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广东高考完形填空解题技巧和设题训练


完形填空解题技巧与概念训练
---Designed by Rainy Leung

Pay attention:

1. Don’t talk when I talk. 2.Do talk when I ask you to talk.

The English test paper:

听说 15分 完形填空 30分 语法填空 15分 阅读 50分(包括信息匹配) 基础写作 15分 任务型写作25分

完形填空1:主题句 与语义场

Doors may have different functions and purposes which lead to cultural differences. differences
来源:NMET2010完形填空

? Read Para.3 and Para.4 of the first cloze, and sum up the main idea of each paragraph.

Para.3
When I first came to America, I noticed that a public building had two different doors and they had distinct functions. You have to push the door with the word “PUSH” to go out of the building and to pull the door with the word “PULL” to enter the building. This was new to me, because we use the same door in South Korea. For quite a few times I failed to go out of a shopping centre and was embarrassed.

Main idea of Para. 3
参考答案: Doors have different functions in America.

Para.4
The way of using school bus doors was also strange to me. I used to take the school bus to classes. The school decided that when the driver opened both the front and back doors, students who were getting off the bus should get off first, and students who were getting on should get on later. In South Korea, we do not need to wait for people to get off. One morning, I hurried to the bus, and when the bus doors opened, I unconsciously tried to get on the school bus through the front door. All the students around looked at me, I was totally embarrassed, and my face went red.

Main idea of Para. 4
参考答案: Cultural differences of doors made me embarrassed.

Q: How many points are there in the following sentence? 主题(topic)

Doors may have different functions and purposes which lead to cultural differences. differences
来源:NMET2010完形填空

导向(control)

制约(limit)

Summary ? 主题句由主题(topic)、导向 (control)和制约(limit)组成。 ? 所谓导向就是规定段落的发展脉络。 ? 所谓制约就是限制主题的覆盖范围。

Ex. I

阅读下面短文, 用下划线划出每个选 项答案在原文中对应的线索词。 (NMET2010广东)

关联类型:
原词关联;近义关联; 上下义关联;反义关联;修饰关联; 语义场关联;逻辑(因果)关系。

Para. 1&2
Every country has its own culture. Even though each country uses 显性:原词关联 doors, doors may have 1.different functions and purposes which lead to 2. cultural differences. 显性:原词关联

Para.3
When I first came to America, I noticed that a public building had two different 显性:原词关联 doors and they had distinct functions. You have to push the door with the word “PUSH” to go out of the building and to pull the door with the word “PULL” to 隐性:反义关联 enter the building. This was new to me, because we use the same door隐性:反义关联 in South Korea. For quite a few times I failed to go out of a shopping centre and was embarrassed.

Para.4

This was new to…

The way of using school bus doors was also 显性:近义关联 strange to me. I used to take the school bus to classes. The school decided that when the driver opened both the front and back doors, 显性:原词关联 students who were getting off the bus should get off first, and students who were getting on 隐性:反义关联 should get on later. In South Korea, we do not need to wait for people to get off. One morning, I hurried to the bus, and when the bus doors 隐性:语义场关联 opened, I unconsciously tried to get on the school bus through the front door. All the students around looked at me, I was totally 逻辑:因果关系 embarrassed, and my face went red.

Let’s review the topic sentence again!

Doors may have different functions and purposes which lead to cultural differences. differences

Q: Let's look at the whole passage, see if the answers fall into the following three semantic fields?

? doors的语义场 ? different的语义场 ? cultural的语义场

完成表格:
doors 3. doors 1. different 4.enter 5. same

different
6. strange

cultural

2. cultural

9. unconsciously

10. embarrassed

Summary

? 1. 找出主题句,分析主题句; ? 2. 分析所选选项中与主题句中关键词 在语义场方面有那些联系

审读NMET2011完形填空的文章,回答以下问 题:
1. 找出文章的主题句(定位句)。 2. 完成练习,说明每个小题属于哪种关联或逻辑 关系。

提示:共有8个原词关联;2个近义关联; 1个上下义关联;1个反义关联;1个修饰关联; 1个语义场关联;1个逻辑关系。

主题(topic)

(第一段)It has been argued by some that gifted children should be grouped in special classes classes. 来源:NMET2011完形填空
导向(control)
制约(limit)

Para.1
It has been argued by some that gifted children should be grouped in special 显性 :Cthe 原词关联 classes. The 1 is based on belief that in regular classes these children are held back in their intellectual (智力的) 隐性 :C语义场关联 growth by 2 situations that are designed for the 3 children. 隐性:D反义关联

Para. 2
There can be little doubt that 4 显性 :B 原词关联 classes can help the gifted children to graduate earlier and take their place in life sooner. However, to take these 5 显性:A原词关联 out of the regular classes may create serious problems.

