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成绩测试对高中英语教学的反拨作用


山东师范大学 硕士学位论文 成绩测试对高中英语教学的反拨作用 姓名:刘新锋 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:学科教学·英语 指导教师:曲明文 20091021

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

中文摘要
反拨作用常指语言测试对语言教学和学习的影响,根据其影响的性质,反拨 作用有正、负之分。一些研究表明,成绩测试对教学会产生积极的影响,另外 一些人则认为存在负面影响。 然而到目前为止,对于“反拨作用”所作的实证

研究仍显不足,尤其是在我国中学外语教学环境下,此类研究更为缺乏。 本文探讨了成绩测试与高级中学英语课堂教学的关系。从去年10月份山东 省强力推行“回归素质教育”,在这个背景下,成绩测试究竟在多大程度上影响 着课堂教学。 本文借鉴国内外学者对反拨作用的研究方法和模式,结合我国教学实践,重 点研究了高三课堂教学内容、教学方法和教学态度并通过问卷调查、课堂观察和 访谈三种方式收集数据资料。研究对象来自山东省寿光的一所普通高中10名高


三英语教师和113名高三学生。

调查结果表明,第一,成绩测试对高中英语课堂教学既有正面的、也有负面 的反拨作用。正面的反拨作用表现在:它促进了教学大纲的贯彻落实;在一些程
度上激发教师教学的积极性和增强学生学习的动力。其负面的反拨作用表现在:

过量使用备考资料,忽略课本基本知识;课堂以训练应试技能、技巧为主而不注
重英语语言的应用;课堂仍以教师为主导而不是以学生为中心;而且口语得不到

重视等。第二,目前山东省虽然强力推行了“回归素质教育"教学模式,但是所 调查学校的课堂教学方法基本没变。学校仍把学生的测试结果看作是评价教师的 主要标准,由此研究者推测推行“回归素质教育”对所调查学校教师的教学方法
影响不大。

除上述之外,本研究发现还有些非考试因素影响成绩测试反拨作用的性质。 例如,学习者、教师和学校的制度、教师的待遇等。 本文包括引言,四个章节和一个结论共五部分。第一章是关于测试反拨作用
研究和成绩测试的文献综述。第二章阐述了测试反拨作用的相关概念和理论,这

为以下章节提供了充分的理论依据。第三章阐述了本论文的研究问题,研究方法 (问卷调查、课堂观察和访谈)和研究对象,并对数据进行搜集和分析。第四章
阐述研究结果和启示。并提出了进一步研究的建议。同时也指出了该研究的局限

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

性。结论部分是全文的总结。

关键词:成绩测试;高中英语课堂教学;反拨作用 分类号:H319.3

II

山东师范大学硕上学位论文

Abstract

Washback
learning,which

usually refers to the impact tests have
can

on

language teaching and

be positive

or

negative.Some studies conclude that washback of
on

AT has much positive impact,while others find much more negative impact teaching and learning. This thesis explores the relationship between the AT English classroom teaching education in

EFL

and
011

senior middle school the

and learning,which

is based

quality-centered

Shandong

province.

Referring to the especially

current

literature

on

washback both at home and abroad,

the

research

methods,the

author

carried

out



preliminary

study

investigating AT’S washback effect

and

the consideration of the teaching practice in

China.The

target samples were 1 0 Senior III English teachers of

Shiyan,Shouguang
is from

and 1 1 3 Senior III middle school

students.The

focus of the

present study

three aspects:teaching content,teaching method and attitude towards teaching and
learning.Three instruments

employed

in

the

study

are

questionnaire

survey,

classroom observation and interview.

The

results of data analysis

and

discussion show,firstly,that the AT washback
as

has both positive effect and negative one.The positive washback manifests itself
follows:it has

promoted

the implementation of the teaching

syllabus,stimulated

teachers’activeness and

drived

students study harder,etc.The negative washback

includes:a large number of test preparation materials are used in class ignoring the fundamental knowledge in the textbooks;AT test—taking skills rather
use

than language

are

mainly

practiced;the classrooms


are

teacher-dominated rather than

student—oriented though there is

rule in the target school;the skill of speaking is not

put enough emphasis on;etc.Secondly,although recently the educational system ‘‘Returning to the

quality-centered

education’’is

popularized

strongly in Shandong

Province,the teaching methods in class,change liRle,because the students’study grade is still the most important factor in the evaluation of teachers in the target

III

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

school,though it is not the only element.Therefore,there is little effect teaching methods whether the system is carried out
or

on

the

not.In addition,the nature of
as

AT washback might be affected by other factors,such factors,teacher privilege,etc.

learner factors,teacher

The thesis is composed of five parts including introduction and conclusion.

Chapter One reviews the theoretical and
literature.Chapter Two focuses
as a on

empirical

researches

on

washback in

some concepts

and theories

of washback,serving

conceptual framework in the following chapters.Chapter three states research

question,research method,research describes the results of research suggestion for further research.

participants

and data collection.Chapter Four

and major

findings and offers the implication and

Key words:Achievement tests;Senior high school English teaching and

learning;Washbaek
Classification number:H319.3

IV

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

List of Abbreviation


CET EFL ELT

Achievement Tbst College English Test English English
aus a

Foreign Language Teaching of English Test

Language

NMET QS QT

National

Matriculation
Students

Questions for Questions

for Teachers











本人声明所呈交的学位论文是本人在导师指导下进行的研究工作及取得

含其他人已经发表或撰写过的研究成果,也不包含为获得——
(注:如没有其他需要特别声明的,本栏可空)或其他教育机构的学位或证书 使用过的材料。与我一同工作的同志对本研究所做的任何贡献均已在论文中作 了明确的说明并表示谢意。

的研究成果。据我所知,除了文中特别加以标注和致谢的地方外,论文中不包

学位论文作者签名:劫莉铸

导师签字:

、朱邛&

学位论文版权使用授权书

本学位论文作者完全了解堂撞有关保留、使用学位论文的规定,有权保
留并向国家有关部门或机构送交论文的复印件和磁盘,允许论文被查阅和借阅。

本人授权堂撞可以将学位论文的全部或部分内容编入有关数据库进行检索, 可以采用影印、缩印或扫描等复制手段保存、汇编学位论文。(保密的学位论文
在解密后适用本授权书)

学位论文作者签名:习翻芬等
签字日期:200夕年,朋b日

导师签字:

,妫伊

签字日期:2。。夕年/z月占日

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Introduction Background of the study

We

live in



testing world.Our education system is awash with various tests.
to the influence of

Washback,a language

term commonly used in applied linguistics,refers
on

testing

teaching and learning.And washback is



relatively new topic in

the study of

language
and

testing.It has attracted more and more attention of
are

language

test designers

researchers since the 1 990s.What
on

the possible influences that
or

language

tests

may have
or

teaching

and

learning?Are the influences beneficial progress made longer as simple
or

harmful,immediate

delayed?With the

in both theoretical and
or

empirical studies of washback,it ofyes
or

seems no

definite

as a

problem

no,positive

or

negative,or instant

deferred,etc(Alderson
1 996,Bachman

1 986,Henning 1 997,Cheng

1 987,Pearson 1

1 988,Alderson&Hamp—Lyons 200

999,Wall2000,Heaton 2000,Wood

1,Andrews

et al 2002,Choi 2002,Chyn

2002,Davies 2002,Hashizume

2002,Huang

2002,Jin et al 2002,Li et al 2002,

Milanovic


2002,Yang 2002,Yang Lifang 2002,Zhou

2002).Washback is realized


as

much more

complex

issue with numerous interacting factors and with

number of

various aspects of itself.

