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1. Romance, which uses verse or prose to describe the adventures and life of the knigh ts, is the popular literary form in ___C _. A. Romanticism B. Renaissance C. medieval period D. Anglo-Saxon period 2. Among the great Middle English poets, Geoffrey Chaucer is known for his producti on of___D A. Piers Plowman B. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight C. Confessio Amantis D. Th e Canterbury Tales 3. Generally, the Renaissance refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th cent uries, its essence is____D___. A. science B. philosophy C. arts D. humanism 5. Which of the following statements best illustrates the theme of Shakespeare?s Sonn et 18? C A. The speaker eulogizes (praise) the power of B. The speaker satirizes human vanity C. The speaker praises the power of artistic creation D. The speaker meditates on man ?s salvation 6. ―The Fairy Queen‖ is the masterpiece written by__C__. A. John Milton B. Geoffr ey Chaucer C. Edmund Spenser D. Alexander Pope 7. Which of the following work did Bacon NOT write? D A. Advancement of Learning B. Novum Organum C. De Augmentis D. Areopagitica 8. The most distinguished literary figure of the 17th century was (B) who was a critic, poet, and playwright. A. Oliver Goldsmith B. John Dryden C. John Milton D. S.T. Coleridge 9. Which of the following has / have associations with John Donne?s poetry? B A. reason and sentiment B. conceits and wits C. the euphuism D. writing in the rhymed couplet 10. Henry Fielding has been regarded by some as ―___B___‖, for his contribution to the establishment of the form of the modern novel. A. Best writer of the English novel B. The father of English novel C. The most gifted writer of the English novel D. conventional writer of English nove l 11. John Milton?s masterpiece—Paradise Lost was written in the poetic style of __ B _. A. rhymed stanzas B. blank verse C. alliteration D. sonnets 12. The Houyhnhnms depicted by Jonathan Swift in Gulliver?s Travels are ____A_. A. horses that are endowed with reason B. pigmies that are endowed with admirable qualities C. giants that are superior in wis dom D. hairy, wild, low and despicable creatures, who resemble human beings not only in

appearance but also in some other ways 13. Gothic novels are mostly stories of___C_ ____, which take place in some haunted or dilapidated Middle Age castles. A. love an d marriage B. sea adventures C. mystery and horror D. saints and martyrs 14. William Wordsworth, a romantic poet, advocated all the following EXCEPT __D_ A. the use of everyday language spoken by the common people B. the expression of t he spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings C. the use of humble and rustic life as s ubject matter D. the use of elegant wording and inflated figures of speech 15. Charles Dickens? works are characterized by a mingling of ___A____ and pathos. A. humor B. satire C. passion D. metaphor 16. In __B____ ?s hands, ―dramatic monologue‖ reaches its maturity and perfection. A. Alfred Tennyson B. Robert Browning C. William Shakespeare D. George Eliot 18. The bard of imperialism was (B), who glorified the colonial expansion of Great Britain in his works. A. R. L. Stevenson B. Rudyard Kipling C. H. G. Wells D. Daniel Defoe 19. ―art for art?s sake‖ was put forth by ___A___. A. aestheticism B. naturalism C. realism D. neo-romanticism 20. Which of the following is taken from John Keats? ―Ode on a Grecian Urn‖? D A. ―I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!‖ B. ―They are both gone up to the church to pray.‖ C. ―Earth has not anything to sho w more fair.‖ D. ―Beauty is truth, truth beauty.‖ 43. Gothic novels are mostly stories of__C___, which take place in some haunted or d ilapidated Middle Age castles. A. love and marriage B. sea adventures C. mystery and horror D. saints and martyrs 44. ―The father of English novel‖ is ___A_______. A. Henry Fielding B. Daniel Defoe C. Jonathan Swift D. John Donne 45. The greatest Scottish poet in the pre-romanticism is ____D____. A. William WordswothB. Oliver Goldsmith C. Thomas Gray D. Robert Burns 46. ___A___ is written by William Blake, a great poet in the pre-romanticism. A. The Songs of Innocence B. Reliques of Ancient English poetry C. Songs and Sonnets D. Kubla Khan 47. The Rights of Man, a pamphlet, was written by __D____, in which he advocated t hat politics was the business of the whole mass of common people and not only of a government oligarchy. A. John Milton B. Jonathan Swift C. Robert Burns D. Thomas Paine 48. William Wordsworth , a romantic poet , advocated all the following EXCEPT (D). A. the use of everyday language spoken by the common people B. the expression of t he spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings C. the use of humble and rustic life as s

