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江苏高中英语语法总结


牛津高中英语-模块一

第一单元 一 定语从句:定语从句的介绍 1. 就像是一个形容词或介词短语修饰名词一样,定语从句也可以修饰名词。定 语从句所修饰的名词称为先行词。 形容词:The green team 介词短语:The team in green 定语从句:The team who were wearing green

2. 定语从句通常由关系代词来引导,如 which, that, who, whom, whose,或关 系副词来引导, 如 when, where, why。 关系代词可以在定语从句中担当主语, 宾语,表语,定语;关系副词可以在定语从句中担当状语。 如:做主语 The trees which are on the school campus have lost their leaves. 做宾语 The student whom we saw just now is the best runner in our school. 做表语 Jack is no longer the lazy boy that he used to be. 做定语 She has a brother whose name I can?t remember. 做状语 The school where he studied is in Shenzhen.

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二 定语从句:关系代词:that,which,who,whom,和 whose 1. 在定语从句中,that 和 which 用来指代物。 如:This is the story that /which we wrote for our storytelling contest. 2. 在定语从句中,who 用来指代人。 如:I am going to see a friend who has just come back from the UK. 3. 当 who 在定语从句中做宾语时,可以用 whom 来取代,且 whom 比 who 更 正式。 如:I don?t know the name of the teacher who/whom I saw in the computer room the other day. 4. 当关系代词在定语从句中做宾语时,who,whom,which 和 that 可以被省 略。 如:He likes all the birthday presents(that/which)his friends gave him. 5. Whose 用来表示所属,它既可指人也可指物。 如:I sat next to a girl whose name was Diane. The club whose members are music fans meet in the school garden every Saturday afternoon.

第二单元 一 定语从句: 介词提前的定语从句 (preposition+which; preposition+whom) 1. 当关系代词(which/whom)做定语从句中介词的宾语时,可以把介词提到 关系代词的前面。 如:We thought you were a person from whom we could expect good
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decisions. 2. 在非正式英语中,介词通常放在定语从句的最后。 如:Art is the subject which I know little about. 3. 如果介词放在定语从句的最后,which 可以被 that 取代,whom 可以被 that 和 who 取代。 如:Dad is a person whom/that/who I can easily talk to. 4. 当关系代词做定语从句中介词的宾语,并且介词又放在定语从句的末尾时, 我们通常省略关系代词 who 和 that。 如:The topic (which) Eric is interested in is Physics. Daniel is the person (whom) I want to make friends with. 5. 当先行词是 way 时,我们用 in which 或 that 来引导定语从句,这种情况下, in which 或 that 可以被省略。 如:I didn?t like the way (that /in which) she talked to me.

二 定语从句:关系副词:when,where, why 1.我们通常用关系副词 when 引导先行词是 time,moment,day, season, year 等的定语从句。 如:Do you remember the day when we left you in charge? I often think of the moment when I saw the UFO. 2. 我们通常用关系副词 where 引导先行词是 place, house, city, country, city, world 等的定语从句。 如:The police searched the house where the thief had stayed. This is not a family where bad behavior goes unpunished. 3.我们通常用关系副词 why 引导先行词是 reason 的定语从句。
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如:I don?t know the reason why the house is so dirty. 4.在更加正式的英语中,where,when 和 why 能够被介词+which 所替代。 如:The study is the place where/in which I often have talks with my father. This is the reason why/for which my parents got home earlier. It rained the whole day when/on which he traveled with his family.

第三单元 一 定语从句:非限制性定语从句 1.非限制性定语从句是一个为主句添加额外信息的从句,在非限制性定语从句 前通常有个逗号。 如:Amy, who took weight-loss pills, now realizes that health is important. My pills are in the bathroom, where I always keep them. 2.当先行词是整个主句时,可以用 which 来引导定语从句。 如:He missed the show, which was a great pity. 3.我们可以用 all+whom/which 来表示全部数量,用 some of+whom/which 来表示部分数量。 如:I am doing different types of exercises, all of which are quite helpful to my health. Many people, some of whom are not overweight, are going on diet.

二 附加疑问句 1.附加疑问句是放在陈述句后面的短问句。它们通常被用在口语中来引出一段 对话,以一个更加礼貌的方式来询问信息,温柔的发号施令或要求某人做某事。
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我们用附加疑问句来询问意见或征求同意。 当我们用附加疑问句来询问意见时,为了期待对方能同意我们的观点,附加疑问 句会用降调来表达。 当我们用附加疑问句来征求同意时, 我们实际上是在询问我们自己也不太能确信 的事情,这时候附加疑问句会用升调来表达。 2.附加疑问句的构成有以下几种: 1)在肯定的陈述句之后,我们会用否定的附加疑问句。在否定的陈述句之后, 我们会用肯定的附加疑问句。 如:We can still be friends, can?t we? He doesn?t like ice cream, does he? 2)当主句中有像 neither,none,nobody,nothing,few,little,never,hardly 或 seldom 这类词时,它们被认为是否定的,因此后面会跟个肯定的附加疑 问句。 如:Neither of you will have coffee, will you? No one has found my CD, have they? Nobody understood his speech, did they? His sister seldom argues with people, does she? 3)人称代词如 I,we,you,he,she,it 或 they 会放在附加疑问句中。 如:I was pretty silly, wasn?t I? Everyone has advises you not to go on a diet, haven?t you? 4)助动词,情态动词或 be 动词会放在附加疑问句中。 如:You like traveling, don?t you? There is something wrong, isn?t there? You can?t speak Italian, can you? 5)祁使句后用 will you, Let?s 后用 shall we 如:Post a letter for me, will you?
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Let?s have a break, shall we?

牛津高中英语-模块二

第一单元 一 现在完成时态 1.我们用现在完成时态来表示在最近的过去发生的但跟现在有联系的事情。 如:The disappearance of Justin has made Kelly very unhappy. 2.我们也用现在完成时态来表示在过去刚开始,并且现在还没结束的事情。 如:I have not seen Justin since last Friday night. 3. 当动作发生的确切时间不清楚或不重要时,我们也用现在完成时态。经常连 用的时间短 语有:already ever for just lately never recently since yet

already 用语肯定句,yet 用语否定句。 如:The boy has already come home. him yet. for+一段时间 since+点时间 I haven?t heard anything from

如:We haven?t seen him for two years. We haven?t seen him since 2002. 注:当已给定具体的时间时,我们往往用一般过去时态,而不是现在完成时态。 4. 我们用现在完成时态来谈论刚刚完成的动作。 如:The police have just finished searching the area. 5. 我们也用现在完成时态来表示重复的动作。

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如:Some villages say that they have seen UFOs many times. 6. 现在完成时态的构成是:have/has+动词的过去分词

二 现在完成进行时态 1.我们用现在完成进行时态来表示在过去发生的并且仍将继续的动作。 如:I have not been sleeping well since I returned home. 2. 我们用现在完成进行时态来表示刚刚结束但以某种方式和现在有联系的动作。 如:--- Sorry I?m late. Have you been waiting long? --- Yes, I?ve been waiting for an hour. 3.现在完成进行时态的构成:have/has +been +doing 注:for 和 since 和现在完成进行时态连用。 如:I have been waiting for a long time. He has been waiting since nine o?clock. 三 现在完成时态还是现在完成进行时态 1.我们用现在完成时态来谈论刚刚完成的动作,用现在完成进行时态来表示发 生在过去并且现在仍在发生的动作。 如:Li Jia has read a book about Stonehenge. (She finished reading the book.) Li Jia has been reading a book about Stonehenge. (She is still reading the book.) 2.我们用现在完成时态表示重复的动作,用现在完成进行时态来表示不停的动 作。 如:I have visited Egypt twice this month. I have been touring Egypt for two months.
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现在完成时态用于回答 how many/much 的提问,现在完成进行时态用语回答 how long 的提问。 如:How many times have you swum in the lake? How long have you been swimming in the lake? 3.状态动词和动作动词都可以用在现在完成时态中,但只有动作动词可以用在 现在完成进行时态中。 如:I have had this camera for five years. (状态动词) I have taken photos of UFO with this camera. (动作动词) I have been taking photos of UFO with this camera. (动作动词) 注:动作动词表示发生或变化的动作,如 go,play。状态动词表示保持不变的 动作,如 like, know,exist 4.当 never,yet,already,ever 出现在句子中时,只用现在完成时态,而不 用现在完成进行时态。 如:I?ve never visited Paris. I?ve already been to Paris.