Alderson&Wall(1993,in

Alderson et al

1996:281)propose the
SO on

earliest

and

simplest version of Washback Hypotheses and
plausible altemative

to posit a series

of logically

hypotheses

within

the co'ntext of EFL.The intention of the

Hypothesis

is not to draw absolute conclusions of
to cladfy

confirmation

or

rejection

on

any of

the above hypotheses,but

the issues that washback studies must address.
to

Hughes(1994,in Wall 2000:501)adds
distinction between washback
on

the theoretical discussion by making



the‘participants’,the‘processes’and

the‘products’of

an educational

system.Wall(2000)reviews
on

the researching progress in the

impact

of

high—stakes test the 1

the classroom.which attracted the attention of language testers in

990s.Wall(2000:499)argues
tests

that

tests

serve

various functions.Among

them,

some

Can

be beneficial to a11.while others

may

involve loss as well as

gain.Wall

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

mentions the relationship between tests and teachers’and learners’attitudes behavior

and

and the importance

of factors

on

test design.
on

In recent years,a number of empirical studies in


washback have been carried out
as

variety of settings by test experts

and

researchers,such

Alderson&Wall(1 993, 2002:290),

in Alderson et al 200 1:2 1 4),Alderson&Hamp—Lyons(1 996,in Huang et al

Watanabe(1996,in

Huang et al

2002;291),Cheng(1999),Sndrews
China,including
or

et

al(2002),and
the

some researchers from

mainland

Yuan(2002),etc.In


empirical
examined;

researches,various aspects of tests different

factors other than

test itself are

subjects

are

studied;a number ofmethodologies are

adopted.As

for the results

of the above
on

empirical
teaching

researches,almost all of them confirm washback effects of tests learning,more
or

language

and

less,in various aspects.

Purpose and significance of the present study As mentioned above,western experts researches to
assess

and researchers

have done



large number of

the effects of washback in various classrooms and the researches

into washback effect have established their importance in the field of

language

testing;

whereas in China,the domestic research
researches have been conducted
SO

on

washback is nearly

all

blank and very few

far.As



matter of fact,this topic has not been fully
on

touched
effect in

upon in the last

twenty

years,during which the researches

the washback

the western countries have developed by leaps and bounds.So many
an

researches strongly provide

impetus for the author
on

to carry out a

study in the field of
addition,the

washback effect of achievement test

English teaching

and learning.In
on

present

study is also expected to add to the working literature
test in the context of teaching

the washback effect of
as a

achievement
The of

and

learning English

foreign language.

objective of

the study is,’therefore,to investigate how about the degree of impact
tests
on

achievement

senior middle

school English teaching and learning,more

specifically,to find out the characteristics of English classroom teaching and learning in senior middle school whether

and
tests

the kind of washback the affect the

achievement
of the new

tests

exerts,and

achievement Standards.

implementation

Senior English

Curriculum

In“Does


washback

exist?”,Alderson

and Wall(1993:120-121)propose

15

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Washback

Hypotheses to delimit the different aspects of teaching and learning that
tests

might be affected.In the present study,the author proposes achievement
exert influence on four

might

aspects of teaching and learning,i.e.content,methods,pace,

and

attitudes towards.the teaching and
on

learning preceding

the test.The focus of the

classroom observation is
washback
on

these aspects to find out whether achievement tests has

them;and

if it does,what kind of washback it

exerts.The

result of the

study may be helpful to improve the

achievement

tests and make it better help students

enhance meir

English proficiency.It is also intended to work out appropriate strategies
one.

for promoting positive impact and hindering negative
Over、,iew of the thesis In the next chapter,some washback will be

major

theoretical frameworks

and empirical

studies

on

reviewed.Then

in Chapter 2 the research design will be introduced.

The research questions will be proposed in Chapter 3 and to

anSWer the

research

questions,the experiment results will be presented and the data will be analyzed and
discussed.In Chapter 4 the author discusses several issues

based on the

results from the

study,puts forward some suggestions,and points
also the

out

the limitations of the thesis,and


need

for further research in this field.Lastly the author makes

conclusion.



山东师范大学硕上学位论文

Chapter One Literature Review
This chapter comprises
all

introduction to empirical study of washback at home

and abroad.The following definitions of with comments
on

achievement

tests will be outlined,ending

the previous study.

1.1 Empirical study of washback at home and abroad 1.1.1 Empirical study of washback abroad
Much assertion about the influence of the testing appeared in 1970s and 1 980s.
However,empirical studies into washback effect has been surprisingly little in general education,to say less of language education.

Hughes(1 988)reported

the washback

effect

of

an

English proficiency test at

Bogazici University in Istanbul where the medium of teaching Was English.Because

the English proficiency of the students Was deteriorating,the Test Was developed and

implemented

to motivate the students to work harder on their English.As



result,the

students’English proficiency improved greatly as was shown by their performance in the
test

and in

the

Michigan

English Proficiency test.The positive


effect
at

was

confirmed

by the

subject


teachers’views as reflected in

survey

conducted

the

university.So there is

reason

to believe that the new English test

has achieved its

intended washback effects

on

teaching and learning. Alderson et al

Alderson&Wall(1993,in

2001:214)take

initial attempt to

investigate washback by observing teachers and teaching administrators in Sri

Lanka

to

test the impact of the introduction of a new style school—leaving

examination in

English.Their study methodologies relate

classroom observation,interviews,and negative washback effects of this test

questionnaires.They
on

show some positive

and

the

content
on

of teaching to some extent.However,there’S limited evidence which it how teachers teach.
et

has effects

Shohamy

al(1 996,in

Huang&Yang

2002:290)do some

research
test

on

washback effects of two national tests(the Arabic Second Language
English Foreign


and the
see

language tesO

in different periods of time.As



result,they

that

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

washback effects of



test differ while time goes on.According to
on

Shohamy(1 996),

the change of washback depends language and the
use

many

facets,such

as

the

status of the target

of testing results.


Bailey(1 996)made

distinction between‘'backwash to the learners”,which was

the result of supplying“test—derived information”to the test—takers,and‘'bachwash to

the program’’which was the result of supplying
participants in the education system.Bailey

information

to all

of the other of

also

discussed the

difficulties

investigating backwash,which included working in‘'naturally occurring settings”,
using

a‘'non—random,sample

of

subjects’’and

attempting to sort out how much of
to the introducfion and use of

what happens in classroom

Can be‘‘evidentially linked deeply
on

the

test

Can

SO

easily become too

involved

in test statistics.’’He also

emphasized the

effect of objective tests

language
are

learning

and

pointed out that the

greatest single beneficial forces of testing
teaching in many
areas

changing the direction of language

and encouraging the more responsive teachers to examine not

only their own teaching methods but also the

language


they are teaching.

