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Integrated Chinese
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Integrated Chinese 2nd Edition
Level 1 Part 1 Textbook
(Simplified Character Ed.)
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LEVEL 1
Part 1

Integrated Chinese

中文聽說讀寫
Simpli?ed Character Edition

TEXTBOOK
2nd Edition

Tao-chung Yao and Yuehua Liu
Liangyan Ge, Yea-fen Chen, Nyan-ping Bi, Xiaojun Wang and Yaohua Shi



Copyright ? 2005, 1997 Tao-chung Yao, Yuehua Liu, Liangyan Ge, Yea-fen Chen, Nyan-ping Bi, Xiaojun Wang and Yaohua Shi Second Edition All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, scanning, or any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher. 10 09 08 07 06 05 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Published by Cheng & Tsui Company, Inc. 25 West Street Boston, MA 02111-1213 USA Fax (617) 426-3669 www.cheng-tsui.com “Bringing Asia to the World”TM Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available for this title. Integrated Chinese Level 1 Part 1 Textbook Simpli?ed Character Edition ISBN 0-88727-460-5 The Integrated Chinese series includes books, workbooks, character workbooks, audio products, multimedia products, teacher’s resources, and more. Visit www.cheng-tsui.com for more information on the other components of Integrated Chinese. Printed in the United States of America

THE INTEGRATED CHINESE SERIES
The Integrated Chinese series is a two-year course that includes textbooks, workbooks, character workbooks, audio CDs, CD-ROMs, DVDs and teacher’s resources. Textbooks introduce Chinese language and culture through a series of dialogues and narratives, with culture notes, language use and grammar explanations, and exercises. Workbooks follow the format of the textbooks and contain a wide range of integrated activities that teach the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Character Workbooks help students learn Chinese characters in their correct stroke order. Special emphasis is placed on the radicals that are frequently used to compose Chinese characters. Audio CDs include the narratives, dialogues and vocabulary presented in the textbooks, as well as pronunciation and listening exercises that correspond to the workbooks. Teacher’s Resources contain helpful guidance and additional activities online. Multimedia CD-ROMs are divided into sections of listening, speaking, reading and writing, and feature a variety of supplemental interactive games and activities for students to test their skills and get instant feedback. Workbook DVD shows listening comprehension dialogues from the Level 1 Part 1 Workbook, presented in contemporary settings in color video format.

PUBLISHER’S NOTE
When Integrated Chinese was ?rst published in 1997, it set a new standard with its focus on the development and integration of the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing). Today, to further enrich the learning experience of the many users of Integrated Chinese worldwide, the Cheng & Tsui Company is pleased to o?er the revised, updated and expanded second edition of Integrated Chinese. We would like to thank the many teachers and students who, by offering their valuable insights and suggestions, have helped Integrated Chinese evolve and keep pace with the many positive changes in the ?eld of Chinese language instruction. Integrated Chinese continues to o?er comprehensive language instruction, with many new features. The Cheng & Tsui Asian Language Series is designed to publish and widely distribute quality language learning materials created by leading instructors from around the world. We welcome readers’ comments and suggestions concerning the publications in this series. Please send feedback to our Editorial Department (e-mail: editor@cheng-tsui.com), or contact the following members of our Editorial Board. Professor Shou-hsin Teng, Chief Editor 3 Coach Lane, Amherst, MA 01002 Professor Dana Scott Bourgerie Asian and Near Eastern Languages Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 Professor Samuel Cheung Dept. of Chinese, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Professor Ying-che Li Dept. of East Asian Languages, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 Professor Timothy Light Dept. of Comparative Religion, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008

CONTENTS
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations for Grammar Terms About Note References . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv xx xxi . 1

1. Chinese Pronunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Chinese Writing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. Useful Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Lesson 1: Greetings
Dialogue I: Exchanging Greetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Dialogue II: Asking One’s Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Supplementary Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

29

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
1. The Verb 姓 (xìng) 2. Questions Ending with 呢 (ne) 3. The Verb 叫 (jiào) 4. The Verb 是 (shì) 5. Questions Ending with 嗎 (ma) 6. The Negative Adverb 不 (bù) 7. The Adverb 也 (yě)

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Pronunciation Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Lesson 2: Family
Dialogue I: Looking at a Family Photo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Dialogue II: Asking about Someone’s Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

51

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
1. Measure Words (I) 2. Interrogative Pronouns

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3. 有 (yǒu) in the Sense of “to Have” or “to Possess” 4. 有 (yǒu) in the Sense of “to Exist” 5. The Usage of 二 (èr) and 兩 (liǎng) 6. 都 (dōu, both; all)

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Pronunciation Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Lesson 3: Dates and Time
Dialogue I: Taking Someone Out to Eat on His/Her Birthday. . . . 72 Dialogue II: Inviting Someone to Dinner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Supplementary Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

72

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
1. Numbers (0, 11–100) 2. Dates and Time 3. Pronouns as Modi?ers and the Usage of 的 (de) 4. Pivotal Sentences 5. Alternative Questions 6. A?rmative + Negative (A-not-A) Questions (I) 7. 還有 (hái yǒu, also, too, in addition) + Noun

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Pronunciation Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Lesson 4: Hobbies
Dialogue I: Talking about Hobbies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Dialogue II: Inviting Someone to Play Ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

97

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Functional Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Supplementary Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
1. Word Order in Chinese 2. A?rmative + Negative Questions (II)

Contents

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3. 那 (么) (nà{me}) as a Cohesive Device 4. 去 (qù, to go) + Verb 5. The Auxiliary Verb 想 (xiǎng, to want to) 6. Questions with 好嗎 (hǎo ma)

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

Lesson 5: Visiting Friends

117

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Dialogue: Visiting a Friend’s Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Functional Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Narrative: At a Friend’s House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Supplementary Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
1. 一下 (yí xià) and (一) 點兒 ({yì}diǎnr) Moderating the Tone of Voice 2. Adjectives Used as Predicates 3. 在 (zài, at; in; on) 4. The Particle of Mood 吧 (ba) 5. The Particle 了 (le) (I) 6. The Adverb 才 (cái)

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138

Lesson 6: Making Appointments

140

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Dialogue I: Calling One’s Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

Functional Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Dialogue II: Calling a Friend for Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Supplementary Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
1. The Preposition 給 (gěi) 2. The Auxiliary Verb 要 (yào, will; be going to) (I) [See also L.9 G1]

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3. 別 (bié, don’t) 4. The Auxiliary Verb 得 (děi, must) 5. Directional Complements (I)

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163

Lesson 7: Studying Chinese

165

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
Dialogue I: Asking about an Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Functional Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Dialogue II: Preparing for a Chinese Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Supplementary Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
1. Descriptive Complements (I) 2. 太 (tài, too) and 真 (zhēn, really) 3. The Adverb 就 (jiù) (I) 4. Ordinal Numbers 5. 有一點兒 (yǒu yìdiǎnr, somewhat, rather; a little bit) 6. 怎么 (zěnme, how come) in Questions 7. The Use of Nouns and Pronouns in Continuous Discourse

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188

Lesson 8: School Life

190

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
A Diary: A Typical School Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 A Letter: Talking about Studying Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
1. The Position of Time-When Expressions 2. 就 (jiù) (II) [See also L.7 G3] 3. 一邊...一邊...(yìbiān... yìbiān...) 4. Serial Verbs/Verb Phrases 5. Double Objects

Contents

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6. More on the Particle 了 (le) (II) [See also L.5 G5 and L.10 G2] 7. ...的時候, 正在...(...de shíhou, zhèngzài..., when...be doing...) 8. 除了...以外, 還 (chúle...yíwài, hái, in addition to..., also...) 9. 能 (néng) and 會 (huì) (I) Compared

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212

Lesson 9: Shopping

214

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Dialogue I: Buying Clothes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Dialogue II: Exchanging Shoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Supplementary Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
1. The Auxiliary Verb 要 (yào) (II) [See also L.6 G2] 2. Measure Words (II) [See also L.2 G1] 3. 的 (de) Structure 4. 多 (duō) Used Interrogatively 5. Amounts of Money 6. 跟/和...(不) 一樣 (gēn/hé...{bù} yíyàng, {not the} same as...) 7. 雖然..., 可是/但是...(suīrán..., kěshì/dànshì..., although...yet...)

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233

Lesson 10: Talking about the Weather

235

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
Dialogue I: The Weather Is Getting Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Dialogue II: Complaining about the Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Supplementary Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
1. Comparative Sentences with 比 (bǐ) 2. The Particle 了 (le) (III): 了 as a Sentence-Final Particle [See also L.5 G5 and L.8 G6] 3. The Auxiliary Verb 會 (huì, will) (II) [See also L.8 G9]

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4. The Adverb 又 (yòu, again) 5. 又...又...(yòu...yòu..., both...and...)

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256

Lesson 11: Transportation

257

Vocabulary and Texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
Dialogue: Going Home for the Winter Vacation . . . . . . . . . . 257 A Letter: Thanking Someone for a Ride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

Functional Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
Supplementary Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

Grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
1. Topic-Comment Sentences 2. 或者 (huòzhě, or) and 還是 (háishi, or) 3. 先...再...(xiān…zài…, ?rst… then…) 4. 還是 (háishi, had better) 5. 每...都...(měi…dōu…, every…)

Pattern Drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 English Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277 Map of China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280 Appendix: Place Names in China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383
1. Vocabulary Index (Chinese-English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 2. Vocabulary Index (English-Chinese) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 3. Vocabulary Index (by Grammar Category) . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

PREFACE
The Integrated Chinese series is an acclaimed, best-selling introductory course in Mandarin Chinese. With its holistic, integrated focus on the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, it teaches all the basics beginning and intermediate students need to function in Chinese. Integrated Chinese helps students understand how the Chinese language works grammatically, and how to use Chinese in real life. The Chinese title of Integrated Chinese, which is simply 中文聽說讀寫 (Zhōngwén Tīng Shuō Dú Xiě), re?ects our belief that a healthy language program should be a well-balanced one. To ensure that students will be strong in all skills, and because we believe that each of the four skills needs special training, the exercises in the Integrated Chinese Workbooks are divided into four sections of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Within each section, there are two types of exercises, namely, traditional exercises (such as ?ll-in-the-blank, sentence completion, translation, etc.) to help students build a solid foundation, and communication-oriented exercises to prepare students to face the real world.

How Integrated Chinese Has Evolved
Integrated Chinese (IC) began, in 1993, as a set of course materials for beginning and intermediate Chinese courses taught at the East Asian Summer Language Institute’s Chinese School, at Indiana University. Since that time, it has become a widely used series of Chinese language textbooks in the United States and beyond. Teachers and students appreciate the fact that IC, with its focus on practical, everyday topics and its numerous and varied exercises, helps learners build a solid foundation in the Chinese language.

What’s New in the Second Edition
Thanks to all those who have used Integrated Chinese and given us the bene?t of their suggestions and comments, we have been able to produce a second edition that includes the following improvements:


Typographical errors present in the ?rst edition have been corrected, and the content has been carefully edited to ensure accuracy and minimize errors. The design has been revised and improved for easier use, and the Textbooks feature two colors. Revised illustrations and new photos provide the reader with visual images and relevant cultural information. Many new culture notes and examples of functional expressions have been added.







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Grammar and phonetics explanations have been rewritten in more student-friendly language. Workbook listening and reading sections have been revised. A new ?exibility for the teaching of characters is o?ered. While we believe that students should learn to read all of the characters introduced in the lessons, we are aware that di?erent Chinese programs have di?erent needs. Some teachers may wish to limit the number of characters for which students have responsibility, especially in regards to writing requirements. To help such teachers, we have identi?ed a number of lowerfrequency Chinese characters and marked them with a pound sign (#) in the vocabulary lists. Teachers might choose to accept pinyin in place of these characters in homework and tests. The new edition adds ?exibility in this regard. The Level 1 Workbooks have been reorganized. The Workbook exercises have been divided into two parts, with each part corresponding to one of the dialogues in each lesson. This arrangement will allow teachers to more easily teach the dialogues separately. They may wish to use the ?rst two or three days of each lesson to focus on the ?rst dialogue, and have students complete the exercises for the ?rst dialogue. Then, they can proceed with the second dialogue, and have students complete the exercises for the second dialogue. Teachers may also wish to give separate quizzes on the vocabulary associated with each dialogue, thus reducing the number of new words students need to memorize at any one time. Level 2 o?ers full text in simpli?ed and traditional characters. The original Level 2 Textbook and Workbook, which were intended to be used by both traditional- and simpli?ed-character learners, contained sections in which only the traditional characters were given. This was of course problematic for students who were principally interested in learning simpli?ed characters. This di?culty has been resolved in the new edition, as we now provide both traditional and simpli?ed characters for every Chinese sentence in both the Textbook and the Workbook.