Para. 3
? I observed a number of 6 children 显性:A近义关联 who were taken out of a special class 显性 :Bspecial 原词关联 and placed in a 7 class. In the class, they showed little ability to use their own judgment, relying 8 on their 隐性 :D修饰关联 teachers’ directions. In the regular class, having no worry about keeping up, they began to reflect 9 on many 逻辑:C因果关系 problems, some of which were not on the school program.

Para. 4
? Many are concerned that gifted children 显性 :B原词关联 become 10 and lose interest in learning. However, this 11 is more often 显性 :A 原词关联 from parents and teachers than from and some of these 12 simply 显性students, :B上下义关联 conclude that special classes should be A近义关联 set up for those who are 显性 13 . :Some top students do feel bored in class, but why 显性 :D原词关联 they 14 so goes far beyond the work they have in school. Studies have shown that to be bored is to be anxious. The 显性 :C原词关联 gifted child who is bored is an 15 child.

Q: Let's look at the whole passage, see if the answers fall into the following three semantic fields?

? argue的语义场 ? gifted children的语义场 ? special classes的语义场

完成表格
argue 1. argument 11. concern 5. children 13. talented 4. special

gifted children 6. intelligent special classes

3. average 12. adults 2. learning 7. regular

Summary ? 主题句由主题(topic)、导向 (control)和制约(limit)组成。 ? 所谓导向就是规定段落的发展脉络。 ? 所谓制约就是限制主题的覆盖范围。
? 词汇学习要注重语义场的构建。

Revision of previous period

? 主题句由主题(topic)、导向 (control)和制约(limit)组成。 ? 所谓导向就是规定段落的发展脉络。 ? 所谓制约就是限制主题的覆盖范围。
? 词汇学习要注重语义场的构建。

1. 找出主题句,分析主题句; 2. 分析所选选项中与主题句中关键词在 语义场方面有那些联系
关联类型: 原词关联;近义关联; 上下义关联;反义关联;修饰关联; 语义场关联;逻辑(因果)关系。

完形填空2:命题设 计与设题训练

Goals
1.分析命题思路;

2.归纳命题规律;
3.了解命题原则; 4.展开设题训练。

命题解析:2011完形填空
首句不设空 ? 第一段:It

反义关联

has been argued by some that gifted children should be grouped 原词关联 The argument is in special classes. based on the belief that in regular classes these children are held back in their intellectual (智力的) growth by learning situations that are designed 语义场关联 for the average children.

命题解析:2011完形填空
special classes(第一段)

? (第二段)There can be little doubt that special classes can help the gifted 原词关联 children to graduate earlier and take their place in life sooner. However, to take these children out of the regular 原词关联 classes may create serious problems.

命题解析:2011完形填空
gifted children(第二段)

? (第三段)I observed a number of 近义关联 intelligent children who were taken out of a special class and placed in a 原词关联 regular class. In the special class, they showed little ability to use their own judgment, relying heavily on their 修饰关联 teachers’ directions. In the regular class, having no worry about keeping up, they began to reflect voluntarily on 因果关系 many problems, some of which were not on the school program.

命题解析:2011完形填空
? (第四段)Many are concerned that gifted children become bored and lose interest in 原词关联 learning. However, 原词关联 this concern is more often from parents and teachers than from students, and上下义关联 some of these adults simply conclude that special classes should be set up for those who 近义关联 are talented. Some top students do feel bored in class, but why they feel so goes far beyond the 原词关联 work they have in school. Studies have shown that to be bored is to be anxious. The gifted child who is bored is an anxious child. 原词关联

考点总结:
?显性线索(11个): ? 原词关联: 4.special-special 1.argument-argue 5. children-children 7.regular-regular 10/14. feel bored-feel bored 11. concerned-concern 15. anxious-anxious ? 近义关联 13.talented-gifted 6.intelligent-gifted ? 上下义关联 12.adults-parents and teachers

?隐性线索(3个) ? 语义场关联 2. learning- classes ? 反义关联 3. average- gifted ? 修饰关联 8. relying heavily on – showed little ability ?逻辑关系(1个):因果关系 9. reflect voluntarily on- having no worry about…

命题原则:2011完形填空
? 第一段:It has been argued by some ?首句不设空
that gifted children should be grouped ?逻辑链上挖空 in special classes. The argument is based on the belief that in regular classes these children are held back in ?须间隔一个动词 their intellectual (智力的) growth by learning situations that are designed ? 选项:同一词类、 1. A. principle B. theory for the average children.同一语法形式
C. arguments D. classification

2.A. designing

B. grouping

C. learning

D. living

命题原则
1. 2. 3. 4.