第二单元 一 将来进行时态 1.我们用将来进行时态来: 1)谈论将来一段时间正在进行的事情。 如:Toby will be climbing in the Himalayas all next week 2)谈论从将来的某一点开始并且有可能要持续一段时间的事情。
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如:Toby will not be in London next Tuesday. He will be climbing in the Himalayas. 3)没有任何意图的表达将来的事情。 如: The weather report says that it will be raining when we arrive in London. 在这种情况下表示事情是很自然的发生的,没有人为的安排。 4)礼貌地询问有关其他人将来的计划。 如:Will you be visiting your uncle in Tanzania? 2.将来进行时态的构成: 1)陈述句:will(not)+v-ing 如:Toby and his brother, Colin, will (not) be flying to Morocco. 2)疑问句:will 提到主语的前面 如:Will they be flying to Morocco on 15th July? 3)回答:will(not) 如:Yes, they will. /No, they will not(won?t) 二 过去将来时态 1.我们用过去将来时态和过去进行时态来: 1)表示过去的将来某一时间要发生的动作。 如:They set off at 9 a.m. and would reach the airport an hour later. 2) 暗指一个过去的目的。 如:I was going to leave, but then it rained. 3) 暗指一个过去的安排。 如:Colin called Jennifer to say that he was seeing her later that afternoon.
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4) 指代实际已经发生过的将来的动作。 如:The journey that was to change Toby?s life started in July that year. 2.陈述句中过去将来时态的构成: 1)would +动词原形 如:I told you Colin and I would spend a few weeks traveling. 2) was/were going to,was /were to , was/were about to 如:We were going to see the wild animals, but then we didn?t have time. It was his last day at school---he was to leave the next morning. Colin was about to get off the camel when a child ran towards him.

第三单元 一 过去完成时态 1.我们用一般过去时态来谈论一个过去的动作。当我们想要谈论比过去更早的 时间里发生的事情时,就用过去完成时态。 如: Upon entering the tomb, Carter ?s lucky pet bird, which had led him to the place, was eaten by a snake. 2.在直接引语中,我们用过去完成时态来指代说话的时候就已经发生的动作。 直接引语中的一般过去时态和现在完成时态在间接引语中改为过去完成时态。 如:“We emptied the tomb of everything it contained,” said Carter.------Carter said that they had emptied the tomb of everything it contained. 3.过去完成时态只是指在另一个过去的动作之前发生的动作,并不是指发生在 一长段时间以前的动作。 如:I had done my homework this morning before I went to the museum.
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4.过去完成时态经常跟以下引导的时间短语连用,如 when, after, before, as soon as, until, since, by, for, already. 如:Then a few months after Carter had opened the tomb, Lord Carnarvon fell ill with a fever and died. 5.过去完成时态的构成:had+v-ed 如:Howard Carter had received money from Lord Carnarvon before he made his most amazing discovery.

二 现在完成时态还是过去完成时态 当我们谈论一个与现在有关的过去的事情时,我们用现在完成时态。 如:Howard Carter is one of the most famous explorers the world has ever known. 当我们在谈论过去, 并要说明一个更早发生的动作的时候,我们就要用过去完成 时态。 如: Not long after the tomb had been opened, people in Carter ?s team began to fall ill and die strangly.

牛津高中英语-模块三

第一单元 一 名词性从句:名词性从句的介绍 名词性从句在句中的作用和名词或名词短语的作用是一样的。 1. 我们可以用名词性从句做句子的主语。
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如:That I can pay back the help people give me makes me happy. Whether he?ll be able to come is not yet known. Why they have not left yet is unclear. 我们可以用 it 来做形式主语。 如:It was good news that everyone got back safely. 2. 我们可以用名词性从句来做动词的宾语。 如:she sensed that she was being watched. I wonder if/whether that?s a good idea. Polly didn?t know which way she should go. 我们可以用名词性从句来做介词的宾语。 如:I?m interested in who that tall man is. There was a discussion about whether Polly had found the blind man. 我们可以用 it 来做形式宾语。 如:we all thought it good news that the fog had finally gone. The conductor has made it clear that no buses will be running. 3. 我们可以用名词性从句来做表语。 如:the truth is that the fog is too think for the bus to run that far. My question is whether Polly can find her way home. The problem is how Polly is going to find us in the crowd. 4. 我们可以用名词性从句来做一个名词的同位语。 如:the fact that Polly didn?t ask for the man?s name is a pity. The news that the plane had crashed made us sad. Whatever gave you the idea that I can sing? 5. 我们用 that,if/whether 或一个疑问词来引导名词性从句。 如:I hope that Polly will be OK. No one knew if/whether he lost his sight because of an accident. She couldn?t imagine how the blind man had found her.

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二 名词性从句:用 that 或 if/whether 引导的名词性从句 1.我们用 that 来引导名词性从句。 1)当从句是一个陈述句时,我们用 that 来引导名词性从句。 如:She sensed that she was being watched by a tall man in a dark coat. 2) 在大多数情况下,我们不用 that 来引导介词后的名词性从句,但是,可以用 that 来引导 in 或 except 后的宾语从句。 如:The problem lies in that the mist may become a thick fog. I didn?t tell him anything except that I wasn?t able to find my way back. 3)当名词性从句做句子的主语时,that 不能省略。 如:That we couldn?t find our way out was really bad news. 4)在非正式英语中,当名词性从句做句子的宾语或表语时,that 可以省略。 如:She wished (that) someone would come along to help her. The truth is (that) the buses will not be running. 1. 我们用 if 或 whether 来引导名词性从句。 1) 当从句是个一般疑问句时,我们用 if 或 whether 来引导名词性从句。我们把 if 或 whether 后面从句的顺序改成陈述句的语序。 如:She wondered. Would the buses still be running? She wondered if/whether the buses would still be running. 2) 介词后只能用 whether,而不能用 if。 如:She is not certain about whether she has done anything wrong. 3) 当从句做主语放在句子开头时,只能用 whether,而不能用 if。 如:Whether it is going to clear up keeps me wondering. 4) 只能用 whether or not,而不能用 if or not。
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如:I want to know whether or not the train goes to King Street. 2. 如果 and 或 but 引导两个并列的 that 或 whether/if 引导的名词性从句,后一 个句子的 that 或 whether/if 不可省。 如:He said that he liked rain very much and that he wouldn?t use an umbrella when it was raining. No one knows whether it will be fine tomorrow and whether he will come to work.

第二单元 一 名词性从句:由疑问词引导的名词性从句 我们用以下的疑问词来引导名词性从句: what, which, who/whom, whose, when, where, why and how。 1. 当从句是 wh-引导的疑问句时,我们用疑问词来引导名词性从句。从句可以 做句子的主语,宾语或表语。 如:Where a person comes from will affect their style of speech. You can begin to see why English has such strange rules. That is why English is a language with so many confusing rules. 2. 我们把疑问词后面的句式改成陈述句的语序。 如:What are people from the north saying? People from the south find it difficult to understand. People from the south find it difficult to understand what people from the north are saying. 3.在任何情况下,都不可以省略名词性从句中的疑问引导词。

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二 形式主语 it 在英语中, 我们通常把最重要的信息放在句子的末尾用于强调。这被称做句末强 调效果。用形式主语 it 就可以达到这一效果。It 只是语法意义上的主语,真正的 主语在句子的后面。 1. 我们通常用 it 来做形式主语。 1) 当我们用一个名词性从句来做句子的主语时: (更好的)It is certain that we would not be able to understand Old English today. (正确的)That we would not be able to understand Old English today is certain. 2) 当主语是带 to 的动词不定式时: (更好的)It is hard to master a foreign language. (正确的)To master a foreign language is hard. 3) 当主语是动词-ing 形式时: (更好的)Smoking is difficult to stop. (正确的)It is difficult to stop smoking. 2. It 可以被放在 seem,appear,happen,chance,turn out 和 prove 前做句 子的形式主语。 如: It seems that he speaks two languages.=he seems to speak two languages. It happens that my new neighbor comes from my hometown.=my new neighbor happens to come from my hometown. 3. 我们可以用句型 it+be+被强调的名词或短语+that 或 who 引导的从句来强调 句子中的主语,宾语或状语。
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如:It was last night (not any other time)that I read about the history of English. 如果不强调任何成分,句子可以是: I read about the history of English last night.

第三单元 一 宾语不足语 1.宾语补足语为宾语提供更多的信息。 如:They called her the Loulan Beauty. 2.宾语补足语通常以下面形式出现:动词+宾语+宾语补足语,宾语补足语通常 可以是名词短语或形容词。 如:They made Professor Zhang chairman of the society. We found the ruins most interesting. 3. 有时侯带 to 的动词不定式和不带 to 的动词不定式可以做宾语补足语。 如:They believed him to be honest. Professor Zhang?s speech made us all laugh. 4. 宾语补足语可以时介词短语。 如:She found ourselves in the middle of a desert. 5. 宾语不足语通常和宾语在数上是一致的。 如:She made Joe her assistant. She made Joe and Sue her assistants.

