇eir conversation

correspondence.In its second sense,it

means

these technical phrases,which,in the



重庆大学硕士学位论文

COLlEge

of centuries.have become diplomatic parlance.And in its t疆撼and the most sense,it iS used to describe that guarded understatement which enables
or or

colnrnon

diplomats and statesmen etc.in press conferences things to each other withom becoming provocative

diplomatic occasions impolite。

to say sharp

2.1.2.2.2 General Features and Classifications ofDiplomatic

Language
999:80—95).diplomatic

According to what Guo Hong&Peng Xiaodong(t

language generally has the following features and later we will discuss them in detail.
Because it is not the main part of this section,SO the author

just

briefly lists these

features as follows:
Diplomatic Language is


formal and conservative language;it is




persuasive
is


language;it

is



cautious and precise language;it is

polite and tactful


language;it

language in which impersonality is often

used and it is also

fairly accessible language.

After we mentioned the general features of diplomatic language briefly,we move
next to

the classification of diplomatic
Peng

language

in terms of function.According to Guo

Hong

and

Xiaodong(t999:103—104),the diplomatic language is classified in
as

terms of its fimctions
(1)Conversation

the following types:
social occasions fphatic

on

function).

(2)Speechesortalksondiplomaticoccasions(conative,emotiveandpoeticfunctions).
(3)Diplomatic documents concerning protocol Such
as

matters(phatic
or

and emotive

functions).

speeches delivered by ambaSsadors
or

presentation of their credentials.
or

telegrams
ere..

letters of condolence and leRers of congratulations,sympathy

thanks

(4)Diplomatic

documents for publicity(conative function).Here are the examples
joim
statements
or

like

unilateral statements,news release,some of the
etc.。

joint

communiques

(5)Diplomatic documents fur

communication(referential function).Formal note,verbal

note,formal diplomatic letter,informal diplomatic letter and
belong to this category.

memorandum

etc。all

(6)Diplomatic
letter of belong

documents for identification,(referential function).Passport and
appointment
or

visa,

credence(credentials),full powers,letter of
this category.

introduction elc.

to

(7)Legal diplomatic category we
Call

documents(referential
these like

and metalinguistic

functions)。In this

see

treaty,agreement,protocol,conventio玑charter,

declaration

or

proelamation,laws

and

regulations

on

matters concerning foreign



曼!!跫鎏!!!!垒!!篓兰望!!罂!!銎!

missions and nationals,exchange of notes,letters

or

memoranda,notary public used in

foreignjurisdiction and sample ofauthentication
2.1.2.3 Diplomatic Euphemism

etc..

After tracing and studying some influential definitions of euphemism,diplomacy

and

diplomatic

language above,together

with the general features

and

classifications of
to

diplomatic language and the thesis materials we have ete。,we might thus be able
tentatively confine ourselves to the following specific rather basis ofhow we look at diplomatic euphemisms in this thesis.

than

general points

as

the

(1)Diplomatic euphemisms do exist

not only on

the lexieal level,but also
or even

Oil

semantic level.They often take the forms of words,phrases

sentences

sometimes.
(2)Diplomatic euphemisms roundabout expressions that
aye

to tell something that it isn’t.They

are

indirect

or

stand for“something else'’with‘‘gilded

words”substituted

for“true words”and

etc..


(3)Diplomatic euphemisms.as
confined to


universal linguistic phenomenon,are generally

particular people and particular culture.They are culture—bounded.

2。2 Formations and Constructions
”However culturally

and

historically based particular euphemisms may be,the

psychological

and linguistic patterns underlying their formation are the salne“(Neaman

&Silver,1983:91.English diplomatic euphemisms share most of the formation
as

means

of

euphemisms in most languages and cultures do except some exclusive

characteristics of some ofthese

languages.Generally speaking,there are

two main ways

that

form most of diplomatic

euphemisms

and we will discuss in detail below.

2.2.1 Lexical Approach
2.2.1.1 Abstraction

T&strength of particular taboos may be dissipated by casting idea in the most
general possible

terms and


also,abstractions,being quite opaque,make ideal cover-up

words.Often,it is only

matter of finding the lowest common denominator.Thus,越

problerv4螗蠡and thing etc.may refer to
playing with it

anything

under the sun:the child who keeps

and

the girl who is said to be doing it,problem
al the Three

days,and problem

drinking,the situation
economic

Mile Island,Pennsylvania,nuclear power plant,巍

thing(slump,recession,or depression)or the Watergate thing.The American

tendency toward abstraction was noted early by Tocqueville(qtd,in Rawson,198t),

隧庆大学硕士学位论文

who believed that democratic natioils

as a

class were”addicted to genetic terms and

abstract expressions because these modes of speech enlarge operation of the mind by enabling it to include dark side ofthis is that abstractions abstraction
are

thou曲t and


assist the

many objects in

small compass.”The

inherently fuzzy,As Tocqueville also noted,”An

term

is like



box wim



false bottom,you may put in what ideas you please,

and

take them out again without being

observed."(ibid).Bureaucrats,politicians,

scientists are particularly good at generalizing details out of existence.They have

for鞭S o凇rseas produced such euphemistic expressions such as American present
militarydeployment,vehicle for missile etc..
2.2.1。2 Loan

