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狄金森自然观解析


湖南师范大学 硕士学位论文 狄金森自然观解析 姓名:贺毅夫 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:英语语言文学 指导教师:蒋洪新 20081001





本文试图从文本的角度,通过分析狄金森以自然为主题的诗歌, 就超验主义自然观在狄金森“自然"诗作中的呈现、对立和延展,即 狄金森对超验主义自然观的再定义进行系统的论证,以期能解开狄金 森诗歌中的“自然之谜"。 狄金森生前留下了近1800首诗歌,这在美国乃至世界文学史上 都是罕见的,她对世界文学的繁荣与发展作出了不朽的贡献。她的诗 歌影响了她身后一批又一批诗人,尤其是对20世纪前后的那些现代 主义诗人来说,影响更为深刻,像意象派诗人埃兹拉?庞德、艾米?洛 威尔和威廉姆斯。狄金森与惠特曼一起,并称为美国现代主义诗歌的 先驱。她不受时代的影响,不为时代风尚所左右,不为传统形式所局 限,以其独来独往的姿态,独特的风格,敏锐的观察及理性的思考, 写下了近1800首醒人耳目的抒情诗。在她生前留下的近1800首诗歌 中,有500多首是关于自然的诗。自然不仅静化了诗人的心灵,也成 为了她创作的源泉。她从中感悟人生,写下了大量质朴清新的自然诗 篇。她的诗观察敏锐,笔触细腻,意象鲜明,或借景抒情,或寄物咏 志,成为文学史上不朽的亮点。 自然和人是上帝的创造物,自然的灵性是上帝所在的反映,超验 主义继承了清教的这一观点,却又对其加以改造,强调入要靠自己的 直觉去与上帝交流,并认识世界,这样就强调了个体的重要性。人们 丛狄金森的诗歌中体验到两个自然:一个是和谐的,另一个是神秘的, 并暗含着凶兆。狄金森的自然诗既体现着宁静,又是深邃观察的产物。 她的全部诗歌的创作几乎都可以看作是她对“自然之迷”的推敲和 猜测。 清教主义和超验主义是狄金森思想的两块基石,也是十九世纪的

两大思想主流。毫无疑问狄金森深受这些思想的影响。直到今天我们 还可以在美国人民身上找到这些思想的影子。而超验主义运动的倡导 者爱默生(Ralph
Waldo

Emerson,1803—1882)则被普遍视为狄金森

的“文学与精神之父"。本文关注的焦点是她对超验主义自然观的继 承与批判。 本论文分为五个部分。 第一部分为前言部分,提出本论文研究的主题和结论,研究方法 及论文的纲要。简要介绍艾莉?狄金森及国内外主要研究论点。 第一章论述各种影响艾米莉?狄金森诗歌创作的因素。论文分析 研究爱默生所持的超验主义及超验主义自然观的要旨及核心,清教主 义,及其对艾米莉?狄金森诗歌创作的影响。 论文的二章分析艾米莉?狄金森以自然为主题的诗作,将其分别 描写动物、植物及自然现象的诗歌分别进行分析研究,探讨其诗中的 “自然”。 论文的第三章分析超验主义自然观在艾米莉?狄金森自然诗中 的体现、对立及延展,艾米莉?狄金森对超验主义的继承与批判,论 述狄金森对超验主义自然观的再定义。 第五部分为全文的结论部分,概括论文的主要论点,超验主义自 然观影响了狄金森自然诗歌的创作,狄金森又通过其自然诗歌对超验 主义自然观进行了继承与批判。

关键词:艾米莉?狄金森超验主义

自然观再定义



Abstract

on the basis of poetic textS,thjs thesis attempts Dichm沁n’s

t0

reveal Emily
nature and

“View of nature”,by analyzing her poems about

discussing t11e relationship

be佃een

her view of na.ture auld Emerson’s

Tran辩enden融ism

and Deism. 1,800 poems in

Dichnson、啪te nearly
in contribution t0 Dicl(inson’s

herlife,、Ⅳhich、糯Ve巧肼e

the舯赋ic histo巧of Amedca,even

of the world.She made great

the florish and deVelopment of the world literature.

poe时and

her poetic stategies inspired marly poets aRer her,

especialIy the modemiStic poets around the twentieth

centuF翳s∽h aS me

imagists Ezra PouIld,Amy wim

Lowell觚d

Willi锄Carlos斯lli锄s.Along
aS

WFalt晰tIIl狃,DickiIlson was

regarded

the precursor of American of

modemistic

poetry.Her unc。nventionali哆in

wm.m岛keen perception

out、^rard and iIlward experiences and her metaphysical t110ught made her

poems毹sh肌d

n姗.N姗becomes

original.AⅡlong her
her
source

ne砌y

l 800

poems,500袱lre about
as

of、砌ting

aS、Ⅳen

puri矽ing her soul.

She was、vriting mafly simple and original poems.W1lile conlposing mem,
she used keen obsen,ation,eXquisite touches and

bri曲t


images

to

express m t11e

her feelings.DickiIlson and her poems had become literature history.

brilliam

star

Namre觚d human

are

made

by God,a11d

nature’s

spirit is me

eVidence of God’s existence.T}anscendentalism accepted and improVed t11is idea.It emphas泣ed that hlman beings should communicate with God
and know the worJd

d印ending

on

meir own mtuition,mus stressed the

importance of i11diVidual.From Dic姑nson’s poems,、Ⅳe
natures,one

can

find two

is harmonious,me omer is mysterious. and

Puri僦sm

T协scendentalism
t、Vo

were

t、Ⅳo

f.oundations

of

Dicl(inson’s mind.7I'hese

mou曲tS

were the main
on

stre锄s in the

cen_tuⅨEVen today,we can find their influence

tIle American people.It

is cle2ur that Dickjllson was de印ly influenced by TraJlscendentalism. Emerson and 11is 1hnscendentalism w嬲regarded弱Dickinson’s“f.ather of literature and spirit’’.This

p印er

put emphasis

on

her redefining to
nature,

1’ranscendentalism,to be specific,to the transcendentalist View of
by discussing her nature poems.

110 make the disCussion easy'this mesis is diVided into fiVe parts. The first part

is觚irItroduction

t0

the whole p印er.It win

state

me

main idea and the conclusion of this p印既The way of me

study

and me


outline of thisⅡlesis will also be mentioned in this part.Still there is

brief曲仃oduction

to

the literature baCkgrourld m Dicl(inson’s age.And
are

main咖dies on
Ch印ter

bottl Dicl(inson arld her poems

also given.

One is deVoted tO
are

diffe瑚t ldnds of influence on Diddnson’s

creation of poetⅨW-e

going to discuss Emerson,T}anscendental view
on

of nanlre,Puritanism and也eir innuence

Emily Dickinson.

her 1 800 Chapter Two aims at Dic虹nson’s poems about namre?In

poems there

are

a.bout 5 OO about nature.This

ch印ter
t0

diVides these 5 OO

poems into three parts.The first part is those
part is t0 the plantS,and nle third stalld for her
o、ⅣIl one

t11e撕mals,me

second

is t0 the na:tural scenes.The poems
to

spirit and we

are

t巧ing

f.md her minds in her poems.

In Ch印terlmree,we analyze tlle renection,opposition and extension

ofthe Thnscendentalist view of nature证Dicl(inson’s poems.on tlle b2usis



of the

major ide邪of Emerson’s 11ranscendentalist view

of nature,thjs

ch印ter

is going t0 demonstrate Dicbnson’s redef.ming to it.

Finally'we reach the conclusion oftlle thesis.The main conclusion of

mis thesis wiU be made in this pan.That is,Dicl(inson’s view of
was aa’ected by Emerson and his redifImed it i11 three aSpects.

nature

t啪scendentalism,at tlle same time,she

Key words:

Emily Dicl(inson View of nature

T1.al:lscendentalism redefinmg

lll

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本人郑重声明:所呈交的学位论文,是本人在导师的指导下,独 立进行研究工作所取得的成果。除文中已经注明引用的内容外,本论 文不合任何其他个人或集体已经发表或撰写过的作品成果。对本文的 研究做出重要贡献的个人和集体,均已在文中以明确方式标明。本人 完全意识到本声明的法律结果由本人承担。

学位论文作者签名:锁毅久

加。年,2月J 2日

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(请在以上相应方框内打“ ̄/’’)

作者签名:殒毅火

日期:加8年,2月,三日 日期:2广砗7≯月/厶日

导师签名:弛么

Analysis

on

DicI洫son’sⅥew

ofNature

Introduction

In this thesis,the author attempts to make Dicl(inson’s View of nature
on

an

analysis

on

Emily

the basis of a textual analvsis of her namre

pOemS.
Dicl(inson wrote nearly 1,800 poems in her life,which was

ve巧rare
great

in the poetic histo巧of America,even of the world.She made cont打bution
to

the norish

and development of

the world

1itera山re.

Dic虹nson’s poet】眵and her

po甜c stategies inspired maIly

poets aRer her'
as

especially the modemistic poets around the twentieth

centIlⅨsuch

the

imagists Ezra Pound,Amy Lowell a11d
with

William Carlos晰lli锄s.Along
as

W.alt WitIIlaJl,Dicl(inson w硒regarded

the precursor of Ame^can

modemisticpoetry.Her unconVentionality in writing,keen perCeption of

ou似ard

and inward expenences and her metaphysical

thou曲t made

her

poems f托sh aIld original.Among her nearly l 800 poems,500 were about
natllre.Nature becomes her
source

of州ting

as

well

as

puri筋ng

her soul.

She was writing many simple and original

poems.While composing them,
to express star in

she used keen obserVation,exquisite touches and bdght images
her feelings.Dicbnson and her poems had become


brilliaIlt

the

literatllre history Namre and human
are

made by God,and natllre’s spint is the

eVidence of God’s existence.Transcendentalism

aCc印ted and improved

this idea.It emphasized that human should communicate with God and know me world

d印ending

on

meir own intllition,thus stressed the
can

importance of indiVidual.From Dickinson’s poems,we

find two

高校教师在职硕士学位论文
natures,one

is

h砌onious,me other is Inysterious.
and Transcendentalism were
t、Ⅳo t、vo

Purit砌sm

basic

stones

of

Dicl【inson’s mind.These

moughts were the main
on

str锄s in the 1 9m

centuⅨEVen today'we

can

find meir innuence

the Am甜can people.It

is cleaur that Dicl(inson was de印ly influenced by TI.anscendentalism. Emerson aJld his

Tl加scendentalism was
on

regarded

as

Dicl(inson’s‘‘f.ather

ofmind”.This p印er put emphasis
to

her redefining to 1’ranscendentalism,

be specific,to me

tmscendentalist

View of naturc,by discussing her

nature pOems.