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二 Either… or…

和 Neither… nor…

1.我们用 either…or…来表示选择性。 如: (连接主语)either Ann or Jane should have arrived by now. (连接动词) people either tried to escape or stayed in their houses. (连接宾语)we could choose to eat either noodles or rice. (连接状语)they are going to the museum either today or tomorrow. 3. 我们用 neither…nor…来连接表示否定的观点。 (both…and…的反义词) 如:neither the museum nor the site itself interested her. They neither told me the location nor showed me the map. I ate neither the noodles nor the rice. They went there neither by train nor by air. 三 主谓一致 主谓一致是指在主语后选择正确的单复数形式。 以下几点帮助我们决定动词是单 数或是复数。 1. 动词应是单数,如果主语是: 1) 单数的名词或不可数名词 如:the city was founded in the 8th century BC. The food they offered on the plane was delicious. 2) 计量的短语,标题或名字 如:two hours is too short for the visit. Little women is a great novel. 3) 一个短语或从句 如:travelling to Pompeii is exciting. That it keeps raining worries the tourists.
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2. 动词应是复数,如果主语是: 1) 一个复数名词 如:both cities were very rich. 2) 由 and 连接的两个或两个以上的单词或短语 如:the noodles and rice they offered on the plane were quite plain. 3. 当主语是 all of/ most of/ some of/ half of/ a part of +名词/代词,动词与名词 或代词保持一致。 如:all of us have attended the lecture about Pompeii. Most of the lecture was about how the ancient city was discovered. 4. 当主语是集合名词,如 band, crowd, class, dozen, family, public, team 时, 如果名词指代的是集体,动词用单数;如果名词指代的是个体,动词用复数。 如:our team is very important to me. Our team are now traveling to Xinjiang. 5. 当主语是 news, physics, mathematics, Aids 时,动词用单数;当主语是 goods, clothes, congratulations, earnings, remains, belongings 时,动词用 复数。 如: the latest news is that the Loulan Beauty is being displayed in Shanghai. All their belongings were destroyed in the earthquake. 6. 当 either…or…, neither…nor…, not only…but also…, not…but…,连接句子 的主语时,动词采取就近原则。 如:either the team leader or the guides are looking after the students. Either the guides or the team leader is looking after the students. 注 : 当 主 语 是

anybody/anyone/anything/everybody/everyone/everything/nobody/no
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one/nothing/somebody/someone/something/each/each one/either/neither/one 时,动词用单数。

牛津高中英语-模块四

第一单元 一 直接引语和间接引语 1.我们用直接引语来阐述所说的话。如果我们把引语写下来,这些单词就会被 放在引号 但是,我们通常更愿意用间接引语来阐述所说的话。 直接引语:She said, “China has been using PSAs to educate people.” 间接引语:She said China had been using PSAs to educate people. 2.我们可以通过把所说的话改成宾语从句或动词不定式短语的形式来把直接引 语变成间接引语。 如:She said, “I?m used to ads.”---- She said that she was used to ads. “We must not fall for this kind of trick!” she said.----She warned us not to fall for that kind of trick. 3.除了句型的改变外,还有其它的改变: 1) 人称代词的改变: 如:She said, “I did some research.”----- She said that she had done some research. 2) 时态的改变:

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如:She said, “This as is very clever.”----- She said that that ad was very clever. 下面列举当动词是过去时态时,时态是如何变化的: 直接引语 一般现在时 现在进行时 一般过去时 现在完成时 一般将来时 过去完成时 现在完成进行时 间接引语 一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时 过去将来时 过去完成时 过去完成进行时

注:当陈述一个不变的事实时,时态不变。 如: “light travels at great speed,” he said.---- He said that light travels at

great speed. 3) 时间和地点状语的变化: 如:Tom said, “I am working here today.”----- Tom said he was working there that day. 下面列举这种变化的例子: 直接引语 today tomorrow yesterday next month last year a week ago 4)其它的例子: 直接引语 间接引语
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间接引语 that day/ yesterday / on Wednesday, etc. the next day / the following day / on Thursday, etc. the day before / the previous day/ on Tudesay,etc. the month after/ the following month / in July,etc. the year before / the previous year, etc. a week before / a week earlier,etc.

this these come

that those go

二 间接引语:陈述句,疑问句和祈使句 1.陈述句 1)我们用 that 引导的名词性从句来陈述一件事。 如:She said, “Advertisements are an important part of our lives.”-----She said that advertisements are an important part of our lives. 2) 除了 say 之外,还有其它的动词可以这样用: tell, advise, agree, explain, insist, promise, remind, suggest, warn 如: “PSAs are often placed for free,” the writer said.----The writer explained that PSAs are often placed for free. 2.疑问句 1) 我们用 whether/if 引导的名词性从句来陈述一般疑问句。 如:Matt asked Ann, “Are you the happiest person in the world?”----Matt asked Ann whether/if she was the happiest person in the world. 2) 我们用 wh-疑问词引导的名词性从句来陈述 wh-疑问句。 如:I asked her, “How can that could be??----I asked her how that could be true. 3.祈使句 1)我们用以下结构来陈述祈使句:陈述动词+宾语+(not)+ to-动词不定式 如:The writer said, “Think about why you should do the things the ad suggests.”----The writer told us to think about why we should do the things the ad suggested. “Don?t worry, Mickey,” Jen said.----- Jen asked Mickey not to worry. 2) 其它的单词也有同样的用法:advise, encourage, invite, remind, warn
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如: “Don?t believe every advertisement you read,” Michelle said to me.----Michelle advised me not to believe every advertisement I read.

第二单元 一 情态动词:总体介绍 1.我们用情态动词来谈论: 1)能力 如:He can run the 100m sprint in11seconds. 2) 义务 义务性由弱到强排列:ought to/ should----have to -----must 如:You must work hard to win the gold medal. 3)确定 确 定 性 由 弱 到 强 排 列 : might---- may---- could----should-----ought to----will----must 如:She might win a medal at the Olympics. 4) 允许 正式性由弱到强排列:can----could----may----might 如:He is injured but may take part in the games. 2 我们也用情态动词来: 1)提要求: 正式性由弱到强排列:will---can----could----would 如:Can you help me with my training?
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3) 提意见: 如:Shall we do exercise this morning? 4) 提供帮助: 如:I?ll wash your sports jacket. Shall I get a ticket for you? 5) 提建议: 如:You should not/ ought not to eat a lot before swimming. 3 情态动词后应该接不带 to 的动词不定式。 如:She could win the gold medal. 4 我们用情态动词的进行时来谈论现在可能发生的事情, 用情态动词的完成时来 谈论过去可能发生的事情。 如:The boys may be playing football on the playground. He plays basketball very well. He must have practiced it a lot. 二 情态动词:can 和 be able to 等 1.Can 和 be able to 1)当指能力时,can 和 be able to 可以互换,但 be able to 比 can 更加正式但 也不常用。 如:My brother can/is able to play table tennis very well. 2) 我们用 can 来谈论将来可能发生的动作。 如:Let?s get some exercise. We can go and jog in the park. 3) be able to 可以用在不同的时态中,可以后面直接接动词原形或放在另一个 情态动词之后。 如:I?m sorry I haven?t been able to play tennis with you recently.
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It?s nice to be able to attend the lecture. Wang Gong might be able to win the chess game. 4) can 的过去式是 could,be able to 的过去式是 was /were able to 如:He could swim across the river when he was young. Mike was a good swimmer, so he was able to take first place in the competition. 2 shall 和 will

1)我们通常用 shall 来表达承诺,用 will 来表达决心或决定。 如:Don?t worry. You shall have the tickets for the games. Liu Mei will go and buy the tickets for the games. 2) 在疑问句中,shall 用于第一人称或第三人称提供帮助或提建议,will 用于第 二人称和第三人称询问意愿。 如:Shall we go swimming this weekend? A group of students are waiting to see you outside. Shall they come in? Will you go hiking with me in the mountain? Will he pay for me? 3 mustn?t 和 needn?t Mustn?t 用来表达让某人不做某事,needn?t 用来表达做某事没必要。 如:You mustn?t miss this football match. It?s very important. You needn?t watch the game if you don?t want to. 4 need 和 dare 当用做情态动词时, 这两个词常出现在否定句和疑问句中。这两个词还可以当做 普通动词来用。 如:You needn?t / don?t need to go training if you feel tired. Dare he/ Does he dare to dive into the water from the bridge?

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第三单元 一 被动语态 1.主动语态和被动语态在意思上没有太大区别,可以互换。在主动语态的句子 中,我们用动作的发出者作为句子的主语;在被动语态的句子中,我们用动作的 承受者作为句子的主语。 如:Scientists designed a VR headset. scientists. 2 被动语态的基本结构是:be+-ed (动词的过去分词) ,在不同的时态中,be 的形式是不一样的。例如,在一般现在时态中,be 是 is 或 are;在现在进行时 态中,be 是 is/am/are+being;在现在完成时态中,be 是 have/has+been;在 一般将来时态中,be 是 will+be。 如:Right now the new product is being developed in the laboratory. An agreement has been put forward. 3.当用被动语态的时候,以下几点需要注意: 1)我们通常用 by 来引导动作的发出者,但当没必要提及动作的发出者或动作 的发出者不重要, 或很难说出动作的发出者是谁时, 动作的发出者可以省略不提。 如:he believes that VR films will be accepted by viewers. Both the headsets and the gloves are connected to the RealCine computer system. 2) 动词 give,lend,offer,send,tell 和 show 后面可以接两个宾语,分别指 人和物。当这些 动词用做被动语态的时候, 我们通常把动词后面接的人做为句子的主语;有些时 候,也会把物作为主语。
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A VR headset was designed by

如:They are offered headsets and gloves in the cinema. Headsets and gloves were offered to them in the cinema. 3)在主动语态中,一些动词后面往往接宾语和动词原形。在被动语态中,动词 原形前面要接 to。 如:I saw him go there. He was seen to go there.