Word
are

Most obviously,borrowing words from other languages that
with negative associations and sound freer may also
is permissible for English speakers
as

less frightening

make diplomatic

euphemisms.So it

and

writers to express almost any thought they wish,

long as the more risque parts of the discussion are rendered in
or

another language,

usually,French

Latin.髓诧versatility of French is evident in such diverse fields as
itself is
as a

love(8蠡it,Ha西on amour),war(personnel,廖iage,sor打e)etc。French
euphemistic prefix word for French


variety
olle

of。‘wrong”and/or”sexy”things.such

the

disease(syphilis)and

of the methods of guarding against it,the French
a source

letter(condom).Latin is almost equally popular as
for the body’S sexual and other functions, 2.2.1.3 Substitution

of euphemisms,especially

The simplest way of expunging offensive expressions from language is to

make



straight substitution,using
to



word that has happier connotation than the

term one wishes
and
thrifty
or or

avoid,frequently,a legitimate synonym will do.Thus,agent,speculator

have better connotations

than spy,gambler and

tight although the literal meanings
on

denotations of each pair of words are the same.So

this level,all the euphemist

diplomats has
also


to

do is to select words

with

care

in their communication.Nickmame is

common way of substitution of diplomatic euphemisms.For example,nicknames

for deadly weapons and

WMDs(weapons

of mass

destruction)like Cruise,Scud,

Honest JohIl etc.make them sound tess terribte.

2.2.2 Rhetorical Approach
Besides the lexical approaches mentioned above,various rhetoric devices find their way into

diplomatic

euphemisms:metaphor,metonymy,analogy,understatement,

peripbxasis,omission,negation etc。and the author will explain bdefly later,
12

兰!受笪!∑!垒!!曼曼塑!!受堡墨1

2.2.2.1

Metaphor


Diplomatic euphemisms may also be made by
transfer:the comparison of things of blossom for


process calted metaphorical

One

order to things of another.The euphemism

pimple compares

one

flowering to another more acceptable variety.This

kind of diplomatic euphemism is often used in press conferences.The diplomatic euphemisms here chosen
are

often romanticizing,poeticizing and softening of the

original words like go to sleep for die,collaterm damage for civilian casualties,shock and awe for random bombing,constructive destruction for severe
to travel

damage,have a

road

for have



tong time to reach

an

agreement and etc.+

2.2.2.2 Understatement Since


euphemism is,by definition,a mild,agreeable,or roundabout word

or

phrase,it follows logically that its real meaning is always worse than its apparent

meaning.Understatement constructions are

to acknowledge part of

the truth while

concealing the extent of its grirnness.Thus,a nuclear reactor that is said to be above critical is actually out of control,active defense is

atta娩area
as

bombing is

terror

bombing etc.。The soft sell also is basic to such euphemisms

cotrrparffon,partner and

roorr瑚te,all

of which refer to lover,tO pro—choice for pro—abortion,and to senior

citizen for oldperson and etc,。 2.2.2.3 Periphrasis Periphrasis
or

circumlocution is the

essence

of euphemisms
not

and diplomatic
say something
to

euphemism.Sometimes the speakers in press conferences will
directly

and they just

say something in another way and

therefore,№uidation means
to
see

make murder,to call your carriage for you is to askyou

go away,to give you the sack more examples

means to dismiss you etc.also contributes

to

this
to

category.We Can

like to live at the governt辩nt"s expense means

be in prison,to declare st_盘ffredtmdant

means

to

are,liberation means to

make aggression and etc..

2.3 Communicative Functions
2.3.1 Substitution
According to the defmitions of euphemism and diplomatic euphemism we know that


great

number

of English diplomatic euphemisms

serve as

the substitutions for

verbal taboos especially in press

conferences。The
or

term

taboo(ta meaning‘'mark'’,boo anything
linguistic and


meaning“exceedingly”)of Polynesian origin denotes
nonlinguistic,which is prohibited

forbidden.Taboo refers to the situation in which

重庆大学硕士学位论文

word

or

name

call

be used in
or



communi移only under special conditions,whether only
as

by certain persons

only in certain circumstances.Just


violating



cultural taboo

carl

be quite offensive,SO is it with

verbal taboo in press conferences.The“word”has


been and continues to be in most societies perceived as

powerful instrument that may

evoke evil spirits,make bad things happen and instigate to violence and revolution and

numerous other activities.While taboo of words

occnrs

when
or



particular topic is
are

considered valid for discussion,euphemistic expression diplomatic euphemisms have


terms

required.So conceal the

very serious
or

reason

for being。They

Can

things people fear most—喇ea搬。the dead
carl

the

supernatural。Diplomatic euphemisms

also eliminate unhappiness,embarrassment and fear etc.SO as to relieve people

psychologically.