Watanabe(1 996b:3 1 8—33 3)conducted

study of the washback effect of


grammar-translation teaching Yobiko(examination
given

in Japan.He analyzes the teaching that takes place at

preparation center)in

central Tokyo,comparing the lessons

by two different teachers to get their students
one

prepared

for two different does not.

university entrance exams
He

emphasizes grammar-translation and the other
simple to anticipate that

concluded

that it is not

SO

examination

will affect all
as

teachers in the same way.He

supposed teachers’personal
learning experience,beliefs
all

characteristics,such about

educational background,past

teaching,and,
on

possibly,the proximity of the exam in terms of time have teaching methods. To amend the lack of

important role

their

obj ective evidence

on

empirical study,Alderson and

Hamp—Lyons(1996:290—297)devoted washback,studying
preparation_teaching the

to investigating the existence and

extent

of

TOEFL(Test


of

English

as



Foreign

Language)

program.Using

combination of classroom observations and

interviews with teachers and students,they concluded that the TOEFL did bring

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

changes in teachers’teaching content and methodology,but that the effect varied in degree

and

kind among teachers.More importantly,they claims that simple forms of
are

washback hypotheses more complex than

too naive;influences

on

what happens in class are much
causes

unexamined

beliefs.It is not only test that

washback,but

rather the way that test is approached by necessity of large class

administrators(who

may determine the

sizes),materials writers(who may


fail to give proper guidance

to teachers on possible ways to teach with

certain set of

materials),and teachers

themselves(who

may devote little energy to finding alternative of innovative ways to

teach test preparation for


classes)which

actually creates the phenomenon of washback


given

language

proficiency test.They made

conclusion

that there is

need

for

further complex hypotheses about washback. In summary,these empirical studies of washback generally concentrate
on

three
or

facets:the working mechanism of washback;the

nature of washback,i.e,positive

negative;and

strategies for fostering positive washback and inhibiting negative

washback.The large—scale tests

objects
such
as

of

empirical

studies

on

washback

are

generally those 1 996)and some applied the
et

TOEFL(i.e.Alderson&Hamps—Lyons

important

local

language tests(i.e.Watanabe,1 996b;etc.).They

following methods,questionnaires,interviews,classroom al 1 993,1

observations(Alderson

996;Shohamy

et al,1 996;etc)and

experiments(Robb&Ercanbrack,1 999;
is shown explicitly in

Saif,200 1).A summafive list of the

major empirical researchers

the following table:



山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Table 1.1 Empirical studies

on

washback in recent year

Alderson

examm。a五on m language institute the U.S.A in


C1assroom observafion



TOEFL

will

happen

in

the


&Hamp-Lyo 118(1996)

preparation class and


classroom,but rather complex including charaeteristies
teachers. set

of

factors,

normal class

individual of the

Students’ questionnaire Shohmn, Donitsa.S ch midt,et al
Long-term

9 ASL and 16 EFL

Washback

varies

over

teachers;

time,and that the nature of the washback at any given
time

with钯achers of

62ASLmid 50
EFL

effects
two tests

and
inspectors;

students;


is



function of the test,its

2必L and

purpose

of the

(1996)
Related documents

EFL inspectors

formal,and other factors.

Researchers

Purpose of

Methods of

Subj ects

Main conclusions

slIldy

stlldy
The impact of the examination is
new

less

Washback of the Alderson &Wm O.Level English Test in Lanka Sri.
new

Longitudinal


Teachers;

pervasive than that had been

classroom observations; Pupils;

expected.11h01砂the
had
Oil a

examination has demonstrable effect
content

Questionnaire
s;Interviews

(1993)

Adminislrators

the

of

language

lessons,it has had virtually
no

impact

on

teaching

methodology. E圩ecfs
TOEFL

of

Quesliommire

Two

teachers It is not the test alone teaching which determines what

both



山东师范大学硕七学位论文

The washback effects ofthe introduction C1assroom of

It is too

simple to expect

a11 the teaehers to teach m file
SalTlO

way.Personal of such the 铺

charactensties teachers, observations;
Teacher A and

晒tanabe
(1996)

translation
test into

educational

background

the

Interviews withthe
teachers

teacher B

and beliefs about teaehillg, and possibly,the proximity of the exam in time role have
to

University
Entrance

terms of important in how their

Examination in Japan

an
play

teachers

conduct

lesson.

助7ether
TOEIC

Students

of

The

llSO

of
can

preparation significantly

English majors

materials

Robb&

direct
preparation

and
Experiment; non-English

improve the non—English

Ereanbraek (1999)

171ajors’BOOTe


gains

on

C0螂e
improves the gains
SCOte.

majors
Students’ questionnaire

in

reading

comprehension it
can

university
Japan

in

while improve

hardly English
English

of

the

majors’overaJl
level.

Test used Shahrzad



roodel
to

Experiment;

Three groups of sindents

The

proposed and based

model
the
On

is

applicable designed

tests

investigate Saif washbaek

Queslionnaire
g;

with differealt

this

learning

needs

model will induce positive wachbaek
nolrl—test
all

(2001)

effects Interviews;

and different target C1assroonl language levels observations

related

factom play role in

important
the


fostering

posflive washback of especially
tests.

test

the’high-stake’

Note:A-sL=Arabic Second Lmlguage Test HKCEE=Hong Kong
TOEIC=Test ofEnglish for International

Ce嘣icate EngIish Examination

Corranunication(U.S.A)

1.1.2 Empirical study of washback in China
In China,test researchers
are

also coming to do some studies

on

washback.They washback was

actually set out in the 1 990s and before then the domestic research

on



山东师范大学硕士学位论文

almost Zhang



blink.And especially,there is still little empirical research at Dayong&Yang

home(see
on

Baojun,1 998;Huang

Bingjun,2002).The research

testing

impact in China has been largely carried the mainland of China.

out in Hong Kong and Taiwan,but few in

This section discusses some main washback studies respectively,as summarized in Table 1.2 for reference. Table 1.2 Studies

on肠shbaek in

China

Researchers/time/place Vurvos,of sflldy

Methods of shldy

Subjects

Main丘ildings

Zou

Shen(1995)

Thewashback

Questiolmaires;

Teachers研
English

Positive effects
on

China

of删忽

majors

the F_g*lish

majorteachhg WOI鲞. Cheng砩礼g(1998)
Hong Kong Whshback e腋cl of Questionuaires.iaten.:iev Teachers; rex4sed HKCEE sludents Washba出effects
On



mocro and micro 1evds

dassroom

ofthe education s).'stem.q晡ck md strong effects
On

content

and materials of teaching but slow ,and、张ak effeds
Oil

methods ofteaching

h Juxim(1998)
Chim

Washback

伽esliommes

Teachca's; students

Washhack effects
conteats

Of(!EW/6
to college teaching

011

andCE¨/6
arouses

and learning

teadfing

and leanliIlg cIlthusiasms



山东师范大学硕士学位论文

An击?CWS.FIdlilo、,e andyama

Washback effects ofHong
Kong advanced

Intel、'iews:classrooln

Test-takers

g■shback

c艉cts

011

observafion;oflicial
docmnent

students’pcrfol'lllallce
iIl spokm English. file

Wong(2002)
HongKong

stq)plementar、r "use‘’Faglish oral
CXSⅢll

impact

is

dela)一

Howevgax the precise nah”e ofthe

to

the test-takers

washback

seclllS

to、,搬y

from student to shldent. Chen Limei(2002) TaiWan Washback of BCT
to teachhtg

Que妯otmaires;
Classroom observatiotK interviews

Teachers;

Wasllback effects
011

shtdellts

teachers棚xat to

teach

butnothowtoteach

h狮耽lg(2002)
Clfina

Washback of achievemmt test
011

Q31esfiolmaires;
experiment

Teachel苫; studelRs

Po.fiti、’e washback effects of achiCVClnellt test
OH

foreigll laaguagq

teachhlgand lemfing

teaching,

when file tests effe cfively integl’ated

into inshucfional
process and
an ser、'e as

effcc血,e

teadfing—leamiIlg rid.