4) 有时候, 在被动语态中, get 可以替换 be。 如: get changed, get dressed, get hurt 如:Please wait a while. I?ll just go and get changed.

4) 有些动词主动形式表被动含义。 如:This kind of computer sells well in China. Your article reads well. 5) 状态动词不能用于被动语态。 如:I have many science books. VR films belong to the latest wave of new technology. 4. 被动语态的其它特殊形式: 1) it+动词的被动语态+that 从句 如:It is said that the technology behind RealCine is virtual reality. 2) 主语+动词的被动语态+to do 如:The technology behind RealCine is said to be virtual reality.

类似的动词还有:believe, report, suppose, know, prove 等。 二 情态动词和被动语态 1.在被动语态中用情态动词来表达能力,可能性,责任,允诺等。 如:Firefighter could be trained using RealCine.
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2.情态动词被动语态的形式是:情态动词+be+动词的过去分词 如:The position of the viewer can be calculated at any time. 注意其它情态动词被动语态的用法: 主动语态 Can touch May feel Might not impress Could use Should use Ought to develop Must wear 被动语态 can be touched may be felt might not be impressed could be used should be used ought to be developed must be worn

被动语态通常被用在科学报告中。 三 经常被用做被动语态的动词 1.一些经常被用做被动语态的动词可以充当形容词的作用.如:be bored with be born in/on be disappointed at /by be fascinated by be impressed at /by/with be interested in be set up by be situated in /on be surprised at/by 如:Andy was bored with listening to the same CD every day. I was born on a Wednesday. My dad was disappointed by my test results. People have always been fascinated by new technology. She was impressed at the number of points I scored. Some of my friends are interested in studying abroad. This new exhibition was set up by the Students?Union. Our school is situated in a quiet area. They were surprised at the possibilities of the Internet. 这里的 be 都可以用 become 来取代。

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牛津高中英语-模块五

第一单元 一 动词不定式:带 to 的动词不定式 带 to-的动词不定式的结构是 to+动词原形,如,to do, to work.它可以单独使用, 也可以组成动词不定式短语。 如:I was determined to be cheerful. 1.带 to-的动词不定式可以做: 1)句子的主语 如:To find a best friend is difficult. = It is difficult to find a best friend. 2)句子的宾语 如:I need to sleep for eight hours every night. 3) 宾语不足语 如:I asked him to come over. 4) 定语 如:I have a very important meeting to attend. 5) 同位语 如:His intention was to cheer me up. 6) 状语 如:My dad arranged some swimming lessons to surprise me. 2.带 to-的动词不定式有进行时态和完成时态

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如:Things seem to be getting better. John pretended not to have seen me. 二 动词不定式:不带 to 的动词不定式 1.可用于不带 to 的动词不定式的动词有: 1)let make have(有时候)

如:I let her borrow my book. She made me promise to write every day. The teacher often has his students read aloud in class. 2)感官动词:feel hear see watch

如:I saw her talk to her new friends. 3)would rather had better why not

如:I would rather go swimming. You had better tidy your bedroom Why not visit your cousin in Japan? 注:感官动词后可以接 v-ing 如:I saw her talk to her new friend. (见证谈话的整个过程) I saw her talking to her new friend. (见证谈话正在发生,但不一定见证 整个谈话过程) 2.当有 and, or, except, but, than, rather than, 连接两个动词不定式时,后一个 不定式往往省略 to。 如:She told me to be cheerful and look on the bright side. Do you want to go shopping or watch a film? We had nothing to do but watch TV? I decided to write rather than phone.

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三 V-ing 作名词 1.V-ing 可以充当名词用。可以被用做: 1)做主语(指一般性的动作) 如:Swimming is good for your health. 2)做宾语(指一般性的动作) 如:I love swimming in the sea during the summer. 3) 介词之后 如:I keep fit by swimming every day. 4)物主代词之后 如:Her swimming has improved since she started training every day. 注:如果所谈论的人比较明确,那么物主代词可以省略。 如:Thank you for coming. 5)组成复合名词 如:There is a shoe in the swimming pool. 2.以下动词后面接 v-ing Admit dislike imagine delay consider mind understand avoid enjoy practice miss finish keep suggest 3.以下常用词组后面接 v-ing Would you mind it is no use/good cannot help look forward to put off keep on feel like cannot stand

如:Would you mind helping me with my homework? I cannot help wondering why she does not like me. I look forward to seeing you at the party. I don?t feel like doing anything now. She cannot stand seeing that boy. I think it is no use crying about your exam results now.
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I had to put off shopping for a while. He kept on asking me for my phone number. 4. 以下动词后面可以接 v-ing 或 to do, 意思上几乎没有区别。 Continue prefer begin hate like start 5.一些动词后面既可以接 v-ing,也可以接 to do,但意义和用法上有区别。在 使用时要确保形式的正确。如,forget on forget+ to do (事情还没做) 如:He forgot to close the door when he left. Forget+ doing (事情已经做了) 如:I?ll never forget winning my first gold medal. regret remember mean try go

第二单元 一 V-ing 充当形容词或副词 1.v-ing 可作: 1)定语 v-ing 可以放在名词前,像形容词一样修饰名词。 如:This will have a lasting effect. 有时候会把一个副词放在 v-ing 前。 如:That was an extremely interesting speech. v-ing 可以和副词或名词构成复合词。 如:The fast-growing economy has caused environmental problems. A wood-burning stove is environmentally friendly. v-ing 可以放在名词后, 像定语从句一样修饰名词, v-ing 还可以被改成定语从句。
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如 : people running these factories are very concerned about the environment.= People who run these factories are very concerned about the environment. 2)表语 如:This destruction is frightening. 3) 宾语补足语 如:We all found his argument convincing and interesting. 2.v-ing 可放在 stand, sit, lie 的后面,表示动作同时发生。 如:They stood talking to each other.=They stood when they were talking to each other. 3.v-ing 有完成时态,如,having worked 如:Having worked side by side with many environmentalists, I know that a healthy environment and stable economy should be possible at the same time. 二 V-ing 短语 v-ing 短语可以单独使用,后面也可以接宾语或状语。 如:They sat there smiling. They sat there smiling at each other. 1.v-ing 短语可以表示: 1)时间 如: Asking around, I find many people willing to pay slightly higher prices for things that are environmentally friendly. =When I ask around, I find many people willing to pay slightly higher prices for things that are environmentally friendly. Having observed the problem for many years, he announced that we are now facing the biggest environmental problem of our time. = After he observed the problem for many years, he announced that we are now facing the biggest environmental problem of our time.
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2)原因 如:We are making bigger holes in the nets, hoping to avoid catching fish that are not fully grown. = We are making bigger holes in the nets, because we hope to avoid catching fish that are not fully grown. 3)结果 如:The factory keeps releasing smoke, making the air dirty. = The factory keeps releasing smoke. As a result, the air is made dirty. 4)条件 如: Preparing fully, we can achieve great things. = If we prepare fully, we can achieve great things. 2 .连词+v-ing 也可以来表示时间。常用的连词有: when once until 如:We have to take environmental protection into consideration when developing the economy. 3.v-ing 从句的逻辑主语通常和主句的主语一致。 如:He traveled on the plane like this, keeping the tortoise in a blanket. = When he traveled on the plane like this, he kept the tortoise hidden in a blanket. 4.否定形式是: not+v-ing 如:He sat there, not knowing what to say. whenever while

第三单元 一 V-ed 形式 v-ed 在句中可以充当形容词和副词的用法。 1.v-ed 可以被用作:
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1)定语 v-ed 放在名词的前面,像形容词一样修饰名词。V-ed 可以改成定语从句。 如:If I had the chance, I would have a cloned baby.= if I had the chance, I would have a baby who is cloned. 大部分名词前的 v-ed 表达被动的含义。但有些 v-ed 表达过去的含义,如, escaped retired fallen。比较下面的短语: 表被动:the highly praised scientist ( The scientist has been highly praised.) 表过去:the retired scientist (The scientist has retired.) 有时候可以把副词放在 v-ed 之前。 如:well-trained teachers v-ed 可以和副词或名词连用构成复合词。 如:underdeveloped region handmade furniture

v-ed 可以像定语从句一样放在名词后修饰名词。 如:I think the scientific advances mentioned in your article are interesting.= I think the scientific advances that are mentioned in your article are interesting. 2)表语 如:My grandfather was delighted to hear I passed my exams. 3)宾语补足语 如:After the robbery, they found the front windows broken. 2.v-ed 可以接在动词后面表示动作同时发生。如:stand sit lie

如:She lay trapped under the building for three days. (She lay there and was trapped.)