▲ ▲





Basic Organizational Principles
In recent years, a very important fact has been recognized by the ?eld of lan-

guage teaching: the ultimate goal of learning a language is to communicate in that language. Integrated Chinese is a set of materials that gives students grammatical tools and also prepares them to function in a Chinese language environment. The materials cover two years of instruction, with smooth transitions from one level to the next. They ?rst cover everyday life topics and gradually move to more abstract subject matter. The materials are not limited to one method or one approach, but instead they blend several teaching approaches that

Preface

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can produce good results. Here are some of the features of Integrated Chinese which make it di?erent from other Chinese language textbooks: Integrating Pedagogical and Authentic Materials All of the materials are graded in Integrated Chinese. We believe that students can grasp the materials better if they learn simple and easy to control language items before the more di?cult or complicated ones. We also believe that students should be taught some authentic materials even in the ?rst year of language instruction. Therefore, most of the pedagogical materials are actually simulated authentic materials. Real authentic materials (written by native Chinese speakers for native Chinese speakers) are incorporated in the lessons when appropriate. Integrating Written Style and Spoken Style One way to measure a person’s Chinese pro?ciency is to see if s/he can handle the “written style” (書面語, shūmiànyǔ) with ease. The “written style” language is more formal and literal than the “spoken style” (口語, kǒuyǔ); however, it is also widely used in news broadcasts and formal speeches. In addition to “spoken style” Chinese, basic “written style” expressions are gradually introduced in Integrated Chinese. Integrating Traditional and Simpli?ed Characters We believe that students should learn to handle Chinese language materials in both the traditional and the simpli?ed forms. However, we also realize that it could be rather confusing and overwhelming to teach students both the traditional and the simpli?ed forms from day one. A reasonable solution to this problem is for the student to concentrate on one form, either traditional or simpli?ed, at the ?rst level, and to acquire the other form during the second level. Therefore, for Level 1, Integrated Chinese o?ers two editions of the Textbooks and the Workbooks, one using traditional characters and one using simpli?ed characters, to meet di?erent needs. We believe that by the second year of studying Chinese, all students should be taught to read both traditional and simpli?ed characters. Therefore, the text of each lesson in Level 2 is shown in both forms, and the vocabulary list in each lesson also contains both forms. Considering that students in a second-year Chinese language class might come from different backgrounds and that some of them may have learned the traditional form and others the simpli?ed form, students should be allowed to write in either traditional or simpli?ed form. It is important that the learner write in one form only, and not a hybrid of both forms. Integrating Teaching Approaches Realizing that there is no one single teaching method which is adequate in training a student to be pro?cient in all four language skills, we employ a variety of teaching methods and approaches in Integrated Chinese to maximize

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the teaching results. In addition to the communicative approach, we also use traditional methods such as grammar-translation and direct method.

Online Supplements to Integrated Chinese
Integrated Chinese is not a set of course materials that employs printed volumes only. It is, rather, a network of teaching materials that exist in many forms. Teacher keys, software, and more are posted for Integrated Chinese users at www.webtech.cheng-tsui.com, Cheng & Tsui Company’s online site for downloadable and web-based resources. Please visit this site often for new o?erings. Other materials are available at the IC website, http://eall.hawaii.edu/ yao/icusers/, which was set up by Ted Yao, one of the principal Integrated Chinese authors, when the original edition of Integrated Chinese was published. Thanks to the generosity of teachers and students who are willing to share their materials with other Integrated Chinese users, this website is constantly growing, and has many useful links and resources. The following are some of the materials created by the community of Integrated Chinese users that are available at the Integrated Chinese website.


Links to resources that show how to write Chinese characters, provide vocabulary practice, and more. Pinyin supplements for all Integrated Chinese books. Especially useful for Chinese programs that do not teach Chinese characters. Preliminary activities for an activity book for Integrated Chinese Level 1 (in progress), by Yea-fen Chen, Ted Yao and Je?rey Hayden. (http://eall. hawaii.edu/yao/AB/default.htm) Teacher’s resources.







About the Format
Considering that many teachers might want to teach their students how to speak the language before teaching them how to read Chinese characters, we decided to place the pinyin text before the Chinese-character text in each of the eleven lessons of the Level 1 Part 1 Textbook. Since pinyin is only a vehicle to help students learn the pronunciation of the Chinese language and is not a replacement for the Chinese writing system, it is important that students can read out loud in Chinese by looking at the Chinese text and not just the pinyin text. To train students to deal with the Chinese text directly without relying on pinyin, we moved the pinyin text to the end of each lesson in the Level 1 Part 2 Textbook. Students can refer to the pinyin text to verify a sound when necessary. We are fully aware of the fact that no two Chinese language programs are identical and that each program has its own requirements. Some schools will

Preface

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cover a lot of material in one year while some others will cover considerably less. Trying to meet the needs of as many schools as possible, we decided to cover a wide range of material, both in terms of vocabulary and grammar, in Integrated Chinese. To facilitate oral practice and to allow students to communicate in real-life situations, many supplementary vocabulary items are added to each lesson. However, the characters in the supplementary vocabulary sections are not included in the Character Workbooks. In the Character Workbooks, each of the characters is given a frequency indicator based on the Hànyǔ Pínlǜ Dà Cídiǎn (漢語頻率大辭典). Teachers can decide for themselves which characters must be learned.

Acknowledgments
Since publication of the ?rst edition of Integrated Chinese, in 1997, many teachers and students have given us helpful comments and suggestions. We cannot list all of these individuals here, but we would like to reiterate our genuine appreciation for their help. We do wish to recognize the following individuals who have made recent contributions to the Integrated Chinese revision. We are indebted to Tim Richardson, Je?rey Hayden, Ying Wang and Xianmin Liu for ?eld-testing the new edition and sending us their comments and corrections. We would also like to thank Chengzhi Chu for letting us try out his “Chinese TA,” a computer program designed for Chinese teachers to create and edit teaching materials. This software saved us many hours of work during the revision. Last, but not least, we want to thank Jim Dew for his superb professional editorial job, which enhanced both the content and the style of the new edition. As much as we would like to eradicate all errors in the new edition, some will undoubtedly remain, so please continue to send your comments and corrections to editor@cheng-tsui.com, and accept our sincere thanks for your help.

ABBREVIATIONS FOR GRAMMAR TERMS
abbr adj adv av ce coll conj exc interj m n np nu p pn pr pre?x prep ono qp qpr qw t v vc vo Abbreviation Adjective Adverb Auxiliary verb Common expression Colloquialism Conjunction Exclamation Interjection Measure word Noun Noun phrase Numeral Particle Proper noun Pronoun Pre?x Preposition Onomatopoeic Question particle Question pronoun Question word Time word Verb Verb plus complement Verb plus object

ABOUT NOTE REFERENCES
Di?erent types of notes provide explanations for selected expressions in the text. In the dialogues, expressions followed by a superscript numeral are explained in notes directly below the text; expressions followed by a superscript “G” plus a numeral are explained in grammar notes in the grammar section of the lesson. “F” refers to “Functional Expressions” explained in the pages that follow the dialogues.

Introduction
I. Chinese Pronunciation
A Chinese syllable is composed of an initial and a ?nal. Initials consist of consonants or semi-vowels; ?nals consist of vowels or vowels plus one of the two nasal sounds -[n] or -[ng]. In addition to an initial and a ?nal, each Chinese syllable has a tone.

A. SIMPLE FINALS

M

There are six simple ?nals: a, o, e, i, u, ü


When it is pronounced by itself, a is a central vowel. The tongue remains in a natural, relaxed position. o is a rounded semi-high back vowel. The lips are round when pronouncing o. e is an unrounded semi-high back vowel. To produce this vowel, ?rst pronounce o, and then change the shape of the mouth from rounded to unrounded. At the same time spread the lips apart, as if you were smiling. This vowel is di?erent from “e” in English, which is pronounced with the tongue raised slightly forward.







i is an unrounded high front vowel. The tongue is raised higher than it would be to pronounce its counterpart in English. u is a rounded high back vowel. The tongue is raised higher than it would be to pronounce its counterpart in English. ü is a rounded high front vowel. To produce this vowel, ?rst pronounce i, then modify the shape of the mouth from unrounded to rounded. In the pinyin system i also represents two additional special vowels. One





is a front apical vowel, the other a back apical vowel. Both of these vowels are homorganic with the very limited sets of initials with which they can co-occur (see below, z, c, s and zh, ch, sh, r). In our discussion of phonetics, we sometimes write these special vowels with an italicized i to distinguish it from the ordinary high front vowel i.

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Integrated Chinese ▲ Level 1 ▲ Part 1: Textbook

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Note
In this book, Chinese sounds are represented by pinyin. The pinyin system uses twenty-?ve of the twenty-six letters of the Roman alphabet. Although pinyin symbols are thus the same as English letters, the actual sounds they represent can be very di?erent from their English counterparts. Be careful to distinguish them.

B. INITIALS

M

There are twenty-one initial consonants in Chinese:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. b d g j z zh p t k q c ch m n h x s sh r f l

In addition, the semi-vowels y and w also function as initials.

M

B.1: b, p, m, f
b is a bilabial unaspirated plosive. Note that the Chinese b is di?erent from its English counterpart; it is not voiced. There are no voiced plosives in Chinese. p is a bilabial aspirated voiceless plosive. In other words, there is a strong pu? of breath when the consonant is pronounced. When pronouncing b and p, the lips are closed lightly between the front teeth and lower teeth. m is a bilabial nasal sound, produced in the same manner as an English m. f is a labio-dental fricative. To produce this sound, press the upper teeth against the lower lip, and let the breath ?ow out with friction, just as in pronouncing an English f.

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Introduction

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Notes
Only the simple ?nals a, o, i, and u and the compound ?nals that start with a, o, i, or u can be combined with b, p, and m; only the simple ?nals a, o, and u and the compound ?nals that start with a, o, or u can be combined with f. When these initials are combined with o, there is actually a short u sound in between. For instance, the syllable bo (buo) actually includes a very short u sound between b and o.

M
B.1.a
ba pa ma fa bi pi mi fu

PRACTICE
bu pu mu fo bo po mo

B.1.b b vs. p
ba po pa bo bu pi pu bi

B.1.c m vs. f
ma fa mu fu

B.1.d b, p, m, f
bo fu po mu mo pu fo bu

M

B.2: d, t, n, l
When producing d, t, n, the tip of the tongue touches the upper teeth ridge. The tongue is raised more to the front than it would be to pronounce their English counterparts. d is a tongue tip alveolar unaspirated plosive. It is voiceless. t is a tongue tip alveolar aspirated stop. It is voiceless.

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n is a tongue tip alveolar nasal. It is produced by placing the tip of the tongue against the ridge behind the upper teeth. l is a tongue tip alveolar lateral. It is di?erent from the English “l.” To produce the Chinese l the tip of the tongue should touch the alveolar ridge, which is the ridge located at the back of the upper teeth.

Note
Only the simple ?nals a, i, e, and u and the compound ?nals that start with a, i, e, or u can be combined with d, t, n, and l; n and l can also be combined with ü and the compound ?nals that start with ü.