Qi Luxia(2004 a)
Clfina

Washback effects NMET j11 China



伽esfiolmaires;
classroom obsen'aft ons: hlterviews

Teachers; stlld税lts

Tcsf lIas failed to

Achi∞'e its intended washback effects

Tang.o Y.a ocfi(2004) Clfina

Wasllback of CET-SETou CE

Quesfiotmaires;
classroom

"reachers;

S h.ong washback effe cts

stIlde出

file cofieg e oral English teachil喀 and lemfing bell{n]ors

teaching teCJe afnlng observati ore; _utcn'iews

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

CET except



few articles introducing

overseas

theories of washback in language Aiqing,Zhou

testing(Zhang Baojun,1998;Huang Jiayou,2000)and NMET(Ahang
Lingshun,1 999;Huang Huimin,Ding extended the fields

Changyou,2002).These helped
as

studies have largely observe the teaching and
on

of washback study and

test researchers

relationship between testing and other factors

well

as

that

between

testing.In sum,the empirical studies of washback generally concentrate

three
or

aspects:the working mechanism of washback;the nature of washback,i.e.positive

negative;and

strategies for promoting positive washback

and limiting

negative

washback.The methods applied by these empirical studies are questionnaires,
interviews,classroom

observations(Alderson

it al 1 993,1 996;Shohamy et al,1 996;

etc)and experiments(Robb&Ercanbrack,1 999;Saif,200 1).Meanwhile,various
empirical methodologies are reflected in these studies.

1.2 The present senior English curriculum standards&EFL
- ●

teaching
The publication of‘‘Senior English Curriculum

Standards(experimental)for
of

middle schools”(2003),means
curriculum,EFL teaching and

the beginning learning

of innovation order
to

senior

English the new

etc.In

implement
are

‘‘Standards’’successfully and effectively,seven teaching principles direct EFL teachers as

suggested to Standards, for their

follows(translated舶m

Senior

En酉ish Curriculum

2003):1)Teaching

should face all the students and build

common basis

life-time development.

2)Encouraging students to learn optional
elective
courses.

courses

and strengthening direction for

3)focusing

on

students’emotion and creating loose,democratic and harmonious

teaching atmosphere.

4)Strengthening
assisting them
to

the direction for

students’learning learning

strategies,and

form self-access ability.
to

5)Establishing new concepts of teaching
Standards,and optimizing mstrucfing methods.

match new English Curriculum

11

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

6)Applying

modern instructive technology to widen students’ways of learning

and using English.

7)EFL

teachers must promote their professional development to synchronize

new English curriculum. To realize the aims of new“Standards”,evaluation is considered part.Principles of evaluation
are as all

important

stated in
as

the‘‘Standards’’(2003)as

follows:

1) 2)
3)

Students must be treated

main body of evaluative system.

Building pluralistic and various evaluative Formative assessment must play


systems.
important role in the growth of

very

students.

4)

Summative assessment should be stressed to test

students’comprehensive

utilizing language competence.

5) 6)
7)

Laying stress

on

the feedback of

assessment

to English teaching.
courses.

Evaluation should embody the characteristics ofrequired and elective

Laying

stress on

the actual effect,and applying evaluation methods reasonably

and properly.

8)

All kinds of evaluations must be

depended

on

English Curriculum standards.

From the theoretical point of view,all the evaluative principles should be applied to direct EFL teachers and their teaching.However,practical teaching senior middle may not be following AT impact
SO

performance

in

simple

and

ideal

as

it

seems.The

questions of the

will arise:What
on

are

teachers’attitudes towards this new“Standards”?Does

the implementation of new‘‘Standards’’really exist?
on

1.3 Comments

the previous research

Reviewing the previous researches in this field at home

and abroad

provides the

following

facts:

1.In the domestic researches,most of them

concentrated

on

the washback effect learning

of CET-4/6 within the context of college English teaching

and

lye

Juxian,

1 998;Jin Yan,2000;Zhang Dongmei,200 1;Chen Jiliang&Tao wei,200 1;Kong Yanping&Nie

Jianzhong,2002;Wu

Hongehuan,2003;Yang

Xue,2004,etc.).A

few

12

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

researches have

even

touched upon the topic of achievement test washback

on

English teaching and learning. 2.In addition,some of the characteristics of the study of washback
are

summarized

as

follows: and

(1)Complexity:Alderson
Was


Wall(1991)argued

convincingly that washback
on

far more complex issue

than

simply the effect of test

teaching.They believe

that there is not

an

automatic relationship

between

tests

and their impact.Rather,

specific areas such as teaching content assessment methods,curriculum investigated as well
as

and

methodology,teacher’S attitudes,pace,
resources

innovation and

available need
or

to

be

the extent of the impact and whether
one

not it is positive or not work the

negative.All the factors that work

way in

one

context

may

same

way in other contexts,nor will they necessarily lead to the same

outcome(Alderson

and Wall,1 993;Alderson and

Hamp—Lyons,1 996;Shohamy,1 993;Shohamty et al,

1 996).Washback involves not only all the aspects of the education system,but also

the social system.It needs

to acknowledge

that the washback effect is far more

complicated than (2)Variety

what has

been assumed. applied
to the

in research method:SO far,four methods have been

study of washback effect,namely,questionnaire survey,classroom
interviews

observation, than the

and experiments,among

which the first three

are

more

often used

last one.It is of necessity
perspectives.

to explore test washbadk

comprehensively

and in different

(3)Longitudinal
before test taking.

nature:it takes



long time to have

an

overall washback effect

(4)Comparability:only
study,other than all variables.

some comparable variables should be focused

on

in the

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Chapter Two 2.1 Definitions

Theoretical Framework

of、№shback

Much evidence suggests that testing influences teaching and learning(Alderson

&Wall,1 993).In

the general education literature,the favored term to describe the


testing phenomenon is backwash,while washback is testing and applied

term popular in language
washback have offered

linguistics.Many

researchers

on

comprehensive and rational

definitions.Prodromou(1 995)described the

bachwash

effect

as

the effect



test has on

the manner of teaching that results from teachers
on

focusing their instruction primarily

those elements

included

in

the test.For

Shohamy,Donitsa—Schmidt,and Ferman(1 996),washback is“the connections
between testing and In fact,many

learning”Q 298).



linguist

has mentioned this term in their
on

works.Hughes(1 989)

simply defines washbaek as“the effect of testing

teaching and learning'’,which


could

be harmful

or

benefidM.She further indicated that“if
can

test

is regarded

important,then preparation for it

come

to dominate all teaching

and

learning with the

activities.And if the test content and testing techniques are at

variance

objectives

of the

course,then there

is likely to be

harmful backwash.”