2。3.2 PoliteNess
Politeness is

another

very

important function

that diplomatic euphemisms

serve

in

social life as we mentioned before that diplomatic ofthe diplomatic euphemisms
a are

language

is



polite language.Some

used to avoid crudeness and indecency for the sake of

polite conversation。G-rice formulated Cooperative Principle of u挝erance in which the
as‘‘Be perspicuous
to

Maxim of Manner was defined
avoid ambiguity;To be brief

and

specific;To avoid obscurity;To

and

be orderly.”The roundabout nature of diplomatic

euphemisms goes against the Maxim of

Manner,which Can

only be fairly explained

well by Leech’S Politeness Principle“Approbation

Maxim:minimize dispraise of other,
are to

maximize praise of other'’.In other words,diplomatic euphemisms
impolite expressions and

minimize

maximize polite

expressions,

2.3.3 Disguise
Besides the three functions of diplomatic euphemisms mentioned above,there is still

another

one

more

important function

at

work

in

diplomatic

euphemistic

communication,namely,the Disguise Function.Here we mean that because of the
vagueness of diplomatic euphemisms,it has become leaders
or



very important tool for political
or

the diplomats

or

statesmen to distort the facts

and present



false picture of

peace

and prosperity

and to

beautify whatever the authority have done。For example,in

the Iraq

War,they use‘‘Operation Iraqi Freedom'’for beautifying their military invasion,

‘'possible movement'’refers to military attack.“air operation’’or“air strikes’’for air attack,“enter the War”to show their reluctance to

fi曲t

the war etc.mad we may find

many such kind of these euphemisms in press conferences.The most ultimate function
or

important and

purpose of the

use

of diplomatic euphemisms iIl press conferences

14

曼!翌!!!!曼!垒!!坐兰!£!!竺!!竺!

is to disguise

or

beautify their invasive

essence or

other evil actions

or

the separation of

words from math+In American and British societies nowadays,diplomatic euphemisms

are always purposely devised

to

disguise scandals in wars and politics,deliberately

invented to beautify lowly occupations and excessively inflated to promote sales in

advertisement.

2.3.4 Defensive
In addition to politeness function,there is still
one

more

important

function in

euphemistic communication especiMly in press conferences,namely,the defensive principle.In the process of conmaunication,while taking consideration,one tries to avoid harsh and vulgar terms dignity and we may say it
or an

one’S

social status into

to save


face and protect his/her

serves

the defensive fimction.As

representative ofa country

organization.the
interests

speaker has to consider the interests of his party especially their the
speakers try
to

national

ete..Hence
to

use“good'’words

in

their

communications in order

protect their own benefits.

Diplomatic euphemisms are beloved by diplomats
to present only the handsomest possible images of

and

institutions that are anxious
to

them

the world.And they are
US,even

embedded

SO on

deeply in almost every language that few of being plmnspoken,get through


those

who两de

themselves

day without using


them,just as Enri曲t

(t985:29)puts it,”A language without euphemisms could be
communication”.Hence we
Call

defective instrument of

also that any diplomatic language without diplomatic


euphemisms could also be regarded as
Therefore,diplomatic euphemisms,as

defective instrument of

communication.

an

organic part of society’S basic
our

communicative
and

language,are outward and visible signs of

inward anxieties,conflicts,fears

shames,



曼!!堕!!墅烂!堑竺!!墼波鬯塑墅坐型!堕!!!塑!ii呈!!!型!

Chapter Three The Cooperative Principle and The Politeness Principle
3.1 Overview
Generally speaking,when people communicate
or

talk to each other under any

conditions they must follow some basic roles and cooperate each other because otherwise communication would be very difficult and perhaps Ntogether.As
on

even

break曲姗

Thomas(1996:62)has


put it,“in conversational interaction,people work

the assumption that

certain set of rules is in operation,unless they receive
it is communication that requires people to

indications to the

contrary.”We may say that

cooperate in order to make the conversation goes smoothly. In press conferences conceming diplomacy,people often talk about something sensitive to both sides and hence the diplomats sometimes what they want to express.That is to say,a word,phrase
or

use

euphemisms to replace
this special

sentence used in

situation may have some extra meaning,something that is not inherent in the words used.Generally

speaking,pragmatics

is defined as the study of language in

use

and

linguistic communication.One ofthe critical issues in the study ofpragmatics the relationship between what

concerns

speakers

say

and what

they

mean

or

intend to

communicate.On

the other hand,Grice’S theory of

Cooperative Principle(1975)

addressed at Harvard University in 1967 as part of the essentially


William

James Lectures is

theory about how people


use

language in

communication+Grice’S

suggestion is that there is

set

of over-arching assumptions guiding the conduct of

conversation.These
formulated
to
aS

arise,it seems,from basic rational considerations and may be

guidelines for the efficient

and

effective
as

use

of

language in

conversation

further cooperative

ends.(;rice(1975)identifies
or

guidelines of this sort four baSic

maxims of conversation

generai principles


underlying

the efficient cooperative

use

of

language,which jointly

express


general Cooperative Principle.

So in order to have

clear pragmatic

analysis and better understanding of the and helpfial for
US to

diplomatic euphemisms used in press conferences,it is necessary have


very generai investigation into

the Cooperative Principle,the cornerstone theory
will know what are the

of pragmatics.By using the CP to

analyze the euphemisms,we

relationship between diplomatic euphemisms and the CP,how露plomatic euphemisms used ln press

conferences

violate the maxims of CP

and ete..What is more,in order

to

17

重庆大学硕士学位论文

have



good pragmatic analysis and



well explanation of the diplomatic euphemisms


used in press conferences,we will also need to have Politeness Principle.The PP
can

brief investigation into the

help

US

to explain well why
ete..

diplomatic euphemisms

used in press conferences violate the CP and

3.2 The Cooperative Principle and the Politeness Principle 3.2.1 The Cooperative Principle
In his’Logic and Conversationl——an essay

originally presented at Harvard

University in 1967

as

part of the

William

James

Lectures,later printed in Cole and

Morgan(1975)and
explains what he

reprinted in(;rice’S Studies in the way calls the

ofwords(1989)一Grice
uses

Cooperative Principle of Discourse.Grice

the

Cooperative Principle to describe only talk exchanges that exhibit three specific characteristies: (1)The participants have some common immediate aim. (2)The contributions ofthe participants should be dovetailed,mutually dependent. (3)There is some
sort

ofunderstanding(which may be explicit but which is often tacit)

that,other tNngs being equal,the

transaction

should continue in

appropriate时le unless
(Grice,1989:29)

both parties are agreeable that it should terminate.