During the researCh,the author of the present thesis has found that much has been put
on on

the influence of Emerson a11d
0n

hisl、胁scendentalism
to

her

poetⅨbut little research has been done

her eXtension

Transcendentalism,especially in the View of nature.Dickinson has been

reg砌ed弱the mOst creatiVe poet in the Americ锄histoⅨThis thesis
focuses
on

her inheriting and e甜ension to Emerson’s View Of nature.

Her

po锄“This is my letter to the world"(Poem44 1.All Dicl(inson’s
are

poems in this mesis

cited舶m砀P CD唧彪纶n绷s矽E锄砂

D记舫聆.,D以.)tells

us

Dickinson’s creation tenet.In tms poem,the poet
to the

mentioned:This is my letter simple News mat Nature
as

worl彤That tender

neVer

wrote

to

me—The

told/晰th

Majesty,’.The“simple”as weU
of creation

mystedous

nature

was Dicl(inson’s

resource

amams,t0

which she was familiar and ummown.In fact,aU of her poet creation may be regarded
as

her elabomting and imagining
are

to

the“riddle of naml.e'’.In
or

all her poenls,about l/3 of them describing

directly

indir。ctly focused

on

natllre锄d discussing t11e relationship b酿Veen human and


namre.These poems gaVe the poet literature Ksto叮with the
use

dominant position in the

Am嘶can

of Dicl(inson’s modemistic sl(ills a11d her




墅呈!塑!1 2呈旦!!兰!坚2望:!!!!!竺!塑皇坐望 coImotation.Much has been done
on

coInplicated and abroad

by the scholars both home

the

source

of Dicbnson’s view of natllre,the process of

how she get known tO tlle
nature’s

n狐Ire,religious

color of her nature,and the

imago.Y.et

there

is little about how 1、ranscendentalism is

reflected in Dicl(inson’s poems about how
other aIld how did Dicl(inson

the觚o

Opposite

to each

eXp锄d Emerson’s

view of nature in her
to the

poems,and what’s the contribution Of her way of creation is
has

world

been

studied.

On

the basis

of the

m句or ideas

of Emerson’s
t0

t啪scendentalist

View of nature,this
to

thesis is going

demonstrate

Dicbnson’s redefining

it.

This thesis consists of fiye paJts. The first

p矾is锄introduction

to the whole

p印er.It

states the main

idea auld the conclusion of this pap既The way of the stlldy and the outline
of this tllesis will alsO be mentioned in this palt.Still there is


brief

introduction smdies
on

to

the

lite枷re baCkground

in Dichnson’s age.And main
are

both Dicl(inson and her poeIns

also given.
on

Chapter One is devoted to difrerent l(inds of innuence

Dicknson’s

creation of po酏哆W.e

are

going tO discuss Emerson,T‘ranscendental view
on

of nature,nlritanism and t11eir influence

Emily Dicl(inson.

Chapter TWo aims poems there
are

at

Dicl(inson’s poems about nature.IIl her 1 800

about 500 about natllre.This chapter divides these 500
to

poems into three parts.The first part is those
part is t0 the plants,and me mird
one

the animals,the second

is

t0 the to

natural scenes.The poems

stand forher

o、Ⅳn

spirit aIld we

are

t咖ng

find her minds in her poems.

In Chapter Three,we aulalyze the renection,opposition aIld extension

of the Transcendentalist view of nature in Dicl(inson’s poems.On me basis



高校教师在职硕士学位论文

of the

m萄or ideas of Emerson’s Transcendentalist VieW of nature,this

chapter is going to demonstrate Dicl(inson’s redefimng to it.

Finally,we reach the conclusion of me thesis.The main conclusion of
this thesis will be made in tllis pan.That is,Dicl(inson’s View of natlJre was

a低cted

by Emerson aIld his tr.anscendentalism,at the

s锄e time,she

redifined it in three aspeCts. Emily has
a a

Dickinson(1 830-l 886),the woman

poet of t11e l吼h

centuⅨ

dominant position in the literature world.She waS bom in Amherst,

little town of

M舔sachus甜s,New

England,which had

eVer

been the

earliest settlement for the

colonists,espeCially衙the
or

Pudtans.EVen

todaM its influence,whether in politics

in culmre,can still be felt by

the、油ole

nation.It’s folll】nate for Dicl(inson to be bom here,the如sing

place of American tramtion and new thoughts.Dicl(inson was

brought up

in



Congregationalist flaIllily.Her life w弱pret.ty much in order.、册1en

she w雏young,she stlldied

in舢Illlerst Academy'锄d
left

men in Mount

Holyoke Female
she

S锄inaⅨbut

e叫y.ARer

this period of education,
to

mrely went out.She withdrew
rest

fbm the world

her father’s

honlestead and spent the

of her life in selfimposed confinement in

her father’s house and garden,deVoting herself to the、Vriting of poetIy.
TIo Emily Dickinson,a thought thaul that of a
or a

feeling was



more meaningfhl Visit the AⅡ山erst
to

usual衔end.Little by little,she w弱l(110wll by

citizenS硒the recluse dressed in white.In general,Dicl(inson wanted liVe simply
As
a as a

conlplete independent being,and

so

she did,as



spinster.
to

result of Emily Dicl(inson’s life of solitude,she was able

foCus

on

her world more caremlly than other authors of her time.Emily
none

Dicl(inson wrote more than l,775 poems and 1,409 letters while

but



Analysis

on

Dickinson’sⅥ洲ofNa∞e
at



hand如l of them were published during herlifetiIne.ARer her death

56,her sister Lavinia discoVered in Emily’s room bundles of poems tied with ribbons,which the world found
a arouse

heated discussion in the literamre field,and

great poet.

Dicl(inson’s

poet哕、Ⅳ订ting

began in the early l 850s.Her favorite

、Ⅳdters were Keats,the Brontes,the

Brownings,锄d Geo唱e

E1iot;classic
on

my也s,也e Bible,arld
for

Shak印eare

were what

Emily

drew commonly

allusions勰d

referenCes in her

poet巧and

le仕ers.Speabng of her

contempora哕Am耐caIl
especially the

intellectual resources,Thoreau and
are

Emerson,

la蛾were the first and the foremOst(These
One.).
are

going to be

discussed in Chapter

Dicl(inson’s poenls so仃oWs and issues that

usually based

on

her

o、硼experiences,her

joys.But

whithin her little

l州cs

Dicl(i4son addresses those

concem t11e、Ⅳhole human beings,which include religion,
thall

death,immortadi咄loVe,and naalre.More
Dicl(inson wrote
are

fiw

hundred poems

about nature,in which her general

sk印ticism
one

about hand, who

the relationship befween man and nature is well—eXpressed.On she shared with


her

romantic

and

t瑚scendental

predecessors

belieVed that

mythical

bond between man and nature existed,that nature

reVealed to man things about manl(ind and uniVerse.On the other

hand,

she felt strongly about namre’s inscmtability and indifrerence to the life and interests of human beings.However,Dicl(inson managed to write

about

nature

in me

a伍mlation

of the sheer

joy aIld也e appreciation,
aCute observations,her

una舒.ected by

philosophical speculations.Her

concem for precise details and her interest in
sketches

nature are

pervasive,疗。om

of flowers,insects,birds,to the sunset,the如11y detailed



高校教师在职硕士学位论文

summer analysis.

stoms,the

changes of seasons;丘.om keen

perC印tion

to

witty

Dickinson’s poe仃y is unique and inconventionalin its poems haVe
no

oⅥm way.Her

titles,hence


are

always quated by their first lines.In her

poetry there is

particular
to create

st】ress

pattem,in which dashes

are

used

as a

musical device emphasis.The

cadence and more

c印itm letters舔a
or

means of

fo衄of her poet搿is

less like ttlat of the hyIIms in and sometimes, in℃gular.
sentence stnJcture

comⅡmnity

churches,

familiar, co伽[nunal,
or

Dicl【inson’s in。egular con血ses

sometimes inVerted

also

readers.Ho、№Ver'her poetic idioms is noted for
plainness.Her poeⅡls maIly of them
one are

its laconic

breVi吼directness and
n10re

ususlly short,mrely


than觚enty lines,and
on

a陀cent训on
to

single image her delibrate

or

symbol and focused

subject man既Due
be Ve可personal

seClusion, her fkquently
uses

poe盥

tend

t0

锄d maditiVe. She

person∞to
tO

render the tone more familiaur to me reader, poetry,

and personification

ViVi矽some abstram ide舔.Dicldnson’s

despite its ostensible

fomal simplici吼’is

remarkable for its

V撕ety’

subtle哆alld ricluless;and her limited priVate wo订d h嬲neVer confined me limitless power of her creatiVity and imagination.
Her poems
are

the stoq Of



soulin which



feeling

0r an

emotion

created its

o、砸sh印ing mought,and

the whole w弱仃:msmuted into art.

Her themes range丘.om the most triVial to the higllly metaphysical:natllre,

life,love,death,and

immonali吼etc.She loV岱nature.She perCeiVes it

and portrays“with her imler mind;she w嬲obsessed with death and immortality;she sufI’ered f如m anxieties that wounded her de印ly,but in the midst of these paills she experienced

de印joy of creating,of



AnaIVSls

0n

DlckmsOn’s Vlew Of Nature

transposing her irmer experience into words and rhythms.She delighted
in words.She t打ed to make them mi玎or
as

exactly

as

possible the subtle

moVements of her

soul,just

as

DaVid Porter argues that her centraltheme
not the

is the stdVing for

an肌d:‘‘that theme is
or

abs仃act death
on

or

immortality

or

love

fame,but rather the

act of the

mind

quest of a11
as

of these’’.She is mal(ing e伍)rts to seek to realize such identities

queen,
to

which syIn_bolizes

authori吼poet

and

immortality.Thou曲she failed

get them in real life at that time,she made up for them in

the、№rld ofher

poems with great imagination.
In the l 920s,she w硒ref-e玎ed to by both cntics
as one

English柚d American

of the greatest Ame^can poets.7I’lle 1 950s and l 960s were in Dicknson

the great period of consolidation

stlJdies.Many westem

cdtics,such

as

Jay

Leyda

in刀iP

J铂糟伽d胁“坶矿局"砂

D记蜘sD,2(1 960),S.P.Rosenbaum’s彳∞,z∞础z刀∞细历P肋绷s D厂E锄咖
D捌薯凇绷(1 964)孤d
Jack

Capps’E锄砂D放玩涮§灭镅击略(1 966)
to

reg砌ed
grow

her弱a precursor of modemism.Her reputation continued the period dominated by
new

during

cdticism.

