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Regeneration and efficiency characterization of hybrid adsorbent for thermal energy storage


Renewable Energy 36 (2011) 986e992

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Renewable Energy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/renene

Regeneration and ef?ciency characterization of hybrid adsorbent for thermal energy storage of excess and solar heat
Daniel Dicaire, F. Handan Tezel*
University of Ottawa, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 161 Louis Pasteur, Colonel By Hall, A402, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 Canada

a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 1 October 2009 Accepted 23 August 2010 Available online 12 October 2010 Keywords: Long term thermal energy storage Solar heating storage Adsorption Seasonal storage

a b s t r a c t
Adsorption Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is a promising technology for long term thermal energy storage of excess and solar heat. By using the exothermic reversible adsorption process, excess heat from an incinerator or solar heat from the summer can be stored and then released for heating during the winter. The usefulness of the storage system relies heavily on the temperature and quality of the heat available for regeneration of the adsorbent as it affects the storage ef?ciency, the amount of water released from the adsorbent and in turn the performance or energy density of the storage system. In this study, a lab scale high throughput open loop forced air adsorption TES has been built. A series of adsorption experiments were performed to determine the effect of adsorption ?ow rate and cycling on the chosen best performing adsorbent, AA13X from Rio Tinto Alcan. Regeneration characterization experiments were performed to determine the effect of ?ow rate, temperature and feed air relative humidity on the regeneration and performance of the system. The results were compared with another adsorbent to verify the observed trend. Finally, the ef?ciency of the thermal storage system was calculated. ? 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1. Introduction Adsorption thermal energy storage is a promising technology that could provide a long term storage solution that is more compact than conventional thermal storage methods [1]. Adsorption is an exothermic physical process where a gas diffuses into the pores of a porous solid material and is trapped into the crystal lattice which releases heat. The gas is then considered to be in the adsorbed phase and the energy that is released during the adsorption process is called the heat of adsorption. The process is also reversible; when energy is applied to an adsorbent that is saturated with adsorbed gas, the endothermic desorption process (also referred to as regeneration) takes place; the gas is released and the energy is stored in the crystal lattice until the next adsorption process. Therefore, once the regeneration of the adsorbent takes place and the adsorbate gas is removed from the adsorbent, the energy is permanently stored in the material for an

Abbreviations: AA13X, hybrid adsorbent containing activated alumina and zeolite 13X; L/D, length over diameter ratio; NLR, non linear regression; OD, outside diameter; RH, relative humidity; SCFM, standard cubic feet per minute; SS, stainless steel; TES, thermal energy storage; h, thermal ef?ciency. * Corresponding author. Tel.: ?1 613 562 5800x6099. E-mail addresses: dandicaire@gmail.com (D. Dicaire), Handan.Tezel@uottawa.ca (F.H. Tezel). 0960-1481/$ e see front matter ? 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2010.08.031

inde?nite period of time as long as it is not exposed to the gas. Since the energy is not sensibly stored, the material can be kept at ambient temperature without degrading the energy [2]. There are a variety of adsorbents, such as activated carbons, silica gels, synthetic zeolites, natural zeolites and activated alumina, that can be combined with a variety of gases, like CO2, NH3, H2O and hydrocarbons [3e9]. The heat of adsorption resulting from these combinations varies greatly depending on the interactions between the adsorbent and the adsorbate such as polarity, pore size, molecule size, surface area, presence of cations, pressure and temperature. These various characteristics are used in adsorption to perform various gaseous separations. The adsorbent/adsorbate working pair must be chosen carefully. For thermal energy storage, which is not a typical application of adsorption, the most desirable characteristics are high heat of adsorption and high energy density. Other desirable characteristics are a low regeneration temperature, no toxicity and no reactivity. Several working adsorbent thermal energy storage systems have been reported in the literature [1]. Gantenbein [10] produced a working zeolite system which had an energy density of 106 kWh/m3. Jaehnig investigated thermochemical energy storage using 200 kg of silica gel as the adsorbent [11]. Hauer [12] reported a successful full scale 7000 kg zeolite 13X storage system which heated a school and was charged by district heating overnight to offset the peak energy demands and performed at an energy density of 124 kWh/m3. Janchen et al [13]