M
B.2.a
da ta na la di ti ni li tu

PRACTICE
du nu lu de te ne le nü lü

B.2.b d vs. t
da du ta tu di de ti te

B.2.c l vs. n
lu lu lü nu nu lü nü nü

B.2.d d, t, n, l
le du ne tu te lu de nu

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Introduction

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M

B.3: g, k, h
g is an unaspirated voiceless velar stop. k is an aspirated voiceless velar stop. When producing g and k, the back of the tongue is raised against the soft palate. h is a voiceless velar fricative. When producing h, the back of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate. The friction is noticeable. With its English counterpart, however, the friction is not noticeable.

Note
Only the simple ?nals a, e, and u and the compound ?nals that start with a, e, or u can be combined with g, k, and h.

M
B.3.a
gu ku hu ge ke he

PRACTICE
ga ka ha

B.3.b g vs. k
gu ku ge ke

B.3.c g vs. h
gu hu ge he

B.3.d k vs. h
ke he ku hu

B.3.e g, k, h
gu he ku ke hu ge

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M

B.4: j, q, x
j is an unaspirated voiceless palatal a?ricate. To produce this sound, ?rst raise the front of the tongue to the hard palate and press the tip of the tongue against the back of the lower teeth, and then loosen the tongue and let the air squeeze out through the channel thus made. It is unaspirated and the vocal cords do not vibrate. Note that the Chinese j is similar to English j but unvoiced and articulated, with the tip of the tongue resting behind the lower incisors. q is an aspirated voiceless palatal a?ricate. It is produced in the same manner as j, but it is aspirated. Note that the Chinese q is similar to English ch except that it is articulated with the tip of the tongue resting behind the lower incisors. x is a voiceless palatal fricative. To produce it, ?rst raise the front of the tongue toward (but not touching) the hard palate and then let the air squeeze out. The vocal cords do not vibrate. Note that the Chinese x is similar to English sh except that it is articulated with the tip of the tongue resting behind the lower incisors.

Note
The ?nals that can be combined with j, q and x are limited to i and ü and the compound ?nals that start with i or ü. When j, q and x are combined with ü or a compound ?nal starting with ü, the umlaut is omitted and the ü appears as u.

M
B.4.a
ji qi xi ju qu xu

PRACTICE

B.4.b j vs. q
ji qi ju qu

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Introduction

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B.4.c q vs. x
qi xi qu xu

B.4.d j vs. x
ji xi ju xu

B.4.e j, q, x
ji ju qi qu xi xu

M

B.5: z, c, s
z is an unaspirated voiceless apical a?ricate. c is an aspirated voiceless apical a?ricate. The aspiration is strong. Note that z is like the ts sound in “that’s odd,” while c is like the ts sound in “it’s hot.” s is a voiceless apical fricative. It is the same as English s. The above group of sounds is pronounced with the tongue touching the back of the upper teeth.

Note
The simple ?nals that can be combined with z, c, s are a, e, u and the front apical vowel i (not the regular palatal high front vowel i). In pronouncing the syllables zi, ci and si the tongue is held in the same position throughout the syllable except that it is slightly relaxed as the articulation moves from the voiceless initial consonant to the voiced vowel.

M
B.5.a
za ca sa zu cu su

PRACTICE
ze ce se zi ci si

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B.5.b s vs. z
sa se za ze su si zu zi

B.5.c z vs. c
za ze ca ce zi zu ci cu

B.5.d s vs. c
sa su ca cu si se ci ce

B.5.e z, c, s
sa su se si za ci su za zu ze zi cu sa zi ca cu ce ci se zu ce

M

B.6: zh, ch, sh, r
zh is an unaspirated voiceless blade-palatal a?ricate. To produce it, ?rst turn up the tip of the tongue against the hard palate, then loosen it and let the air squeeze out the channel thus made. It is unaspirated and the vocal cords do not vibrate. Note that zh is similar to English j but unvoiced and with the tip of the tongue raised against the back of the gum ridge or front part of the hard palate. ch is an aspirated voiceless blade-palatal a?ricate. This sound is produced in the same manner as zh, but it is aspirated. Note that ch is similar to English ch except that it is produced with the tip of the tongue raised against the back of the gum ridge or front part of the hard palate.

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Introduction

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sh is a voiceless blade-palatal fricative. To produce this sound, turn up the tip of the tongue toward (but not touching) the hard palate and then let the air squeeze out. The vocal cords do not vibrate. Note that sh is similar to English sh except that it is produced with the tip of the tongue raised against the back of the gum ridge or front part of the hard palate. r is a voiced blade-palatal fricative. It is produced in the same manner as sh, but it is voiced. The vocal cords vibrate. It is very di?erent from the English “r.”

Note
The ?nals that can be combined with zh, ch, sh, r are a, e, u and the back apical vowel i, as well as the compound ?nals that start with a, e, or u. In pronouncing the syllables zhi, chi, shi and ri the tongue is held in the same position throughout the syllable except that it is slightly relaxed as the articulation moves from the initial consonant to the vowel.

M
B.6.a
zha cha sha ru zhu chu shu re

PRACTICE

zhe che she ri

zhi chi shi

B.6.b zh vs. sh
sha zha shu zhu

B.6.c zh vs. ch
zha cha zhu chu

B.6.d ch vs. sh
chu shu sha cha

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B.6.e zh, ch, sh
shi she zhi zhe chi che shi she

B.6.f sh vs. r
shu ru shi ri

B.6.g r vs. l
lu ru li ri

B.6.h sh, r, l
she re le re

B.6.i zh, ch, r
zhe re che re

B.6.j zh, ch, sh, r
sha shu zhi che cha zhu chi zhe zha chu shi she ru ri re

A REFERENCE CHART FOR INITIALS
UNASPIRATED STOPS Labials Alveolars Dental sibilants Retro?exes Palatals Velars b d z zh j g ASPIRATED STOPS p t c ch q k NASALS m n s sh x h r y* FRICATIVES f VOICED CONTINUANTS w* l

*See explanations of w and y in the “Spelling Rules” section below.

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Introduction

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M
1. ai 2. an 3. ia 4. ua 5. üe 6. er ei en iao uo üan ao ang ie uai ün

C. COMPOUND FINALS
ou eng iu* ui** ong ian uan in un*** iang uang ing ueng iong

*The main vowel o is omitted in the spelling of the ?nal iu (iu = iou). Therefore iu represents the sound iou. The o sound is especially conspicuous in third and fourth tone syllables. **The main vowel e is omitted in the ?nal ui (ui = uei). Like iu above, the e sound within ui is quite conspicuous in third and fourth tone syllables. ***The main vowel e is omitted in un (un = uen).

In Chinese, compound ?nals are comprised of a main vowel and one or two secondary vowels, or a main vowel and one or two vowels followed by one of the nasal endings -n or -ng. When the initial vowels are a, e and o, they are stressed. The vowels following are soft and brief. When the initial vowels are i, u and ü, the main vowels come after them. i, u and ü are transitional sounds. If there are vowels or nasal consonants after the main vowels, they should be unstressed as well. In a compound ?nal, the main vowel can be affected by the phonemes before and after it. For instance, the a in ian is pronounced with a lower degree of aperture and a higher position of the tongue than the a in ma; and to pronounce the a in ang the tongue has to be positioned more to the back of the mouth than the a elsewhere. As noted above, in pinyin orthography some vowels are omitted for the sake of economy, e.g., i(o)u, u(e)i. However, when pronouncing those sounds, the vowels must not be omitted.

Spelling Rules


1 ▲ If there is no initial consonant before i, i is written as a semi-vowel, y. Thus

ia, ie, iao, iu, ian, iang become ya, ye, yao, you (note that the o cannot be omitted here), yan, yang. Before in, ing, and o, add y, e.g., yin, ying, yo.


2 ▲ If there is no initial consonant before ü, add a y and drop the umlaut: yu,

yuan, yue, yun.

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3 ▲ u becomes w if not preceded by an initial, e.g., wa, wai, wan, wang, wei,

wen, weng, wo. u by itself becomes wu.


4 ▲ ueng is written as ong, if preceded by an initial, e.g., tong, dong, nong,

long. Without an initial, it is weng.


5 ▲ In order to avoid confusion, an apostrophe is used to separate two syl-

lables with connecting vowels, e.g., shí’èr (twelve) and the city Xī’ān (shí and èr, xī and ān are separate syllables).

M
C.1:
pai cai

PRACTICE ai
lei mei

ei

ao

ou
dao sao gou shou

C.2:
C.2.a an vs. ang
tan zan

an
tang

en

ang eng ong
chan gan chang gang

zhang

C.2.b en vs. eng
sen zhen seng zheng shen fen sheng feng

C.2.c eng vs. ong
cheng zheng chong zhong deng keng dong kong

C.3:
C.3.a ia vs. ie
jia xia

ia
jie xie

iao

ie

iu
qia ya

ian

in
qie ye

iang ing

iong

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Introduction

13

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C.3.b ian vs. iang
xian jian xiang jiang qian yan qiang yang

C.3.c in vs. ing
bin jin bing jing pin yin ping ying

C.3.d iu vs. iong
xiu xiong you yong

C.3.e ao vs. iao
zhao chao jiao qiao shao ao xiao yao

C.3.f an vs. ian
chan zhan qian jian shan an xian yan

C.3.g ang vs. iang
zhang chang jiang qiang shang ang xiang yang

C.4:
C.4.a ua vs. uai
shua

ua
shuai

uo

uai

ui
wa

uan un

uang
wai

C.4.b uan vs. uang
shuan zhuan shuang zhuang chuan wan chuang wang

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C.4.c un vs. uan
dun zhun duan zhuan kun wen kuan wan

C.4.d uo vs. ou
duo suo dou sou zhuo wo zhou ou

C.4.e ui vs. un
tui dui tun dun zhui wei zhun wen

C.5:
C.5.a ün vs. un
jun

üe

üan ün

zhun

yun

wen

C.5.b üan vs. uan
xuan quan shuan chuan juan yuan zhuan wan

C.5.c üe
yue que jue

C.6:

er
ger*

*Due to the lack of words with ?rst tone er in them, the word “ger” (ge with r ending) is here to give the reader a feel for it. See D.1 Practice III below (p. 18) for more examples.

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Introduction

15

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D. TONES
Every Chinese syllable has a tone.

D.1: Four tones
There are four tones in Mandarin Chinese (i.e., 普通話 pǔtōnghuà, “common language” in mainland China; 國語 guóyǔ, “national language” in Taiwan; 華語 Huáyǔ, “the Chinese language” in Singapore and some other places): the ?rst tone (陰平 yīnpíng), the second tone (陽平 yángpíng), the third tone (上聲 shǎngshēng), the fourth tone (去聲 qùshēng). The ?rst tone is a high level tone with a pitch value of 55 (see chart below); its tone mark is “ ? .” The second tone is a rising tone with a pitch value of 35; its tone mark is “ ? .” The citation form of the third tone has a pitch value of 214. However, in normal speech it almost always occurs as a “half third tone” with a pitch value of 21 or (in front of another third tone) transformed into a second tone with the pitch value of 35. Its tone mark is “ ˇ .” The fourth tone is a falling tone with a pitch value of 51; its tone mark is “ ` .” In addition to the four tones, there is also a neutral tone (輕聲 qīngshēng) in Mandarin Chinese. Neutral tone words include those that do not have fundamental tones (e.g., the question particle ma), and those that do have tones when pronounced individually, but are not stressed in certain compounds (e.g., the second ba in “bàba” or “father”). There are no tone marks for neutral tone syllables. A neutral tone syllable is pronounced brie?y and softly, and its pitch value is determined by the stressed syllable immediately before it. A neutral tone following a ?rst tone syllable, as in māma 媽 媽, carries a pitch tone of 2. When it follows a second tone syllable, a third tone syllable, or a fourth tone syllable, its pitch value will be 3, 4, and 1 respectively. Tones are very important in Chinese. The same syllable with di?erent tones can have di?erent meanings. For instance, mā 媽 is mother, má 麻 is hemp, mǎ 馬 is horse, mà 罵 is to scold, and ma 嗎 is an interrogative particle. The four tones can be diagrammed as follows:

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Tone marks are written above the main vowel of a syllable. The main vowel can be identi?ed according to the following sequence: a-o-e-i-u-ü. For instance, in ao the main vowel is a. In ei the main vowel is e. There is one exception: when i and u are combined into a syllable, the tone mark is written on the second vowel: iù, uì.