ubject matter D. the use of elegant wording and inflated figures of speech 49. Which of the following is taken from John Keats? ―Ode on a Grecian Urn‖? D A. ―I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!‖ B. ―They are both gone up to the church to pray.‖ C. ―Earth has not anything to sho w more fair.‖ D. ―Beauty is truth , truth beauty.‖ 50. ―If Winter comes , can Spring be far behind.‖ is an epigrammatic line by D A. John Keats B. William Blake C. William Wordsworth D. P. B. Shelley 51. ―Ode on a Grecian Urn‖ shows the contrast between the___B___ of art and the__ __ of human passion. A. Glory, ugliness B. permanence, transience C. transience, sordidness D. glory, perm anence 52. One of the great essay writers of the early 19th century is B A. Jane Austen B. Charles Lamb C. Walter Scott D. George Eliot 53. Tales form Shakespeare was written by ___D__. A. Charles Lamb B. William Hazlitt C. Charles Lamb and Mary Lamb D. Wordsworth and Coleridge 54. Charles Dickens? works are characterized by a mingling of ____A___ and pathos. A. humor B. satire C. passion D. metaphor 55. In Chapter III of Oliver Twist, Oliver is punished for that ―impious and profane o ffence of asking for more‖. What did Oliver ask for more? A. More time to play B. More food t o eat C. More books to read D. More money to spend 56. In ___B___ ?s hands, ―dramatic monologue‖ reaches its maturity and perfection. A. Alfred Tennyson B. Robert Browning C. William Shakespeare D. George Eliot 57. The success of Jane Eyre is not only because of its sharp criticism of the existing s ociety, but also due to its introduction to the English novel the first __D____ heroine. A. explorer B. peasant C. worker D. governess 家庭女教师 58. The three trilogies of __A___ ?s Forsyte novels are masterpieces of critical realis m in the early 20th century. A. John Galswortry B. Arnold Bennett C. James Joyce D. H. G. Wells 59. The Victorian Age was largely an age of___C___ eminently represented by Dicke ns and Thackeray. A. poetry B. drama C. novel D. prose 61. The work __B___ written by Alfred Tennyson was about the question of higher ed ucation of women. A. Crossing the Bar B. The Princess C. Break, Break, Break D. Ulysses 65. A typical Forsyte, according to John Galsworthy, is a man with a strong sense of__

_A____, who never pays any attention to human feelings. A. property B. justice C. morality D. humor 66. ____D__is considered to be the best-known English dramatist since Shakespeare, and his representative works are plays inspired by social criticism. A. Richard Sheridan B. Oli ver Goldsmith C. Oscar Wilde D. George Bernard Shaw 67. ―art for art?s sake‖ was put forth by _A_____. A. aestheticism B. naturalism C. realism D. neo-romanticism 68. James Joyce is the author of all the following novels EXCEPT___B_____. A. Dubliners B. Jude the Obscure C. A portrait of the Artist as a Young Man D. Ulysses 1. In 1066, ____, with his Norman army, succeeded in invading and defeating England. A. William the Conqueror B. Julius Caesar C. Alfred the Great D. Claudius 2. In the 14th century, the most important writer (poet) is ____ . A. Langland B. Wycliffe C. Gower D. Chaucer 3. The prevailing form of Medieval English literature is ____. A. novel B. drama C. romance D. essay 4. The story of ___ is the culmination of the Arthurian romances. A. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight B. Beowulf C. Piers the Plowman D. The Canterbury Tales 5. William Langland?s ____ is written in the form of a dream vision. A. Kubla Khan B. Piers the Plowman C. The Dream of John Bull D. Morte d?Arthur 6. After the Norman Conquest, three languages existed in England at that time. The N ormans spoke _____. A. French B. English C. Latin D. Swedish 7. ______ was the greatest of English religious reformers and the first translator of th e Bible. A. Langland B. Gower C. Wycliffe D. Chaucer 8. Piers the Plowman describes a series of wonderful dreams the author dreamed, thro ugh which, we can see a picture of the life in the ____ England. A. primitive B. feud al C. bourgeois D. modern 9. The theme of ____ to king and lord was repeatedly emphasized in romances. A. loyalty B. revolt C. obedience D. mockery 10. The most famous cycle of English ballads centers on the stories about a legendary outlaw called _____. A. Morte d?Arthur B. Robin Hood C. The Canterbury Tales D. Piers th e Plowman