Dicl(inson’s

similarities with the

met印hysical,p矾icularly

Geo唱e Herben and J01m

DoIule,haVe been n.equently remarked.Feminist studies of Dicl(inson’s

technique haVe reVealed the innovative Gilben and SusaJl

natllre of her

poetic talent.Sandra

1… Ulc幻nson’s


Gub甄in乃P讹d肋聊口以伽砌P彳舭(1 979)saw













rqectlon ot conVentlonal

poet珂硇a
of

reJectlon of patriarChal

poetry.

HoweVer,

Dicbnson’s

choice

lifestyle

has

remained



stllInbling block.Biographe【.s and critics haVe been disconcerted by the Dicbnson myth.John

Cody’s(1 97 1)psychoanalytic stlldy

of Dickinson, new

形研6阮甜尸口加,刃IP砌,z卯三咖矿Em砂C忱砌sD刀,re、,ealed


高校教师在职硕士学位论文

materials about the simultaneous courtship of Susan Gilbert by Amstin and Emily Dicl(inson
and

the

dyllamics

of

Edward

Dicl(inson’s
of his Views B.

aggressiVe relations with
of women
as

11is谢fe and daughters i11 me light

infi晡or beings incapable of serious thought.黜chard
IImch to dispelthe


Sewan’s(1

974)刀lP三谚矿砌f纱D砌sD甩did
to

myths

of Amherst.Sewall is sensitiVe and
to

t11e poet’s choice of

life of seclusion

the

enomous

importance of Dicl(inson’s relationship witll Susan
on

Gilberlt.Actually,at the present time the research

Dichnson and her
to

poet巧h舔蛐僦ched into more and more branches.According
search
on

the

line,up to now,there have been more

th缸6,939 books,1,187

newspaper抓icles,467

magaZine aIticles and l,494 joumal anicles about


Emily Dicl(inson in me world.EVe拶one seems to丘nd Dic虹nson. Conlpared to
tlle

di强orent

W.est锄coulltries,s嘶ous

studies

on

Emily

Dicl(inson in China started rather late.On the ground of care向l researCh,
one

author haS fouIld that since l 994,more than seven妙articles were

p岫blished in bom minor and modemistic innuence of

m旬or domestic joumals.Some focus
sonle are

on

the the

Charact舐stics of her poe仃y;

deVoted

t0

T啪scendentalism

on

her po酏吼some compare her witll

other women poets.There is little about how

T胁scendentalism

is

renected in Dicl(inson’s poems,how the two opposite how did Dicl【inson expand Emerson’s View of
nature t0

t0 each other and

in her poems,and

what’s t11e contribution of her way of creation is studied.On the basis of the View
of nature,
to

the world has been

m旬or ideas of
is going

Emerson’s transcendentalist

this

chapter

to

demonstrate Dicbnson’s

redefining

it.



Analvsis

on

DickiIlson’sⅥ删ofNature

Chapter one

Different Innuence

on

Emily Dic心nson’s View of

Nature

PuritaIlism

and

Tr锄scendentalism

were

twO

basic

stones

of

Dicl【inSon’s mind.These two thoughts were the main stre锄啮in the l 9tIl

centllⅨEVen tod蝴we
is clear t11at

caIl

find t11eir innuence

on

the

Am甜can people.It

Dickinson w弱 de印1y innuenced by Puritanism and

Transcendentalism.Speal(ing of
can never

Purit砌sm

and Thnscendentalism,we

igllore

Ralph Wraldo

Emerson。

1.1 Eme玮on and 7nanscendental View of Natll№
‘‘Nature is

but锄image


or

imitation of wisdom,the last thing of the

soul;nature being

thing which doth only do,but not know.’’ 一Plotinus

Spe描ng of Am砸can literature,we

can never

ignore New Englalld

T}anscendentalism,which is unanimously agreed

to be the

summit of the

Romantic period in the histo巧of American lite飓_cure.And the chief
spokesman of this spiritual IIloVement is Ralph Ralph

W,aldo
an

Emerson.

Wraldo Emerson(1 803—1 8 82),was


inlportant intellectual

innuence and He was

leading aumor in America in the mid.nineteenth

cen劬y

r印onsible

for bringing 1’ranscendentalism to New England,and

was reCognised thI.oughout his life硒the leader of the movement.In his own day Emerson was admired弱a poet,philosopher’public lecturer'

and essa姐st,whose essays,accordings

to

Matnlew Amold,were

the most



高校教师在职硕士学位论文

important、№rk in English

prose produced in the nineteenth
son

cen仰X

Emerson was bom in Boston,the

of



Unitarian minister who

died when Emerson w弱only eight.He attended Harvard,where he studied theolo烈and becanle


Unitari觚minister in l 929,only


to

resign

his minist拶three years later.After

trip to E'urope,where he met

W-ordswonh,Col耐dge
Massachusetts,where

and Carlyle,he se仕led in me village of Concord,


he becanle

member of the‘‘7Ihnscendental Club.,,

As the f.amous AmericaJl philosopher,Emerson was the chief spokesman

of New England Ttanscendentalism.His worI(s stated systematically the basic ide懿of this school of literature a11d made himself giant in
a11

important

Am耐can

literature. first little book established him
ever

№觑陀,Emerson’s
popul撕ty

since

as

the


most eloquent spokesman of New En91an Transcendentalism.It won
great

and h弱a great innuence in the American 1iterature.
as a

Emerson himself regarded mis article namre. Published
aIlonymously

l妒c po锄between
the essay

him and
an

in

l 836,

contai璐

in仃oduction and eighf chapters,which discuss the love of nature,the of namre,the idealist

use

philosoplly in relation

to

n2岫re,evidences

of spirit

in the material uniVerse,and the potential expansion of human souls a11d wofks that will result丘’Om


general retum tO direct,immediate contaCt

with the natural enVironment.In the essa弘Emerson cleaurly expresses the main principles Of his conc印t of the‘‘Over-Soul’’or‘‘Universal Mind.’'

,…







I hls essay

has

become

so

lmportant that most people consider it





an

uno街cial manifesto for the“Transcendental Club.’,
Emersonian

T胁scendentalism

is actually



philosophical

school

which absorbed some idealogical Concems of Amencan Puritanism a11d

IO

一一
European

墅呈!塑!!竺呈旦!!坐竺:!!!型旦!塑璺唑
its focus
on

Ibmanticism,with
to grasp

the intuitive knowledge of

human beings

me abs01ute in the u11iverse and the divinity Of

man.In his essays,Emerson put
the importance of the

fo刑ard

his philosophy of the over-soul,

Individual,锄d

Nature.Emerson

reiected both the
he

fomal rel珥on

of the churChes and the Deistic
on an

philosophy;instead

based his religion

iI咖itiVe

belief in

an

ultimate uni咄which caIled

the“over-soul".Emerson and other Thnscendentalists believed that there should be
an

emotional

corI】衄unication

between

an

individual soul aIld all-pervading power

the uIliVersal“oVer-soul”,since the oVer-soulis

an

f.rom which all things come f如m and of which all remarkable image of‘‘a tmnsparent eyeball’’marl(s being,in wmch
one

are a

part.Emerson’s



paradixical state of

is me玛ed into nature,the over-soul,while at the


s锄e

time retaining

unique

perc印tion

of the experience.Emerson is


a珩册atiVe
himself
t0

about man’s intuitiVe knowledge,with which

man

can

tmst
ideal

decide what


is

right and

to

aCt

aCcordingly.The

individual should be

sel‘reliant man.‘‘1’mst

thvsel£’’heⅥ∞te

in

&舭P砌刀∞by which he meaIls
for man
to

to cbnVince people

that the possibilities
nature

develop aJld inlproVe himself are infinite.Emerson’s Of the spiritual world,aliVe


is

emblematic

with

God’s overwhelming
on

presence;hence,it exerCises

healthy and restorative innuence

human

mind.“Go back

to

nature,sink yourselfback into its influence and you’11

become spiritually whole again.”By the Spidt,or

emplo如ng natllre

as a

big

s舯bol of

God,or

the oVer.soul,Emerson has brought the PuIitall

legacy of s)rIllbolism to its perl’ection.

The idealist View of nature was system of Transcendentalism.The

an

important part of the idealogical
with

conc印t of“namrF’was conmsed

高校教师在职硕士学位论文 the exploit of natural
resourCes

and money trade in the nineteenth—centu巧
at

America,which was deVeloping f如tly in economic capitalists aIld merChants,the abund觚t 砒1d extremely
resourCes

that time.Tb the

in namre were endless

Valuable.While
on

the 1hmscendentalists,f如m the point of

View of“beauty,’,focused

the boundless

n咖re,and tried to explor the
boldly that“the universe is
senses:

sipidtual Ineaning of it.Emerson pointed

out

composed of Natllre and the Soul.’’In his opinion,nature has both

in its common and in its philosopllical inlport.Nature,in its common sense,re佗rs
to essences
can

unchanged by man;space,the air,me riVer'me
get along with nature mrough their souls,and close t0 nature and

leaf.Human beings
they
can

only

exp丽ence the existence by getting

expenence lt.

The transcendentalist believes that there is some l(ind of“instinct’’in
the

huⅡ姗soul,throu曲which

me soul of i11diVidual

can

comII】lunicate
get

丘.eely with t11e“oVerIsoul",ams the human

spirit锄d uniVerse spirit

consistent with eaCh
encourage people to

oth既On the basis Of this,transcendentalists
get f缸away f-rom the“non—human"life in the get close

socie够and the temptation of modem in鼬mment.They should
to

nature,retllm


to

namre,so私to get tlle highest spiritual experience.T0

proVe

tmly‘‘hum锄"life,Thoreau had been liVing in wild alone.ARer

graduation行om HaⅣam he
careers

c锄e

baCk

to

Concor也and re如sed all the
or

his education pr印鲫ed mm

for’such弱minister,l哪r,
to
‘ . ? ‘

merchant.Tbroughout 11is life,he reduced his needs
1 ● '‘

the siInplest level mamtalmng

'’

and

managed

tO

llve

On

Ve珂

'‘..'r'’_

llttle

mOney.