M
1.a

pū dà shè tí kè jǐ gú

D.1 PRACTICE I: MONOSYLLABIC WORDS
Four Tones

pú dǎ shě tī kě jí gù


pǔ dá shé tǐ kē jì gū


pù dā shē tì ké jī gǔ

1.b


1st vs. 2nd

chú hé shí chū hē shī

1.c


1st vs. 3rd
tǔ mǒ xǐ shǎ mō xī shā

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Introduction

17

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

1.d



1st vs. 4th

dì qù kè

1.e
hú xí

2nd vs. 1st
hū xī zhē pō

qū kē

zhé pó

1.f


2nd vs. 3rd
gé gě tǐ jǔ rǔ

1.g


2nd vs. 4th
lù mò cì zhè

mó cí zhé

jú rú

1.h
tǎ mǐ

3rd vs. 1st
tā mī gū chē

1.i

3rd vs. 2nd
chǔ kě xǐ qǔ chú ké xí qú

gǔ chě

1.j

3rd vs. 4th
bǒ nǐ chǔ rě bò nì chù rè

1.k
jì là sù hè

4th vs. 1st
jī lā sū hē

1.l

4th vs. 2nd
nà zè jù lǜ ná zé jú lǘ

1.m
sà zì kù zhè

4th vs. 3rd
sǎ zǐ kǔ zhě

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2.a 1st 1st
chūzū tūchū

D.1 PRACTICE II: BISYLLABLIC WORDS
2.i
chūfā

3rd 1st
zǔzhī zhǔjī lǐkē

2.b

1st 2nd
chātú xīqí chūxí

2.j

3rd 2nd
pǔjí zhǔxí chǔfá

2.c

1st 3rd
shēchǐ gēqǔ chūbǎn

2.k

3rd 4th
lǚkè gǔlì tǐzhì

2.d

1st 4th
chūsè hūshì jīlǜ

2.l

4th 1st
zìsī qìchē lǜshī

2.e

2nd 1st
shíshī qíjī shíchā

2.m

4th 2nd
dìtú shìshí

fùzá

2.f

2nd 2nd
jíhé shépí pígé

2.n

4th 3rd
zìjǐ bìhǔ dìzhǐ

2.g

2nd 3rd
jítǐ bóqǔ zhélǐ

2.o

4th 4th
mùdì xùmù dàdì

2.h

2nd 4th
qítè fúlì chíxù

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3.a
érzi

D.1 PRACTICE III: WORDS WITH “ER” SOUND
3.c
érqiě shí’èr èrshí

3.b
ěrduo mù’ěr

D.2: Tone sandhi
If two third tone syllables are spoken in succession, the ?rst third tone becomes second tone. This tone change is known as “tone sandhi” in linguistics.

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Introduction

19

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

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xǐlǐ chǐrǔ qǔshě

For instance,

→ → →

xílǐ chírǔ qúshě

(baptism) (shame) (accept or reject)

Note
Following standard pinyin practice, we do not change the tone marks from third to second tone. Initially you might have to consciously remember that the ?rst syllable actually is pronounced as a second tone syllable, but through pronunciation drills and hearing the language spoken, you will soon be making the sandhi change automatically and unconsciously.

M
chǔlǐ bǐnǐ zǐnǚ

D.2 PRACTICE
→ → →
chúlǐ bínǐ zínǚ gǔpǔ jǔzhǐ zhǐshǐ

→ → →

gúpǔ júzhǐ zhíshǐ

D.3: Neutral tone

M

The neutral tone occurs in unstressed syllables. It is unmarked. For instance,
māma (mother, mom) lǐzi (plum) chúzi (cook) shìzi (persimmon)

chēzi (car) shūshu (uncle)

The pitch of the neutral tone is determined by the preceding syllable.

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1. māma 2. dízi 3. lǐzi 4. bàba gēge bóbo qǐzi dìdi

D.3 PRACTICE
shīfu bízi dǐzi kèqi chūqu chúle fǔshang kùzi

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I. shān cháng zhǐ lüè kè II. Zhōngguó zàijiàn yīnyuè cèsuǒ gōngkè zuìjìn zhōumò liúxué wǎngqiú xīngqī tóngxué kělè chūntiān kāishǐ xīwàng guānxi nǚ’ér xǐzǎo xiān qiáng jǐ nüè lè

E. COMBINATION EXERCISES
sān cáng zǐ yuè rè lǜshī xǐhuan yǎnlèi xiàwǔ rìjì yīsheng dòufu shénme niánjí zhàopiàn diànshì shàngwǔ bànyè cāntīng chūzū jiéhūn suīrán yóuyǒng

II. Chinese Writing System
A. THE FORMATION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS
Unlike English, which is an alphabetic language, Chinese writing is represented by “characters,” each of which represents a meaningful syllable. Characters are traditionally divided into the following six categories: 1. 象形 xiàngxíng Examples: pictographs, pictographic characters

人 ((((Figure 0-2)))) 山 ((((Figure 0-3)))) 日 ((((Figure 0-4)))) 月 ((((Figure 0-5))))

rén shān rì yuè

man mountain sun moon

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Introduction

21

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

木 ((((Figure 0-6))))
Examples:



tree

2. 指事 zhǐshì self-explanatory characters

上 ((((Figure 0-7)))) 下 ((((Figure 0-8))))
Examples:

shàng xià

above below

3. 會意 huìyì associative compounds

明 ((((Figure 0-9)))) 休 ((((Figure 0-10))))
4. 形聲 xíngshēng ing meaning and the other sound) Examples:

míng xiū

bright rest

pictophonetic characters (with one element indicat-

江,河,飯,姑
mutually explanatory characters

5. 轉注 zhuǎnzhù Examples: 6. 假借 jiǎjiè Examples:

老,考
phonetic loan characters

來,我

A popular myth is that Chinese writing is pictographic, and that each Chinese character represents a picture. It is true that some Chinese characters have evolved from pictures, but these comprise only a small proportion of the characters. The vast majority of Chinese characters are pictophonetic characters consisting of a radical and a phonetic element. The radical often suggests the meaning of a character, and the phonetic element indicates its original pronunciation, which may or may not represent its modern pronunciation.

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B. BASIC CHINESE RADICALS
Although there are more than ?fty thousand Chinese characters in existence, one only needs to know two or three thousand of them to be considered literate. Mastering two or three thousand characters is, of course, a rather formidable task. However, the learning process will be more e?ective and easier if one knows well the basic components of Chinese characters. Traditionally, Chinese characters are grouped together according to their common components known as “radicals” (部首, bùshǒu). The 214 “Kangxi radicals” have been the standard set of radicals since the publication of the great Kangxi Dictionary (康熙字典 Kāngxī Zìdiǎn) in 1716, although some contemporary dictionaries, which treat simpli?ed characters as primary forms, have reduced that number to 189. By knowing the radicals and other basic components well, you will ?nd recognizing, remembering and reproducing characters much easier. Knowing the radicals is also a must when using dictionaries, which arrange characters according to their radicals. The following is a selection of forty radicals that everybody should know well when starting to learn characters.
Chinese radical Pinyin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. English man knife power right hand; again mouth enclose earth sunset big Examples

人 (亻) 刀 (?) 力 又 口 囗** 土 夕 大

rén dāo lì yòu kǒu wéi tǔ xī dà

你,他 分,到 加,助 友,取 叫,可 回,因 在,坐 外,多 天,太

**used as radical only, not as a character by itself

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Introduction

23

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

女 子 寸 小 工 幺 弓 心 (忄) 戈 手 (扌) 日 月 木 水 (氵) 火 (灬) 田 目 示 (礻) 糸( ) 耳 衣 (衤) 言( ) 貝

nǚ zǐ cùn xiǎo gōng yāo gōng xīn gē shǒu rì yuè mù shuǐ huǒ tián mù shì mì ěr yī yán bèi

woman son inch small labor; work tiny; small bow heart dagger-axe hand sun moon wood water ?re ?eld eye show ?ne silk ear clothing speech cowry shell

好,媽 字,學 對,付 少,尖 左,差 幻,幼 張,弟 忙,快 我,或 打,找 早,明 有,明 李,杯 沒,洗 燒,熱 男,留 看,睡 社,票 紅,素 取,聊 衫,初 說,認 貴,買

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33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

走 足 金( ) 門 隹 雨 食( ) 馬

zǒu zú jīn mén zhuī yǔ shí mǎ

walk foot gold door short-tailed bird rain eat horse

趣,起 跳,跑 錢,銀 問,間 售,難 雪,零 飯,館 騎,駕

A Chinese radical chart.

NOTE: THIS IS AN ADVANCE SAMPLE. ACTUAL BOOK’S PHOTOS PRINT B/W, NOT FULL COLOR AS SHOWN HERE.

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Introduction

25

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

C. BASIC STROKES
The following is a list of basic strokes:
Basic stroke 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Chinese Pinyin diǎn héng shù piě nà tí hénggōu shùgōu xiégōu héngzhé shùzhé English dot horizontal vertical downward left downward right upward horizontal hook vertical hook slanted hook horizontal bend vertical bend Examples

“丶” “一” “丨” “丿” “?” “(Fig 0-20)” “乛” “亅” “(Fig 0-23)” “(Fig 0-24)” “(Fig 0-25)”

點 橫 豎 撇 捺 提 橫鉤 豎鉤 斜鉤 橫折 豎折

小,六 一,六 十,中 人,大 八,人 我,江 你,字 小,你 戈,我 五,口 七,亡

Note
With the exception of the “tí” stroke (which moves upward to the right) and the “piě” stroke (which moves downward to the left), all Chinese strokes move from top to bottom, and from left to right.

D. STROKE ORDER
Following is a list of rules of stroke order. When writing a Chinese character, it is important that you follow the rules. Following the rules will make it easier for you to accurately count the number of strokes in a character. Knowing the exact number of strokes in a character will help you ?nd the character in a radical-based dictionary. Also, your Chinese characters will look better if you write them in the correct stroke order!

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1. From left to right 2. From top to bottom 3. Horizontal before vertical 4. From outside to inside 5. Middle before two sides 6. Inside before closing

川,人) (三) (十) (月) (小) (日,回)
(

Note: Learn the correct stroke order of the characters introduced in this book by using the Integrated Chinese Level 1 Character Workbook.

III. Useful Expressions

M
1. Nǐ hǎo! 2. Lǎoshī hǎo! 3. Shàng kè. 4. Xià kè. 5. Dǎkāi shū.

A. CLASSROOM EXPRESSIONS
The following is a list of classroom expressions that you will hear every day in your Chinese class. How are you? How do you do? How are you, teacher? Let’s begin the class. The class is over. Open the book. I’ll speak, you listen. Look at the blackboard. Is it right? Right! Correct! Very good! Please repeat after me. Say it again. Do you understand? Yes, I/we understand.

6. Wǒ shuō, nǐmen tīng. 7. Kàn hēibǎn. 8. Duì bu duì? 9. Duì! 10. Hěn hǎo! 11. Qǐng gēn wǒ shuō. 12. Zài shuō yí cì. 13. Dǒng bu dǒng? 14. Dǒng le.

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Introduction

27

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

15. Zàijiàn! 16. Qǐng yòng _____ zàojù!

Good-bye! Please make a sentence using _____!

M

B. SURVIVAL EXPRESSIONS
The following is a list of important expressions that will help you survive in a Chinese language environment. A good language student is constantly learning new words by asking questions. Learn the following expressions well and start to acquire Chinese on your own! 1. Duìbuqǐ! 2. Qǐng wèn... 3. Xièxie! 4. Zhè shi shénme? 5. Wǒ bù dǒng. 6. Qǐng zài shuō yí biàn. 7. “...” Zhōngguóhuà zěnme shuō? 8. “...” shì shénme yìsi? 9. Qǐng nǐ gěi wǒ.... 10. Qǐng nǐ gàosu wǒ.... 11. Duìbuqǐ, nín shi shuō...? Sorry! Excuse me...; May I ask... Thanks! What is this? I don’t understand. Please say it one more time. How do you say “...” in Chinese? What does “...” mean? Please give me.... Please tell me.… Sorry, do you mean...?