11. ______, the “father of English poetry” and one of the greatest narrative poets of E ngland, was born in London in about 1340. A. Geoffrey Chaucer B. Sir Gawain C. Francis Bacon D. John Dryden 12. Chauce r died on October 25th, 1400, and was buried in ____. A. Flanders B. France C. Italy D. Westminster Abbey 13. Chaucer?s earlies t work of any length is his _____, a translation of the French Roman de la Rose by Ga illaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung, which was a love allegory enjoying widespread popularity in the 13th and 14th centuries not only in France but throughout Europe. A. The Romaunt of the Rose B. “A Red, Red Rose” C. The Legend of Good W omen D. The Book of the Duchess 14. In his lifetime Chaucer served in a great variety of occupations that had impact on the wide range of his writings. Which one is not his career? ____. A. engineer B. c ourtier C. office holder D. soldier E. ambassador F. legislator (议员) 15. Chaucer composes a long narrative poem named _____ based on Boccaccio?s poe m “Filostrato”. A. The Legend of Good Women B. Troilus and Criseyde C. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight D. Beowulf Key to the multiple choices: 1-5 ADCAB 6-10 ACBAB 11-15 ADAAB

1.Metaphysical poetry: Metaphysical poetry is a kind of realistic, often ironic and wi tty, verse combining intellectual ingenuity and psychological insight written partly in r eaction to the conventions of Elizabethan love poetry by such seventeenth-century po ets as John Donne, George Herbert, Richard Crashaw, Thomas Traherne, and Andrew Marvell. One of its hallmarks is the metaphysical conceit, a particularly arresting and ingenious type of metaphor. 2. In your opinion, why does Satan in Paradise Lost choose the Garden of Eden for his battlefield? (7 points) Answer: 1) Paradise Lost was written by John Milton. (1points) 2) The Garden of Eden is the most perfect of spot ever created by God (2 points) 3) There live in innocent bliss God?s masterpiece, the first man and woman, Adam and Eve, who are allowed by God to enjoy /revel in the supreme beauties of Paradise, provided they do not eat the fruit that grows on the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; (3 point) 4) Satan desires to tear them away from the influence of God and to m ake them instrumental in his struggle against God?s authority. (1 point) 4.Write a summery of Pride and Prejudice and make a short comment on the theme. the main plot(7 分;主要情节表述不全或不连贯者酌情扣分)and result (1 分 ) ; (Unfortunately for the Bennets, if Mr. Bennet dies their house will be inherited by a distant cousin whom they have never met, so the family's future happiness and se curity is dependant on the daughters making good marriages. Life is uneventful until t

he arrival in the neighborhood of the rich gentleman Mr. Bingley, who rents a large ho use so he can spend the summer in the country. Mr. Bingley brings with him his sister and the dashing (and richer) but proud Mr. Darcy. Love is soon in the air for one of th e Bennet sisters, while another may have jumped to a hasty prejudgment. For the Ben net sisters many trials and tribulations stand between them and their happiness, includ ing class, gossip and scandal.)Theme: exploration of the marriage, property and intrig ue between the main and minor characters; delicate probing of the values of gentry/ m arriage, class, money) 5) grammar and structure (3 分). 5. What are the characteristics of metaphysical 玄学派 poetry? (定义见 1) 答 : ① ( 用 语 ) the diction is simple, the imagery is from the actual,② ( 形 式 )the form is frequently an argument with the poet?s beloved, with god, or with hims elf.③(主题:love, religious, thought)④Artistic features: conceits or imagery 奇思 妙喻 and syllogism 三段论 6. What the theme of "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud"? 答: Theme:1.Nature embodies human beings in their diverse circumstance. It is n ature that give him ―strength and knowledge fullof peace‖ 2.It is bliss to recolled the beauty of nature in poet mind while he is in solitude. 7. What does ―West Wind mean in Shelley?s Ode to the West Wind? The author express his eagerness to enjoy the boundless freedom from the reality. Co mpare the west wind to destroyer of the old who drives the last signs of life from the t rees, and preserver of the new who scatter the seads shich sill come to life in the sprin g. This is a poem about renewal, about the wind blowing life back into dead things, i mplying not just an arc of life (which would end at death) but a cycle, which only start s again when something dies.

