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【北师大版】高中英语一轮复习讲练精品:Part II 语法部分 专题3 形容词和副词


专题三

形容词和副词

一、概念 形容词是用来修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质状态或特征的词。 副词主要用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或其他结构的词。 二、用法 形容词在句中可以充当定语修饰名词、代词,也可作表语表示主语的状态和特征,也可作补 语和状语。副词在句中作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词、介词短语、从句等,也可修饰整 个句子。 What an interesting role she played in the film! No wonder she has won an Oscar. His daughter is shy in public and she never dares to make a speech to the public. You don't have to be angry with him. He merely wanted to know the truth. Only when the war was over did the young soldier return to his hometown. 虽然形容词、副词的用法繁多,但是高考单选中对他们的考查也是有章可循的,主要体现在 以下几个方面。 1.形容词和副词在具体语境中的运用 试题中提供的四个选项均属于形式相同、意义相异的形容词或副词,做题时必须根据语境, 即根据上下文的意思或逻辑等来确定选项。 Since Tom accidentally downloaded a virus into his computer, he can not open the file now. It is not socially acceptable for parents to leave children unattended at that age. Water can absorb and give off a lot of heat without big changes in temperature, thus creating a stable environment. 2.形容词和副词与其他词的搭配 英语中有些形容词和副词与名词、动词,或另一形容词等的搭配与汉语不完全一样,在平时 学习中通过运用把它们掌握好。如“大”雨、“浓”雾中的“大、浓”,英语中用 heavy;汉语中 说人数“多”,英语中却用 large;汉语中说睡得“香”,英语中却说 soundly 等。 We decided not to climb the mountains because it was raining heavily. The number of people present at the concert was much smaller than expected. This kind of music is well worth listening to. 3.形容词、副词比较等的用法 同级比较用“as+原级+as”,两者比较用“比较级+than”,三者或以上比较用“最高级+in (of)”。 Speaking of all the songs he has written, I think this is probably his best-known one. Alan is a careful driver, but he drives the least carefully of my friends. Little Mary plays the piano as beautifully as her sister. 注意:与比较等级有关的还有几个特殊用法需要引起我们的注意。 (1)“the+比较级……,the + 比较级……”表示“越……,越……”之意,前面的句子相当于 条件状语从句,一般不用将来时。 The more you use a dictionary, the more useful you will find it to you. The higher you climb the mountain, the less air you can breathe. (2)“the+比较级+of the(两者)”表示“两者中比较……的”之意。 Which is the better of the two books? The younger of the brothers is much clever. (3)“a+最高级”不表示“最……”,而表示“非常”。 This is a most difficult lesson in this book. She is a most mysterious person. 4.形容词和副词比较级和最高级的修饰语

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修饰比较级可用 far, even, still, a lot, lots, a great deal, a bit, rather, three times, any, no, very much 等,修饰最高级可用 (by) far, much, nearly, almost, not quite, by no means, very, second, next 等。 —Are you going to the cinema this evening? —No, the ticket is far too expensive for us. The number of people at the concert is much smaller than expected. Canada is the second largest country in the world. 5.形容词和副词辨析 英语中有些形容词和副词意思相同或相近,有时词形相近,但用法有区别,这些词也是单选 的重点。 形容词:calm, quiet, still, silent, common, usual, regular, ordinary, likely, probable, possible 副词:fast, quickly, rapidly, very, far, quite, rather, hardly, mostly, almost, nearly They will go fishing because the sea is calm. The students were quiet when the teacher came into the classroom. When I asked her where she had put the dictionary, she kept silent. Please stay still when I take a photo of you. 6.多个形容词的排列顺序 一个名词有多个形容词修饰时其排列顺序通常为:描绘形容词→大小(长短高低)形容词→形 状形容词→年龄(新旧)形容词→颜色形容词→国籍形容词→材料形容词→用途(类别)形容词 →名词(动名词)。 The child dreamed that he had once lived in a pretty little wooden house in the forest. It is said that ten strong young Chinese students are required to take part in the boat race. 7.something, anything 等不定代词的修饰语 形容词用来修饰 some, any, every 和 no 构成的复合不定代词时要后置。 There is nothing interesting in today's newspaper. I must have my car repaired because there is something wrong with it. 8.以 a 开头的形容词 afraid, asleep, awake, alive, aware, alike, ashamed 等形容词通常在句中作表语和补语。 Are you aware that you are sitting on my hat? The witch put the princess under a spell, and she fell asleep for ten years. When the mother went into the room, she found the baby awake. 9.副词 enough 的位置 enough 修饰形容词和副词时要后置。 He is old enough to support himself. Sorry. You didn't say it clearly enough. 10.有-ly 与无-ly 的副词 有些单词本身是副词,加上-ly 后同样是副词。一般无 ly 的副词表示具体的含义,而有 ly 的副词表示抽象的含义。 close 意思是“近”; closely 意思是“仔细地”。 late 意思是“晚”; lately 意思是“最近”。 deep 意思是“深”,表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,“深深地”。 high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much。 wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是“广泛地;在许多地方”。 free 的意思是“免费”;freely 的意思是“无限制地”。

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