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C. NUMERALS
Having good control of the Chinese numerals will facilitate your dealing with real life situations such as shopping, asking for time and dates, etc. You can get a head start by memorizing 1 to 10 well now. 1. yī 2. èr 3. sān 4. sì 5. wǔ one two three four ?ve

一 二 三 四 五

6. liù 7. qī 8. bā 9. jiǔ 10. shí

six seven eight nine ten

六 七 八 九 十

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Do you know the names of the strokes below? Can you write them properly?

A

B

C

D

E

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LESSON 1 ▲

Greetings

第一課



問好

Dì yí kè ▲ Wèn hǎo

你好!
Nǐ hǎo!

Dialogue I: Exchanging Greetings

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1. 2.

VOCABULARY

3. 4.

先生 你好 你 好 小姐 請問

xiānsheng nǐ hǎo nǐ hǎo xiǎojie qǐng wèn

n ce pr adj n ce

Mr.; husband; teacher How do you do? Hello! you ?ne; good; nice; O.K. Miss; young lady May I ask...

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5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

請 問 您 #貴姓 貴 姓 我 呢 叫 什么 名字

qǐng wèn nín guì xìng guì xìng wǒ ne jiào shénme míngzi

v v pr ce adj v/n pr qp v qpr n

please (a polite form of request) to ask (a question) you (singular; polite) What is your honorable surname? honorable (one’s ) surname is...; to be surnamed; surname I; me (an interrogative particle) to be called; to call what name

Proper Nouns
12.

13.

王朋 王 李友 李

Wáng Péng wáng Lǐ Yǒu lǐ

pn n pn n

(a personal name) (a surname); king (a personal name) (a surname); plum

M
Wáng Xiānsheng(1) : Lǐ Xiǎojie: Wáng Xiānsheng: Lǐ Xiǎojie: Wáng Xiānsheng: Lǐ Xiǎojie:

DIALOGUE I
Nǐ hǎo(2)! Nǐ hǎo! Qǐng wèn, nín guì xìng(3)? Wǒ xìng(G1) Lǐ. Nǐ ne(G2)? Wǒ xìng Wáng, jiào(G3) Wáng Péng(4). Nǐ jiào shénme míngzi(5)? Wǒ jiào Lǐ Yǒu.

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Lesson 1: Greetings

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▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

DIALOGUE I

王先生(1)﹕ 你好(2)! 李小姐﹕ 王先生﹕ 李小姐﹕ 王先生﹕ 李小姐﹕ 你好! 請問,您貴姓(3)? 我姓(G1)李。你呢(G2)? 我姓王,叫(G3)王朋(4)。你叫 什么名字(5)? 我叫李友。
A Note on the Notes


1 ▲ The # symbol preceding a character in the vocabulary section suggests that it’s a low

frequency one. The teacher might want to allow the student to use pinyin instead of writing the character when doing homework.


2 ▲ The numbering system for notes in this textbook works as follows:

a. For numbers without any letter in front of them, see the Notes section. b. For numbers preceded with a “G,” see the Grammar section. c. For the letter “F,” see Functional Expressions.

Notes


1 ▲ Most Chinese family names or surnames (姓 xìng) are monosyllabic.

There are, however, a few disyllabic family names, written with two characters. The number of Chinese family names is fairly limited. According to the most recent census, the most common family names are Li 李 (Lǐ), Wang

王 (Wáng), Zhang 張 (Zhāng), Liu 劉 (Liú), and Chen 陳 (Chén). Family names also precede o?cial titles or other forms of address: 王先生 (Wáng Xiānsheng, lit. Wang Mister), 李老師 (Lǐ Lǎoshī, lit. Li Teacher), etc. When

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addressing someone without knowing his or her family name, it is proper to call him 先生 (xiānsheng, Mister) or her 小姐 (xiǎojie, Miss) if she is relatively young.


2 ▲ “你好!” (Nǐ hǎo!) is a common form of greeting. It can be used to ad-

dress strangers upon ?rst introduction or between old acquaintances. To respond, simply repeat the greeting: “你好!” (Nǐ hǎo!). “你好嗎?” (Nǐ hǎo ma? How are you?) is a question usually asked of people you already know. The answer is usually “我很好” (Wǒ hěn hǎo; I am ?ne).


3 ▲ According to an etymological speculation, the character 姓 (xìng), with

a woman radical on the left side and an ideographic component on the right that can mean “to give birth,” suggests the matriarchal nature of the society at the time of the character’s conception, when family names were inherited matrilineally.


4 ▲ In Chinese, family names (姓 xìng) always precede personal or given

names (名 míng). Personal names usually carry auspicious or positive meanings. They can be either monosyllabic, written in one character, or disyllabic, written in two characters. In Chinese a person is seldom referred to by his or her family name alone, especially if the family name is monosyllabic. For example, Wang Peng (王朋 Wáng Péng), should not be referred to simply as Wang.


5 ▲ In China, when you meet someone, it is polite to ask for his or her fam-

ily name ?rst, rather than his/her full name. Then the question “你叫什么

名字?” (Nǐ jiào shénme míngzi? What is your name?) can be asked to ?nd
out his or her given name or full name.

Culture Notes In China the use of given names often suggests a much higher degree of intimacy than in the West. If one’s given name is monosyllabic, its use is even more limited, usually con?ned to writing. For example, Wang Peng’s parents can address him as Peng in their letters to him, but at home they would most likely call him Wang Peng, instead of Peng. If he is still a child, they might call him Xiao Peng (lit. Little Peng) or Pengpeng (duplicating the syllable).

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Do you know anybody with the following surnames? 畢 (Bì); 蔡 (Cài); 陳 (Chén); 高 (Gāo); 黃 (Huáng); 李 (Lǐ); 林 (Lín); 劉 (Liú); 羅 (Luó); 毛 (Máo); 史 (Shǐ); 王 (Wáng); 吳 (Wú); 謝 (Xiè); 徐 (Xú); 許 (Xǔ); 楊 (Yáng); 姚 (Yáo); 葉 (Yè); 張 (Zhāng); 鄭 (Zhèng); 周 (Zhōu)

Dialogue II: Asking One’s Status

M
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

VOCABULARY

8.

是 老師 嗎 不 學生 也 中國人 中國 人 美國人 美國

shì lǎoshī ma bù xuésheng yě Zhōngguórén Zhōngguó rén Měiguórén Měiguó

v n qp adv n adv n n n n n

to be teacher (an interrogative particle) not; no student too; also Chinese people/person China people; person American people/person America

M
Lǐ Xiǎojie: Wáng Xiānsheng: Lǐ Xiǎojie: Wáng Xiānsheng: Lǐ Xiǎojie:

DIALOGUE II
Wáng Xiānsheng, nǐ shì(G4) lǎoshī ma(G5)? Bù(G6), wǒ bú(1) shì lǎoshī, wǒ shì xuésheng. Lǐ Xiǎojie, nǐ ne? Wǒ yě(G7) shì xuésheng. Nǐ shì Zhōngguórén ma? Shì, wǒ shì Zhōngguórén. Nǐ shì Měiguórén ma? Wǒ shì Měiguórén.

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Integrated Chinese ▲ Level 1 ▲ Part 1: Textbook

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DIALOGUE II

李小姐﹕ 王先生,你是(G4)老師嗎(G5)? 王先生﹕ 不(G6),我不(1)是老師,我是學 生。李小姐,你呢? 李小姐﹕ 我也(G7)是學生。你是中國人嗎? 王先生﹕ 是,我是中國人。你是美國人 嗎? 李小姐﹕ 我是美國人。
Notes


1 ▲ The basic pronunciation of 不 is “bù” with fourth tone. However, when

it is placed before another fourth tone syllable, 不 is pronounced in the second tone instead of the fourth. Therefore, 不是 is pronounced “bú shì” rather than “bù shì.” In this textbook, the tone for 不 is marked as it is actually pronounced.

Can you identify the “老師” (lǎoshī) and “學生” (xuésheng) in this picture?

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M
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY

朋友 太太 英國 法國 日本 德國 英國人 法國人 日本人 德國人 韓國人 越南人

péngyou tàitai Yīngguó Fǎguó Rìběn Déguó Yīngguórén Fǎguórén Rìběnrén Déguórén Hánguórén Yuènánrén

n n n n n n n n n n n n

friend wife; Mrs. Britain; England France Japan Germany British people/person French people/person Japanese people/person German people/person Korean people/person Vietnamese people/person

Can you tell their nationalities by their costumes?

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Integrated Chinese ▲ Level 1 ▲ Part 1: Textbook

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NOTE: THIS IS AN ADVANCE SAMPLE. What are they saying to each other? ACTUAL BOOK’S PHOTOS PRINT B/W, NOT FULL COLOR AS SHOWN HERE.

Grammar
[Note: In the grammar explanations in this textbook, the sign * indicates an example sentence that illustrates a grammatical or syntactic mistake.]

1. The Verb 姓 (xìng) 姓 (xìng) is both a noun and a verb. When it is used as a verb, an object must
follow it. For example: (1) A:

您貴姓?
Nín guì xìng? (What is your surname? lit. Your honorable surname is…?)

B:

我姓王。
Wǒ xìng Wáng. (My surname is Wang.)

(2) A:

你姓什么?
Nǐ xìng shénme? (What is your surname? lit. You are surnamed what?)

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B:

我姓李。
Wǒ xìng Lǐ. (My surname is Li.)

姓 (xìng) is usually negated with 不 (bù). [See G.6 below.]
(3) A:

你姓李嗎?
Nǐ xìng Lǐ ma? (Is your family name Li?)

B:

我不姓李。
Wǒ bú xìng Lǐ. (My surname is not Li.)

Note: When 姓 (xìng; to be surnamed) is used as a verb, an object must follow it. One should therefore never say *我姓 (*Wǒ xìng) or *我不姓 (*Wǒ bú xìng) as a short answer to the question: 你姓李嗎? (Nǐ xìng Lǐ ma? Is your family name Li?)

2. Questions Ending with 呢 (ne) 呢 (ne) often follows a noun or pronoun to form a question when the content of the question is already clear from the context. For example: (1)

我姓李,你呢?
Wǒ xìng Lǐ, nǐ ne? (My surname is Li. How about you?)

(2)

我是中國人,你呢?
Wǒ shì Zhōngguórén, nǐ ne? (I am Chinese. How about you?)

(3)

我是老師,你呢?
Wǒ shì lǎoshī, nǐ ne? (I am a teacher. How about you?)

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Integrated Chinese ▲ Level 1 ▲ Part 1: Textbook

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Note: When 呢 (ne) is used in this way, there must be some context. In sentence (2) the context is provided by the preceding sentence, “我是中國

人” (Wǒ shì Zhōngguórén). Likewise in sentence (3) “我是老師” (Wǒ shì
lǎoshī) provides the context.

3. The Verb 叫 (jiào)
The verb 叫 (jiào) has several meanings. It means “to be called” in this lesson. It must be followed by an object. For example: (1) A:

你叫什么名字?
Nǐ jiào shénme míngzi? (What is your name?)

B:

我叫王朋。
Wǒ jiào Wáng Péng. (My name is Wang Peng.)

叫 (jiào) is usually negated with 不 (bù). [See G.6 below.]
(2) A:

你叫李生嗎?
Nǐ jiào Lǐ Shēng ma? (Is your name Li Sheng?)

B:

我不叫李生。
Wǒ bú jiào Lǐ Shēng. (My name is not Li Sheng.)

Note: Like 姓 (xìng; to be surnamed), when 叫 (jiào; to be called) is used as a verb, it must take an object. One should therefore never say *我叫 (*Wǒ jiào) or *我不叫 (*Wǒ bú jiào). From the examples above, we can see that the basic word order in a Chinese sentence runs like this: Subject + Verb + Object

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NOTE: THIS IS AN ADVANCE SAMPLE. ACTUAL BOOK’S PHOTOS PRINT B/W, NOT FULL COLOR AS SHOWN HERE.