Though he

limits the

Cooperative Principle’S

application exclusively to talk

exchanges that exhibit these

particular’cooperative。characteristics,Grice(1989:26)

finds that most talk-exchanges do follow the Cooperative Principle because most talk exchanges do,in fact,exhibit these’cooperative’characteristics.
Our talk exchanges do not normally consist of


succession of disconnected remarks,
at

and would

not

be rational ifthey did.They

are

characteristically,to some degree

leasL

cooperative efforts;and each participant recognizes in them,to some purpose
01"set

extent,a con'uuon

ofpurposes,or at least



mutually accepted

direction.(Grice,1989:26)

Having established the cooperative nature of most talk exchanges,Grice posits the ”Cooperative Principle”,which he describes

as



rough generM principle which

participants will be expected to observe.
In order to explain further the Cooperative Principle,abbreviated as CP,Grice,the
great

American philosopher,borrows from the German philosopher Immanuel Kant four
CP is specified from these

categories:quantity,quality,relation and manner.That is,the
four aspects.Cooperation has itself

been elevated to the status of

an independent

principle in the works of Grice,whose Cooperative Principle Was subdivided into nine

18

曼!箜塑!嫩!!堡兰!塑!鲤翌塑竺!£熊黧!三生呈垡塑塑i!!!!!竺2堡
sub—maxims classified iuto four categories,Grice’S CP and its maxims
follows: The Cooperative Principle is
as

are

expressed as

follows:
as

Make

your conversational contribution such
or

is required,at the stage at which it
are

Occurs,by the accepted purpose engaged. The four maxims ofthe CP

direction of the talk exchange in which you

are as

follows:

Maxim

ofquantity: contribution as informative
as

(i)Make your

is

required(for

the current purposes

ofthe exchange)

(ii)Do not make your contribution mole informative than is required
Maxim ofquality:
Try to make your contribution
one

that is true,i.e,

(i)Do

not say what you believe to be false.

(ii)Do not

say that for which you lack adequate evidence。

Maxim ofrelation:
Be relevant.

Maxim ofmariner:
Be perspicuous,i.e,

(i)Avoid obscurity ofexpression.
(ii)Avoid ambiguity.

(iii)Be brief(avoid unnecessary prolixity)
(iv)Be orderly.

(Adapted

from Grice,1975:45—46)

From what mentioned above,we may know that the Cooperative Principle enables
olle

participant in



conversation to communicate

on

the assumption that the other


participant

is being cooperative,These four maxims form

necessary part of the

description of linguistic meaning in that they explain

hew

it is that the
press

speakers

often

‘mean more than th姆say’in their communications especially in
Cooperative Principle conversation,like the

conferences。强e
an

and

its’component maxims ensure that in
patterns in press

exchange

of

question-answer

conferences,the


right amount of
and

information

is provided and that the interaction is conducted in

truthful,relevant

perspicuous manner. Grice’S basic idea is that in communication,generally speaking,people
a/'e

19

震庆大举硕士学位论文

supposed静meet the CP and its’maxims。and the hear,ers interpret utterances with these
maxims in mind.But in reality,in order
to

meet



certain communicative need due to

different reasons.few people actually always speak

by籀th&lly

observing these

maxims,辑馈懿is more,one thing曲a£deserves

our

attention is that the内ur maxims。
as

expressed in the imperative mood have sometimes been misunderstood for


instructions

speaker to behave in conversation.In fact,what Grice was doing was,to quote
on

Thomas(1 995:22),。一suggesting that in conversational interaction people work
the assmnption that
on


certain set of rules is in operation,unless也ey receive indications

the contrary.’However,no matter how the

speaker break

or

fulfill the maxims in
on

conversation in press conferences,we may find that the communication still goes

and succeeds。It

is the full

cooperation,I蛙li熊,that

make the

speakers
or

violate some of

the maxims in order to achieve the ideal communications

we may say their

communication goals or intentions. 3.2.2 The Politeness Principle
Politeness phenomenon is Principle is
one

universal

almost in all

languages and the Politeness politeness(He Zhaoxiong,

of the most influential theories concerning

2000 etc.).Mentioning the Politeness Principle,one will think of Leech’s Politeness

Principle(in the following
Brown and

PP refers to Leech’s

PP).What is more。PP

as

one

of

communicative principles,many scholars have touched upon it like Lakoff(1973),

Levinson(1978)and Leech(1983)etc..It
and

is generally recognized that the

pioneering work of Lakoff,Brown

Levinson and Leech etc.1aunched in the 1 9708}

has greatly contributed to the ensuing enthusiasm in politeness studies.T醛s also shows
that more and more people have realized the need and importance to carry out research
on

politeness.弭玉射is more.human beings do

not

and

cannot possibly live in isolation;
one

people

need to interact constantly with other people and politeness is

of the

important things they should bear in mind to ensure smooth

and

successful interaction.