1 nUS

hlS

ind印endence.In essence,he made liVing his career.At
thousands of A【nericans

time when
west

Voluntamy exiled themselVes in the wild

12

——一
to searCh

些呈!塑!1 2翌里!!望呈!竺翌:!!!!兰竺!塑呈唑


for gold,Thoreau searChed for

di髓rent

l(ind of wealth along
he lived in


the gentle edges of a sman

Massachusetts pond.There
on a

cabin

he built with his own hands

piece of land owned by

Emerson.(The

cabin,he figured,cost him exactly 28 dollars and 1 2 1/2 cents.)the house
was rough aIld un如mished,but its natllral surroundings were and inspidng
as as

godlike

an nalmre.The book describing his twenty-six mOnth become
an

ret黝t,服地聆,has
woods.He went

Am嘶caIl

classic.The present

eXc印t,
in the

行Om the second chapter of the book,tells why’I’horeau went
to

t0 live

tlle woods because he wished to live如11v and

understand essential tmths.Most
waste their tiIne
on

pe叩le,71110reau says,live
should

meanly;they

trivialities.Wre

simplify
can

our

lives and^se

aboVe time to face

etenli吼Etemal tmths
with childlike

only be understood by by

印pmaching
instinct.

them

simplicity and

following

one’s

Transcendentalism has



positive attitude toward human’s destiny.

E胁erson believes

deeply that man is everything in the world and in the

wodd there exist all for the human beings.He thinl【s that man has some hnd of diVinity and


great

abil时to develop.MaJl c觚make themselves


perf.ect and make the world deVeloping fastly if they have

spirit of

self=-respect and t巧to consummate their inner minds.Nature belongs to

man and man is the

creator of natllre.The

rule of natlJre could be

meaning如l only when it get into man’s inner mind.Therefore,man
should tl了to get harmonious with his

i衄er mind,not

the outer world.If

man

can

depend
can

on

himsel£nature

would help him and bring him up,

thus,they

coexist harmoniously in the world.The
essence

tmscendental

View of human,nature and soul was the

of American romanticism

13

高校教师在职硕士学位论文 and that specific age.The

tmscendentalists hated business

ciVilization

a11d its poison to man’s mind.7I’hey thought the endless see虹ng of wealth

would lead

to

spiritual probl伽啮.W.ealth and reputation were ruIming i11

the opposite direction to man’s mind and nature and should be negated coInpletely.


“TI彻scendentalism’’as

Emerson poillted

out

is:‘‘the recognition iIl

maIl of the capacity of knowing trutll of the sense.”The
New England transcendentalist

m句or features of

c锄be sulIl】呦五zed
on

as

follows:Firstly'the

transcendentalists plaCed ernphasis
was
an

spirit,Or the“oVer-soul”.Natllre

all-peryading power for goodness,omnipotent,f而m which all


things came auld ofwhich all、忧re

pan.It懿isted in

namre and i11an alike

and constitllted the chief element of me uIliVefse.Now thjs,obViousl弘

r印resented



new way of lool(ing at the world.n


was印parenny



reaction

against me direction that

mechanized,c印italist America
to get

was tdking,

against the popular tendency

ahead iIl world a仔airs

to

the neglect of

spiritIlal welfare.Secondl弘the transcendentalists stressed the importance of the indiVidual.To

th锄the indiVidual

was the most imponant element

of socie哆The ideal type of

m距w弱the selfreliance,self.Culmre and
neVer

selfimproVement indiVidual whom Emerson

stopped tal虹ng about

all his life.The transcendentalists like Emerson and Thoreau were telling people
to

depend upon themselVes for spiritual perfeCtion if they cared

to

make the e缳)rt because,iIl

their叩inion,the indiVidual

soul comIImned

witll the“Oversoul”and therefore divine.Now this new notion of the indiVidual and his importance represented,obviously'a new way of lool(ing
at

man.It was



reaction against the CalVillist conc印t that man is

totally dep ra.Ved,he is

sinml弛d preseⅣes in sin-hood,and can not hope to
14

——…!垫璺!塑!!竺翌望!!笙翌!竺!!!!1
process

21塑苎唑


be saV。d except through the grace of God.It was also of dehumanization which came

reaction against the

in the wake of developing

capitalism.The industrialization of New England was tllming man into noIthumans.People were losing t11eir individuality and were becoming uniform?The tmnscendentalists saw the process i11 progress and,by t咖ng
to IIeassert the

iInpoltance ofthe individual,emphasized the significance of

men regaining their lost personali吼ThirdlM

the舰nscendentalists ofjFel嗣
or

a舶sh perC印tion
to

of nature

as

sylnbolic of the Spirit

God.Nature was,

them,not purely matCer.It was alive,filled with God’s overwhelming could

presence.It was me gamlent of the“oversoul”.Therefbre.it exercise


healthy and restorative

innuence

on

the human

mind.、№at

transcendentalists seemed to be yourself back into

sa姐ng was,‘‘Go

back to natllre,silll(

its influence and you’ll

become spiritually whole
big syIllbol ofthe

again.’’(讹m脚By
God,or the symbolism
to

employing nature懿a
has

S咖t,or

ov*soul,EmI哪on

b觥ght

the Puritan legacy of

its perfection.The natllral implication of all this was,of

course,that things in nanlre tended to become symbolic,and the physical world was


symbol of the spiritllal.1'11is in tum added
literatllre.

to

the tradition of

litera哆symbolism in American

1.2 Emerson and Dicldnson
As Chinese scholar Liu
out

Shoulan、他o stlldies

on

Dicl(inson pointed

that,in the histo巧of American litemmre,maybe the most

myst丽ous

riddle is the relationship between Ralph Waldo EmersOn and Emily
Dicl(inson.Both of mem liVed at the

s锄e time,in the
never

1 9曲centuⅨand the

same place,New England,but they’d

communicated with each other

15

高校教师在职硕士学位论文

硒others thought mey should have.She had neVer did she post such
as one

sent a letter to

11im,nor

of her poems to him,硒she did to other famous editors

Thomas

Wen似onh Higginson(1 823—1 944)and S锄uel
to Boston

Bowles.

Tllougll Dicl(inson had been
she
never

f;Dur times,where Emerson liVed in,

called

on

went

to蛐erst fo

him.What’s more,in the year 1 957,when Emerson giVe


lecture,he lived in Dicl(inson’s honle for several
went out to
one sec

days.Yi吼Dicbnson

never

him.L砷er,aRer Emerson’s
to

death,she mentioned this in

ofher letters

Susall,and Valued ms li佬

with“to be crowned with etemal
who she

glo可’.But

compared with the others

admi同硒George Eliot and Mrs.BroWning'her eValuationhas
on

little enthusiam and kin?扯ess.

Ho、张Ver,Emerson’s influence
Capps pointed
out

Dicl(inson is definite.Tack L.
aU of t11e

that,in 11is

E锄f纱D记肠憾伽§月黝咖锄ong

Am甜call嘶tefs,Dickinson was a毹Cted mostly by Emerson.It was舶m Emerson that she le姗ed how to、Ⅳrite poems,though she had
realized this.GeoFge

neVer

Whicher said

in砀括肠爆口PD以4册比口,
easy t0 find some stanzas in her

曰衄眇印砂矿上沏f纱D五c七f,勰D门that it’s
poem that may be regarded
t0

be written by either of they铆o.


As we know’Emerson was

famous 1’r觚scendental philosopher.His

workS were about nature,religion,literature,etc.His J忆m陀en曲odies tlle gist of his

1协scendental

View of the phenomenal world.Apparently'
on

Emerson and Dicl【inson had different opi血ons
nature

the two

conc印ts of

auld poet.Emerson considered



tme poet t11e reader of the namre.

He could understand aU the details of namre,Communicate with natu坞

without any di衔culty锄d find om the p龃able of human being’s
He thought,the grass龇ld trees
are

charact既

sending

out

info加1ation of beau以the

16

Amalysis

on

Dickillson’s View ofNamre

poet should be the丘nder

ofbeau以the namer

of everything

on

ea劬a11d

the author of the language.Yet Dickinson had difrerent opinions 6.om

Emerson.She thought that

nature

is

far舶m



holy

teXtbook.Though

it

always indicates its ArCanum to human beings,it is impossible for human beings to understand it completely This is because t11at,on people’s Visual field is I.estricted by their eyes,and
nature is always coVered
on one

hand,

the other hand,

by



mystedous mask.It is always making itself

bluny no matter how hard humaIl beings but
to

t哆At last,people have
not agree with

no

choice
on

giVe up and tllm


to

imagination.She did

Emerson

his View of“life is

group of illusion’’and human can‘‘transcend the

enVironment,taste the tnlth of life’’.To h%if the textbook of

na仰.e

waLs

impossible to be understood,the poet’s eye,which was highly Valued by

Emerson,is meaningless.She denied his访ews in‘‘Nature’’and‘‘The Poet". According to her own opiIlion,she glorified the importance of imagination.
Dic虹nson described nature with her

o赃feelings瓤ld
not only

imaginations,
natllre’s

which she could

not get i11

any向rth既She

denied the

ciVilization which Emellson sang 11ighly for,but also denied that the namre could
Cure

the emotion.She held that people could not get moral revelation
nature,nor could they

and spiritual comfort 6.om the

find the similarity

beMeen self and the natllre.In her opinion,natllre is changeable,cold,and
eVen

cmel.In the relationship between human being a11d natlJre,she

considered that people’s consciousness should be more important,and the natural

scen葫es

should be
not



mi仃0r which can refleCt the human’s mental


activities.If she could
not get into

find such

60unte印oint

in the nature,and could

the ideal spiritual world,she had

to use

other ways,that is,to
see

get into it by her imagination of death.Emerson’s optimism made him

17

高校教师在职硕士学位论文

the interesting aIld holy aspect of the real life,y吼Dicl(inson was always talbng about the past times.She h乏旧great enthusi硒m in the mysterious mask of the life while life is ending. Emerson’s pllilOsophy is
not
an

trying

to

discoVer

endless abyss

tO

Dicl(inson.It brought her

Enlerson’s

hope and possibility,but
as

dread,baU hack and self


disaggregation.She took human’s liVing abyss.

process of falling

into觚

Thou曲the
found the while
source

t、Ⅳo poets

had great di行erence in self cogllition,they

of power in me indiVidual,and showed their inner world

describing

the

namre.

Emerson
star

described

human

being

as

“lighteIling”,and the“author of

and the sun”.In Dickinson’s poems,

、牝can

see

the same pictllre.She connected the Voice and blaze to show the

explosion

of the Volcano.

