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英文摘要例子Abstract


SAMPLE ABSTRACTS: 1."Their War": The Perspective of the South Vietnamese Military in Their Own Words Despite the vast research by Americans on the Vietnam War, little is known about the perspective of South Vietnamese military, officially called the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF). The overall image that emerges from the literature is negative: lazy, corrupt, unpatriotic, apathetic soldiers with poor fighting spirits. This study recovers some of the South Vietnamese military perspective for an American audience through qualititative interviews with 40 RVNAF veterans now living in San José Sacramento, and Seattle, , home to three of the top five largest Vietnamese American communities in the nation. An analysis of these interviews yields the veterans' own explanations that complicate and sometimes even challenge three widely held assumptions about the South Vietnamese military: 1) the RVNAF was rife with corruption at the top ranks, hurting the morale of the lower ranks; 2) racial relations between the South Vietnamese military and the Americans were tense and hostile; and 3) the RVNAF was apathetic in defending South Vietnam from communism. The stories add nuance to our understanding of who the South Vietnamese were in the Vietnam War. This study is part of a growing body of research on non-American perspectives of the war. In using a largely untapped source of Vietnamese history &endash; oral histories with Vietnamese immigrants &endash; this project will contribute to future research on similar topics. 2.Humanities: Violence, Subalternity, and El Corrido Along the US/Mexican Border The Geopolitical divide that separates the United States and Mexico has long plagued the region with violence and conflict. However, its extent and political nature is often overshadowed and undermined by mainstream information outlets. The boundary inspires polarized reactions: tough on crime/immigration rhetoric from politicians and enforcement officials &endash; exemplified in current border militarization &endash; and appeasement through feel-good news reporting. Such contradictions desensitize and deny the essence and root cause of the conflict &endash; an ongoing sociopolitical, cultural, and economic struggle between the two nations. While information transmission in the north has a U.S. focus, south of the divide knowledge distribution is very Mexico-centered. However, the border region acts as a third space t hat gives birth to a distinct border gnosis, a unique form of knowledge construction among subaltern communities on both its sides. One form of subalternity, corridos, (border folk ballads), has functioned to create an alternative discourse to the borderlands imaginary. This study is an examination of the analysis and critique found in corridos that seek a critical approach to the violence at the nations' shared edges and its ensuing political implications. To illustrate their subaltern function, I will examine two incidents: the 1984 McDonalds shooting in San Ysidro, California, and the 1997 death of Ezequiel Herná ndez in Redford, Texas. these cases are indicative of the politically charged environment of a border region that in becoming an increasingly militarized zone has also set the stage for a cultural battle amongst different forms of knowledge construction and legitimation. 3.Biological Sciences: "The Listeria monocytogenes p60 Protein is not Essential for Viability in vitro, but Promotes Virulence in vivo" Author: Sina Mohammedi, 2002 UC Day nominee and runner-up Intracellular pathogens (agents which infect host cells), such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, cause very high mortality rates in the United States. Therefore, deciphering the mechanisms through which the pathogens cause disease is of great interest. Listeria infection of mice is a well-developed model system for studying the fundamentals of host-pathogen interactions. In vitro assays in animal cell cultures have helped show that Listeria causes illness by secreting molecules, called virulence factors, to the outside of the bacterial cell in order to affect the host organism. My work involves one such secreted protein,

called p60. P60 is an antigen (an agent seen by the host immune system) implicated in regulated bacterial cell wall breakdown. The objective of this study was to examine two questions: first, is p60 essential to the viability of Listeria, as previously published? and second, is p60 a virulence factor in Listeria? To examine these questions, I contructed a Listeria strain lacking p60 (p60-). This new strain displayed no defect in viability. In fact, most standard in vitro pathogenicity assays were normal for p60-. However, when p60was tested in a mouse (in vivo), a 1000-fold reduction in virulence was observed. This discovery suggests that p60 is indeed a key factor in the disease-causing ability of Listeria, but not essential for viability. Future studies will focus on the precise role of p60 in Listeria pathogenesis. This work increases our understanding of such diseases as tuberculoses, various food poisonings, and meningitis. 4.Engineering: "Quantifying the Mechanics of a Laryngoscopy" Laryngoscopy is a medical procedure that provides a secure airway by passing a breathing tube through the mouth and into the lungs of a patient. The ability to successfully perform laryngoscopy is highly dependent on operator skill; experienced physicians have failure rates of 0.1% or less, while less experienced paramedics may have failure rates of 10-33%, which can lead to death or brain injury. Accordingly, there is a need for improved training methods, and virtual reality technology holds promise for this application. The immediate objective of this research project is to measure the mechanics of laryngoscopy, so that an advanced training mannequin can be developed. This summer an instrumented laryngoscope has been developed which uses a 6-axis force/torque sensor and a magnetic position/orientation sensor to quantify the interactions between the laryngoscope and the patient. Experienced physicians as well as residents in training have used this device on an existing mannequin, and the force and motion trajectories have been visualized in 3D. One objective is to use comparisons between expert and novice users to identify the critical skill components necessary for patients, to identify the mechanical properties of the human anatomy that effect laryngoscopy, and thus enable the development of a realistic training simulator. In the future an advanced training mannequin will be developed whose physical properties will be based on our sensor measurements, and where virtual reality tools will be used to provide training feedback for novice users. 5.Others Roadways constructed of conventional pavement are subject to deformations after prolonged use. Laboratory model study of an anchored pavement was carried out. The objective of the study was to investigate construction problems and to develop specifications for a full-scale test. The study compared 1/20-scale anchored pavement and conventional slabs of similar dimensions. The model test results were compared with results from finite-element analysis. The deformations were lower for the anchored pavement compared with those for the conventional slab, and stresses in the soil were reduced and distributed more widely by rigid anchors. These findings indicate that an anchored slab offers distinct advantages over a conventional slab. The ANSYS computer program could be used to analyze such a soil-structure system, incorporating the environmental and mechanical effects. 6. To examine the views of faculty and residents about teaching and evaluating health advocacy, one of the more difficult CanMEDS roles to integrate into postgraduate medical education. In 2002, two focus groups of faculty and two of residents at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, were asked standardized questions to elicit their answers to what was a health care advocate as understood and reported by teachers and residents, and what were the reported barriers and enhancers to teaching and evaluating the role of residents as health care advocates. The study found that faculty and residents knew little about how to teach and evaluate the role of the health advocate. 7. This paper reports a longitudinal study on the changes in speaking vocabulary by English majors through four years’ learning, which was then compared with the native speakers’ performance./ The English

learners involved in the study were56 students who were enrolled in a university in 2001./They were asked to complete an oral task by producing a three-minute monologue after three minutes’ preparation in a language lab./ The native speakers were 15 American college students who accomplished the same task as the English learners./The developmental changes were measured in terms of three indexs: fluency ,word variations and lexical frequency profile. 8. The performance on the three indexes on the three indexes of the across for years and the native speakers form a conyinuum. /However , Year Four students were significantly lower in fluency and word variations than native speakers ,but similar to the native speakers in lexical frequency profile. /The period between Year Two and Year Three saw the most noticeable progress. /The students with different starting levels of the three indexes varied in terms of their changes. /The low-level group mad greater progress than the middle-level group which produced slightly faster progress than the high-level group.


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