术语 Terms
1. Popular ballads: a story hold in 4-line stanzas with second and fourth line rhymed. Ballads are anonymous narrative songs that have been preserved by oral transmission . 2. Enlightenment: Enlightenment is an intellectual movement in Europe in 18th cent ury. It was an expression of the struggle of the bourgeoisie against feudalism. The enlighte ners fought against class inequality, stagnation, prejudices and other feudal survivals. It was so called because it considered the chief means for the betterment of the society was the ―enlightenment‖ or ―education‖ of the people. 3. Sentimentalism: it came into being as a result of a bitter discontent on the part of certain enlighteners in social reality. (The representatives of sentimentalism continued to struggle against feudalism but they vaguely sensed at the

same time the contradictions of bourgeois progress that brought with it enslavement and ruin to the people. ) The philosophy of the enlighteners, through rati onal and materialistic in its essence, did not exclude sences, or sentiments, as a means of perception and learning. Moreover, the cult of nature and , a cult of a "natural man" whose feelings display themselves in a most human and natural manner, contrary to t he artful and hypocritical aristocrats. 4. Neo-classicism(古典主义): It was initiated by Dryden, culminated in Pope and continued by Johnson. Neo-classic ists modeled themselves on classical, ancient Greek and Latin authors. They wanted t o achieve perfect form in literature. They general tended to look at social and political life critically. They emphasize on intellect rather than imagination. They observed fix ed laws and rules in literary creation. Poets preferred heroic couplet. In drama, they ad hered to three unities, time, place and action. They emphasized on the didactic functio n of literature. 5. Realism: Realism is a mode of writing that gives the impression of recording or ref lecting‖ faithfully an actual way of life. The term refers, sometimes confusingly, both t o a literary method based on detailed accuracy of description (i. e. verisimilitude) and to a more general attitude that rejects idealization, escapism, and other extravagant qu alities of romance in favor of recognizing soberly the actual problems of life. 6. Gothic novel: (哥特式小说) Gothic novel, a type of romantic fiction that predominated in the late eighteenth centu ry, was one phase of the Romantic movement. It is futile to struggle against one's fate. The mysterious element plays an enormous role in the Gothic novel;it is so replete wit h bloodcurdling scenes and unatural feelings that it is justly called "a novel of horror". Its principal elements are violence, horror, and the supernatural. 7. Lake poets: (湖畔诗人) refer to the first generation of romanticism including Wordsworth Coleridge and Sout hey. They once lived around the lake districts and traversed the similar attitude toward literature, politics and society, beginning as radicals and ending in conservatives. 8. Romanticism is a movement that flourished in literature, philosophy, music and art in Western culture during most of the nineteenth century, beginning as a revolt agains t classicism. There have been many varieties of Romanticism in many different times and places. Many of the ideas of English romanticism were first expressed by the poet s William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 9. Dramatic monologue is a type of poem writing style in which a character, at some specific and critical moment, addresses an identifiable but silent audience, thereby uni ntentionally revealing his or her essential temperament and personality.

10. Aestheticism: 唯美主义 The basic theory of the Aesthetic movement is ―art for art?s sake‖. Aestheticism plac es art above life, and holds that life should imitate art, not art imitate life. According t o the aesthetes, all artistic creation is absolutely subjective as opposed to objective. Ar t should be free from any influence of egoism. Only when art is for art?s sake, can it b e immortal. This was one of the reactions against the materialism and commercialism of the Victorian industrial era, as well as a reaction against the Victorian convention of art for morality?s sake, or art for money?s sake. The representatives are Oscar Wilde a nd Walter Pater. 11. Stream of consciousness: a kind of style with a carefully modulated poetic flow a nd brought into prose fiction something of the rhythms and the imagery of lyric poetry.

1, 《圣经》创世神话中, 创造宇宙和人类的神是男性,而且完全像个家长。 而在世俗神话中, 创造人和世界的神往往是女性,或有女性神参与,而且常常伴随有性交的隐喻或暗指。 女娲补天(the goddess mending the sky) 女娲这类神都很关怀、呵护人类。而圣经里的上帝严格要求人追随他,遵守他的法律,发 洪水来绝灭人类,形象截然不同。 2, 《圣经》的创世神话中,男性上帝是使用语言来创造了世界,也就是说,他把世界万物用 话“说”了出来。 《圣经》的创世神话中隐含的社会和政治内容: 伊甸园 the Garden of Eden 并非彻底意义的超然世界,人类初始的故事已经涉及到一系 列与他们存活相关的话题,比如生死、劳作、政治和经济等,这些内容在开天辟地之初都已 经有了埋伏。 3,上帝创世还牵涉到男女平权的问题。 指出死亡是对人类的惩罚,给与了人类超越死亡、回归上帝的可能。超越无意义的来回生死 循环,把握自己命运,在人生中做出一点业绩的一种心理安慰。 使人类更能承受精神痛苦,满足人类心理需求,使人类能够通过信仰弥补种种遗憾,并且承 受生活中的平庸与重负。