1I胁如Enlab鹤l(S锄dpurrs

Napl髓ismorea觚d
Th觚wh∞she sllows
Seauri够is

h盯G锄吼T100m—

10ud一(p0锄1146)
showed great interest in the power of the

Both of t11e

two poets

Volcano explosion.In Emerson’s w^tings,the Volcano appears弱a group,

锄d the blazes

are

silent and tender'the houses and fields扣.ound
on

are

resplendent and magnificem.Dicl【inson laid emphasis

the Volcano’s

mysteⅨindiVidual时aJld destmctiVi吼The

personified Volcano w舔in

ease,yet“Naples is more a丘面d’’,and all these indicates the great and

hea、可血schaIlce

which me
are

nature

brought to human beings.

The two poets

also difrerent in expatiating the philosophy of life.
are

Emerson thought human beings

puny before the nature.Dicl(inson laid

18

——一一!望璺!塑!1
emphasis
on

2璺望!!墅!竺呈!!!!!竺!塑呈堕
cruelty and the loser’s death. Dicl(inson
on

the

victor’s

emphasized the particulari锣and indiViduality;Emerson lay emphasis the namre’s oVerwhelllling pow瓯 Another noticeable aspect is that in the wofI(s ofthe two poets,we
find

can

some bmliant punch lines.

Chase said that the apho—sms in
are

Dicl(inson’s poets are“color向l in the American Culture’’and thev “creatiVe remembrance’’Emerson set There
are a

good eXample for her

to

follow.

many punch lines in her

po锄s.

A wounded deer—le印s

highest一(Poem 1 65)
Ear.(Poem 733)
have
no

The Spirit is the Conscious ‘‘Nature"is what

We know一/But

Art to

say.(Poem 668)
on

Dicl(inson’s speciallanguage style is similar with that of Emerson some degree,yet the two also have some di a’erences. Emerson is



pmlosopher,aJld his mottos may be regarded弱a part of his philosophy ideaS.Dicl(inson’s
never

sentences are

just like an

alp in mixed

sCene够She

had

hope to be
or



philosopher'nor did she tried to tum her feelings into

etemal gospel

philosophic

the0哆She just


wanted to wdte down her

instant thoughts aJld then she got
Keller and
once

stage to show her ideas to the public.

said that Dicl(inson brought new things to the traditional moral,

herlanguage is

just like



daulce,
an

sometimes

cra硪

sometimes

sentimental,sometimes dancing in

old fashioned long dress.New

England is Dicl(inson’s homelauld,and the Puritanism culture had deeply rooted in her growing su玎Oundings.In her poems,we
ca董1

find Taylor'

Ha、玑home and Emerson.Dicl(inson’s poems were inevitably cauterized with the New England cultllre.She rooted in the soil of the New England culmre,gre、v
out new

branches,and made the old Pudtan Culture行esh and

19

高校教师在职硕士学位论文

new.She became



speciallandsc印e of the加nericall literal[ure.

1.3 1’raditional Puritanism and Dickjnson
The
two
a!.e

main

currents

that

influence Dicl(inson’s paradoxical Puritanism and

attinlde

Pu—tanism

and

Ttanscendentalism.
conerstones to

Transcendentalism

serve私觚o

fom Dichnson’s creating

idea.Thomas Jolulson in

his砌纪垆彤ff垤B衄眇印砂矿点砌砂D玉僦淞D刀
sh印ed her(Emily

has said.“The two intellectual and spiritual forCes that

Dicbnson)thin虹ng

were me puntans into which she was bom,and

romantic and transcendental doctrines that were in the New England of her youth’’.
The

traditional religion emphasizes

God’s authority,and God’s

speech shown in the Bible is the guide of people’s life and standards of

moral.’I’ranscendentalism shifts the stress行om the worship of dogma

to

me‘‘self--reliant"indiVidual and preaches that intuition is possessed by and priVate bran which world and himsel£ Dicl(inson dwelt in the transitional American lite随ture current仔om Romanticism to Realism,thus both of me
t、)l,0

o毹rs

human being power

to

know the outside

styles

are

reflected in her

wor|(s.her wofI【s are向ll of imaginatiOn and sweet atmosphere.0n the
other hand,some of her worI(s ponder
on

many serious

subjects rationally

such

as

IIeligion and God.The paradoxical Vie、)l,point is the reflection of

her outlook of the world. In


Puritan’s hean,namre reminds the devDtees of God’s existence;

and it is translated by the 1'ranscendentalists into‘‘Oversoul”.Dicldnson’s poems a1.e de印ly influenced by the】n,yet her idea goes it is God
or

beyond.Whether
nature

namre,Dicl(inson

resets
20

them.Sometimes,her

is

————一.

墅呈!塑堡竺旦!!望坚12旦:!!!!1 21型呈坐堡
mysterious and portentous.She wants
to set her

hamonious,sometimes

own religion,for she has her own idea about what the world is.A1l her

life she didn?t convert
It paradox

to

God.
to

is di衔cult for Dicl(inson

perceive the self namrally.Her

results舶m

the coexistence of
renounce

the俩o thougllts

in her mind,

then why didn’t Dicl【inson

gird and Calvinism completely?
were her home

In her day-by-day liVing,the

goveming innuences

and f-amily rather than her reading.Tlle onhodoxy dogma remained in the roll of her thilll(ing.The traditional Calvinism se仕lement of the colonists.One
reason call

be traced

to

the

for the

puritans’emigration舶m

their motherland is

to

find

a neaur

land to worship god in their own way.

So the persistence of the resinous idea is unavoidable,and“The Bible
was read aIld pondered in

eve哆household".The religious influence
one caul escaple

call

be felt in

Havnhome’s刀le&祝比f三P铆,no


fj的m it.

bOm in Emlly U1C虹nson Emily Dicl(inson was bom ln

t砌itional

tradltlOnal Calv谳st famil V.inevitablv Calvinist lhmily’inevitably

she would touch the Bible,hear the

semon.Gradually

her father,mother'

brother'a11d

even

young Lavinia convened to Calvinism,mdch less than

her classmates.In her heart,because of the religious background,she holds

the

conc印tion

that man is



d印endent

cre咖re,a11d

his intuition is

untrus铆orthy.The significaIlce
di衔cult
to

of life is to seek revelation

thougll it is

guarantee.God is the creator of the world,so the Lord,s power
to

must be superior

man’s intuition.

Ironically’Dickinson’s doubt spirit it tradition.The仃aditional idea calls for
an

inh耐ted舶m

the puritan

eamest attitllde tOward 1ife.in

that way she inquires into the t11lth of it.If she becomes traitor she is of God’s punisllment,yet
on

a触id

the otherhalld she hates reconciliation.

高校教师在职硕士学位论文

F盯劬m

LOVetlle

HeaV砌yFamer

LeadsⅡle Cllosen CKld. ORener through Realm of Bdar

T11锄the Meadow mild.

ORel埘by tlle Claw of Dra90n
111an the H孤ld ofFrieIld

Guid伪me

LⅫe

0IIle predestined

T0Ⅱ地Native

L锄d.0旧em 1021)

The

rel培ious education

is importallt in

fomling Dicl(inson’s
unf0略ettable
to

outlook

of the world. The year

l 847~1 848

se锄s

her’f10r
other

Dicl(inson扰ended the Mount Holyoke
experiences were

Female

SeminaⅨHer

h印py exc印t也e puritan conVersion.T11e schoolis m匈or mission ofthe schoolis
to

famous for its puritan tradition,a students
to

train the
to

confess

t0

God,eVen let them
or

feel衔glltened

claim

comnmnication with God.Out of awe becOme

iUusion most of the snldents

subIllissiVe,exc印t Dichnson.One main reason is that she hates t0
seen

tell lie,clailIling she has

God.Dickinson has tried her best
at

to

feel the

soVereign_ty of God,but in Vain.Afrectation w嬲sneered

by young

Dicl【inson.For this,she sensitiVely noted her difrerence疔om the others, for seVeral times she called which
neVer

herself“pagan’’(whether in joke
or

or

seriousl”,

means unique

superior

to

others.Her admission that she

was“…one of the lingering bad ones",indicates she is wo币ed about
God’s pow瓯
The
?

domestic innuence especially her father’s is unaVoidable


to

Dicbnson’s growtll.Her famer is

concr吼e symbol of Puritans,for his

一.

墅璺!翌!!竺呈里!!坐12坐!塑21型璺唑

..

stem Voice,sobriety look,thriR

speech锄d strict life style make him seem
to know the

aw向1.From him Dicl(inson gets
l 870,Dicl(inson said in My famer oIdy reads


figure of God

or

Father.In

letter to Higginson.

on

Sund够He陀adS lonely锄d d90r0璐b001【s…I

neVer

knowhowtotell缸mebytllecloCktilllw鹊fiRe朗.Myfamermoughthehadtau曲tme,
but I did∞t

mderSt锄d锄d a觑曲to

say I did not aIld

a觚d t0

ask趾yone else

Jest he

should knowj

Colonel Higginson met Edward Dic虹nson brieny,2uld the iⅡlpression

Edward leR was‘‘thin,d巧锄d speechless’’and Higginson added,‘‘I saw
what

her(Dickinson)1i诧h弱been.’’Higginson’s“speechless’’comments

might not be tme.Because ofhis“stmight’’character.Edward was active in
politics:


member

of

the

Massachusetts

Legislate,

in

l 840’s

the

membership of the State Senate.The orthodox Puritanism has life


fomed his

regul撕够

ne father

is in some

resp鳅not confident.He hows

the importance

ofthe book aIld education,yet he is not sure how£Ie印the

book而ll change
mem.As


his daughter.He bought them,but disliked Dicl(ins6n CalVinist,he wants his

to read
as an

daugllter to

conven to

God,yet

exp耐enced
an

la川脚he

knows the inlportance of having
no

a确ght

head with

open

mind.T11ere is

evidence ofEdward’s persuading her daughter

to

give up

“pagan"life.It is Dicl(inson’s fortune,however the father’s dilemma.In
1 862,In


letter to Higginson

she、mte.
thou蛳一觚d Fath%

I have



Brother锄d Sister—My moⅡler d0麟not

care

for

劬b瑚y谢m
me肿t

11is Briefs—to notice what we do—He buyS me m觚y Books~but begs fears

t0 read tllelTlb~ecause he

tlleyjog舀e the mind.