The word order remains the same in statements and questions. Remember that you don’t place the question word at the beginning of a question as you do in English, unless that question word serves as the subject. (See more on word order in Grammar Note 1 in Lesson 4.)

4. The Verb 是 (shì)
In Chinese, 是 (shì) is a verb that can be used to link two nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases that are in some way equivalent. For example: (1) A:

你是老師嗎?
Nǐ shì lǎoshī ma? (Are you a teacher?)

B:

我是老師。
Wǒ shì lǎoshī. (I am a teacher.)

(2) A:

李友是學生。
Lǐ Yǒu shì xuésheng. (Li You is a student.)

B:

你是美國人嗎?
Nǐ shì Měiguórén ma? (Are you an American?)

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Integrated Chinese ▲ Level 1 ▲ Part 1: Textbook

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是 (shì) is usually negated with 不 (bù). [See G.6 below.]
(3) A:

李友不是中國人。
Lǐ Yǒu bú shì Zhōngguórén. (Li You is not Chinese.)

B:

王朋不是老師。
Wáng Péng bú shì lǎoshī. (Wang Peng is not a teacher.)

5. Questions Ending with 嗎 (ma)
When 嗎 (ma) is added to the end of a declarative statement, that statement is turned into a question. The person who asks a question that ends with 嗎 (ma) often has some expectation of the answer. In sentence (1) below, the questioner may expect that the other person is a teacher, and in sentence (2) the questioner may expect that the other person is a student. To answer the question in the a?rmative, 是 (shì) is used, while 不 (bù) is used if the answer is negative. For example: (1) A:

你是老師嗎?
Nǐ shì lǎoshī ma? (Are you a teacher?)

B:

是,我是老師。
Shì, wǒ shì lǎoshī. (Yes, I am a teacher.)

C:

不,我不是老師。
Bù, wǒ bú shì lǎoshī. (No, I am not a teacher.)

D:

不,我是學生。
Bù, wǒ shì xuésheng. (No, I am a student.)

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Lesson 1: Greetings

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(2) A:

王友是學生嗎?
Wáng Yǒu shì xuésheng ma? (Is Wang You a student?)

B:

是,王友是學生。
Shì, Wáng Yǒu shì xuésheng. (Yes, Wang You is a student.)

C:

不,王友不是學生。
Bù, Wáng Yóu bú shì xuésheng. (No, Wang You is not a student.)

D:

不,王友是老師。
Bù, Wáng Yǒu shì lǎoshī. (No, Wang You is a teacher.)

(3) A:

李朋是美國人嗎?
Lǐ Péng shì Měiguórén ma? (Is Li Peng an American?)

B:

是,李朋是美國人。
Shì, Lǐ Péng shì Měiguórén. (Yes, Li Peng is an American.)

C:

不,李朋不是美國人。
Bù, Lǐ Péng bú shì Měiguórén. (No, Li Peng is not an American.)

D:

不,李朋是中國人。
Bù, Lí Péng shì Zhōngguórén. (No, Li Peng is Chinese.)

6. The Negative Adverb 不 (bù)
In Chinese there are two main negative adverbs. One of the two, 不 (bù), occurs in this lesson.

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Integrated Chinese ▲ Level 1 ▲ Part 1: Textbook

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For example: (1)

不,我不是老師。
Bù, wǒ bú shì lǎoshī. (No, I am not a teacher.)

(2)

李友不是中國人。
Lǐ Yǒu bú shì Zhōngguórén. (Li You is not Chinese.)

(3)

老師不姓王。
Lǎoshī bú xìng Wáng. (The teacher’s surname is not Wang.)

(4)

我不叫李中。
Wǒ bú jiào Lǐ Zhōng. (My name is not Li Zhong.)

7. The Adverb 也 (yě)
The adverb 也 (yě) basically means “too, also” in English. In Chinese, adverbs normally appear after subjects and in front of verbs. They usually cannot precede subjects or follow verbs. The adverb 也 (yě) cannot be put before the subject or at the very end of a sentence. For example: (1)

我也是學生。
Wǒ yě shì xuésheng. (I am a student, too.)

(2)

王朋是學生,李友也是學生。
Wáng Péng shì xuésheng, Lǐ Yǒu yě shì xuésheng. (Wang Peng is a student. Li You is a student, too.)

(3)

你是中國人,我也是中國人。
Nǐ shì Zhōngguórén, wǒ yě shì Zhōngguórén. (You are Chinese. I am Chinese, too.)

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The following sentences are incorrect: (3) a.

*你是中國人,我是中國人也。
Nǐ shì Zhōngguórén, wǒ shì Zhōngguórén yě.

(3) b.

*你是中國人,也我是中國人。
Nǐ shì Zhōngguórén, yě wǒ shì Zhōngguórén.

When the adverb 也 (yě) is used together with the negative adverb 不 (bù),

也 (yě) is placed before 不 (bù).
For example: (4)

王朋不是學生,李友也不是學生。
Wáng Péng bú shì xuésheng, Lǐ Yǒu yě bú shì xuésheng. (Wang Peng is not a student. Li You is not a student either.)

(5)

你不是中國人,我也不是中國人。
Nǐ bú shì Zhōngguórén, wǒ yě bú shì Zhōngguórén. (You are not Chinese, and I am not Chinese either.)

PATTERN DRILLS
All the exercises in the Pattern Drills section of each lesson are meant to be Substitution Drills unless otherwise noted. The teacher ?rst says a sentence, then gives one or two words. The student uses the word(s) to form a new sentence.

A. 是 (shì)
Example: Teacher: Student: Teacher: Student: Wǒ shì lǎoshī. (xuésheng) Wǒ shì xuésheng.

我是老師。(學生) 我是學生。
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Integrated Chinese ▲ Level 1 ▲ Part 1: Textbook

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Wǒ Nǐ Lǐ Xiǎojie Wáng Xiānsheng Wáng Péng Lǐ Yǒu

shì

Zhōngguó xuésheng. lǎoshī. xuésheng. lǎoshī. Zhōngguórén. Měiguórén.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

我 你 李小姐 王先生 王朋 李友



中國學生。 老師。 學生。 老師。 中國人。 美國人。

B. 是...嗎 (shì...ma)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wáng Xiānsheng Lǐ Yǒu Wáng Péng Lǐ Xiǎojie Wáng Xiānsheng shì xuésheng Zhōngguórén Měiguórén Zhōngguó xuésheng Měiguó lǎoshī ma?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

王先生 李友 王朋 李小姐 王先生



學生 中國人 美國人 中國學生 美國老師

嗎?

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C. 嗎 (ma)
Provide appropriate questions for speaker A for the answers given by speaker B. Example: A: Nǐ jiaò Wáng Péng ma? A:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

B: Bù, wǒ bú jiaò Wáng Péng. B:

你叫王朋嗎?

不,我不叫王朋。
B: Bù, Wáng Péng bú shì lǎoshī. B: Lǐ Yǒu shì xuésheng. B: Wáng Péng shì Zhōngguórén. B: Bù, Lǐ Yǒu bú shì Zhōngguórén. B: Bù, wǒ bú xìng Lǐ. B: Bù, wǒ bú jiào Lǐ Yǒu, wǒ jiào Wáng Yǒu.

A: ________________________________________________ ? A: ________________________________________________ ? A: ________________________________________________ ? A: ________________________________________________ ? A: ________________________________________________ ? A: ________________________________________________ ?

1.

A: ________________________________________________ ?

B:

不,王朋不是老 師。 李友是學生。 王朋是中國人。 不,李友不是中國 人。 不,我不姓李。 不,我不叫李友, 我叫王友。

2. 3. 4.

A: ________________________________________________ ? A: ________________________________________________ ? A: ________________________________________________ ?

B: B: B:

5. 6.

A: ________________________________________________ ? A: ________________________________________________ ?

B: B:

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D. 也 (yě)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Nǐ shì xuésheng, lǎoshī, Zhōngguórén, Měiguórén, xuésheng, lǎoshī, wǒ Wáng Xiānsheng Lǐ Xiǎojie Wáng Xiǎojie Wáng Xiānsheng Lǐ Xiānsheng yě shì xuésheng. lǎoshī. Zhōngguórén. Měiguórén. xuésheng. lǎoshī.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

你是

學生, 老師, 中國人, 美國人, 學生, 老師,

我 王先生 李小姐 王小姐 王先生 李先生

也是

學生。 老師。 中國人。 美國人。 學生。 老師。

E. 不 (bù)
Answer questions with 不. Example: Nǐ shì lǎoshī ma?

→ →

Wǒ bú shì lǎoshī.

你是老師嗎?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lǐ Yǒu shì Zhōngguórén ma? Nǐ shì Wáng Lǎoshī ma?

我不是老師。

Wáng Péng shì Měiguórén ma? Nǐ jiào Lǐ Yǒu ma? Lǎoshī xìng Wáng ma?

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Lesson 1: Greetings

47

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

李友是中國人嗎? 你是王老師嗎? 王朋是美國人嗎? 你叫李友嗎? 老師姓王嗎?

F. 是...不是... (shì … bú shì...)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Wǒ shì Lǐ Yǒu, Zhōngguórén, xuésheng, Zhōngguó xuésheng, Wáng Xiānsheng, Lǐ Xiǎojie, Lǐ Lǎoshī, bú shì Wáng Péng. Měiguórén. lǎoshī. Měiguó xuésheng. Lǐ Xiānsheng. Wáng Xiǎojie. Wáng Lǎoshī.

我是

李友, 中國人, 學生, 中國學生, 王先生, 李小姐, 李老師,

不是

王朋。 美國人。 老師。 美國學生。 李先生。 王小姐。 王老師。

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G. 不是..., 也不是 (bú shì…, yě bú shì...)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wǒ Wǒ bú xìng bú jiào Wǒ bú shì lǎoshī, Měiguórén, xuésheng, Wáng, Lǐ Yǒu, nǐ nǐ yě bú xìng yě bú jiào nǐ yě bú shì lǎoshī. Měiguórén. xuésheng. Wáng. Lǐ Yǒu.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.



不是

老師, 美國人, 學生,



也不是

老師。 美國人。 學生。

我 我

不姓 不叫

王, 李友,

你 你

也不姓 也不叫

王。 李友。

H. 呢 (ne)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wǒ shì Zhōngguórén, Měiguórén, xuésheng, Měiguórén, lǎoshī, nǐ Wáng Xiǎojie Lǐ Xiānsheng Wáng Lǎoshī Lǐ Xiǎojie ne?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

我是

中國人, 美國人, 學生, 美國人, 老師,

你 王小姐 李先生 王老師 李小姐

呢?

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Lesson 1: Greetings

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PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES
A. Practice the following initials:
1. b bǎo bān bù bō bēng 2. j jiǎo jǐng jīn jiě jiàn 3. sh shēn shēng shàn shà p pǎo pān pù pō pēng q qiǎo qǐng qīn qiě qiàn s sēn sēng sàn sà d dā dí duì dīng děng z zāi zǎo zì zé zhè x xīn xīng xiàn xià t tā tí tuì tīng téng c cāi cǎo cì cè chè

B. Practice the following tones:
tiāntiān xīngqī jīnnián fādá jīnglǐ fāzhǎn shēngqì shēngdiào

C. Practice the following syllables with neutral tones:
xiānsheng wǒ de míngzi nǐ de xiǎojie tā de shénme shéi de

D. Practice the following tones:
nǐ hǎo hǎo duō Lǐ Yǒu nǐ lái lǎohǔ hǎo shū zhǎnlǎn qǐng wèn

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English Texts
DIALOGUE I
Mr. Wang: Miss Li: Mr. Wang: Miss Li: Mr. Wang: Miss Li: How do you do? (lit. You well?) How do you do? What’s your family name, please? (lit. Please, may I ask… your honorable surname is…?) My family name is Li. What’s yours? (lit. I am surnamed Li, and you?) My family name is Wang. My name is Wang Peng. What’s your name? My name is Li You.