一、起源不同 中国神话起源于各个部族的图腾崇拜 totemism,历史悠久,始祖神和天神合一,每个 部族都有自己的始祖神, 所以在中国无法找到一个统治神界的至高无上的神, 而西方神话产 生较晚,而且不同于中国的农耕文化的海洋文化,各氏族融合较好,形成一个完整统一的神 界体系。 二、神的形象和变化不同

1、中国神开始经常是人兽 beast 的结合体,体现对图腾的崇拜。西方神话大部分神是以完 美人的形象出现,是人格化的神。 2、变化不同,中国的神有从男性向女性变化、从半人半兽向全人转变的趋势,而西方神话 很少有这种情况; 三、本性不同 1、中国神话强调团体意识和奉献精神,西方神话个性张扬、强调原欲 original desire。 2、中国神话更注重实用性,西方神话更注重灵魂救赎。 根本上讲不同是由于中国人强调个体应服从整体、 西方更注重自我价值的区别, 造成了神话 的不同。

Noah's Ark is the vessel, which, according to the Book of Genesis, was built by the Pa triarch Noah at God's command to save himself, his family and the world's animals from a worldwide deluge. The narrative features in a number of Abra hamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and Islam.The biblical account, told i n the Book of Genesis 6-9, tells how God sends a great flood to destroy the earth beca use of man's wickedness and because the earth is corrupt. God tells Noah, a righteous man in his generation, to build a large vessel to save his family and a representation of the world's animals. God gives detailed instructions for the Ark, and after its completi on, sends the animals to Noah. God then sends the Flood which rises until all the mou ntains are covered and every living thing died. Then "God remembered Noah," the wa ters abate, and dry land reappears. Noah, his family, and the animals leave the Ark, an d God enter a covenant to never again send a flood to destroy the Earth.

4.巴别塔 Babel
巴别塔故事首先讲的是城市文明的开端。 建造塔 Under Construction,1,为张扬名声,即人类的存在,2,塔有指点方向之义。3,人 类不想分散,想集中和团结起来。4,要让塔通天,要能接到天上。 “巴别塔”从另一个意义上可以看作是人类第一个乌托邦理想。 语言的双重性,是沟通的工具,又是分裂割离的手段。 后现代主义的多元解读无一不是在强调语言的重要性。声称语言之外没有存在。多元论 pluralism 挑战了存在决定意识(existence determines consciousness)的观点。巴别塔 故事是世界多元化的开端。 在巴别塔故事中, 人类争取协调一致的努力却反讽地走向了相反的方向。 这个努力造成了最 大的分裂,这个故事讲的是人类不认识自己的局限性,以为可以主宰一切。因此,人类要知 道自己在自然里的地位, 不要狂妄。 巴别塔的故事, 也显示了人类的局限和改变现实的艰难。


(1) Expectations (dreams) 1. ill-founded illusions and final disillusions 2. Those characters who dream the most, hope the most, and plan the most are ultimately wounded the most by their dreams, hopes, and plans. Likewise, when characters realize their dreams, they do not find the happiness that they expected. 3. Cinderella pattern (with god-mother or father, prince or princess, unexpected help and sudden change of fate, and final union of the prince and princess) (2) Society and Class In the world of this novel, society is divided among class lines, creating impenetrable barriers between social classes. Society enforces strict boundaries between classes, lifestyles, and regions, making it nearly impossible for people to move between these designations. When characters attempt to break through these barriers, they only find loneliness and loss. (3) Growing up Pip?s development from an innocent, honest and sympathetic boy to a vain, selfish, snobbish young gentleman and finally to disillusioned, experienced grown-up. The painful experience in the struggle to grow up, to “climb up” or to succeed in the commercialized world. Three stages of human development: Innocence, experience and higher stage of

innocence This is a process of both gaining and losing. (4) Revenge (love turned into hatred) Love is closely tied to hatred, and, therefore, to revenge and to destruction. Humiliated and heartbroken, Miss Havisham was determined to make a revenge against the man who jilted her on the day of her wedding. In her plan of revenge, she brought up Estella as a beautiful, cold-hearted weapon of revenge upon all male folk in the world. The seeking of revenge is considered a worthless pursuit. It is shown that revenge not only harms the life of the individual seeking it but also the lives of those who have not harmed the revenge seeker in any way.

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