高校教师在职硕士学位论文

It is仔om her f.ather that Dicbnson infers what God is lil(e.He must be

舶i位呵and ofpatriarch.IIl that way she has
p11Jdently,whether it is father,aIld his authority is

to

thilll(of going

to

Heaven

h印py to sit beside God as his

chosen.But father is
never

i唧laCeable.The poem‘‘I have

lost twice

私Inuch'’eXplicitly shows her paradoxical attitudes’.She directly calls

God“Bu唱1%Banker,Fath盯’,which shows her pe印lex feelings.Because
the God figure roots

de印ly in Dicl【inson’s nlind,the puritan idea is mou曲t.
are not a11

the

Ve巧premise for

any her

Doubting and

ke印ing硒,ay舶m Purit砌sm

easy thing,硒

it is rooted subconsciously.Ind印endence means being lost in the Christian community
At le嬲tt—o p隐y—is len—is left—

OhJes吣一iIltheAir—
IknownotwmchtllypalaC鼹一

l,kIlocmg—eV吖whcre一

11lou starriest

E脚al【e

iIl廿1e Soum一

灿ld M∞ls吨m,iIltlle S既一

Say'JesuSCMstofNaz鲫eth— HaStthounoA咖forMe?
Though she has the panic of leaVing God as her mother she印,yet
one a

lanlb does when it loses

h弱to

note that

Dicbnson is

t咖ng

to get

a如ll

understanding of her spiritual history.Ⅵmat is more signmcant is tllat Dicl【inson is the mere

f.锄ily

member who deVoted all her

career to



request for religious tmth.Dicl(inson occasionally exllibits her ninching

Analysis

on

Dicl(inson’sⅥew
career.

of Nature

ind印endence,yet she

persists in her

1.4 1’ranscendentaHsm and Dickinson
The caused


year

1 837 saw the publication of Emerson’s Nature,which
on

tremendous impact

the intelleCtllallife of New England.The canon,which New England

nation hailed

his印pe啪nce of me bool(1et.Each age has its
its generation,in both writing aIld

charact甜zes

philosophy

Transcendentalism h嬲inspired and innuenced more than in their thought,it
In tllat
even

one

generation

becomes a facct ofAmerican chamcter. most famous
weU
as ones are

p嘶od

the

Emerson,Thoreau,

Ha、矶home,MelVille,Whitman as

Emily Dicl(inson.It is the strong

home ofthe age and summit ofAmerican Romanticism in the 1 9th

cenm眦
7IHnitV l 8th

The印pearance
a11d

of T阳nscendentalism and other ideas such

as

Unit撕anism
Isaac

is unavoidable in the course

ofhuIIm histoⅨIn the

centuⅨ

Ne耐on published‘‘Philosophies Naturalist Princ弛a
on

Mathematic甜",in which new conc印ts

motion a11d gravitation were


set

up.The dired influence of it is the society tended to roll in

rationaltrack
to

instead of God’s supervision.1’o religion,it is di衔cult for people God and remse His might just
oVer one

doubt

might.In the transitional penod,

tr觚sitional religion becomes

pOpular a11d

acc印table,the typical

one

is

Deism.It acknowledges God is the superior power,the
nature

creator of the

universe,but it denies His
to

and human should be operated according

namral la诚Among those schools,Transcendentalism is the most popular
one.It stI.esses indiVidualism,however it has to mention the power of God,

aIld preach the communication bet、7l,een human and the“Oversoul’’.IIl
Emerson’s nature,he expresses this point distinctively:

高校教师在职硕士学位论文

Stand№0ntheb晰gro岫也一如【ykadbathedbytlleblitherairand upliRcdintoin胁te
sp孤冷,一allⅡ忙an egotismⅥmish伪.I alrrents of me Univ盯蚰l Being

bec伽e a仃ansp舢t ey6b“l,I锄notlling,I s∞all,the
or

ci蜘la饴tllmugh眦;I锄part

particle of

G以

Transcendentalism still mentions“oVer-soul",Ⅱle spirit of God,but it is substantially difrerent f的m God in Trini妙let alone the
one

in the Old

1’estament.7roward its Vi铡叩oint,God is eVe眄where in nature,aIld the Visible
nature

is the

concrete

symbol of God’s spirit.That means God is
be felt by anyone who tends to印proach

eve巧where,锄d His might

can

Him sincerely Thus intuition is emph2Lsized by the new doctrine,and unaVoidably the mental power Of any indiVidual becoInes conspicuOus.
IndiVidual

intuition beComes the

f.oreground

against the traditional

orthodOx

canon.

The influence of Emerson

can

be infe玎I甜行om her characterization of book you
can

R印陀,绷纪打增朋砌as“a little
Dicl(inson’s poems,one
can

gmite
see

leam upon’’.In

cleany

t11e缸lvocation of inmition,in her
a natIlre

poem‘‘Namre is what we see’’,Dicl(inson is telling
one’s

known by

intuition,instead of only by the cOmmonsense:
‘‘Nature”iswhatwe

s∞一

Squin-el—Eclipse—the BuInble bee—

Nay_N绷Jre

is Heavell—

The Bobolink—the Sea— Thunder—the Cricke£一

NayN一栅eisH锄ony一
Seenlingly’Dickinson is telling
us

what Natllre is by

our

eyes,ears,

——一——一一一垒里呈!塑!!竺旦!!望墨!!呈:!!丝竺21塑垒堕
and other senses,yd the negating lines of the

first觚o

staI屹as,magnifies
our

pe叩le’s direct sense,and

defines that Natllre is something beyond
our

obVious sense.The poem amnns the communication between
and the spirit of God.The iImer tmth of namre
can

mind
as

only be defined

“HeaVen”and“hamony,’,not
inmited in the mind.

actually heard

or

seen,but presumably

1…o Ulc虹nson’s emotlon and



?



perc印tlon


of nature
. .



are


branded noticeablV

1,f’

by





■‘

?

mnscendentallsm,yet she goes beyond that.Contrasted with the
seen

haJlnonious ones,she has also denied by me
callon

mysterious and incredible nature’which is

of Puritanism.

One has to note the concluding lines of the poem‘‘Natllre
See”.

is、油at Wre

Nature is what we lcIlow— Y.ct have So
an t0 say—

no

iII邺rt觚t o啦Wisdom is Simplicity(p0锄668)

T0 her

It places ironic limitations oh her ability t0 understaIld the inner tmth

of the
“haVe

nature一‘‘Our
no

Wisdom’’betrays say'’.
the
This

our

1imitation

to‘‰ow,,it,and we
makes Dicl(inson

Art

to

point

a_bout
nature

nature

distinguished的m
beyond the 如rther than

others.Maybe
of

is

of‘‘Sinlplici妒’,yet it is
means Dicl(inson goes

perc印tion

our“Wisdom".7nlat
pref.ers
to

T啪scendentalists.She

believe the limitation of

mtultlOn.D1c虹nson Once statl酣categorically:‘‘Nature and intuition.Dicl(inson once stated categOricallv:‘‘Nature and God—I neither

know"(Poem 835).Nor

caul

Dicl(inson express it by what Emerson called

the e仔.ortless pr.ocess of‘‘vent”,because its transcendence stands bevond ber“An,’.

高校教师在职硕士学位论文

Another Version of me s卸∞poem fonns a strong
contrast

substitutes“Simplici妒’,whiCh

between the troche of nature趾d the呦nifestation
as

r印orted by

our

senses.The饥mscerldence,which Dic虹nson de丘nes

“Heaven'’and“hanllony’’,is finally desc抽ed as“sincerity’’,presumably
as

opposed

to

the deceptiVe印parent

objectiVe wodd of squirrels,ocean,

thunder,aIld the like. About 1 860,Dichnson wrote
her yet


group of her e2urly

po锄s,showing

pla如ng with the idea that
on

Nature is consumed with human intuition;

the other hand,it is independent f如m the human intelligence and it

has its own seCret.Those poems

such弱‘‘Wre

spy the Forest aIld me

Hills’’(Poem l 097),“The Tint
myste哆peⅣades


I callnot take—is

best一”(Poem627),“、№at

Wrell”(Po锄1 400)eXpress the myste黟or the nature or
one

the world.The well-1(Ilown

is“The Sl(ies

can’t

ke印their

secret。’’

The Sl【i懿can’t

ke印tlleir secrct!

TheyteU itt0Ⅱ1eHills一 111e

Hillsj蜮tell恤蚴砌s—
Da筋dils!

And mey.tlle

Abird-by SoR

ch锄ce—tllat

90es mat way—

ov觚earls tlle、vhole—

IfI should bribe the 1ittle Bird—

It’s finer—Ilot t0 k110w一

Analysis

on

Dickinson’s View ofNaturc

If Summer were

an

Axiom—

What sorce巧had

Snow?

So keep your Secr吼一Father! 1 would not—ifI could, Know what tlle Sapphire Fellow'do, IIl your new f瓠llioned wodd!

(po锄191)

Inferred fbm Dic虹nson’s intuition,she knows Nature has its own “Secrets”,it is


divine tmth and all its members keep it and communicate

it with otllerst—he Sl(ies,the Hills,the OrChards,aJld the‘‘Birds".AU but
“I’’,the

hum锄being;y戗out of



transcendentalist’s respecting of the

indiVi(1uality;she

acc印ts

the exclusion.The line‘‘1 would not—if I
to

could"shows Dicl(inson prefers 、Vorld is mor.e attractiVe

remain

uninfomed.The myste拶of the
said sha叩ly,‘‘So keep

to Dickinson,Dickinson

your Secret—Father!……/In your

new

f如11ioned world!’’Dichnson

devotedly eXplores the

secret

of the wodd,yet strongly she respects
of her paradox.


indiVidualism,that is a110ther

one

As in the poems ofmOst ofthe poets in the 1 9山centuⅨNamre plays

伊eat part in Dickinson’s、Ⅳnting.It takes neady
whole wofks.Both Puritan’s and

one

tllird portion of her
express their

Thnscendentalists

o、Ⅷ

Views

tow刹nature

and the relationship

be撕een

God aIld mankind.

Dicl(inson is nunlJred by those ideas but her
any ofher

perc印tion is unequaled by


contempor撕es.She is both an撕ist and

philosopher.She

portrays not only the corporeal world itsel£but the significance of it,as

well硒its inspiration
respects

to human

mind.She probes into Nature

de印lM but
thought is

its

independence

and

mysticism(secr默).

Her

p锄doxical y吼original,、^,hich is expr.essed implicitly

in her poems.