DIALOGUE II
Miss Li: Mr. Wang: Miss Li: Mr. Wang: Miss Li: Mr. Wang, are you a teacher? No, I’m not a teacher. I’m a student. How about you, Miss Li? I’m a student, too. Are you Chinese? Yes, I’m Chinese. Are you American? I’m American.

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LESSON 5 ▲

Visiting Friends

第五課



看朋友

Dì wǔ kè ▲ Kàn péngyou

Xiao Gao introduces Li You and Wang Peng to his sister, Xiaoyin.

Dialogue: Visiting a Friend’s Home

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

VOCABULARY

呀 進 快 進來 來 #介 #紹

ya jìn kuài jìnlai lái jièshào

p v adj/adv vc v v

(an interjectory particle used to soften a question) to enter fast; quick; quickly to come in to come to introduce

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7.

一下 高 #興 #漂亮 坐 在 哪兒 工作 學校 喝 點 (兒) 茶 #咖 #啡 啤酒 酒 吧 要 杯 可樂 可以 對不起 給 水

yí xià

m

(a measure word used after a verb indicating short duration) [see G1] happy; pleased pretty to sit at; in; on where to work; work; job school to drink a little; a bit; some [see G1] tea co?ee beer wine; any alcoholic beverage [see Culture Note 3] (a “suggestion” particle; softens the tone of the sentence to which it is appended) to want; to have a desire for cup; glass cola can; may I’m sorry. to give water

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

gāoxìng piàoliang zuò zài nǎr gōngzuò xuéxiào hē diǎn(r) chá kāfēi píjiǔ jiǔ ba

adj adj v prep qpr v/n n v m n n n n p

20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

yào bēi kělè kěyǐ duìbuqǐ gěi shuǐ

v m n av ce v n

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NOTE: THIS IS AN ADVANCE SAMPLE. ACTUAL BOOK’S PHOTOS PRINT B/W, NOT FULL COLOR AS SHOWN HERE.

Bringing gifts to a friend’s house.

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Xiǎo Gāo: Wáng Péng: Xiǎo Gāo: Lǐ Yǒu: Gāo Xiǎoyīn: Lǐ Yǒu: Xiǎo Gāo: Wáng Péng: Gāo Xiǎoyīn: Wáng Péng: Lǐ Yǒu: Gāo Xiǎoyīn: Lǐ Yǒu: Shéi ya?(F)

DIALOGUE
Shì wǒ, Wáng Péng, hái yǒu Lǐ Yǒu. Qǐng jìn, qǐng jìn! Lǐ Yǒu, kuài jìnlai! Lái, wǒ jièshào yí xià(G1), zhè shì wǒ jiějie, Gāo Xiǎoyīn. Xiǎoyīn, nǐ hǎo. Rènshi nǐ hěn gāoxìng(1). Rènshi nǐmen wǒ yě hěn gāoxìng. Nǐmen jiā hěn dà(G2), yě hěn piàoliang. Shì ma(2)(F)? Qǐng zuò, qǐng zuò. Xiǎoyīn, nǐ zài (G3) nǎr gōngzuò? Wǒ zài xuéxiào gōngzuò. Nǐmen xiǎng hē diǎnr(G1) shénme? Yǒu chá, kāfēi, hái yǒu píjiǔ. Wǒ hē píjiǔ ba(G4). Wǒ bù hē jiǔ. Wǒ yào yì bēi kělè, kěyǐ ma? Duìbuqǐ, wǒmen méiyǒu kělè. Nà gěi wǒ yì bēi shuǐ ba.

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DIALOGUE

小高﹕ 王朋﹕ 小高﹕

誰呀?(F) 是我,王朋,還有李友。 請進,請進!李友,快進來! 來,我介紹一下(G1),這是我姐 姐,高小音。 小音,你好。認識您很高興(1)。

李友﹕

高小音﹕ 認識你們我也很高興。 李友﹕ 小高﹕ 王朋﹕ 你們家很大(G2),也很漂亮。 是嗎(2)(F) ? 請坐,請坐。 小音,你在(G3)哪兒工作?

高小音﹕ 我在學校工作。你們想喝點兒(G1) 什么?有茶、咖啡,還有啤酒。 王朋﹕ 李友﹕ 我喝啤酒吧(G4)。 我不喝酒。我要一杯可樂,可以 嗎?

高小音﹕ 對不起,我們沒有可樂。 李友﹕ 那給我一杯水吧。

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Notes


1 ▲ 認識你很高興 (Rènshi nǐ hěn gāoxìng) is a translation of the English

“I’m happy to meet you,” and may therefore sound rather western to some Chinese speakers. However, the traditional Chinese equivalent polite formulae have now generally become obsolete and this expression is often heard.


2 ▲ Although it takes a question mark, 是嗎 (shì ma) is not a question here

but a mild expression of one’s surprise on hearing something unexpected in a conversation. Here it indicates modest acceptance of a compliment, with the intended implication: “Your compliment has taken me by surprise.” It could be translated as “Is that so?” “You don’t say!” or “Really?” Another phrase which can be used for the same purpose is 哪裏 (nǎli). The original meaning of 哪裏 (nǎli) is “where?” When paid a compliment, some Chinese people would say, “哪裏” (nǎli) or “哪裏,哪裏” (nǎli, nǎli). In recent times, however, 哪裏 (nǎli) has become somewhat old fashioned.

你們家很大,也很漂亮。
Nǐmen jiā hěn dà, yě hěn piàoliang.

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NOTE: THIS IS AN ADVANCE SAMPLE. ACTUAL BOOK’S PHOTOS PRINT B/W, NOT FULL COLOR AS SHOWN HERE.

Enjoying refreshments.

FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSIONS

誰呀 (shéi ya? Who is it?)
1. A:

(敲門) (Knocking at the door.)
(Qiāo mén.)

B:

誰呀?(Who is it?)
Shéi ya?

A:

是我,李友。 (It’s me, Li You.)
Shì wǒ, Lǐ Yǒu.

B:

請進。 (Come in, please.)
Qǐng jìn.

2.

A:

(敲門) (Knocking at the door.)
(Qiāo mén.)

B:

誰呀? (Who is it?)
Shéi ya?

A:

我,小王。(It’s me, Little Wang.)
Wǒ, Xiǎo Wáng.

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NOTE: THIS IS AN ADVANCE SAMPLE. ACTUAL BOOK’S PHOTOS PRINT B/W, NOT FULL COLOR AS SHOWN HERE.

礦泉水

Kuàngquánshuǐ B:

進來。(Come in.)
Jìn lai.

是嗎 (shì ma? Really?)
1. A:

王朋的女朋友很漂亮。
(Wang Peng’s girlfriend is pretty.) Wáng Péng de nǚpéngyǒu hěn piàoliang.

B:

是嗎?她是學生嗎?
(Really? Is she a student?) Shì ma? Tā shì xuésheng ma?

2.

A:

你的中文老師不是中國人。
(Your Chinese teacher is not Chinese.) Nǐ de Zhōngwén lǎoshī búshì Zhōngguó rén.

B:

是嗎?他是哪國人?
(Really? What country is he from?) Shì ma? Tā shì nǎ guó rén?

A:

他是美國人。
(He is American.) Tā shì Měiguó rén.

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Culture Notes


1 ▲ Generally speaking, in Chinese culture privacy is a less sacrosanct notion than it is in

the West. One would not necessarily be considered an intruder if one drops by a friend’s place without any warning. Neither are age, marital status, and salary considered o? limits in polite conversation. However, all that is changing—particularly among urbanites.


2 ▲ Although tea is the most popular beverage in China, the number of co?ee drinkers

has been on the rise in recent years, as evidenced by the varieties of co?ee on supermarket shelves and the surge of co?ee shops, such as Starbucks (星巴克, Xīngbākè), in many Chinese cities.


3 ▲ Although usually translated as “wine,” 酒 (jiǔ) applies to all kinds of alcoholic

beverages. Among the traditional Chinese rice wines and liquors, the most celebrated is 茅台 (Máotái), a strong liquor with a heady aroma.

Narrative: At a Friend’s House

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

VOCABULARY

6. 7.

玩(兒) 圖書館 #瓶 一起 #聊天 (兒) #聊 才 回家 回

wán(r) túshūguǎn píng yìqǐ liáo tiān(r) liáo cái huí jiā huí

v n m adv vo v adv vo v

to have fun; to play library bottle together to chat to chat not until, only then to go home to return

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Narrative
Zuótiān wǎnshang, Wáng Péng hé Lǐ Yǒu qù Xiǎo Gāo jiā wánr. Zài Xiǎo Gāo jiā, tāmen rènshile(G5) Xiǎo Gāo de jiějie. Tā jiào Gāo Xiǎoyīn, zài xuéxiào de túshūguǎn gōngzuò. Xiǎo Gāo qǐng Wáng Péng hē(1) píjiǔ, Wáng Péng hēle liǎng píng. Lǐ Yǒu bù hē jiǔ, zhǐ hēle yì bēi shuǐ. Tāmen yìqǐ liáotiānr, kàn diànshì. Wáng Péng hé Lǐ Yǒu wǎnshang shí’èr diǎn cái(G6) huíjiā.

Narrative

昨天晚上,王朋和李友去小高家玩兒。在 小高家,他們認識了(G5)小高的姐姐。她 叫高小音,在學校的圖書館工作。小高請 王朋喝(1)啤酒,王朋喝了兩瓶。李友不喝 酒,只喝了一杯水。他們一起聊天兒、看 電視。王朋和李友晚上十二點才(G6)回家。
Notes


1 ▲ 喝 (hē) is not always used in the same way as its English equivalent, “to

drink.” When used intransitively, the English verb often carries the connotation of “drinking alcohol.” 喝 (hē), on the other hand, is a transitive verb. Unless it’s clear from the context, it always takes an object; in other words, the beverage has to be speci?ed. Therefore, “他常常喝 ” (Tā chángcháng hē) is a complete sentence only when the beverage has been indicated in the context, e.g.: A:

他常常喝咖啡嗎?
Tā chángcháng hē kāfēi ma? (Does he often drink co?ee?)

B:

他常常喝。
Tā chángcháng hē. (He often does.)

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她在哪兒工作?
Tā zài nǎr gōngzuò?

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SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY

打工 好吃 好喝 好看 好玩 (兒) 可口可樂 百事可樂 雪碧 汽水(兒) 礦泉水

dǎ gōng hǎochī hǎohē hǎokàn hǎowán(r) Kěkǒukělè Bǎishìkělè Xuěbì qìshuǐ(r) kuàngquánshuǐ

vo adj adj adj adj n n n n n

to work part-time; to do manual work good to eat; delicious good to drink; tasty good-looking fun Coke Pepsi Sprite soft drink; soda pop mineral water

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Grammar
1. 一下 (yí xià) and (一) 點兒 ({yì}diǎnr) Moderating the Tone of Voice
Following a verb, both 一下 (yí xià, lit. “once”) and (一) 點兒 ({yì }diǎnr, “a bit”) can soften a statement. This is similar to a moderated tone of voice in English and is therefore more polite. When used in this way, 一下 (yí xià) modi?es the verb, while (一) 點兒 ({yì}diǎnr) modi?es the object. (1)

你看一下,這是誰的照片?
Nǐ kàn yí xià, zhè shì shéi de zhàopiàn? (Take a look. Whose photo is this?)

(2)

你進來一下。
Nǐ jìnlai yí xià. (Come in for a minute.)

(3)

你想吃點兒什么?
Nǐ xiǎng chī diǎnr shénme? (What would you like to eat?)

(4)

你喝一點兒茶吧。
Nǐ hē yīdiǎnr chá ba. (Have some tea.)

2. Adjectives Used as Predicates
In Chinese an adjective can be used as a predicate without being preceded by the verb 是 (shì, to be). (1)

我今天很高興。
Wǒ jīntiān hěn gāoxìng. (I’m very happy today.)

(2)

他妹妹很漂亮。
Tā mèimei hěn piàoliang. (His younger sister is very pretty.)