On the other hand,advances in science and technology have gradually eliminated

the distance of time

and

space

and greatly contributed
013

to


easier

and more丘equent
ignore
ete.

human

interaction,putting the study of politeness
studies entails

hi【曲agenda.To

politeness

tanning the risk of miscommunication,conflict and friction

especially in press
are

conferences.To


say it simply,where there is communication,there


politeness studies.As

result,politeness As

research topic of much
areas

concern has

been

and

is

enjoying much popularity晰m people

specialized in the

ofpragmatics.

sociolinguistics and intercultural communication

etc..

曼坠鬯!!!堂垦!曼篮£!兰!!!!曼蝥漫!竺!!塑兰垫!塑鬯曼塑!1211

As

we

mentioned before
use

that

in

daily

communication especially
to

in

press

conferences people sometimes

euphemisms and have

violate some

maxims

of也e

CP partly because of politeness,That is to say,to some extent it is because of the

politeness that the speaker violates the CP and its maxims.It is partly for this that the Politeness Principle CP,but

as a cart

reason

be

seen not

just

as

another

principle to be added to the

necessary supplement,which

f{escues

the CP from serious trouble(Leech,


983).So in the following section we will

also need to have

detailed explanation

on

another important pragmatic theory—一the Politeness Principle. In Leech’S PP,politeness
concerns a

relationship between

two

parties

or

sides

whom we may call selfand other,or we may say that the relationship of these two parties
or

sides is the

concerns

of the politeness。In press conferences,other may

therefore be applied not only to addressees but also to people designated by third-person pronouns
or

those who present the press while selfmainly refers to the

speaker(s)or the

speakers’sphere.111e

maxims ofthe

PP tend to go in pairs as follows:

(I)TACT MAXIM(in impositives and commissives)

(a)Minimize

cost to

other(b)Maximize benefit协other

(II)GENER0srrY MAXlM(in impositives and commissives) (a)Minimize benefit to self

(b)Maximize

cost to self

(III)APPROBATION MAXIM(in expressives and assertives)
(a)Minimize dispraise of other

④Maximize praise

of other

(IV)MODESTY MAXIM(in expressives and assertives)

(a)Minimize praise of self

(b)Maximize dispraise of serf

(V)AGRE嚣MENT MAX{M(in assertives)

(a)Minimize disagreement between selfand

other

◇)Maximize agreement between setfand other
(Ⅵ)SYMPATHY MAⅪM(in assertives)
(a)Minimize antipathy

between selfand

other

(b)Maximize sympathy between selfand other

(Adapted from Leech,1983:132)

髓e

statements of these maxims have been simplified for convenience:strictly.

(I)(a),for example,should be read like:‘Minimize the expression of beliefs which
express
or

imply

cost to

other’,and the other maxims should be similarly expanded。In

that they recommend the expression of polite rather

than impolite beliefs,all can

of them

come

under the

PP.From these

maxims ofthe

PP mentioned above.we

see畦lat the

重庆大学硕士学位论文

first four maxims go in pairs because they deal with bipolar scales:the cost—benefit and praise—dispraise scales.The other two maxims deal with unipolar scales:the scales of agreement and sympathy.Although there are various connecting links between the seales,each maxim is distinct in that it refers to
an

evaluative scale that is distinct from

the scales referred to by the others.Whereas(I)and(II)respectively concem the cost of benefit of future action to other and to

self,(III)and(IV)respectively concem
or

the of

degree to which speaker’S remarks convey some good self.For example,the Approbation congratulations,and the

bad evaluation of other

and

Maxim

is exemplified in the intrinsic courtesy of

Modesty Maxim

in that of apologies.
or

In the theory of PP,not all of the

maxims

we may

say,sub—maxims


are

equally

important.Of the twinned maxims(I)to(Ⅳ),(I)appears to be constraint
on

more powerful

conversational

behavior than(II),and(III)than(IV).Generally speaking,
on

this reflects



more general law that politeness is sometimes focused more strongly

“other”than on“self’.On the other hand,in press
sometimes politeness is focused more
on

conferences we may also noticed that

self because euphemisms are to minimize

impolite expressions and maximize polite expressions of what the speaker says.

Moreover,even within each maxim,sub—maxim(b)seems

to

be

less

important

than

sub—maxim(a),and this again illustrates the more (avoidance of discord)is


general law that negative politeness

more weighty consideration than positive politeness(seeking
be

discord).One fnllher difference in importance should also
reflected in the form of

noted,although

it is not

maxims:politeness towards an addressee


is generally more

important than

politeness towards

third party.
on

Leech’S PP has attracted wide attention of pragmaticians.Although remarks that vary,“Leech’S work
on

pragmatics

represents

all

important

and

useful

consolidation of work in linguistics,speech act theory Leech,by

and rhetoric”(Cherry,1988:67). language
or

means

of drawing

on a

number of related areas of

study,provides written



rich theoretical

framework

within which to consider

spoken

language

production.