Analysis

on

Dickmson’s View ofNatIlre

Chapter Two Nature in Dic埘nson’s Poems

Dickinson had her own definition of poe略‘‘If I read
my wh01e body I feel physically
so



book it makes

cold no丘re

eVer can

w撇me,I know that is poet哆If
image and she is the first poet

as

ifthe top ofmy head were taken o五I know that is

poe时"(Letter 342)Dicl(inson emphasizes
to锄ph撕ze in觚tion and people’s

s仃ong and instant reactionS.To her’
to die

poet拶is beauty and t11Jth and she was willing indic砷ed in“I died for beauty—but was

forthem,as she
in the ToInb’’

scarce/Adjusted

(Poem 449)
She belieVed that poet拶should be filled with thoughts and should spread the tmm.In her letter
did
so a

poet

to Higginson,she

wondered that how

many people 1iVe without thoughts and how did they get the
on

strength to put

their clothes in the

moming.(Letter 342).She


also

thou曲t that poet巧should

express intense角eling and it should pl ay

role

of relieving pain and comforting people.Richard B.Hetschel said that

Dic虹nson was the teacher ofAmericans,not only hopes but to

to Cure,to

comfort,

endure.(vendleL 1 987;82)She hlew that

great poet巧had a life of

its own,apart丘.om the poet.She wanted her and

verse to

breathe with vitality

en吣y and to liVe foreVer.Poet叫meant immoItality for Dickinson.
Nature was Dicbnson’s f.avorite

subject,on

which she wrote about

500 poems.Dicl(inson’s understanding of the namre difrered f幻m other romantic

poets.What
nor

she

seeked

in

natIlre

poems

was

neither hand,

primitiVeness

romanticism of the natllre.She thought,on
3I

one

高校教师在职硕士学位论文
nature was

in

h锄ony with others,ca哪ng her away f如m society;on the


other hand,nanlre was

puzzling place,如n of myst舐es,which made it

more cha珈血ng and attractiVe.

2.1 Difkrent

obj ects in

Natllre of Dic虹nson’s writing.She loVes
nature nature,

Nature is the main

sourCe

and composed herself with nature.EVerything in

could inspire her

a筒atus Of creation.Let’s

see

what is nature in her eyes.

Squirrel—Eclipse一廿1e

B啪ble bee—

Nay—N舭isHeaven—
Na:tureiswhatweI心盯一 The Bobolink—the Sea—

Nay—N栅is H锄ony—
Na:tllre is wbat we know— Y就haVen0 artt0 say— So

iII聊rt锄t C『ur Wisdom is
Simplicity(poeITl 668)
are

Tb her

The poet defined nature with what we
nature

f.amiliar with.In her poem,
are

is



scenic picture of the paradise,a11d there

hills standing


updght and squirrels music;we
can

jumping

her and there;
ocean

n砌Jre is

hamonious

hear its growl of the

and the whisper of the cricket;

32

AnalySlS

0n

L)ickmS0n 7s Vlew 0t NatIlre

nature

is

an

uIll(tlown field,there
can see

are

many

secrets that we

could

not

describe.In this poem,we

Emerson’s


influence:EVerything

in the
sun,

namre coexist peace如llM the world is

paradise.Star'hills,the

insects,birds and animals may an be found in her poems.She used keen obseⅣation,exquisite touches and bright images while conlposing her
nature to express her

feelings
true

poems.She was lonely and pain凡lin her acompaIly her.In nature,she tried
to

life,so she choose the

nature to

find

the conciliation to her heart and f.eelings;in nahlI.e,she gained peace and hanIlony.Nature became her place of treatment.Qiall Gechuall had talked

about“poem treat’’,that is,“to
This is


cure

people’s mental

disease谢th poems".

new way of treatment which was founded by Arthur Lemer,the

famous Amencan psychics professor ofthe Los Angeles city

uniVersi譬in

1 860s.Some critics thought that in the year of l 862 Dic虹nson su仃ered

仔om mental collapse.In

one

of her letters t0 1110mas Higginson,she

said:“……I
as

had



te哟r since S印tenlb钇I could tell to none.And so I sing

the boys by the

b嘶ng ground because I am afl.aid.’’“She was a纳id
to the

that she might go
to

insane.’’Maybe it’s just beCause ofthis,Dicbnson chose
namre
to cure hersel£

recluse aIld tllmed

Animals, plants and natllral

sceneries

are

the main

obj ects in

Dicknson’s nature poems.Now,let’s diVide her natllre poems into three parts aCcording to the three difrerent

objects.

2.1.1 Poems to Animals
In Dicl(inson’s nature poems,the inVolved animals
are

birds,insects,
one

beasts,bees,butterflies,f}ogs,eVen snakes and spiders.Robin is f.aVo订te animals,and there were alltogether 33 poems to it. The Robin is


of her

Gabriel
33

高校教师在职硕士学位论文
Un bl】mble ci“叉ⅡnstaIlces— His Dress denotes llim soCially' Of 1'ransl印rt’s Wbrkjng Cl嬲ses—

OfmeNewEn91觚dF锄昏
11he

s锄e 0blique硫e鲥劬
lksid锄ce,

A smalI but sturdy

A Self denyirlg Housdlold,the Guests of A托aJl

Pe婶icacity

thatcr0豁董lis‰shold一

触COVeft蠲aFu西tiVe’
C旬oling Co璐tIenlations
ByDi技i懿to the Enemy
And

SylV锄P眦lc蚴ion—
bom
to

The poet took robin弱herself because both of them were

be

mild,just like the

angel of the God,G albriel,to tell people aU the good

news instead ofGod.So she w懿one Because of this,she did

ofthe“1’ransports’W,omng Classes".
to

eveFything aCCording

the 11Jles of“the New

England

F锄er’.

Although

sometimes she w瓠 ‘‘oblique’’, she w弱

“integrity’’.She wouldn’t

show her f.aCe in public before the editors and
to

critics,a11d she stroke baCk

the‘‘Enemy,’by‘‘Ditties’’and‘‘Sylvan

l~nctuation’’.1飞e forest may be regarded鹤an island with mysterious colors and many uncertain

far舶m

the society

factors.While the forest in


Dickinson’s po伽啮are much more mysterious and dangerous than that in common fai巧tale.
The Robin leamed to use‘‘Punctuation’’in

the

myst甜ous

forest

to create

itsⅡmsic,while Dicl(inson,grew up in the same

circumstance,used the same“f~nctuation’’tO compose her pOems.

Analysis on

DickiIlson’sⅥew

ofNature

Another special animalin Dicl(inson’s

po锄s is

the

spid既Maybe to

most ofthe other writers,the best known spider is that emulative one in me
story

Of鼬ng B11lce.But Dicl(inson used the spiderto stand

for the distallce
not


between life and death.No matter how diligent the spider is,it could

redeem its life.Tb the poet,the spider is much more an“Artist’’than
“T’eache,’. 1'heSpid盯as

all觚ist

H鹤neVerb∞n伽叩loyed—

mu曲ms su巾舔sing M舐‘
Is舭elVcenifi酣

By

e、,e巧Broom锄d

Bridget

Throu曲out

aCMSti锄Land—

Ne酉ected

son of GelliuS

ltal(etll∞by也eh觚d一∞锄1275)

This poem may haVe something to do with

one

of her father’s articles,

which mentioned one maidseⅣant and
the Hibemian servant Maggie the poem refers to spider is
an a

an

a_bbot.The maidseⅣa11t refers to

Maher

in the Dicl(inson’s.Amd‘‘Bridget’’in

Hibemian abbot.ObViously,in Dicl(inson’s poems,the
even

infidel anist living the Christian world,and
not

the

supematllral“Bridget"could
totalIy.

cancelthe achievement it made in its life

Sometimes small aIlimals

are

diligent and fortimde in Dicl(inson’s


、州tings.A spider caIl alsO
and do something help如l

do something to change the circumstance
to people.

little

35

高校教师在职硕士学位论文
ASpider sewed

atNi出

、Mmouta Light Upon锄ArcofWKtc—

IfRuflfit waS

ofD锄e

Or Shroud ofGnome HimseIf

infbm—

Of Iln]mor_cal时

W缸phySio韶omy—
In this poem the spider is


diligent craRsman who‘‘sewed


at

Night”.

Y.et his

net waLs

t;aken by the‘‘Dame’’as

Vignette of her 11J成The poet

thought that human beings were indifrerent to the nature and they knew

little about

it.Maybe man should t叮t0 find anomer
be

way to get

on

with

nature,so as to

h釉onious with it.

2.1.2 Poems to PIants
In Dicbnson’s poems,plants
are

flowers,grass aIld trees.Rose,daisy, in her poems.

candock,m印le,Violet and strawber哆have all been appeared
She was good
at

obseⅣing aIld describing plants.As、№know,Dickinson
no

liVed in her father’s house and seldom went out.She cared about things
or

family

any social

a髓irs.She spent

almost all her time

on

her garden and

stlldy and what she 1iked most in her daily life was poems and her garden.
As in Poem324 she said:“Some keep the Sabbath going to Church一/I

ke印it,staying
Orchard,for


at

Home一/Wi血a Bobolink for



Chorister一脸LIld

aIl

Dome_,’From this poem we

can see

that the poet doubted

Amaly8ls

On

DlcklnSOn’s Vle’ljl,0f Nature

about the religion and she would rather t珂to find the truth of life in the nature.She thought that human is


part of natllre and people had to

understand themselVes before they could understand she took nature she paid
a as

nature.What’s more,
one

the ponI.aiture of people’s iIuler world.So,on
to nature;on the other
see

hand,

tribute

hand,she recovered the

ho币ble

factors of nature.Let’s

the following Poem 1 624.
wim
no

App删ly

Su印riSe

To锄yh印py

Flowef

neFrostbeh钮dSit atit’splay—
h1 accid锄臆lpower— The blonde Ass雒siIl p弱s懿on— The Sull proceeds

u啪oved

T10 me鹤ure off孤lomer Day For

anA艄Ving

God—

Tllis poem describes the

life砌d—death

rule of

n咖re.‘‘The

Frost'’

beheaded the nower while it’s “unmoVed",and did his

pl咖ng,then it“passes on”.T11e‘‘Sun’’k印t
it really‘‘no su巾rise’’?
no

o、釉duty indi妇陪rently.Wb

In fact the poet didntt think so.She used irony in‘‘Apparently with

su印rise’’,personification in“H印py metaphor by

F10w盯’and‘‘the

unmoved Sun’’,and

tal(ing“fbst’’弱“Assassins".Quite obViouslM in this poem,
expressing her

the poet was not only describing the nature,but also

emotion—to immendo the social’s nil admirers daily phenoInena of nature.

to

violence through this

As some of theⅥctoria writers,Dicbnson took flowers

as

the best

media

to express her

feelings,among which,rose was the most common
uses rose to

one.Traditionally,writers

stand for the sweetness a11d

honesty

37

高校教师在职硕士学位论文

of loVe,y戗Dicl(inson took it f.or its lif.e is
so

to reneCt

her own calaI血tous and lonely life,

short and

un

kno、vn.