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(3)

那個電影很好。
Nàge diànyǐng hěn hǎo. (That movie is very good.)

(4)

你們學校很大。
Nǐmen xuéxiào hěn dà. (Your school is very large.)

Note: When an adjective is used as a predicate, it is usually modi?ed by 很 (hěn, very) or some other adverbial modi?er. 很 (hěn) is not as strong as its English counterpart “very.” In certain contexts Chinese adjectives without some sort of a modi?er before them can be inherently comparative. (5) A:

姐姐漂亮還是妹妹漂亮?
Jiějie piàoliang háishi mèimei piàoliang? (Who’s prettier, the older sister or the younger sister?)

B:

妹妹漂亮。
Mèimei piàoliang. (The younger sister is prettier).

(6)

妹妹的中文好,我的中文不好。
Mèimei de Zhōngwén hǎo, wǒ de Zhōngwén bù hǎo. (My younger sister’s Chinese is good. Mine is not.)

3. 在 (zài, at; in; on)
Combined with a noun, the preposition 在 (zài) indicates location. When the phrase is placed before a verb, it indicates the location of the action. (1)

你在哪兒工作?
Nǐ zài nǎr gōngzuò? (Where do you work?)

(2)

我在這個學校學中文。
Wǒ zài zhège xuéxiào xué Zhōngwén. (I study Chinese at this school.)

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NOTE: THIS IS AN ADVANCE SAMPLE. ACTUAL BOOK’S PHOTOS PRINT B/W, NOT FULL COLOR AS SHOWN HERE.

Chinese green tea.

(3)

我不喜歡在家看電影。
Wǒ bù xǐhuan zài jiā kàn diànyǐng. (I don’t like to watch movies at home.)

4. The Particle of Mood 吧 (ba) 吧 (ba) is often used at the end of an imperative sentence to soften the tone.
(1)

你喝茶吧。
Nǐ hē chá ba. (Have some tea.)

(2)

請進來吧。
Qǐng jìnlai ba. (Come in, please.)

5. The Particle 了 (le) (I)
The dynamic particle 了 (le) signi?es the occurrence of an action or the emergence of a situation. The action or situation usually pertains to the past, but sometimes it can refer to the future. Therefore the use of 了 (le) should not be taken as an equivalent to the past tense in English. In the current lesson,

了 (le) indicates the occurrence of an action. It can be used after a verb or at
the end of a sentence.

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(1)

媽媽喝了一杯水。
Māma hēle yì bēi shuǐ. (Mom had a glass of water.)

(2)

昨天晚上我去小高家玩兒了。
Zuótiān wǎnshang wǒ qù Xiǎo Gāo jiā wánr le. (Yesterday evening I went to Little Gao’s home for a visit.)

(3)

星期一小高請我喝了一杯茶。
Xīngqīyī Xiǎo Gāo qǐng wǒ hēle yì bēi chá. (On Monday Little Gao invited me out for tea.)

(4)

明天我吃了晚飯去看電影。
Míngtiān wǒ chīle wǎnfàn qù kàn diànyǐng. (Tomorrow I’ll go see a movie after I have eaten dinner.)

Note: There is often a speci?c time phrase in a sentence with the dynamic particle 了 (le)—such as 昨天晚上 (zuótiān wǎnshang, last night) in example (2), 星期一 (xīngqīyī, Monday) in example (3), and 明天 (míngtiān, tomorrow) in example (4). When 了 (le) is embedded between the verb and the object, the object must be preceded by a modi?er. The following numeral + measure word is the most common type of modi?er for the object:

一杯 (yì bēi, one cup; one glass) example (1) 一瓶 (yì píng, one bottle) example (3)
If there are other phrases or sentences following the object, then the object does not need a modi?er. See example (4) above. Also, if the object following

了 (le) is a proper noun, it does not need a modi?er, either:

我昨天看了 “Titanic,” 那個電影很好。
Wǒ zuótiān kànle “Titanic.” Nàge diànyǐng hěn hǎo. (I saw Titanic yesterday. It was very good.)

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Name these drinks in Chinese. To say that an action did not take place in the past, use 沒 (有) (méi{yǒu}) instead of 不...了 (bù...le) or 沒有...了 (méiyǒu…le) . For example: (5)

昨天我沒有聽音樂。
Zuótiān wǒ méiyǒu tīng yīnyuè. (I didn’t listen to the music yesterday.)

(5a)

*昨天我不聽音樂了。
Zuótiān wǒ bù tīng yīnyuè le.

(5b)

*昨天我沒有聽音樂了
Zuótiān wǒ méiyǒu tīng yīnyuè le.

Interrogative forms: (6) A:

你吃了嗎?
Nǐ chīle ma? (Did you eat?)

B:

我沒吃。
Wǒ méi chī. (No, I didn’t.)

(7)

你吃飯了沒有?
Nǐ chī fànle méiyǒu? (Have you eaten?)

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(8) A:

你喝了幾杯水?
Nǐ hēle jǐ bēi shuǐ? (How many glasses of water did you drink?)

B:

我喝了一杯水。
Wǒ hēle yì bēi shuǐ. (I drank one glass of water.)

A note on the phrase 認識了 (rènshile): 認識 (rènshi, to know; to be or become acquainted with) is a verb that usually indicates not an action but a state. Thus 認識了 (rènshile) indicates the beginning of a new state, “to become acquainted with.” 了 (le) indicates the occurrence of the transition from “not knowing” to “knowing.” Compare: (9)

我認識高小音。
Wǒ rènshi Gāo Xiǎoyīn. (I know Gao Xiaoyin.)

(10)

我昨天認識了高小音。
Wǒ zuótiān rènshile Gāo Xiǎoyīn. (I got acquainted with Gao Xiaoyin yesterday.)

6. The Adverb 才 (cái) 才 (cái) indicates that an action or state occurs later than might have been
expected. (1)

我六點請他吃晚飯,他六點半才來。
Wǒ liù diǎn qǐng tā chī wǎnfàn, tā liù diǎn bàn cái lái. (I invited him to dinner at six. He didn’t come till six thirty.)

(2)

我昨天十二點才回家。
Wǒ zuótiān shí’èr diǎn cái huíjiā. (I didn’t go home yesterday till twelve o’clock.)

(3)

她晚上很晚才睡覺。
Tā wǎnshang hěn wǎn cái shuì jiào. (She goes to bed very late in the evening.)

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PATTERN DRILLS
A. 一下 (yí xià)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Wǒ kàn Nǐ jièshào Nǐ zuò Wǒ tīng Nǐ qù Nǐ lái yí xià.

我看 你介紹 你坐 我聽 你去 你來

一下。

B. Adjectives as Predicates
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. 2. Xiǎo Gāo de xuéxiào yīshēng shū jiějie dìdi lǎoshī tóngxué jiā hěn piàoliang. dà. máng. yǒu yìsi. gāoxìng. gāo. hǎo. hǎo.

小高的 學校





漂亮。 大。

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

醫生 書 姐姐 弟弟 老師 同學

忙。 有意思。 高興。 高。 好。 好。

C. 在 (zài)
C1:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Wáng Péng hé Lǐ Yǒu zài

túshūguǎn jiā túshūguǎn jiā Xiǎo Gāo jiā Wáng Lǎoshī jiā Xiǎo Bái jiā xuéxiào

kàn shū. tīng yīnyuè. gōngzuò. kàn diànshì. hē kāfēi. liáo tiān. chī fàn. dǎ qiú.

王朋和李友在

圖書館 家 圖書館 家 小高家 王老師家 小白家 學校

看書。 聽音樂。 工作。 看電視。 喝咖啡。 聊天。 吃飯。 打球。

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▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

C2: Answer questions with 在.

Example:

Xiǎo Gāo zài nǎr gōngzuò? (xuéxiào) → Xiǎo Gāo zài xuéxiào gōngzuò.

小高在哪兒工作? (學校) →小高在學校工作。
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Zhāng Yīshēng zài nǎr tīng yīnyuè? Xiǎo Wáng zài nǎr dǎ qiú? Xiǎo Gāo de mèimei zài nǎr kàn shū? Xiǎo Lǐ hé Xiǎo Bái zài nǎr kàn diànyǐng? Wáng Péng hé Lǐ Yǒu zài nǎr liáo tiānr? Xiǎo Gāo de jiějie zài nǎr gōngzuò? Xiǎo Zhāng zài nǎr shuìjiào? (jiā) (xuéxiào) (túshūguǎn) (xuéxiào) (Xiǎo Gāo jiā) (túshūguǎn) (jiā) ( ( ( ( ( ( (

張醫生在哪兒聽音樂? 小王在哪兒打球? 小高的妹妹在哪兒看書? 小李和小白在哪兒看電影? 王朋和李友在哪兒聊天兒? 小高的姐姐在哪兒工作? 小張在哪兒睡覺? 點兒 (diǎnr)
Nǐ Xiǎo Bái Nǐ Zhāng Lǜshī Lǐ Yīshēng, nín xiǎng chī tīng zuò chī hē

家) 學校) 圖書館) 學校) 小高家) 圖書館) 家)

D.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

diǎnr

shénme?

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

你 小白 你 張律師 李醫生,您



吃 聽 做 吃 喝

點兒

什么?

E. 了 (le)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Tā zuótiān wǎnshang hē kàn hē hē hē chàng tiào le sì bēi liǎng ge wǔ bēi liǎng píng liù bēi sān ge yí ge shuǐ. diànyǐng. kělè. píjiǔ. chá. gē. wǔ.

1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

他昨天晚上

喝 看 喝 喝 喝 唱 跳



四杯 兩個 五杯 兩瓶 六杯 三個 一個

水。 電影。 可樂。 啤酒。 茶。 歌。 舞。

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F. 才 (cái)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Wǒmen liù diǎn jiǔ diǎn qī diǎn bā diǎn bàn qī diǎn jiǔ diǎn shí fēn bā diǎn liù diǎn shíwǔ fēn wǔ diǎn chī fàn, tiào wǔ, kàn diànyǐng, hē kāfēi, chī wǎnfàn, dǎ qiú, tīng yīnyuè, gōngzuò, qù zhǎo Gāo Lǎoshī, tā liù diǎn bàn shí diǎn bā diǎn jiǔ diǎn qī diǎn bàn jiǔ diǎn bàn bā diǎn bàn liù diǎn bàn liù diǎn èrshí fēn cái lái.

1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

我們 六點 九點 七點 八點半 七點 九點十分 八點 五點

吃飯, 跳舞, 看電影, 喝咖啡, 吃晚飯, 打球, 聽音樂, 去找高老師,



六點半 才來。 十點 八點 九點 七點半 九點半 八點半 六點半 六點二十分

六點十五分 工作,

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Make a story out of the four pictures above. Don’t forget to mention the time in each picture!

English Texts
DIALOGUE
Little Gao: Wang Peng: Little Gao: Li You: Gao Xiaoyin: Li You: Little Gao: Wang Peng: Gao Xiaoyin: Wang Peng: Li You: Miss Gao: Li You: Who is it? It’s me, Wang Peng. Li You is here, too. Please come in. Please come in, Li You. Let me introduce you to one another. This is my sister, Gao Xiaoyin. How do you do, Xiaoyin! Pleased to meet you. Pleased to meet you, too. Your home is very big, and very beautiful, too. Really? Sit down, please. Xiaoyin, where do you work? I work at a school. What would you like to drink? We have tea, co?ee, and beer. I’ll have a beer. I don’t drink. Could I have a glass of cola? I’m sorry. We don’t have cola. Then please give me a glass of water.

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Describe this scene in detail.

Narrative
Last night Wang Peng and Li You went to Little Gao’s home for a visit. At Little Gao’s home they met Little Gao’s older sister. Her name is Gao Xiaoyin. She works at a school library. Little Gao o?ered beer to Wang Peng. Wang Peng had two bottles of beer. Li You does not drink. She just had a glass of water. They talked and watched TV together. Wang Peng and Li You did not get home until twelve o’clock.

Use what you have learned so far to describe the picture above. You may also write a dialogue for the conversation that is underway.

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