3.2.3 Towards CP
Of

course,although there
are

are criticisms of Grice’S CP,not all the criticisms
or

mentioned above

totally grounded.As we know that it is reasonable

acceptable the

that different people may have different opinions about the same
development of pragmatics,the original

thing.With

Gricean programme

has been revised in some

different ways.it will continue to exert its、vide influence in future.

g!!窭蟹翌坚!堡!曼!121堡銎!呈!!!i£!!塑!翌兰呈!!!!!!!!!曼!i!!!£堡

It is known墩at diplomatic euphemism mainly refers协the substitution of mild
vague
or

or

roundabout expression for harsh

or

blunt
in

or

direct one。Due to its’special conferences may
cause

characteristics,diplomatic

euphemisms

used

press
call

misunderstanding between diplomats because瞧ey
literal meaning
or

mearl much more than their
cornerstone theory of
sense

we may say the

sense

and force.As the

pragmatics,we know the CP diplomatic euphemism much wetl represented
as a

Can

explain the relation
SO

between

and

force of
carl

better

far.The force of diplomatic

euphemism

be

set of

implicatures that

Can

be concluded from the violation of the
press conferences

Maxims of CR The CP Can well explain why diplomats in
more than its literal meaning of euphemism but
can

mean

much

not

fully explain why the diplomats

sometimes

use

diplomatic euphemisms

or

euphemistic expressions instead of speaking

them directly.Thus the Politeness Principle becomes more diplomats diplomats
reasons use use

important

to

explain why the know that the

euphemisms instead of speaking them
diplomatic euphemisms
or

directly.We

euphemistic expressions due to different

like substitution,disguise etc..But their ultimate purpose is also for politeness

to



great extent.So by

combing the two theories of Cooperative Principle and
give


Politeness Principle,they

carl

well

explanation of the diplomatic euphemisms

or

euphemistic expressions in press conferences,

3.2.4 The relationship between CP and PP
As the

cornerstone theories of pragmatics,it is well

known

that the PP was

proposed



little bit later than CP in the development of pragmatics.Grice’S CP is not
of the

sufficient,as an explanation
conferences those speakers
directly

relation between

sense

and force.In press

use

diplomatic euphemisms instead of speaking them

and the

CP itself cannot explain well why people sometimes are indirect in

conveying what they really meal3.and this is where Politeness Principle becomes

important.Hence,from
and the PP
call

this point we may say that the CP Was complemented by the PP

explain something that cannot

be

well explained by the CE In this thesis

the author will analyze diplomatic euphemisms used in the question-answer patterns in
press conferences,as it iS said that the CP in itself cannot explain why people
are

sometimes

SO

indirect in conveying what they

mean

and

on

the other hand,we may find

that the combination of the CP

and

PP

Can

give

US a

pretty good explanation about this

and hence we may

say that

they may complement each other in pragmatic analysis.So
to some extent.

iust like what Leech(1 983)has said that the PP Can‘rescue’the CP

重庆大学硕士学位论文

3.3 Summary
So fh we have studied the diplomatic euphemism,diplomacy,diplomatic language and the theoretical theories like

the

CP and PP.As it mentioned before that there were

many works written concemed with the pragmatic analysis of euphemisms and
according to the author’S research and statistics few of their researches have been focused
On a

specific field

and

most oftheir studies were mainly theory—oriented rather

than

empirical studies.Hence the author would like to study the diplomatic euphemisms


used in

specific field and give some principles of using euphemisms in diplomatic
on

occasions.So in the next chapter the author will mainly focus

the pragmatic

analysis

ofthe diplomatic euphemisms used in the question—answer patterns in press conferences with the pragmatic theories we have mentioned before.

曼!!釜竺!!堡垫!§墨竺篓垒!墨!!臻!!垒!兰!£!!銎鎏銎!堡!鎏!!黛i塑!墅!璧

Chapter Four Pragmatic Analysis of the Euphemisms in Press Conferences
4.1 Overview
In the light of the foregoing literature review and the theoretical bases,we know that euphemisms
Or

euphemistic

expressions

are

important and people often use them in

communication.In reality,it
use

call

be found that these diplomats and statesmen etc.also

euphemisms

or

euphemistic expressions in the question—answer patterns in press

conferences,These diplomats

and statesmen,aS the representatives Can

oftheir own country,
or

and what they said in press conferences
own

represent the interests
or

position of their
in

country.They

Call

use

euphemisms
or

euphemistic

expressions

press

conferences to make sharp things
use

unpleasant things sound pleasant etc.otherwise the
nations because

of euphemisms may
are

generally搬ey

misunderstandings between dealing with the relations between countries。
even cause

As it is mentioned before that the others studied euphemisms from



broad

sense

and they do not focus

on

the euphemisms in



specific field,the

second

one

is that most

of their researches are mainly theory?oriented rather than empirical studies

and hence

their research lacks adequate evidence
mainly give


to

support.So in this chapter the author will


detailed pragmatic

analysis of the euphentisms used in

specific field

一---?一-???diplomatic euphemism in the question-answer patterns in press co耐'erences with the theories of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle。Basically in this chapter there
are

the following main sections:Objectives,Data,Data Analysis,Findings of my

pragmatic analysis

and

discussion etc。。

4.2

Obieetives
As we mentioned before that this thesis is going to analyze

euphemisms

used in



specific field-----diplomatic euphemisms with the pragmatic theories of CP
know that there
are

and PP。We

some papers

or

works written concerned、“tll the semantics、culture

analysis of the

euphemisms from diverse

perspectives like

and pragmatics etc..From

their research evidence we know that the other researchers and scholars like Lin Lifang