Shohamy(1 992:5 1 3)refers

to washback when she describes‘'the utilization of

external language tests to affect and drive foreign language learning in the school

context'’.She underlines that‘'this phenomenon
external testing

is the result of the strong authority of

and the major impact

it has

on

the lives of test taker.”
extent

Messick(1996:241)describes
influences necessarily washback

washback as“the

to

which

the test

language teachers

and learners to do what mey would not otherwise dimension to the definition of learning effects should be

do.’’Messick(1 996:243)adds an important
when he states“evidence of teaching
as

and

interpreted
use

washback…only if tha£evidence

can

be linked to the ingoduction

and

of the test.’’

In summary,although washback is defined by



diverse group of researchers

14

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

using different concepts and different angles,there is



general agreement

on

the

definition of washback:it is the influences of the test rather thall也e test itself that should be the foCUS of the research.

2.2 Theoretical study of washback 2.2.1 Nature

of、№shback


The term of washback is

heating focus,and



great number of theoretical washback,certain theoretical

studies have been carried out:Amoug these studies

on

hypotheses and models have been proposed to illusteate the working mechanism of washback.There 2.2.1.1
are

several main

hypotheses and

models

as

follows.

Alderson&Wall’S Washback
and

Hypotheses,1993


Alderson

Wall

proposed

series

of washback

hypotheses.In
are

their
as

comerstone

article“Does washback

exist?”(1 993).The

hypotheses

classified

follows(Qi Luxia,2004;37-38):

1)Wasback
(1)A (3)A (4)A (7)A (9)A

on

teaching:

test will influence teaching. test will

influence what teachers teach;and

test will influence how teachers

teach;and by

extension

from(2)

test will influence the rate and sequence of teaching;and test will influence the degree and depth of teaching;and test will influence attitudes to

(11)A
learning

the content,method,etc.of teaching

and

2)Washback
(2)A (5)A (6)A (8)A
test will

on

learning:

influence learning.

test will influence what learners test will influence how

learn;and

learners learn.

test will influence the rate

and sequence

of learning.

(1 0)A test (1 1)A

will influence the degree and depth of learning.

test will

influence

attitudes to the content,method,etc.of teaching

and

leaming.

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

3)Strength of washback

(1 2)Tests that (1 3)Tests that (1 4)Tests will (1 5)Tests
others.

have important consequences will have washback;and conversely, do not have important consequences will have have washback
on no

washback.

all learners and teachers.

will have washback effects for some learners

and some

teachers,but not for

Alderson&Wall’s‘Washback
learning

Hypotheses’is



dichotomy仃eatment focusing on

and

teaching,teachers and learners.Alderson et al concluded that

another and

hypothesis might be added to the above list:‘'tests will have different amounts types of washback
on

some teachers and learners than

on

other teachers and leamers’’

(Alderson&Hyamp—Lyons,1 996:296).Their
laid out the territory for subsequent studies.

critical look of this phenomenon has

2.2.1.2 Hughes’PPP Washbaek Hypotheses,1993

While Alderson&Wall

use

dichotomy treatment,Hughes(Bailey,1 996)takes



different approach to explore the nature buy which washback works,She has applied


trichotomy

treatment


to construct



basic washback model.Hughes considers it
on

useful to make

distinction between washback

the participants,the process

and
to

the products in teaching and learning.According

to

this model,participants refer

students,classroom teachers,administrators,material developers and publishers,‘all
of whose perceptions and attitudes towards their work maybe affected by


test’

(Bailey

1 996:262).Testing could influence their attitudes

and

the activities they

are

involved

in,and

they could also affect the amount


and the taken

quality of learning.As for by the participants which process refers to
use

process,Hughes makes

conclusion that

any

action

may contribute to the process of materials learning

learning.(Bailey,1 996:262).Such

development,syllabus

design,changes in teaching methodology,the

of

and(or)test—taking

strategies,etc.Products refer to what is

learned(skills,
in Bailey

facts,etc.)and


the quality of the

learning(fluency,ete.)(1 993:2,quoted

996:262).The

inter-relationship between them

is presented in the basic model

indicated by process
16

Bailey(1 996).Hughes
US

states like this:The trichotomy into

participants,

and product allows

to

construct a

basic model of backwash,the nature of a

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

test may first affect the perceptions and attitudes of

the participants towards their

teaching and learning tasks.These

perceptions

and attitudes in turn may affect what practicing the kind

the participants do in carrying out their

work(process),including

of items that are to be found in the test,which will affect the learning outcomes,the product of that

work(264).

Figure 2.1 A basic model ofwashback by

Bailey(1996)

PARTICIPANTS
■……………

PRoC ESS

PRoDUCTS

From the model above,we

can see

mat



test directly influences the

participants,

who engage in various processes,which result in products specific to each category of

participants.Hughes’S
some other

Basic

Model

gives



bigger picture of washback by including
and learners, such as researchers,
to

test stake holders besides teachers

materials writers and curriculum

designers.According and

Hughes(Bailey,1 996:262),
US

“The trichotomy into participants,process model of washback.The nature of


product allows

to

construct



basic

test first affect

the perceptions and attitudes of

the participants towards their teaching and learning tasks.These perceptions and attitudes in turn

may

affect what the participants do in carrying out their

work

17

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

(process,including practicing

the kind of items that

are

to be found in the test,which

will affect the learning outcomes,the product of that work'’. 2.2.1.3

Wall’S

Hypotheses 2000 researching progress in the impact of high—stakes test
testers
on

Wall(2000)reviews the

the classroom,which attracted the attention of language
Concerning test

in

the

1 990s.

impact,Wall(2000:499)argues

that tests

serve

various functions.

Among them,some
well
as

tests can be beneficial to all,while others may involve loss as

gain.Wall

mentions the relationship

between tests

and teachers’and learners’

attitudes and behavior determining test discussed

and the importance

of factors other

than
on

test

design in

impact.Some

most important observations

innovation

are

and

it is

reemphasized

to seek insights in the field of educational innovation.

Wall(2000:505)suggests

that the impact of test is partial rather than complete:it may

affect the content of teaching but not teaching methodology

and

teacher’s attitudes to

the

test and thus

confirms the notion that

test

impact is



complex phenomenon.It

should not be assumed that a‘good’test will automatically produce good effects in

the classroom,or that a‘bad’test will necessarily produce negative
All these theoretical studies have laid studies
SO on a

ones.

solid foundation for later empirical

test washback

and

also,they need empirical studies for evidence them and in—depth and more accurately.

as

to

construct theoretical frameworks more

2.2.2 Classifications of washback
2.2.2.1 Positive and Negative

Washback
as

The washback effect has been generally defined teaching Heaton

the effect of assessment
or

on

and learning as stated

above.This effect

Can

be either positive

negative.

and Hughes(Heaton
or

1 990:1 70,Hu曲es I 989:1,quoted in Prodromou 1 995:1

3)

reckon that positive

negative

washback('backwash’as

they call


it)is
test

determined
promote

by the impact of examinations teaching

on

what we do in the classroom.If
or

Can

and learning,it

will have negmive

harmful washback.As is
other

acknowledged,
test designers. context.

positive washback always

takes

priority OVer
cause

concerns for

Negative washbadk has been the main

for criticism in specific testing

18

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

As summarized by Alderson and been

Wall(1 993),some

of the negative effects tests have
or

suspected

of producing include narrowing

distortion of the curriculum of instructional require complex

(Vernon,1956;Madaus 1988;Cooley,1991),loss
etal,1 989),and

time(Smith
thinking
or

reduced

emphasis

on

skills

that

problem—solving(Fredericksen,1 984,Darling—Hammond and Wise,1 985).In
some

contrast,

researchers(i.e,Swain,1 985 and Alderson,1 987)emphasize and

the potential

positive aspects of test influence

urge the creation of tests,which,through
on

constructive washback,will have enlightening effects 2.2.2.2 Overt and

language

curricula.