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Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

studied a zeolite system with could measure energy densities of 160 kWh/m3. Dawoud [2] reports their working zeolite 13X system performing at 165 kWh/m3. Even natural zeolite, which has a lower performance when compared to its synthetic counter parts, has been identi?ed as a potential candidate for use in an adsorption thermal energy storage system [14]. The energy densities reported for all of these large scale systems are signi?cantly lower than the theoretical energy or potential energy that could be achieved based on the heat of adsorption; practical performances of 124 kWh/m3 are compared to theoretical performances of up to 250 kWh/m3 [15,16]. Heat obtained from solar collectors or a source of excess heat could be used to regenerate the adsorbent and store energy, in an adsorption thermal storage system. The most attractive potential use of this technology is solar residential heating as solar radiation is a renewable source of energy which could replace heating with natural gas or electricity which makes up 80% of the residential energy consumption in Canada [17]. The incident radiation on a typical Canadian home is up to two times more than its annual space heating and domestic hot water needs. However, the majority of the radiation occurs during the summer months when it is not needed. In all currently available commercial solar heating systems, the energy collected during the summer is stored in sensible heat storage systems, either in small short term water storage tanks which last a few days or larger borehole systems that can hold the energy for 1 or 2 months, and the heat dissipates with time. Solar collectors and excess heat sources are varied in design and can have operating temperatures anywhere between 30  C and 500  C [18]. The regeneration temperature has been known to affect the amount of energy stored and therefore the energy density of adsorbent storage systems. Regeneration usually takes place at temperatures in excess of 250  C to assure complete regeneration. However, most available excess heat sources come from processes operating at temperatures below 200  C. Therefore, information on system performance at a variety of low regeneration temperature is required in order to properly match an adsorbent system with a solar collector. To date, most adsorbent system research has focused on the adsorption cycle and the maximum energy density that can be achieved when regenerated at exceedingly high temperatures. There is limited information in the literature about low regeneration temperatures and the resulting performance for the system. Therefore, a series of experiments were developed to not only explore the maximum performance of the adsorbent, but mainly to characterize the regeneration of the adsorbents at various temperatures, ?ow rates and relative humidities.

In our earlier studies, an extensive adsorbent screening process has taken place [19,20] in order to identify the best working pair. An activated Alumina and Zeolite 13X hybrid adsorbent, combined with water as an adsorbate was chosen based on energy performance, availability, regeneration temperature and low toxicity. 2. Materials and methods The experiments were conducted using the same experimental setup as Dicaire and Tezel [20] with certain modi?cations. The hygrometer was calibrated and a new housing container was built to insure accurate readings. An ultrasonic fogger was installed in the bubble chamber to ensure 100% relative humidity during every run. New thermocouples were added into the system. More insulation was installed to ensure minimal heat loss during the experiments. Finally, the column was modi?ed to house a larger volume of adsorbent and to have an L/D ratio of 1.8. The adsorbent identi?ed in our earlier studies [20] which is a hybrid adsorbent including activated alumina and zeolite 13X (obtained from Rio Tinto Alcan from Brockville, Ontario, with commercial name ACTIGUARD 650PCAP, 8 ? 14 mesh), referred to as AA13X, was selected as the adsorbent of choice for this series of experiments. Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of the experimental system used. The air supply comes from the air compressor from the building supply which produces instrument quality air with little to no humidity. Rotameters 1 and 2 control the air ?ow to the system and when they are combined it is possible to produce air of varying ?ows and relative humidity to feed into the system. All tubing in the system is ?00 tubing. Polyethylene was used for the parts of the system with low temperature and stainless steel was used for the parts with high temperatures. The column is composed of 70 mm long of 38.1 mm O.D. SS 314 pipe with ?00 pipe welds at the entrance and exit. The column is welded shut but can be unscrewed at one end where a Te?on O-ring ensures a tight seal. The column has a total volume of 62.76 ml, a mass of 315.7 g when it is empty and has an L/D ratio of 1.8. The column holds approximately 55 g of the AA13X adsorbent. The bubbler is a 4 L Erlenmeyer ?ask which contains a Hagen Exo Terra Ultrasonic Fog Generator which sits in 2e3 inches of water and ?lls the ?ask with an ambient temperature fog which saturates the air stream to around 95% relative humidity [21]. The water trap captures the water which condenses from the vapours to prevent liquid water entering the system. The heater is an in-line air heater AHP-5051 from Omega which is connected to a rheostat which enables the system to regulate the temperature of the inlet air between ambient and 500  C with 400 Watts of power up to 10 SCFM. The Hygrometer is a high temperature relative