Nobody knows this little Rose—

Itmi出apil鲥mbe.
Did I not take

it劬m廿le ways
m∞.
miss it—

加ld

lifI it up t0


011ly Only

B∞丽U

ab斌erfl弘

HaS洲ng丘.0m f打jo啪ey—
OlllyaBifd will wonder—

OmyaBre铉e will
Ah

si曲一

LimeRose—how朗sy
die!

For姒Ch嬲m∞t0

∽锄35)

Dicl(inson’s niece Martha had described Dickinson’s garden liVely. On botll sides of the stone road,there are nowers here aIld there.Under the honeysucHe

amr'there is
Dicbnson.



cab趾a coVered by rose.No

one

noticed these

little flowers because they

are so

small and puny.At last,they withered

silently’just

as

Sometimes Dic虹nson express her admiration for namre by some nowers,such
as rose.

A s印al—petal一觚datllom Opon


c0姗on s硼[1111er’s mom—

AflaskofDew—AB∞or撕。一

ABreeze—a’c印eriIltlle懈一
And I’m

aR0se!(poerIll9)

。。———。———’‘’‘。。——’‘’‘—’。————.=—————————————————————————一一

Analysis

on

DickiIlson’sⅥew

ofNature

At the beginmng of the poem,the poet states out the three main parts ofrose一“A

s印al—petal—aIld a thom",just

like the mle

oftdnity

in the

nature.Then,the poet made the“common siIuler’s
rose

mom",on


which the

blossom out,unusual,with the Dew,Bee,Breeze,and

bird’s

c印er.

The poet also destined the second lines,there
are

rhythm

of the poem caremlly.In the first and
out

inner

feet(seal,petal)and

feet(mom,thom).
no

They stand for the ordedy natllre.In the laSt line,there is shows the influence of nature she
on

foot at a11.It

the poet.Un(1er the innuence of namre,

tums

to a rose at last.Tllis
rose

poem shows the originality of Dicbnson

poem’s imagination.Her

stands for the

ability

of women to change

their social position,thus to throw away the traditional position and duty which they used to have. Dicl(inson’s poem was

unique,thou曲there were so

many

ones to

the

flowers.Unlike most of the writers,she didn’t make it equal between nower'love and field,such
as

morali哆She

extended the iIlner meaning into



broader

gardening,language,mentali咄morality'minds,etc.In
are

this special wa弘she wallted to show that her nowers
so

well planted,not
to expI-ess the

many;and highly Valued.So this way was used only

secrets in her

he抓.Maybe this

was just the

reason

for why she didn’t want

to publ ish her poems.These ideas are clearly expressed in the following

pOem.
Bloom—is Result t0 meet And


Flower

caSually百ance
cause one

Wrould

scarcely t0 suspect

’rbe minor Cir‘’1】mstan‘!e

39

高校教师在职硕士学位论文
Assisting in me B订ght So intricately done

Aff撕

Tl:呦。删鹊a B眦emy
T0

meM耐di锄一

To paCk me Bud—opp08e me Obtainit’s

Wb咖一

ri出ofDe、)I,一

Adj喊meH髓t—eludetheWing—
Escape曲詹prowlingBee一
?

Great

N舭not

to disappoint

Await崦H留thatDay—
T0beaFlow%isprof.ound

110 Dickinson’s point ofView'flower was always the

r印resentatiVe of

s嘶ous spirit and morali吼Epsom had used‘~nconsciousness influellce'’
to‘describe the
apocalypse

that

noble

nowers

giVe

to

people

in

Shakespeare’s worb.This

sentence

is also dght for the eValuation of the
even

nowers iIl Dichnson’s poems.Dicl(inson

thought that nowers stand
a set

for the highest cultural criterion,because they had more perfect than Are
not

of tasting system I
can

hers(Poem 1 37).She said,“A11 the letters

write/

fair

as

this一’’,because the language of

n咖re has“Syllables of
as

VelVet”,“Sentences of Plush’’and“Depth of R_uby’’,and she sipped in it

long

as

she could.To her’the nower was more of the spirit of self二reliance

than the symbolism of f.ortune and position.

Another l(ind of no、耽r that we

can not

ignore in Dicl(inson’s poems is

Analysis

on

Dick血son’sⅥew


of Nature

daisy-Bowles had giVen Dic虹nson

byname—DaisM implied for
sun or

Dichnson’s nd¨vet6 and shyness.W.ether Bowles was her
really liked daisy.
The Daisy foUows soR the Sun— Amd when llis golden walk is done— Sits

not,she

s¨lly atllis触一



He—w出ng一丘ndsⅡle flowefthere—
Wheref.0re—Marauder—art
Because,Sir'love is gweet! tIlou here?

Wb a化Ⅱ心Flowcr—T1lou

U1e Sun!

Forgiveus,if嬲days decline—

En锄orod ofthe parting Wbt一
,nlepeace—me

ni啦一血e锄em皿一

Nigllt’s possibili哆! Though this poem is about daisy,it expresses Dic虹nson’s feeling for loVe.“sun—daisy”was her pattem of lover’s image.Her lover,“the tIlto,’,

always印peared弱the sun,just like




strong man.And she was always like
so

white nower’waiting silently for his coming.Y_et he was always
shows completely

busy

and ignored her completely. This pOem

women’s

tendemess and unassisted position 0f the Victorian age.

2.1.3 Poems tO Seasons and Sceneries Dicl(inson was familiar with
nature just as

it were her own house.She

described it thoroughly and liVely.In her writings,the most common

scene哆became unusual and panicularly beauti如1.The
4l

sea,su耐se

and

高校教师在职硕士学位论文
sunset,

summer,

were

all her

flaVorite

subject. She

was

good

at

interosculating aU bnds of
connotations. The four
seasons

di伍玳nt证1ages

and giVing them new

doIIlinated



certain part iIl Dicl(inson’s nature

poems.In her eyes,the four

seasons

inspi川people’s

feelings and

imaginations with their di仃.erent Colors and sentiments.、^men the bright
spnng cOmes to the world,me poet cheers like


pigeon.

m N0tiCc that is called me Sp血g

PutupmyH韶rt吐lyHo砒ywod【
Andtal(eaRosyChair—

Not锄yHousemeFlowe心ke印一

TheBirds%锄orCare—
oursala巧Ⅱ1e long筇t Day

Is∞miIlgbutaBi盯一

her舢to

Spring made her happy and she f.elt welcoIlle spdng.



colorml world.So she opened

I a阻mot n地科曲e Spring—u]nrnoVcd—

I‰l t11eoldd懿i他一
A Hullry wiⅡl


linge^n岛IIlix吐

ACOI删tion
Witll
And
as

iIl my

sense

somet岫hid
she

iIl Her—

V枷shes,Remorse

42

AJlaIysis

on

Dickinson’sⅥew ofNatu代
never

In the bright spring

sun

light,she saw incisiVely that light that

appear in“other seasons”.She sang the praises of

March,which was如11

of

f诧sh nmd.
Wre lil【e M孙’h一11is Shoes are Pu叩le—
He is

new锄d hi曲一
Peddler—

Mal【es he Mud forDog锄d MalCes heForeStdg—

Sometimes she descdbed spring as“A Visitor in Mad”,it an.anged the
nowers“Elegallt,’‘‘as G1ass,’with its shining fingers.It‘‘visits the Night一/

And just before the Sun一/Concludes his glistening inteⅣiew-/Caresses一 /and is gone

j’(Poem 391)

Dicl(inson didntt describe direCtly the summer’s re如lgence,yet she

felt d印ressed when summer went away.In the small jungle,an seemed
be
as

to

uSual,she felt that something had changed.
Further iIl

Su加mer廿l锄the Birds—

Pametic丘omⅡle(订弱s—
A minor Naljon ccleIbrates It’s No

undb缸sive

Mass.

Ordir姗cebe seen—

So蓼adual tlle Grace
A gentle Custom it becomes— Enlarging Loneliness—

Antiques’fclt

at Noon—

WheIl AugIlst bunling

low

43

高校教师在职硕士学位论文
Anse tllis Repose t0

Spec臼m C锄ticl嚣

typify一

涮t

as

y就n0 Grace—
on

No觚w

tlle Glow’

(p0锄l 068)
The

sad screaming of the cricket indicates that the rip—roarious
to

summer is coIIling

the end and the cold

autu咖and winter is


coming.

When the、Ⅳa衄land is cooling down,people feels

reminiscent mood,

that is a幻nd of“Antiques’felt",and connects many wonder如l things and

good times together.But,it is August now,and the summer wammess is still there,‘‘No fhn.0w religion tells the reader
on

the Glow",and only

the印ocalypse舶m

the

t0

e巧oy summer’s disappearing bmliance.


What is

worth the wllistle is that,in this poem,there is


key word in

each st鲫亿a,w11ich makes the whole poem the

l【ind of sad mOod caused by
stanz丸

tuming of the se镐ons.That is,‘‘Pathetic’’in the first

“Loneliness’’in the second stanza,‘‘spectral’’in the third,and‘‘Erlllances’’ in the fourth.What’s

more,‘‘Antiques’’’锄d‘‘DmidiC’’lead


the readers to

the ancient tomes,aIld make them feel

mysterious nostalgia.
as

Autumn appeared in DicbnsOn’s writings

another bnd of mamre

status.The poet described the h锄Ⅳest of the golden autu瑚【11 realisticaUy.
A—Field of Stubble,l如ng
sere

It’s T0ils t0

B州led Pcople tllr似一

It’s嘶umptlS—

Analysis

on

Dickinson’sⅥew

ofNature

Tb廿le Bin—

Accostcdbyatirnidbird hTesolute ofAlIIls— Is

oR%seen—but seIdom felt’

On

0urN咖Engl觚d F锄ns一

∽锄1407)

People

can see

the late autIunn land and the‘‘Brindled People’’has

enou曲food now.The poet sang

for the haryest of the land happily.

Sometimes,she also wdtes for winter:
L嗽e Br010rI塔of Steel The

Snow锄d Wind

Had swept tlle W协ter S仃eet— The HouSe w勰hooked

11心S吼sent out

Fam

DeputieS ofHeat一

Ⅵ11ere rode也e Bird The Silence tied

His锄ple—plodding

Steed

neAppleinmeCellar s肌g
W瓠all
The poem displays


tlle

one

mat played.(poeIIll252)

traditional winter scene巧:the hollow s仃.eet,the

house with it’s windows closed,the weak sunlight,the lonely bird,and the
noiseless atmosphere.Y,et,all

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