(1998),Liang Hongmei(2000)and Xu Li’na(2002)etc.have studied euphemisms from
the perspective of pragmatics+They mainly discussed the

relationship between

euphemisms and

pragmatic theories

and etc..Briefly speaking,besides the definition,

classificafion.form越on

and characteristics etc,of euphemism,their research results

重庆大学硕士学位论文

also

shows that generMly the

use

of euphemism violates the

Quality,Quantity,
as a

Relevance and Manner Maxim of the CP and basically it observes the maxims of the PP
But
Vv-e

may find that their researches
on

just

studied the euphemism


whole and they

did not focus

the

eul:Iheroisms

used in

specific

field.What

iS more.most of their

researches

are

mainly theory—oriented rather

than

empirical studies

and

hence their

researches lack adequate evidence to support.So the author chooses five transcripts of
press conferences with

diplomatic euphemisms used in the

Based

on

what we have mentioned,this thesis is going to

question—answer patterns. analyze euphemisms used in a

field~…diplomatic euphemisms witll the pragmatic theories of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle+Hence from this秘波of view,this thesis is mainly
specific

aimed

to

achieve the following

objectives:

(1)What is the
(2)To what
press conferences

frequency ofusing diplomatic euphemisms by these diplomats,and

statesmen etc.in English press conferences?
extent do

diplomatic euphemisms violate the maxims of the CP in

and

which is the mostly violated one?

(3)Why do these diplomatic euphemisms violate the maxims ofCP? (4)What
press
are

the basic principles that govern the

use

of diplomatic euphemisms in

conferences after we have

analyzed the thesis materials with the pragmatic

theories of CP and PP?

4。3 Data Colleetion
Due to the limitation of space and time,altogether the author chose transcripts ofpress conferences as the data ofthe pragmatic

just five
in the

analysis

in this

thesis(See

Appendix).Most(about

95%)of the

diplomatic

euphemisms

used

question-answer
transcript

patterns of the five transcripts are spoken by English native speakers

after the analysis of the thesis materials.These thesis materials are as follows:the first is President Discusses Iraq and North Korea with Reporters at the Coffee

Station,Crab,fiord Texas in December 31,2002.The second transcript is Joint Press Conference

with Secretary Cohen and Spanish MoD,Serra,Madrid in February 5,1999
one

and the氇ird

is Powetl Press Conference趣NewDelhL secretarymeets
one

with

Indian Free

leaders幻discuss tensions in region in July 28.2002.The fourth Iraqi Forces in
The

is Briefing

on

March 14,2003 and the last transcript is Press Briefing妙Joe Lockhart kld in the USA and the Madrid.

Briefing

Room in July 20,1 999.Of all the five transcripts of press conferences,
rest

three of press conferences were

two were held in

Spanish.Besides the diplomats,most of the

journalists

are

English native speakers and
broadcasting stations like

they come from these world famous newspaper offices

and

曼!!垡!!!!兰!翌g望璺!垒!!望!!!!!生!曼!£!!窭苎銎!翌星!!!!受!!垒兰!!!!

the Associated Press,the Voice of American,the British Broadcasting Corporation and
Reuters etc..Some of

them came from smaller

ones

like the American Forces Press
out

Service,Fox News Channel

and the State newspaper

of Columbia,South Carolina

and some local newspaper offices like the Baltimore Sun etc,。
As to the euphemisms used in press conferences,they
are

selected based

on

the

definitions etc。we given in Chapter Two.To be specific,diplomatic euphemisms in the five transcripts of press conferences agreeable
or are

mainly chosen
one

as

the substitution of

all or

inoffensive word

or

expression for

that is harsh,indelicate

unpleasant to the other side.They are chosen from both the lexical approach and the
rhetorical approach.

We

Call see

the brief description of the euphemisms used in the five transcripts of

press conferences

from Table 4.1.As



whole.the length of each of the five

transcripts

is different:the first

transcript

is about 1340 words long.the second iS almost 1000 and
one

the third

one

is about 1920 words,the fourth

has about 3260 words and the last

one

has about 2210 words。Except the opening remarks of the presenter,briefly speaking, the number of sentences in the
like this:the first
one

question—answer pattems
one

used in these five

has 78 sentences,the second

has 38,the

transcripts is third one has 67 and

the rest two has 145

and 90 respectively.Here

one

point should be emphasized that

euphemisms in‘Number of Questions’part are mainly spoken by the journalists,hence euphemisms used in this section are not the main focus of this pragmatic analysis and
We will mainly focus statesmen
on

diplomatic euphemisms that spoken by the diplomats and

Table 4.1:An Overview ofthe Five Transcripts



Items 1b诅l number ofwords Number

Traml
1340
17

Trans2 950 12

Trans 3 1920 16

Trans4 3260
31

Trans 5

I}


2210 39

ofQuestions

Times Diplomatie Euphemism
33 Used inAnswers Number ofAnswers
62

20

31

59

28

26

51

114

51

From Table 4.1,we
often
use

can

see

that it is the fact that the diplomats and statesmen etc.

euphemisms
press

or

euphemistic expressions in
carl

answering the

questions of the

journalists in

conferences。We

also

see

from Table 4。1 that in these five

27

重庆大学联士学位论文

transcripts nearly half of their sentences in the question-answer patterns of press conferences frequency
USe

diplomatic euphemisms

or

euphemistic expressions。That is
or

to say

the

of using diplomatic

euphemisms

euphemistic expressions

in

press

conferences is high.And from Table 4,1,we statesmen etc。often
use

can

also know that these diplomats and
or

diplomatic euphemisms

euphemistic expressions in their

question-answer patterns in press conferences.Hence it is

important

for

US to

study the

diplomatic euphemism and it will be useful for
improve
our

US

like the diplomats

or

statesmen etc.to

intercultural communication ability

and comprehension


of the euphemisms

etc..So in the following section we will give

detailed pragmatic

analysis

of the

diplomatic euphemisms used in the question—answer patterns in press conferences.