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humidity and temperature probe transmitter, HX-15 from Omega. The cooling coil preceding the hygrometer ensures that the air is at ambient temperature before the hygrometer takes a reading. This often causes condensation and the hygrometer container has been designed to trap the condensed liquid in a large volume ensuring that all the humidity leaving is measured by the hygrometer. Thermocouples T1 to T4, as well as the hygrometer are connected to a data acquisition system which is used to record data every 15 s during the experiments. By closing valves 2 and 3 and opening valve 1, it is possible to close off and bypass the column, enabling the user to produce steady humidity before initiating the experiments. Valve 6 can be used as a purge for the system if necessary. The ?ow rates are measured using a Precision Wet Test Meter. During adsorption experiments, the ?ow rate and the relative humidity into the column is controlled by Rotameters 1 and 2. Air from Rotameter 2 passes through the humidi?er to ensure 100% relative humidity. If a different relative humidity is required, the ?ow from Rotameter 2 is combined with a ?ow from Rotameter 1 (which only has dry air) with different ?ow rates, to ensure the desired relative humidity obtained is going into the column. Steady conditions for ?ow rate and relative humidity are measured before the start of the experiment by using the bypass. To start the experiment, valve 1 is closed and valves 2 and 3 are opened, exposing the column to humidity. During a regeneration run, the ?ow rate is controlled through Rotameter 1 which passes dry air from the supply to the in-line heater. The heater is used to obtain a designated steady temperature. Once a steady temperature is reached, valves 2 and 3 are opened and the column is exposed to heated air between 80 and 250  C. If required, humidity can also be added to the regeneration stream going into the column using Rotameter 2. 3. Results and discussion Fig. 2 shows temperatures measured at different places in the experimental setup for a typical adsorption run. The inlet temperature to the column and the hygrometer temperature at the end of the system stay fairly constant. The thermocouple on the column sees an increase and decrease in temperature as the adsorption front moves through the column. As the energy is released from the adsorbent, it heats up the air passing through as well as the adsorbent and the stainless steel column which contains it. The hot air temperature is then measured by the outlet thermocouple. The column is well insulated so although some of the heat released