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二 V-ed 短语 v-ed 短语可以是 v-ed 单独使用,也可以后面接宾语和/或状语。 如:She left the restaurant, disappointed. She left the restaurant, disappointed with the bad service. 1.表被动的 v-ed 短语可以表示: 1)时间 如:The scientist has copied a human cell, assisted by recent advances in medical science. = The scientist has copied a human cell, and at that time was assisted by recent advances in medical science. 2)原因 如:Shocked by the article, the woman wrote a letter to the newspaper. = The woman wrote a letter to the newspaper because she was shocked by the article. 3) 条件 如:Treated with electricity, the cell tissue will split into several parts.= If it is treated with electricity, the cell tissue will split into several parts. 2.v-ed 形式有一个逻辑主语。在上述例子中,逻辑主语都是主句的主语。 如:the scientist who was assisted by recent advances in medical science the woman who was shocked by the article the cell tissue which is treated with electricity 所有这些主语都跟主句的主语一致。 三 V-ed 和 V-ing 都可以做形容词 1.v-ing 形式用来描述某人或某物给人造成某种感觉,在意义上通常是主动的。 如:I noticed an amazing difference. Some people find it exciting that they could make copies of themselves in the future.
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2.v-ed 形式用来表达我们对某人或某事的感觉,在意义上通常是被动的,因为 它表示我们被一个动作所影响。 如:I was surprised to learn that they had copied a human cell. The boy was more frightened than hurt.

牛津高中英语-模块六

第一单元 时态的概要 1:现在时态 现在时态可以用来谈论现在的时间,包括一般现在时态,现在进行时态,现在完 成时态和现在完成进行时态。 1.我们用一般现在时态来谈论: 1)现在或一直是正确的事情。 如:I am at a comedy show. The sun rises in the east. 2)经常发生的事情。 如:The Academy Awards show is on television every year. Every time a prop comedian tells a joke, he or she uses a thing, called a prop. 2.我们用现在进行时态来谈论: 1)现在正在发生或正在进行的动作 如:The audience is laughing at the joke. I don?t understand why I am not losing weight! 2)现在正在被计划,但在将来发生的动作。
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如:The Comedy Club is giving a lecture about stand-up next month. They are going to the Academy Awards show in February. 3)重复发生的动作,和 always 一起使用,通常带有否定的附加含义 如:You are always making the same mistakes! Sue is always changing her mind. 3.我们用现在完成时态来谈论过去和现在是如何联系起来的。它用于: 1)重复的经历。 如:He has hosted the show eight times. Billy Crystal has been in many films and television show. 2)过去发生的事情,但对现在有影响的事情。 如:Doctors have found that people who laugh a lot live longer! Some stand-up comedians have become famous as television and film actors later on in life. 3)过去开始,但现在仍在发生的事情。 如:People have always enjoyed laughing. Comedian have always told jokes and performed comic acts. 4.我们用现在完成进行时态来谈论从过去开始,持续到现在,并且还有可能继 续进行的事情。 如:Doctors have been researching that question. The curtains finally open—the audience have been waiting an hour for the show to start.

第二单元 时态的概要 2:过去和将来时态 过去时态用来谈论过去的事情,包括一般过去时态,过去进行时态,过去完成时
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态等。 1.我们用一般过去时态来谈论发生在过去并且现在已经结束的事情。 如:Sang Lan was born in Ningbo, China in 1981. 2.我们用过去进行时态来谈论发生在过去,并且持续了一段时间的事情。 如:She knew that in those years she was making her parents proud. 3.我们用过去完成时态来谈论: 1)在过去的过去发生并且在过去的某一个动作发生之前就已经结束的事情。 如:Instead of crying about what she had lost, Sang Lan thought abut what she could do to get better. 2) 在过去的一个动作发生的同时所发生的事情。 如:By the time she competed in the New York Goodwill Games, she had been a dedicated junior gymnast for eleven years. 将来的时态用来讨论将来的事情,包括一般将来时态,将来进行时态,过去将来 时态等。 1.我们用一般将来时态来讨论将来将要发生的事情。 如:She will come with us to watch the football match tomorrow. 一般将来时态的结构: 1)will shall (用于提供有关将来的信息)

如:I know I will think about her whenever my life feels unbearable. I shall work hard and learn to become a gymnast. 2)be going to+do (用于谈论将来的计划和意图) 如:Today, I?m going to talk about how to find happiness. 2.我们用将来进行时态来谈论始于将来并且要持续一段时间的动作。 如:Dr Brain will be talking about success next time.
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3.我们用过去将来时态来谈论在过去的时间被提起的时候发生在将来的事情。 如:Before she went to the Goodwill Games, Sang Lan told her parents she was going to win her event.

第三单元 非真实条件句 非真实条件句阐述的条件或情况是不真实的或是想象的。 1.我们用非真实条件句来阐述不真实的或想象的一个现在的条件。 如:If I got married in the USA, I would expect a present. I could reach the book if I were a bit taller. If I had the chance, I might want to be a translator. 2.我们用非真实条件句来指代一个想象的过去的动作。 如:If you had joined the chat room ten minutes ago, you would have known what we were talking abut! If the man had pointed with his first finger while he was in Brunei, everyone would have thought that he was very rude. 3.我们用非真实条件句来谈论想象的将来的情况。 如:If I had time tomorrow, I would certainly help you. 4.非真实条件句的构成: 现在 过去 将来 If… was/were/did… , … would/could/might do… If… had been/done… , … would/could/might have done… If… was/were/did… , … would/could/might do…

注:would,could,might 经常可以互换,但在意思上有一些不同。 Would 表意图,计划;could 表能力,可能性;might 表可能性
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非真实条件句还有几点需要注意: 1.在书面英语或正式的场合中,我们通常用 were 来代替条件句中的 was.但在 日常谈话中,was 也经常用到。 如:If he was/were here, he would be able to help us. 2.在表将来的非真实条件句中,还可以用 were to/should 如:If I were to fail my Maths test, I would have to take it again at the end of the term. If he should come tomorrow, I would talk to him about it. 3.在非真实条件句中,可以把 if 省略,把 should,were, had 放在条件句的 前面。 如:Should you make a mistake, you should not be embarrassed. Had you told me earlier, I would not have this problem now. Were you to take the train, you would be there much sooner. 4.在 if 从句中还可以用到 could+ have done 来表示非真实的条件。 如:If I could have told you about cultural differences between Italy and the UK, I would have.

第四单元 非真实条件句:其它情况 非真实条件句还有以下其它情况。 1.当主句是有关现在发生的事情,而从句是有关过去发生的事情,或相反,我 们可以用混合的条件句。 如:If you had listened to the talk about the UN yesterday, you would know the answer to the question now.
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If Tang Ning were in town, I would have heard about it. 2.我们用 otherwise, or,及以 with,without,but for 开头的短语来替代 if 条件 句,来表达隐含的条件的意思。 如:With (if I had) more money, I could help more people in need. Without (If we didn?t have) the UN Goodwill, Ambassadors, people working on projects would not be encouraged. But for the ( If there was no ) help from the UN, those women would not have been able to set up their mind. I?m too busy now, otherwise/or (If I weren?t so busy) I would help you do the work. 3.我们也可以用 even if, as if,as though,if only 来引导非真实条件句。 如:I would never go there even if I were given the chance to. Nicholas is smiling as if he knew nothing about. Mike talks as though he had been to the Great Wall before. If only I were a Goodwill Ambassador! 4.Wish 和 would rather 后面可以表达非真实的情况。 如:I wish there were no wars in the world. I would rather you hadn?t told me about it.

牛津高中英语-模块七

第一单元 一 介词 介词可以放在名词或名词短语的前面来表达时间,地点,行动等等。介词也可以 放在 v-ing 的前面。 1.时间介词

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at, in, on, for, by 和 since 可以被用来表示时间。 At 后接点时间, in 后接段时间, on 后接具体某一天。For 用来表示某事延续了多长时间,by 指的是不晚于什么 时间(到 为止) ,since 指从过去某个时间到稍晚的某个时间或现在为止。其它 表示时间的介词还有 during,after,before,between,from, until 等。 如:At that time, the record player had to be wound up by hand. Regular public TV broadcasting first began in 1928. The first record players only played a record for two minutes. By 1967, most TV broadcasts were in color. Since the beginning of 1999, the popularity of MP3 has increased greatly. 注:我们经常说 in the morning/afternoon/evening,但当谈论具体的早上,下午 和晚上时,则要用 on,如 on Sunday morning on the afternoon of 5th June. 2.地点介词 at,in 和 on 是表示地点的介词。At 后接小地方或一个场合,in 后接大地方,on 表示在某个东西的表面。其它表示地点的介词还有 above, against, behind, between, by, near, opposite, under 等。 如:I?ll meet you at the department store. Wang Li is at a media and technology exhibition. Cable TV began in 1948 in the USA, but it took 50years before 66percent of USA families had it in their homes. This new type of TV can be hung on the wall. 3.行动介词 介词 to 经常用来表示行动,意思是“朝着方向”。其它的介词还有 across, along, down, into, off, over, out of, past, round, through, under, up 等。 如:The invention of the transistor led to the development of cassette recorders.