Covert、№shbaek
in
the literature
as

Washback

is also depicted

overt

or

covert.Prodomou
seen

(1 995:1 4)concludes
use

that overt washback is usually negative
or

and

in the explicit

of examination papers


examples from textbooks that emphasize the skills used
are

in

examinations.As
and

result,reading and writing
sees

given

more

emphasis

than

speaking more of students

listening.He

the implicit consequences of

covert

washback as

an underlying,unconscious
learn.He likens

process stemming from assumptions about how


it to“teaching

textbook as if it were



textbook'’

(1995”15).
The overt washback test.In order to pas the exercises

Can

be

seen

in teachers and students’actions to deal with



examination,teachers
particular

may ask students

to

do nUlTIerOUS

favored in

the

examination:multiple—choice,cloze,etc.


Consequently,the methodological routine follows It implies that the presentation of the text is the

familiar pattern:’text+questions’.
by questions similar to those in
seen on

followed

examination.Therefore,the

overt washback

Can

also be

textbook design.

Such washback effect leads to the emphasis
on

use

of fragments

of(often inauthentic)language,an


word-and sentence—level,linguistic

features,and

concentration

on

the

skills easier to be tested in terms of administration and marking in test

design.This

kind of overt washback is usually negative,but it is possible for testing procedures to have with


positive effect

on

classroom practice by adopoting techniques more in line

communicative

teaching.For

example,when



listening

test

based

on

audio—cassette material is introduced

to replace the texts read aloud by all examination

19

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

supervisor,it will enhance students’awareness of what authentic listening involves, and schools may quickly begin to prepare students to deal with the new challenges. The overt washback is easily identifiable,while covert washback is far more

difficult

to

describe.Even if examination reduced the number of multiple—choice

questions,the examination class would still be in conflict with the teacher’S desire to
teach

communicatively.It


is largely due to the fact that the

covert

testing will always

be with US.It is

deep—rooted,often unconscious


process,which reflects

unexamined

assumptions about

wide range of

pedago百c

principles:how people Ieam,the

relationship between learners and teachers,the nature of teacher authority,the

importance

of correction,the

balance between

form

and

content,the role of classroom

management,etc.To summarize,covert washback
testing procedures.

makes teaching activities typical of

Reviewing the previous researches in this field at home and abroad provides the following facts: In the domestic researches,most of them CET-4/6 within the

concentrated

on

the washback effect of

context of

college English teaching

and learning(Ye Juxian,1 998;

Jin Yah,2000;Zhang Dongmci,2001;Chen Jiliang&Tao wei,2001;Kong Yanping &Nie

Jianzhong,2002;Wu Hongchuan,2003;Yang Xue,2004,ere.).A even
touched upon the topic of

few
on

researches have

achievement

test

washback

English teaching and learning.

Inspired

by these

and other researchers,the

author of this thesis anticipates
tests and the characteristics of

investigating the relationship English classroom teaching factors affecting the nature of

between the achievement
and

learning in senior middle schools,and the

major

achievement tests washback.

2.3 Definition of achievement tests
Aim of
test
are

doing research;knowing progress;guiding teaching curriculum 1 984).A good test must meet four and practicability.If tests
ale

and representing terminal behavior(Brown

requirements:validity,reliability,discrimination
classified by use,there
are

five

types:achievement test,proficiency test,aptitude test,

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

diagnostic test and placement measure achievement form of
on a

test(Hughes

2002).Achievement

tests are intended to

larger scale.Most annual school examination takes the
are

achievement
are

tests;all public tests which also achievement tests.

intended

to show mastery of a

particular syllabus

Achievement tests

Can

be

subdivided into
tests,as

class progress

tests

and

final

achievement

tests.Class

progress

their name suggests,ale intended to
tests

measure the progress that students are making.These

are chiefly concerned with
on

allowing the students to show what they have mastered.Scores Of course,the results of these tests should be


it should be

hi曲.

cluster of

scores

around the top of the

scale(Heaton,2000). 2.4 Relationship between achievement testing and teaching

The

proper relationship

between testing and teaching
so

is surely mat of partnership

and testing and teaching are

closely

interrelated

that it is virtually impossible to

work in either field without being
tests have more useful

constantly

concerned with the

other.Achievement
are

effect

on

language teaching and learning.These tests

constructed primarily as devices to reinforce learning and to motivate the desire to achieve
or

students’
the

primarily as



means

of assessing the student’S

performance in

language.
A large number of examinations in the past have

encouraged



tendency to

separate testing from teaching.However,achievement tests are closely teaching and

related

to

learning.The

most effective way of measuring the effectiveness of
to both teachers

student learning is achievement testing,which is generally interest
and

students

themselves.The information from the

achievement

testing is useful to

the teacher for evaluation,that is,for providing continuous

feedback to both the

teachers and the students for making decisions regarding appropriate modifications in the instructional procedures and learning new material is been introduced at lose interest,or
so an

activities(Nitko,1 998).For
SO

example,if



inappropriate rate,either
cannot

slowly that students

quickly that

students

comprehend it,the effectiveness of

learning is likely to decrease,Teachers also need to

make

decisions about when to

21

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

move

on

to anothel"unit of the current unit.

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Chapter Three
This

Methodology
subjects

chapter discusses the research design,research questions,the

involved,and instruments

employed

in the study.

3.1 Research questions Q1.What
characterizs English classroom teaching and learning in senior middle

school?朋’at

kind ofwashback do the
are

achievement tests

have

on

it?

Q2.What
washback?

the

major

factors

affecting the nature of

achievement

tests

Q3

How do

achievement
Standards?

tests influence

the

implementation

of the new Senior

English Curriculum

Q4

Do

achievement tests

influence EFL teachers’evaluation policy?

3.2 Research design
In order to investigate the characteristics of English classroom teaching and learning in senior middle schools,the washback the

achievement
tests

test exerts,and

the

major

factors

affecting

the trait

of

achievement

washback.Basically,a

combination of both qualitative

and

quantitative approaches was adopted in the study.

The author takes Senior III students for example,who will be taking the 1 0 months later.Three

NMET

about

instruments(i.e.observation,interview,and
in the

questionnaire

survey)are employed participants involved 3.2.1

present

study.The following is the account of the

and the

instruments

employed in

the study.

Subjects
on

This study aims to investigate achievement tests washback teaching and learning in senior middle schools,and of

English classroom

major

factors affecting the nature

achievement

test washback.In the target sch001.1 1 3 students and 1 0 EFL

teachers

are

involved in the study,who are chosen at random.as summarized in Table 3.1.