during the adsorption is used to heat up the column as well as the adsorbent itself, only a small amount will actually be lost to the environment while most of the energy that went to heating up the column and the adsorbent will eventually be transferred to the air and measured by the outlet thermocouple. At the beginning of the experiment, equilibrium favours adsorption of the water vapours by the dry adsorbent which releases large amounts of energy quickly and results in high temperatures. As the adsorbent becomes saturated and the temperature of the adsorbent rises, adsorption is not as favourable and the heat effects slow down. As the temperature of the column and the adsorbent decreases, equilibrium continues to drive the adsorption process although at a much slower pace since the adsorbent is becoming saturated. The experiment is completed when the inlet and outlet temperatures are equal, suggesting that the adsorbent is completely saturated and equilibrium has been reached. Fig. 3 shows a typical breakthrough curve for an adsorption run of outlet humidity as a function of time, compared to the inlet humidity. Using the humidity measurements from the hygrometer, it is possible to tell when adsorption is taking place and when the adsorbent was saturated. As determined in our earlier studies [19], the maximum energy density can be reached when operating at 100% relative humidity; as a result, all the experiments were performed at 100% RH. The adsorption takes place at the beginning drying the air completely and gradually levels off as the adsorbent becomes saturated until the humidity value at the outlet reaches the same value as the inlet. Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show the temperatures measured in the system and the outlet humidity for a typical regeneration run as a function of time. As can be seen from Fig. 4, the inlet air temperature is 250  C when it is introduced into the column. As the column is exposed to the heat, temperature increases and the saturated adsorbent releases the adsorbed water. Within the ?rst 20 min, there is a small plateau where the temperature stays below 50  C during which the input energy into the system is not being used to heat up the system but to desorb the water. This step corresponds to the highest column outlet humidity values in Fig. 5. Once the bulk of the water has been desorbed, the temperature in the column increases and the outlet humidity gradually reaches 0%. It is important to note that during the entire regeneration, the hygrometer temperature remains constant around 25  C due to the cooling coil since this temperature is required to have a reliable and consistent reading throughout the different runs. Another important thing to note about the regeneration experiments is their

Fig. 2. Typical adsorption run temperatures as a function of time at different places in the experimental setup for AA13X as the adsorbent at 24 l/min ?ow rate after regeneration at 250  C.

Fig. 3. Typical adsorption run relative humidity at outlet and inlet of column as a function of time for AA13X adsorbent with 24 L/min ?ow rate after regeneration at 250  C.

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Fig. 4. Typical regeneration run temperatures as a function of time at different places in the experimental setup for AA13X adsorbent at 24 L/min ?ow rate with 0% RH at the inlet.

Fig. 6. Cycling experiments for AA13X adsorbent with 24 L/min ?ow rate and 100% RH after regeneration at 250  C. Dashed lines represent standard deviation around mean.

duration. In most of the literature, regenerations run overnight for at least 8 h in order to get a complete regeneration. This system can regenerate the majority of the sample within an hour and completely regenerate the system within 2e3 h. It uses hot dry air blown through the column to regenerate, which not only supplies the heat but also supplies the purge with a constant concentration gradient to drive the water out of the adsorbent. A statistical analysis to determine the error and standard deviation of the system was performed. The average energy density of AA13X after a complete regeneration at 250  C is 197 ? 7 kWh/m3. This statistical information is considered to be representative of the standard deviation of the system and has been used as the basis for comparison in other sections in order to determine if a statistically signi?cant change is caused by a parameter. Cycling experiments were performed on the adsorbent through the series of experiments to determine the effect of re-using (performing adsorption and regeneration runs) on the same adsorbent. In total, over 50 adsorption cycles were performed on a single sample of adsorbent without any loss in performance that could be distinguished from the typical experimental variation as can be observed in Fig. 6. Not all experiments are included because several parameters were varied during some of these experiments and only the ones with identical conditions can be compared. This is similar to the results obtained in the literature for lower cycling numbers. This con?rms that it is possible to completely regenerate the