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二 介词短语 介词可以和动词,名词,和形容词连用构成介词短语。 1.介词与动词连用 许多介词可以跟动词连用构成词组,如:agree with, look for, look into, head for, stand for. 如:Scientists agree with each other that the development of TV will not stop. I am looking for the most recent model. Do you have any in store? The British Association for the Advancement of Science will look into the case. The ship set sail and headed for Shanghai. MD stands for MiniDisc. 2.介词与名词连用 介词可以跟名词连用, 如: in time for, on time, by means of, by accident/mistake, for/on sale, on the market, in that case, up to date 如:We thought we would be late, but we were in time for the programme. The products were delivered on time. You can connect the CD player to the computer by means of a special jack. Be careful not to press “delete” by accident/mistake! When will the new model be for/on sale? There are several new model on the market. You want a TV linked with the Internet? In that case, get a Web TV! This technology is quite up to date. 注:当 up to date 出现在名词前时,要用连字符,如:up-to-date products 3.介词与形容词连用 一些介词可以和形容词连用,如:good at, capable of, fond of, satisfied/happy with 如:I am good at science. The program is of capable of calculating our budget for the year. I am fond of watching black-and-white films.
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Su Mei is satisfied with her new job.

第二单元 动词短语 动词短语是由一个动词加副词或介词构成的。 动词+副词:If you open up any medicine cupboard in the world, there is a high probability that you will find asprin. 动词+介词: It was over a decade before someone else turned penicillin into the great drug of the 20th century. 在使用动词短语时有一些规则需要注意: 1.在动词短语里,副词可以放在名词的前面或后面。 如:Fleming tried out this mould on another bacterium. Fleming tried this mould out on another bacterium. 注:如果宾语是代词,只能放在动词和副词之间。 如:Fleming tried it out on other bacteria. 2.动词短语后面不一定要接宾语。 如:The fire broke out at midnight. Fleming did not give up. 3.在有介词的动词短语里,介词的宾语总是放在介词的后面 如:Doctors are looking into the case for new treatment. Sometimes people ask for medicine that they do not really need. 4.有时候动词短语里的副词后会接一个介词。 如:How can you put up with this for so long? It is not right to look down up those who have AIDS. 5. 动词词组有特殊的含义,如:
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动词词组 try out give up wash up kitchen. talk over set up in 2000. look after sick dog. turn up o?clock.

含义

例句

test Don ?t try the drug out on animals. stop doing something Tell your father to give up. clean plates, bowls, etc. after a meal She is washing up in the discuss thoroughly create or start take care of arrive Let ?s talk the issue over. Dr Armstrong set up his own surgery I spent a whole day looking after my They did not turn up until 10

6.许多动词短语的意思不止一个,如,make out 就有许多不同的意思,以下 列举其它三个意思: 1)能够看见或听见某事 如:It was too dark, and I couldn?t make out the words written on the wall. 2)理解某事(用于否定句和疑问句中) 如:I can?t make out what the article says. 3) 阐述可能不是正确的事情 如:He made out that he was a famous doctor.

第三单元 系动词 系动词是连接主语和说明主语是什么样状态的成分的动词。最常用的系动词是 “to be(be/am/is/are/was/were/been)” 如:The information is true and acute. 1.Appear, seem, prove, keep, stay, remain 是系动词。
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如:Now it seems very common for families to spend a lot of time apart. They appear in favor of the Internet. The internet proved of great value to us during our project. You shouldn?t keep quiet in a debate. People stayed silent and listened to us, and applauded at the end. For these reasons, I believe the Internet remains a positive tool that helps make our lives better. 2.感官动词是系动词,sound, taste, feel,look,smell 如:That sounds wonderful, but some people claim that the internet is a waste of time. If you always eat fast food, vegetables may not taste delicious to you. It feels good to sit in front of the TV after a hard day?s work. When he got up on stage, he looked a little nervous. The air often smells bad in Internet cafes. 3.暗指变化的词是系动词:turn,go,fall,grow,get,become 如:Leaves turn green in spring. The boy will go mad if you don?t allow him to use the computer. Alisha fell asleep the moment she got into bed. Your son has grown much taller. John gets easily excited when he plays computer games. The amount of false information on the Internet becomes more of a problem every day. 4. 大多数情况下,系动词后面接形容词。但有时也接名词或介词短语。 如:I feel it remains important for us either or limit our use of the Internet, or to learn how to solve the problems it has caused. He became a teacher after graduation from college. The article is about using the Internet to help people or all ages.

第四单元 V-ed 和 V-ing v-ed 和 v-ing 通常被称作分词。分词可以做定语修饰名词,或做时间,原因,结
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果和方式状语。 1.v-ed 和 v-ing 可以像形容词一样使用 1)v-ing 通常表达正在进行的动作,或某事是什么样子。 如:she sat beside the window, watching the falling leaves floating in the air. It was an exciting development. 2) v-ed 通常表达被动的含义,或指代一个完成的动作,或告诉别人我们对某事 的感觉。 如:The police found the stolen car. There was a thick layer of fallen leaves on the ground. Many excited wanted to travel on the underground. 3)分词短语通常放在它所修饰的名词的后面。 如:The trains going to London stop at the edge of the city. In 1933, a public organization called the London Passenger Transport Board was created. 2.v-ed 和 v-ing 可以像副词一样使用。 1)v-ed 和 v-ing 可以用来表示原因。 如:Realizing he would have to take two different trains, he decided to take a taxi instead. Encouraged by the success of the Metropolitan Railway Company, the Metropolitan District Railway opened another line in 1868. 2)v-ed 和 v-ing 可以用来表示时间。 如: Traveling through the tunnel, the man felt uncomfortable because of the noise. When asked how old the underground system was, she made no reply. 3)v-ed 和 v-ing 可以用来表示方式。 如:The train headed for London, puffing and rattling. 4) v-ed 和 v-ing 可以用来表示条件。
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如:Turning to the left at the crossroad, you will see the railway station on your right. 注:v-ing 也可以表达紧随主句动作之后的动作。 如:Arriving at the airport, he started looking for the tourist guide. 3.v-ing 有被动和完成形式。 1)being+v-ed 表示进行时态的被动态。 如:The underground system being built in the city will be open next year. 2)having+v-ed 表示完成时态的主动形式:having been+ v-ed 表示完成时态 的被动形式。 如:Having seen the situation , a wealthy American businessman, Charles Yerkes, tried to improve the system. Having been developed over many years , the underground system is now able to transport millions of people effectively. 4.当 v-ed 和 v-ing 被用做状语时,它的逻辑主语就是主句的主语。 如:Having been trapped in traffic, he was late for work. Given enough time, we will see the whole city. 5.否定形式:not+v-ing/v-ed 如:Not knowing which line to take, she turned to me for help.