4。4 Data Analysis
In this section we

will

mainly focus

on

the pragmatic

analysis

of the diplomatic

euphemisms used in the question—answer patterns of the five press conferences wim the pragmatic theories of CP and

PP.We

would like to know what are the relationships
as

between diplomatic euphemisms and the maxims of the CP and PP first step,we will analyze what
are

well.So瑟the

the relationships between diplomatic euphemisms

and the maxims ofCP in press conferences.

4。4.1 Violating the Cooperative Principle
In communication like the question-answer patterns in press conferences,generally

participants are required to observe the moves forward smoothly and successfully.But
people
or

CP in order to make their conversation in reality,in order to meet


certain

communicative need,especially in press conferences concerning diplomacy,actually
people seldom speaks by always faithfully observing these four Therefore Grice himself also suggests 5 ways participants

maxims

of the CP.

Can

deal with these maxims

(qtd.in Fasold,2000).First,speakers
they
carl

carl

straightforwardly follow the maxims,that is, enough relevant information in


speak the truth while giving

just

clear,

unambiguous,succinct

and

orderly marlller.Many people do


just that most of time.


Second,someone may violate
tllird thing that
can

maxim,as


you would do if you told cart‘opt out’of a

deliberate lie.A
to

happen is that

speaker

maxim.this seems

be

an

1.1睦conMllon occurrence。The
one

fourth possibility is the

maxim clash;casos
filMa of

in which you

would have to violate
case

maxim in order协fulfill another.And perhaps this is the most

of violation of the maxims in press

conferences.The
to

and most

intriguing way


to deal

with the maxims of conversation is

flout

one

them.When

maxim

is

flouted,a

speaker

doesn't observe the
SO

maxim,but

cannot be accused of violating it

either,because the transgression is

flagrant that it is totally obvious that the speaker

曼!兰塞望!蹩型!

曼塑塑曼垒竺墼羔!!!竺!垒!兰竺望塾!篓强堡!垫呈竺堑曼2垡曼兰登曼竺!
or

knows

he

or

she iS not observing it and realizes everyone else in the conversation

in

press conferences knows it too.

The existence of the maxims of the CP makes the conversational implicature possible especially
on


the conditions like in press conferences etc。。Conversational

implicature allows

speaker of any side in press conferences to convey meaning
carl

beyond what is literally expressed.Speakers in press conferences

often
or

use

euphemisms

or

euphemistic expressions
call

to

produce conversational implicature

more

metaling that the hearers

also figure out its real intentions rather than the literal

meaning by violating some certain maxims,as we will following. 4.4.1.1 Violation of Quality

analyze in detail in

the

Maxim
are

Violation ofQuality Maxim means by saying things that

not true

or

the fact

and

making

irresponsible

and

insincere remarks

by the


speakers.Frankly

speaking,

euphemisms especially diplomatic euphemisms have

tendency to violate
all

Quailty

Maxim in order to express unpleasant things

or

ideas etc.in

indirect,roundabout and

pleasant way.nerefore
meaning based such

if hearers

want

to

know the real intentions of the diplomatic

euphemisms,也ey should infer the conversational implicature from the illocutionary
On

the special context.In diplomatic communication,in order to avoid

unpleasant and indecent terms as‘‘W托poor,disease,and race”etc.,the speakers
use

usually

some diplomatic euphemisms that violate the

Quality Maxim and

we will

show in Table 4。2.

Table 4,2:Euphemisms Violating


Q瞧每Maxim
Transcript 4 Transcript 5





Transcript l

Transcript 2

Transcript 3

the situation,

movement,
slate ofreadiness,

line ofcontrol, role ofa friend,



conflict,

convep3atton。



OUr掰endS.
the international

the program, self-defense,
Free Iraqi Forces,

dialogue,
their views,




air operation, the issue ofKosovo,
enter

the discussions,
transfoⅡn itself, moderate elements, reduce tension, the crisis,

community,


resolve iSSUeS. the parties, military aid, involved in politics,

墨 童 量


clear signal,

into,

nuclear conflict,
information about, the message

military action,

the volunteers, ifsth.happens, the big picture

Ministry ofDefense,
active defense

重庆大学硕士学位论文

From Table 4.2,we

can see

that some of the diplomatic euphemisms used in the

five press conferences violate the Quality Maxim of CP.Due to the limitation of time

and space.we will
to

not list

all the diplomatic euphemisms in the five transcripts.In order

have



clear understanding and

explanation

of the euphemisms used in press
US

conferences that violate the from

Quality Maxim of CP,Let

look at some examples taken

Transcript
Q:Britain

Two:
and France both put troops
on

into
to

Kosovo.鼢订e…has the
A:In view ofthe盘cf

US put any units

Kosovo? th

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