adsorbent after it has been saturated and that it would be possible to recharge the adsorbent over many cycles without losing any performance. Experiments were also performed to investigate the effect of the adsorption ?ow rate on the overall energy density of the adsorbent. It can be clearly seen in Fig. 7 that in a properly insulated column, the energy density is not affected by the ?ow rate and remains constant around 200 kWh/m3. After the optimization of the adsorption parameters, the regeneration parameters were studied in more detail. The effects of regeneration temperature and regeneration ?ow rate on the energy density are displayed in Fig. 8. It can clearly be seen that the regeneration temperature has a non linear relationship (shown as NLR in Fig. 8) with the energy density which reaches a plateau around regeneration temperature of 250  C. This type of trend is to be expected since the bulk of the water in the macro pores of the adsorbent will be easily removed at lower temperatures and the water molecules in the micro pores will require higher temperature and more energy to be removed. A similar trend can be seen in Fig. 9 which displays the amount of water removed from the adsorbent during the regeneration, as a function of the regeneration temperature. This is to be expected since the adsorption of water is responsible for releasing the energy and it shows how directly related these two parameters are. Both of these graphs also include the effect of regeneration ?ow rate on the energy density/water

Fig. 5. Typical regeneration run results showing relative humidity at the outlet of the column as a function of time for AA13X adsorbent at 24 L/min ?ow rate with 0% RH at the inlet.

Fig. 7. Effect of desorption ?ow rate on energy density for AA13X adsorbent with 100% RH after regeneration at 250  C. Dashed lines represent standard deviation around mean.

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Fig. 8. Energy density of AA13X adsorbent as a function of the regeneration temperature at different super?cial velocities in the column.

Fig. 10. Energy density of AA13X and Clinoptilolite with 100% relative humidity after regeneration as a function of regeneration temperature.

removed. Flow rates of 8 L/min,10 L/min,16 L/min and 24 L/min were used which correspond to super?cial velocities of 0.15 m/s, 0.2 m/s, 0.3 m/s and 0.45 m/s which are similar to what is found in the literature [22]. As can be seen in the graphs, the regeneration ?ow rate had no effect on the energy density or the water removed since each ?ow rate data point in the ?gures is within the standard deviation of the non linear regression curve. These trends were analyzed in order to produce a non linear model using the equation:

? ? Energy Density ? a ? Tregeneration = b ? Tregeneration
This model is being suggested as a tool for adsorbent energy density characterization. The concept is that this model could be applied to any adsorbent if the “a” and “b” constants were determined. Therefore, extensive characterization experiments would not be necessary to determine the energy density of an adsorbent as a function of regeneration temperature if the “a” and “b” parameters could be determined from typical adsorbent properties, such as BET surface area, heat of adsorption and pore size. This model was tested by performing regeneration experiments at various regeneration temperatures for another adsorbent: natural clinoptilolite from ash meadows. The results are shown in Fig. 10. Regenerations were performed at the same temperatures and a similar non linear trend can be seen. The heat of adsorption of

clinoptilolite is signi?cantly lower than that of the AA13X adsorbent which explains the difference in the energy densities at each temperature, but the trend still stands. The air being used for the regeneration experiments was instrument quality air that contains no detectable amount of humidity. Since the concentration gradient produced from this dry air can also cause a strong driving force for regeneration of saturated adsorbent, it was necessary to verify the effect of regenerating the adsorbent with ambient humidity air. Regeneration experiments were performed on the adsorbent using air with 50% relative humidity at 25  C. The results are shown in Fig. 11. Although a non linear trend can be seen for the 50% RH regeneration, the shape of the curve is different from the 0% humidity regeneration on which the NLR is based. The energy density values are lower for the 50% RH regeneration. The discrepancy is fairly low at high regeneration temperatures and increases as regeneration temperature decreases. At high temperatures, even if there is already 50% ambient relative humidity present, equilibrium favours water going from the adsorbed phase to the vapour phase, since adsorption capacity decreases with increasing temperature. The effect of temperature on adsorption capacity is especially high for systems with high heat of adsorption (such as the system used in this study). This helps in desorbing the water and regenerating the adsorbent. However, the humidity that is already present in the air will still prevent complete regeneration by decreasing the driving

Fig. 9. Water released during regeneration of AA13X as a function of regeneration temperature for different super?cial velocities in the column.

Fig. 11. Energy density of AA13X after regeneration with 0% RH air and 50% RH air as a function of the regeneration temperature.