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牛津高中英语-模块八

第一单元 否定句 否定句用来改正一个错误的观点。 如:Money does not buy happiness. 在这句话里,钱能买来幸福的错误观点被改正了。 注:否定句有是表达肯定含义。 如:He didn?t leave anything to his son but a big library of books. 我们有几种方式来表达否定含义。 最常用的否定词有: no, not, never, 和 neither。 1.助动词+not 在最简单的否定句里,not 或 n?t 放在助动词后表否定。 如:They might not( mightn?t) have been written last year. I do not (don?t) think so. 2.Not 和其它词连用 1)当把 not 放在一个前面加上否定前缀(如:un- dis- in-)的单词的时候,意 思就变成肯定的了。但这种肯定没有直接的肯定句强烈。 如:It is not uncommon to find her reading the newspaper. ( It is quite common to find her reading the newspaper.) 2)当 not 放在表示时间,距离,数量的短语前时,则起到了强调否定含义的作 用。 如: Not many people heard the speech. (Very few people heard the speech.)
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3.If-从句中额外的否定含义 有时候,我们把否定的表达放在 whether 和 if 的后面来表达对一种情况的怀疑。 这种表达更加随意而且常被用在英语口语中。 如:I wonder whether /if I shouldn?t bring an umbrella. ( I wonder whether /if I should bring an umbrella.) I wouldn?t be surprised if they didn?t move soon. (I wouldn?t be surprised if they moved soon. 注:当表达有关自己的事情时,用 I wonder whether/if… ,当表达有关别人的事 情时,用 I wouldn?t be surprised if… 4. 还有许多其它的否定表达。 一些常用的有 hardly, far from, seldom, unless, free from, 和 would rather…than。 如:Pip can hardly wait to begin his new life. The classic are far from disappearing. Pip?s sister seldom has a kind word to say. Unless you read the novel yourself, you will never know what happens at the end. The fortune sets him free from financial worries. Joe would rather die than se any harm come to Pip. 第二单元 省略 当我们不想重复含义比较明显的单词或短语时,我们就用省略。省略是使句子简 明的有效的方法。 1.省略可以用于 1)祈使句中,主语常被省略。 如:(I) Thank you very much. (You) Come here, please.
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2) 答句,省略助动词后面的单词。 如:“Did you enjoy the opera?” “Yes, I did ( enjoy it).” 3) 动词不定式短语中,省略 to 后的内容。 如:Although he would like to ( break his promise), the emperor cannot break his promise. 4)非正式英语中,省略句中的某些单词。 如:(Are you ) Ready? How (is it) about the result? 5)hence 后 如:Hence (comes) the happy ending of the story. 6) 在介词或 than 之后。 如:Mum: Could you water the plants for me? Son: What about ( watering them ) after I finish my homework? The opera house now looks better than ( it did) when I visited it last year. 7) 同一个句型和同一个动词后的两个从句中。 如:Puccini wrote Turandot and ( he also wrote) Madam Butterfly. The actor was born in 1961, and his wife ( was born) in 1964. 2.为了节省空间和时间,一些单词被省略,包括: 1)标志和标签 如:No smoking (No smoking is allowed here.) 2) 报纸标题 如:Turandot on stage ( The opera Turandot is being performed on stage.) 3) 说明 如:Do not bend (Do nor bend this envelope.)
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4)明信片和日记 如:Have not had time to write diary ( I have not had time to write my diary.) 5) 笔记 如: Opera OK, costumes great ( The opera was OK and the costumes were great.)

第三单元 倒装 倒装就是改变句子中单词的顺序。当我们用倒装的时候,我们把谓语提到主语的 前面,因此我们强调的是谓语而不是主语。倒装用于以下情况。 1.最常见的倒装的形式出现在问句里 如:Did you go to visit the Louvre? What do you know about van Gogh? 2.在以下情况下,我们把助动词放在主语的前面 1) 以否定词或短语开头的句子, 如: neither, nor, never, not, at no time, seldom, hardly 如:He did not like the painting. Neither did I . Neither am I impressed by the paintings nor do I like them. Never in my life have I seen such wonderful pictures. Not a word did he say about his visit to the art museum. At no time during the tour was I bored. Seldom does he paint now. Hardly had I got to Amsterdam when it began to snow. 2)以 so 和 only 开头的句子 如:Li Ming enjoyed the museum. So did his grandmother and aunt. So crowded was the art gallery that I could hardly move about. Only on such a trip can you learn as much about European artists.
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注:当 only 修饰主语时,不需倒装。 如:Only teachers went to the art gallery yesterday. 3 在以下情况,主语放在动词的后面 1)句子是直接引语或部分是直接引语。 如: “I?d like to come back and see Monet?s garden,” said my aunt. “This, “said the artist “is the most beautiful place I have ever seen.” 2) 主语太常。 如 : Present at the party were a group of young people who called themselves pioneers of modern art. 3) 以 here,there, in,out,up, down, on 等开头的句子。 如:Look! Here comes the bus. The door opened and in came Mr. Smith, the artist. Out rushed the children. Down came the water from the top of the mountain. 注:当主语是代词时,不需要倒装。 如:Here I am in Amsterdam. There it goes. 4)在正式的非真实条件句中,我们把 should, were, had to 放在句子的开头。 如:Should you have gone on the trip, you would have learnt a lot about painting. Were the picture unique, it would be valuable. Had the museum been closed, we would have been upset.

第四单元 强调句 当我们需要用英语表达自己观点的时候,我们必须要考虑的不止是词汇和发音。
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我们选择强调的单词和句子成分能改变我们想要传达的含义。 1.强调句可以借助某些单词来表达,如:so,such,really,和 just。 如:Everyone was so excited about her speech. It was such an interesting television show. I really want to see it again. Actually, the festival in Venice doesn?t just feature Hollywood films. 2.如果强调的不是动词,而是句子某一成分,我们可以用以下句型“ It + be+强 调部分+that 从句。 如:It was because of his Hollywood background that he knew how many small, unknown actors were being ignored by Hollywood. 1) 上述句型可以用来强调主语,宾语或状语。 如:Robert Redford took over the festival in 1981. 强调主语:It was Robert Redford that/who took over the festival in 1981. 强调宾语:It was the festival that Robert Redford took over in 1981. 强调状语:It was in 1981 that Robert Redford took over the festival. 2) 当强调的主语是代词时,代词通常要用宾格。 如:It was me who represented the Toronto International Film Festival last year. 注:当强调的是人时,引导词用 that 或 who。 3) 强调结构还可以用语问句。 如:Is it the Cannes Film Festival that gives awards mostly to American films? How often is it that famous actors and directors come to Toronto? Who was it that told him what had happened? 4)我们用 “It was not until…that…”结构来强调时间短语。
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如:It was not until I spoke to Kathy that I knew how special the Sundance Film Festival was. 3.如果我们想强调一般现在时态和一般过去时态中的肯定句中的动词,我们可 以在动词前加助动词 do 或 did。 如: Many of the films are from the USA, but we do give awards to films from other countries. We did want to have a festival that was fair. Do tell us a little about the festival you represent.

牛津高中英语-模块九

第一单元 从句的概要 当许多观点被融合在一个句子里时, 其中某些观点比另一些要更重要, 这个时候, 我们用从句来表达不太重要的观点。 从句包括状语从句, 名词性从句或定语从句。 1.状语从句可以表达时间,地点,方式,比较,条件,原因,目的或结果。它 们由隐含这些意思的引导词来引导,如:when, where, how , although, if, since, because, in order that, so that. 如:Because the population of Quebec is still over 70 per cent French, Montreal has wonderful mix of Old World and New World architecture and culture. 2.名词性从句在句中充当名词的作用,可以做主语,宾语或表语。可以由 that, 或疑问词(what, which, whose, when, how, why, where, who)或 if/whether 来 引导。当名词性从句作宾语的时候,that 常省略,尤其是在口语和非正式的书面 语中。
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如:Montreal has colorful nightlife to ensure (that) no visitor is ever bored. 当我们用名词性从句来陈述问句时, 句子的顺序是陈述句的语序而不是问句的语 序。 如:I do not know when she will travel. (NOT I do not know when will she travel.) 3 .定语从句就像形容词 — 它们为某物提供更多的信息。定语从句由关系代词 (which, that, who, whom, whose)和关系副词(where, why, why)来引导。 定语从句有两种,限定性和非限定性。 1)限定性定语从句所提供的信息用来定义所修饰的物或人。在关系代词或副词 之前没有逗号。 如: For those who love outdoor activities, it is possible to hike, sail, cross-country ski or travel for hours-or even days—without meeting another person. 2) 关系代词可以用来替换 who 和 which。 如:It is good to learn about the cultures of people who/that come from other countries. 3)如果关系代词做定语从句中的宾语时,关系代词通常被省略,在英语口语中 由为如此。 如:The maple leaf is the pattern (that) you can see on the Canadian flag. 4) 非限定性定语从句用来提供额外的信息,它可以被省略而不会影响句子的语 法结构,而且要放在逗号的后面。 如: Located in the heart of Toronto is the Canadian National Tower, which is often called the CN Tower for short.

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第二单元 分词从句 像分词一样, 分词从句在句中也可以当作形容词或副词使用。现在分词和过去分 词都可以构成分词从句。 1.分词从句可以作: 1)定语 如:The artist supervising the building of the Parthenon was the famous sculptor Pheidias. 2) 状语 如:Built of marble, the monument has lasted hundreds of years. 大多数情况下,分词从句的主语就是句子的主语。否则的话,分词从句有自己的 主语。 如:Time permitting, the restoration work could be done better. 有时候主语可以是不同的。只有当没有误解的时候,主语才可以是不一致。 如:Knowing how badly the restoration work had been done, the unsafe structures did not surprise them. 3) 补语 如:I saw the Temple of Nike standing there on the hill. 2 .可以把现在分词或过去分词放在连词的后面,如: when, while, once, if, although. 如:You will find the Acropolis very beautiful when visiting the city. While reading the article, I was thinking of the World Heritage sites in China.
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Once caught, people who deliberately damage the monument would be fined even imprisoned. If repaired well, the monument could be restored to its former glory. Although being conserved, the Acropolis is still facing serious problems such as deliberate damage and stealing of atones.