They are senior middle school teachers

and their

students.

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Table 3.1 Occupation

Subjects

of the study

Number


Mode

of participation

-Being observed in class —Being interviewed

Teachers 10

一Completing questionnaire

the

3 Students 113

一Being interviewed 一Completing questionnaire the

Total

123

In the study,one school in the district

can

be picked out.Among the two teachers

concerned,one
other less

with experience of teaching English in senior middle school,and the

experienced.

3.2.2 Instruments
In order
to

make the study as complete as possible,three instruments

are

employed

to

collect

data:questionnaire survey,interview,and classroom observation.

In this study,questionnaire survey is the main research instrument,while classroom observation and interview Two questionnaires
serve

as indispensable

supplementary tools.
for

are

constructed,i.e.Questionnaire
consists of two

students

and

Questionnaire for teachers.Teachers’questionnaire
In the first part,teachers are required
such as their gender,age,ere;the which is

parts(Appendix D. concerned,
one

to put down general information

second

part is made up of 1 6 items,only

of

half-opened,and

the rest are

objective

questions.Five items of the teacher’S

questionnaire are to investigate the impact of

hi曲stakes

tests on their instruction;

t№items
items
are

in the

questionnaire

relate to teachers’perception of high

stakes

test;two

related to teachers’teaching ideas,another two items relate to EFL teaching
on

evaluation

their

students;two

items are related to teachers’attitudes to the new

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Senior

English Curriculum

Standards,and

two more items are

connected with

teachers’evaluation,upon what they teach

and

how they teach,and three other items

reflect the impact of high stakes tests upon teachers attitudes.

Questionnaire

will also be

administered

to EFL learners:students’questionnaire

(Appendix II)consists

of 1 0 questions,three of which is

half-opened

and the others

are objective ones.The aim of students’questionnaires is achievement
tests effect on their

to investigate

the degree of

teachers’curriculum planning and instructions,on

their learning assessment from the students’point of view.Besides,four items relate
to washback effect of achievement tests on

learners and their learning.

Based

on

findings from the teachers’and students’questionnaire,interview data

were obtained through unstructured,individual interviews in Chinese with
English teachers,who are purposely selected Shouguang.All the two interviews are

two

senior of

from
out

one

senior

middle school

carried

with interview checklists.The
to

interview checklist constitutes three types of questions(Appendix III)pertaining

EFL teachers’attitudes towards their teaching,as well as the applying of the new

Senior

English

Standards and teaching

evaluation.

The purpose of administering the classroom observation intends to questionnaire and interview One type of observation is in the

confirm the

results,and

test their generalize ability to

more schools.

conducted:classroom
are

observation.Two teachers’classes

sampled senior

middle school

observed.The

two

teachers are both females

and both

in the ordinary sch001.Teacher A has


been



teacher for a little OVer 1 3 years

and teacher B has

teaching

experience

of 5 years.The table below illustrates some

information of the

two

teachers.

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Table 3.2.1nformation of the two teachers for classroom observation


融纰赋
Sex Aze Teac hing
exper蟹nce Perso mlity

TeackrA

Teacher B

Female

Femak
28

35

13 3ears

5years

Easy-go血备c b se幻introversio n

Confzh吨close佃
extlovers b n

Language

Having



good

command
0f

of

№咖a good eommaM of
skills(hste nir晷spe akin舀

舯位i|emy

English in terrm

lour basic skill English in terr惦off'ourbasic

(1istenix马spe出i1:L舀1:e也d岖 ,钾it蚝)

readir喀,孵蚰嵋)

The two classes under observation,are very large in terms of size:5 1 students in teacher A's class and 52 in teacher B’S.The two classes were similar in terms of English proficiency.Classroom observations in the classes of Grade 111 were carried
out from early September in 2008 to late October in 2008 in Shiyan senior school,

Shouguang.All the observations are noted down,which make the original data accessible for later inspection.

3.3 Data collection procedures
Both teachers’questionnaire
to

and

students’questionnaire

are

designed,

theoretically,according
introduced in

the framework ofAlderson&Wail’S Washback Hypotheses,
practically,they

Chapter I,and of Shu

are received

according
to

to

the

questionnaire

Dingfang.What’S
Liu

more,the author

also refers

some

questionnaires developed by
t11eir

Yah(2005),Tang Yaocaj(2002)and

Zhu Shuyan in

MA

dissertations in investigating the washback effect of high stakes testing.All

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

these efforts

are

made

to guarantee the validity of the research

instrument.

A pilot study order to

on a

group of EFL tea6hers and learners is done in September in and reliability of these the

achieve readability is

questionnaires.After that,
10 copies of teachers’

modification
questionnaires

operated

to

questionnaires.The

are

administrated in the sampled senior middle school with the help of
are

my workmates;most of the questionnaires
Thanks to the cooperation from all the

handed

in

as soon

as they

are

finished.

investigated

teachers,1 0 copies of teachers’

questionnaires
are

are

handed out

and

10

copies

of them are

collected,among
are

which all

considered

to be valid.1 1 3

copies

of students’questionnaires

sent to students

of Senior III,all of which are

collected with

the help of their English teachers.

The

raw data

obtained

from the teachers’and students’questionnaires

are

processed and analyzed
Source ofthe

by SPSS 1 2.0(statistics package for social science 1 2.0).

SQ

and the TQ
are

The SQ
1.Alderson

and the TQ

mainly

derived from

the following

sources:

and Wall’S backwash Hypotheses(Alderson&Wall,1 993:1
for students and

20—12 1)

2.Questionnaire
3.

Questionnaire for teachers(Qi,2004a:3 57) and questionnaire
for students

Questionnaire

for the sampled university students

nationwide(Gu,2004:2 1 4)
4.Classroom observation and interview results
Both of the two teachers the lessons field notes teachers
occur are

observed for

three months in the first semester.A11


observed
are

have been recorded with

MP3 and coded

after class.Besides,

taken of the characteristics of the classrooms,the behavior of the
on

and

students,what the teachers write

the blackboard,and the ideas that


during

observation.These

are

presented with

detailed

account

in

the

following chapter. Sources of the observation coding scheme

The observation coding scheme is
1.Alderson and Wall’S backwash

designed based

on

the following

sources:

Hypotheses(Alderson&Wall,1 993:1 20—1 2 1)

2.Classroom observation coding scheme(Gu,2004:232)
3.Observation scheme for Senior III English

lessons(Qi,2004a:327)
27

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Altogether 1 6 lessons in Senior III by two teachers have been observed in order
to make the observation data more representative.

The

face..to。.face

interviews

with

teachers

and

students

are

conducted

individually in pre—or post-classroom observations in the observed schools.Both the teachers and the students agree to be interviewed.The
to

questions asked in

the

interviews are those that the present study intends

anSWer(Appendix III,Interview
as

checklist).In order

to

make the interviews as natural
are

possible

and

to

avoid

misunderstandings,mey
notes

carried out in Chinese

and

not

tape—recorded;instead,

are taken during the interviews.

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Chapter Four

Results and Discussions
study,including the data

This chapter presents the results from the current generated from the questionnaire
are

survey,classroom

observation and individual

interview.Questionnaires

major

instruments for collecting data of the washback
to

impact of achievement tests,with interview and classroom observation serving
complement the survey.