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force for regeneration, compared to the dry air. Since adsorption capacity increases at lower temperatures, the equilibrium does not work in favour of desorption. This, combined with the humidity already present in the air, limits the amount of water that can be removed from the adsorbent, resulting in less complete regeneration and a lower energy density performance. Therefore, although it is possible to regenerate the adsorbent using humid air, the maximum regeneration requires air with negligible amounts of humidity. The ef?ciency of the energy storage was also investigated in this study. The ?rst three data series in the legend for Fig. 12 show the amount of energy used (absorbed from the heating system) during regeneration as a function of the regeneration temperature for different super?cial velocities. As regeneration temperature increases, heat absorbed from the heating system increases. The last three data series in this ?gure show the amount of energy released during the adsorption of water, following the regeneration at various temperatures. The middle data series show the theoretical amount of energy required to evaporate the water released from each regeneration run at various regeneration temperatures using heat of evaporation values. The values were obtained by multiplying the amount of water released by the theoretical heat of evaporation value obtained from the literature [23]. The resulting trends obtained have both linear increasing trends. The ?ow rate employed for regeneration has no effect on the amount of energy required during the regeneration and regeneration at a given temperature always requires the same amount of energy. The difference between the energy absorbed during regeneration and the energy released during adsorption can be attributed to heat loss to the environment and the energy required to heat the stainless steel column and the adsorbent itself while supplying heat for the regeneration. The amount of energy released at each temperature is very similar to the energy required to evaporate water at various regeneration temperatures. This is to be expected as the heat of adsorption is equal to heat of evaporation plus heat of binding [10]. The true storage ef?ciency is de?ned by:

Fig. 13. Thermal storage ef?ciency for AA13X adsorbent using 100% RH as a function of the regeneration temperature at different ?ow rates.

temperature increases for all ?ow rates studied. At lower regeneration temperatures, the ef?ciency is around 50e60% and steadily decreases with increasing regeneration temperature until around 30% at 250  C. This is due to the inherent higher heat loss to the environment for higher regeneration temperatures. Once again, the regeneration ?ow rate during these experiments had little to no affect on the storage ef?ciency. Although these thermal ef?ciency values do not look very favourable for this system at the moment, they help to quantify the thermal energy storage system. One thing that is important to point out, is that the energy this system needs to absorb during regeneration, is going to be provided from solar radiation, when it is connected to a solar system. This will substantially increase the ef?ciency values for the thermal storage envisioned for this system. 4. Conclusions Thermal energy storage in adsorbent beds has been demonstrated in this study. It has been shown that ?ow rate has a negligible effect on regeneration and adsorption. Cycling experiments were performed which demonstrated that re-using or cycling adsorbent up to 50 runs has no effect at all on the energy density and that the adsorbent will not loose performance when re-used many times. Regeneration and performance as a function of regeneration temperature has been characterized for two adsorbents which both suggest that similar non linear models that could potentially be applied to other adsorbent systems to determine their energy density or performance depending on regeneration temperature without having to perform extensive experiments. The effect of relative humidity during regeneration was investigated and its affect on regeneration results has been quanti?ed. Finally, the ef?ciency of the thermal storage system was calculated as a function of regeneration temperature. Although the ef?ciency values calculated were not very favourable, they are expected to increase substantially, when this system is connected to an excess heat source which will provide the energy required for the regeneration of the adsorbent. References
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h ? Energy Released?adsorption? =Energy Absorbed?desorption?
It is calculated by dividing the amount of useful energy released during an adsorption run by the amount of energy used during the regeneration. Fig. 13 shows this calculated ef?ciency plotted against the regeneration temperature for different ?ow rates. The graph shows a linear trend with ef?ciency decreasing as regeneration

Fig. 12. Comparison of energy absorbed from the heating system during regeneration and energy released during adsorption of AA13X as the adsorbent as a function of regeneration temperature for different ?ow rates.

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