第三单元 同位语 当两个名词短语一前一后出现在句子中并且指代同一个事物时, 这两个短语互为 同位语。 如:The French flag, the “Tricolore”, was first used in 1789, at the start of the French Revolution. The USA was also born from revolution, and its flag, the “Stars and Stripes”, symbolizes this. 1.当同位语提供更多信息时,第二个短语之前和之后有一个逗号。 如: The flag, a simple design of red over white, has a long history that dates back to the 13th century. 2.当同位语是用来解释第一个名词短语时,同位语的前和后都不需要逗号。 如:The colors red, white and blue used on the flag are a visual reminder of the motto of the Revolution—liberty, equality and fraternity. 3.我们有时侯用同位语来强调我们的观点。 如:We love our flag, our unique flag. 4.名词后的名词性从句也是一种形式的同位语。 如:The news that France had a successful revolution had a big effect on many other countries, particularly those in Europe. The fact that some countries use the same colors on their flags can mean they share similar beliefs.
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同位语从句可以把两个句子连在一起。 如:The team has won the game. Everyone in the city is excited by the news.----Everyone in the city is excited by the news that the team has won the game. 5. 可以用在同位语从句前的名词还包括:truth, idea, hope,information 如:Many people are unaware of the truth that the USA was colonized by Britain. The idea the red represents bravery and blood is widely believed. I am reading this book in the hope that I can learn more about national flags. Did he give you the information that the meanings of different flags should be explained in your report?

第四单元 复杂句子的分析 当我们看到复杂句时, 我们可能需要对这些句子进行分析以便能更好的理解它们 的含义。 1.长简单句 每一个长简单句都包含一个主语和一个谓语。在这些句子中,辨别出主语和谓语 是非常有用的。 主语是这个句子所讲述的的事物,而谓语则告诉我们这个事物是 怎么样的,并且谓语通常包含一个动词。 如:Islam was started about 1400 years ago by a man called Muhammad. 2.复合句 在复合句中,有两个或以上的从句。这些从句通常由关联词引导的,如:and, or 和 but,每一个从句都独立成句。
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如:There are many idioms used in English and quite a few of them come from the Bible. “By and by” now means “before long”, but in the Bible, it was used to men “immediately”. 3.复杂句 复杂句是由一个主句和一个或更多的从句构成。 它们由引导词连接, 如: because, when, where, If, since, that , unless, whereas, whose, while, although. 如:Unless you recognize when an idiom is being used, you can easily misunderstand the meaning of a sentence. There are lots of examples of idioms where animals are used to create an image. The text goes on to say that if salt loses its flavor, then it should be thrown away, meaning that if you are not honest, then you are worth nothing. This has meant that since the Bible was translated into English centuries ago, many Hebrew or Greek idioms have become part of the English language. An idiom is a combination of words, whose meaning often cannot be understood by looking separately at the meanings of the words that make it up. 4.复杂复合句 当复合句和复杂句一起出现时,这就是复杂复合句。 如: People who follow this religion study Buddhist sutras and they follow the teachings of Buddha.

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牛津高中英语-模块十

第一单元 连词 连词用于连接句子。如果没有连词,读者就会弄不懂句子的意思。连词帮助读者 弄清楚文章当中接下来会发生什么事情。 句子间常用的连词有: 1.时间顺序连词显示观点或行为发生的顺序。常见的表达有:firstly, secondly, finally, now, in the end 等。 如:The programme has several aims: firstly, to help unemployed people find work; secondly, to teach new mothers about nutrition; and thirdly, to help young people develop problem solving skills. Geldof intended the concert to raise money for and public awareness of the famine. In the End, 100$ million was raised. 2.原因和结果连词表示做某件事的原因或结果。常用的表达有:for one thing, therefore, so, as a result.等 如:Reporter: Why did you organize the concert? Bob: Well, for one thing, I wanted to raise money for the hungry people. Also, I wanted to raise public awareness of poverty and famine. Very often, people who receive food aid become lazy and do not want a job, so it is possible That the gift of a single meal sometimes causes more harm than good. These people will be given a chance to help themselves instead of being dependent on other people. As a result, they will enjoy a higher standard of living. 3.对比连词也是连接句子的重要连词,用于引出与之前观点相对比的观点。常

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用的有:however, in contrast, instead, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand 等 如:Poverty is still killing people. However, these small victories are a good start towards a better future. Many people believe that hunger is only a problem in the developing world. On the contrary, it is a problem all over the world. 4. 添加连词用于引出更多的信息。常用的表达有: also, on the top of something, above all, besides, furthermore, in addition, moreover 等。 如:For example, the disease malaria, which is spread by mosquitoes, kills over one million children yearly. On top of this, according to the United Nations, hunger and malnutrition claim ten million lives each year. Our organization is working to raise money for the local homeless shelters. Furthermore, we are collecting clothing to give to those in need.

第二单元 段落的构成 段落在一篇段落中就像是楼房中的一层,用于在论文,故事或文章中组织信息。 在写段落的时候,通常包括以下几个方面: 1. 主题句 1)每个段落都应该含有一个观点。这个观点通常在主题句中表达,并且清晰的 阐述这个段落所要传达的信息。 如:Young adults give many different reasons for moving to cities.
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并不是所有的段落都有主题句, 尤其是当一个段落是上一个已经有主题句的段落 的延续的时候。 2)主题句通常是一个段落的第一句话。但是,为了吸引读者的注意力,在一篇 论文,一个故事,或一篇文章的第一段里,作者会在主题句之后加上一个有趣的 事实,一个问句或一段引言。 如:Older Americans are on the move. 2.支持句 1)主题句后应该跟着一些句子来解释或证明主题句的正确。 如: For decades, Florida has been attracting older residents. In fact, according to the national Population survey conducted in 2000, Florida was home to the largest population of people aged 65 and older. 2) 一个段落里的句子应该按一定的顺序列举出来。我们可以用一些过渡连词来 连接这些句子。 如: for example, for instance, furthermore, first, second, third, on the other hand, however, also. 如:Florida is a popular choice for these people because of the climate and the state?s relatively flat landscape. However, as the number of older Americans moving there increases, more Changes are made to cater to them. For example, ambulance response time has decreased, And many houses have bathrooms designed for elderly homeowners, with things like walk-in bathtubs that reduce the risk of slips and falls. 3)结束句 一个段落应该以一句话结束, 而这句话应以一种新的方式来重述主题,这就是结 束句。结束句应该用来表达有关这个话题的最后的观点或引出下一个段落的观 点。
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如: Across the USA, people are noticing the same thing: young people want to live in cities.

第三单元 篇章的构成 一篇文章应该让读者很容易的从一个观点领悟到另一个观点。 要想是一篇文章具 有逻辑性,应当注意以下几点: 1. 题目 题目不应该太长,但应该清晰并且简单(如: ?Aids today?) 2. 起始段落 1)起始段落应该包含一个主题句,这个主题句常常是段落的第一句话。 如:When discussing the problem of Aids, we use a lot of technical and scientific terms on this websites. 有时候主题句后面会跟一句话来起到吸引注意力的作用。 有些情况, 起始段落根本不需要主题句。 例如, 在一个解释一系列事件的段落中, 主题就是有关这些事件的细节,因此不再需要主题句。 2)像其它段落一样,起始段落里的主题句之后也应该跟随一些支持句。 3)起始段落应该吸引读者的注意力并且让读者有兴趣继续读下去。我们可以加 入一些有趣的事实,问题或给出一些细节来达到目的。 如:In an African village, eleven-year-old Ajani hears a far-off scream as he washes his little sister In a bath that leaks water.
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3.中间段落 1)主题句 主题句通常是段落的第一句话,并且包含段落的主旨大义。主题句应该简单,明 了,易于读者领会它的含义。 2) 支持句 支持句应该跟在主题句的后面, 并要用细节和证据来证明主题句。它对主题句所 阐述的观点进行延伸和扩展。 3)结束句 一个段落的最后一句往往引出下一个段落的观点。 4.结束段落 结束段落里应该给出一个最终的观点(或许是一个预言) ,或它可以继续阐述其 始段落里给出的句子。

第四单元 语言的风格 英语中有许多不同的语言风格。 语言风格是由所运用的场合决定的。风格最重要 的不同在于英语口语和书面语。在口语和书面语中,又有正式和非正式的不同。 正式 书面语 论文 报告
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非正式 给朋友或家人的信 邮件

申请信

消息 跟熟悉的人谈话

口语

正式的演讲 跟陌生人谈话

(家人和朋友)

1.正式的风格 1)我们经常用复杂结构的句子,包括被动语态和从属句。 如:Ordinary citizens are aware of the frequent computer-related crimes that happen since many computer users are affected by computer viruses. 2) 我们经常用抽象名词。 如:There has been an increase in the incidence of crime. 2.非正式风格 1)我们经常用简单句。 如:People are worried about computer viruses. 2) 我们经常用主动语态。 如:You should go to the university and talk to the detective in charge of campus police about the theft. 3)我们也会用许多口语,而且句子里有缩写。 如:We?ve heard lots of reports of financial fraud.

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