首句不设空; 逻辑链上挖空(原文中有线索词提示); 选项设计:同一词类、同一语法形式; 空与空之间须间隔一个动词。

设题训练: 按照命题原则,用以下篇章设计完形填空。 (个人任务)1.通读全文,掌握大意; 2. 根据要求,圈出你要挖空的词,并用下划线划出 相关的线索词; (小组任务) 1.组内讨论,最后决定挖空的词; 2. 组内设计干扰项.

. 通关组:每空设计1个干扰项。 卓越组:每空设计2个干扰项。 挑战组:每空设计3个干扰项。

Para.1 (1个名词、1个谓语动词、1个非谓语动词)

Some passengers won’t turn off their mobile phones or iPads during takeoff or landing. It happens on almost every flight now. It’s time to turn off personal electronic devices (设备) when the plane's door closes. However, there’s always at least one person who keeps talking, texting, playing, watching or emailing — and ignoring strict orders to power down during flights.

Para.1 (1个名词、1个谓语动词、1个非谓语动词)
首句不设空

Some passengers won’t turn off their mobile phones or iPads during takeoff or 原词关联 landing. It happens on almost every flight now. It’s time to turn off personal electronic devices (设备) when the 逻辑关系 plane's door closes. However, there’s always at least one person who keeps talking, texting, playing, watching 解释说明 or emailing — and ignoring strict orders to power down during flights.

Para.2 (1个形容词、1个谓语动词) “People have become so addicted to these devices, and a lot of people really question whether they need to turn them off,” says an airhostess from Southwest Airlines.

Para.2 (1个形容词、1个谓语动词)
上下义 “People have become so addicted to these devices, and a lot of people really 近义关联 question whether they need to turn them off,” says an airhostess from Southwest Airlines.

Lots of passengers have doubted about the danger of leaving devices on.

Para.3 (1个形容词、1个名词、1个动词) Is turning off the devices really necessary in the first place? Lots of passengers have doubted about the danger of leaving devices on. They think one call or message or game isn’t going to bring down the plane.

Para.3 (1个形容词、1个名词、1个动词)
and a lot of people really question whether they need to turn them off,”

Is turning off the devices really 近义关联 necessary in the first place? Lots of passengers have doubted about the danger of leaving devices on. They think 因果 one call or message or game isn’t going to bring down the plane.
语义场关联

Para.4 (1个形容词、1个名词)

Indeed, there’s no firm scientific evidence that having devices powered on during takeoff and landing would cause a problem, only that there is the potential of a problem.

Para.4 (1个形容词、1个名词)

Indeed, there’s no firm scientific evidence that having devices powered on during takeoff and landing would cause a problem, only that there is the potential of 原词关联 a problem.

反义关联

Para.5 (2个形容词、1个动词、1个副词) In the US, pilots are allowed to use certain electronic devices during takeoff and landing, but if passengers’ various devices are tested, it may lead to wrong warnings and false readings on the aircraft instruments. In some studies researchers found mobile phones could affect global-positioning satellite systems or other aircraft systems. Though the effects are seemingly slight, they could result in disaster.

Para.5 (2个形容词、1个动词、1个副词)

In the US, pilots are allowed to use certain electronic devices during takeoff 反义关联 and landing, but if passengers’ various devices are tested, it may lead to wrong 近义关联 warnings and false readings on the aircraft instruments. In some studies researchers found mobile phones 同义关联 could affect globalpositioning satellite systems or other aircraft systems. Though the effects are seemingly slight, they could result in 修饰关联 disaster.

Para.6 (1个形容词)

If even the remotest possibility of disaster exists, it's better to turn them off during takeoff and landing.

Para.6 (1个形容词)

If even the remotest possibility of disaster exists, it's better to turn them off during takeoff and landing.
对应上一段: slight

近义关联

remote: If you say that there is a remote possibility or chance that something will happen, you are emphasizing that there is only a very small chance that it will happen.

总结:完形填空解题技巧





1.通览全篇,识别文体
2.瞻前顾后,找信息点

3.先易后难,逐空试填
4.通过暗示,寻找答案

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

原词 同义或近义词 上下义词 语义场 修饰 逻辑(因果) 反义

完成2014年完形填空

KEYS:

? 1-5 DBCBC ? 6-10 ADAAC ? 11-15 DADBC


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