4.1

Questionnaire survey:
1.Characteristics of English classroom teaching and learning in senior middle

school

2.Major factors

affecting the nature of achievement tests washback

4.1.1 Characteristics of English classroom teaching and learning in senior middle school According to
Alderson and

Wall’S Washback Hypotheses(1 993):

A test will influence what teachers teach. A test will influence how teachers teach. A test will influence what learners learn. A test might exert influence teaching
to
on

the

content,methods

and attitudes towards the

and learning

preceding the test.The three aspects will be

discussed

in order


understand characteristics of English classroom teaching and learning in

senior

middle school and the kind of washback the
4.1.1.1 Teaching content It is

achievement test

exerts.

stipulated

in the latest English Curriculum Standards

fo,Senior Middle

Schools(experimental edition)(2003)that“Senior
focus
on

middle school English standards

developing the

students’integrated

language ability,including linguistic

knowledge and

function,linguistic

skills,learning strategies,cultural awareness

and

emotion

attitudes”.This

section will discuss the implementation of this teaching

syllabus in senior middle school English classroom teaching and learning with regard

m东∞Ⅲ大学两±学位论文

tOmaterialsmainlyused,andknowledgeand skillsmainlytbcusecl

on.

Materials mainly

used question

We have d%igncd

2(see

Appendix



of teachers’questionnaire

Analysis basedon qucstion2,showsthat avarietyofmaterialsarcusedintheclasses,
including‘'textbooks",“supplementary tcaching materials"’,and‘'test preparation

materials”.The‘、extbooks'’refortotheofficially recommendedtextbooks.i.e Senior

Englishfor

China The‘'supplcmcntary teaching

materials'’曲to

those materials

extracted from ma∞media,such as me intcrnct,'IV programs.radio broadcasting.

ncwspapors,andmagazines

m‘'test prep∞出∞materials'’refertothosematerials
so 011

usedintest..ofieatedpm甜∞oftcst-taklng strategytraining,such∞pastachievement
test

papers,mock aeingvcmcnt papers and

Amongthethreetypesofmatcrlals,

thefirsttwo a拈tcachingmaterialswhilethelastoneis

not(Gu 2004:103)

Figure 4.1

Coelowl

summarizes the materials used in the qu嚣tionnalre sum/ey

Altogetherll3 Semlorm students have completedthe questionnaire.

Question4.1

Whatmaterials-聆mainlyusedin
Figuycl.i 0 6%

yourclass?

fkIt?n盯Id川maialy似cd

in

7叮d“s

口TⅡtb00ks

■跚plea目atary

tetdaiag,tt盯ids

口TutⅣqⅡ“l恤s asteriI】.s

A question with three

items(Appendix II,Question 2)about

the materials

mainly used in class is includecl in the SQ.The survey reveals that in senior Ill
classes,test prepaxation materials
arc

the mostly used materials in class,which take

up 63A%of the materials used in class.Thc

textbooks

account

fh 36%and only

0.6%ofsupplementaryteachingmaterials arcused
30

m东师范大学硕±学位论文

To confirm the questioanaim survey,interviews with two teachers

ate

included.

Teacher A in the interview had expressed her perception that in order to improve the
test
scores

in the coming test,the students must be

exposed to

as

many

mock
are

AT also

papers船possible Asforthetextbooks.the SeuJorI and SeniorIItextbooks used in Senior Ili classes However,they
ale

mainly used to review the linguistic
at-o

knowledge.The

texts

ofthe Senior llI textbooks

taught without warming up and
are

pre-reading what kind of knowledge is mainly taught mad what kinds of skills
mainlypracticed arctobeflnlherdiscussedinthe next section Knowledge and skills mainly focused
OB

Question

4.2 The most important iⅡ丑neBce of AT

OR

the

English

learning of

senior students

Figure4.2Theinfluelate

ofATOntheEnglishlearning ofsenior students

-Listcrdng 口Speaking

o鼬adlng

口Gr—r&…


Writing

From Figure

4.2(Appendix II,SQ 10),we
on

Call See

that the tentative conclusion

is that due to AT,most students focus

the items ofAT,such as listening,reading,
cail

writing,掣ammar and vocabulary.Grammar and vocabulary
multiple choices,SO the percentage of

be tested in the

stud如ng

is 57%,ranking the first.Then,the

Score of reading
studcnts

comprehension is

20%,which

ofcourse is paid much attention to by
call

Thereforc,the

abilities oflistening,rcading and writing
are

be improved



lot

In this way students

able to build function for further

study However,

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

speaking is not included in the AT,which call’t help them improve their speaking.

Question

4.3 After class,you almost spend your time
Call

on:

In students’questionnaire We


also conclude that AT

cause

students to give up
to learning some

lot of interests in English and have to devote their time

and energy

knowledge related to AT.As is illustrated in time in doing test

SQ

question 1,most students spend their

papers(20%)and

studying grammar and

vocabulary(about

6 1%).

Few students pay attention to spoken inAT.It
can

English(1ess than 4%),because it

is not tested

be

seen

in table 4.1.
on

Table 4.I After class,you almost spend your time

Items Test Paper Gram.&Voe. Reading

Number 24 71 11

Percentage 20% 61% 10% 6% 3%

Listening&Writing
Spoken English

7 4

Question

4.4

When

yon

are

writing,your focus is usuafly

on:

As regard with the writing,the most important thing should be the of the whole passage

organization

and

the variety of the language instead of the correctness of

grammar.However,when students are writing English passages,they put most
emphasis
on

vocabulary(29%)and grammar(25%),ruining

the beauty of English

writing.And other aspects such as,text structure is almost ignored.The situation be
seen

Can

from

SQ

7,in table 4.2 below.

Table 4.2 when you are writing,your focus is usually Items Grammar Vocabulary Number 25 29 Percentage

on

46% 25%

32

山东师m大学硬上学位论文

Content

21 5

0 08% 11%
0 08%

TextStructure Handwriting

20

4.1.1.2Teaching andlearningmethod

Question4.5TheeffectofAT oBteachingme也od When
English the teachers
coiilo

to

the question,“The influence of AT

Oll

teachers’

teaching'’(Appendix I,TQ,4)about
on

60%of them choose“great'’,which

shows AT does have negative effect

English

teaching,just

as

the data from tho

teachers’questiormaire.However,theyanthinktheirteachingmethods arcinflu∞eed
byAT

FS.gure 4.3"the influence of n 伯 印 勘 曲 ∞ ∞ 如 0

on

teachers’Engllsh teaching

■Nothing 口^ltttle
口Great

Qu∞aou
students

4.6 The learning strategy and method you usually

recommend to

your

As regard with the question,almost 50%ofthe teachers agree“How to h;tndle

all kinds of examinations”.However,the teachers

who put
8rc

their emphasis

oB

impmvmg smdems’writing and communication ability

20%and 30%.To the

writer’s surprise because spoken English is not listed in AL me teachers who choose

33

山东师范大学硬±学位论文

this itan is 0%.As for the communication ability,the number of this survey has increo.sed.Although the AT still plays


leading part in English teaching method.The

detailinformationwillbe shownbdow(Figure4 4). Figaro t 4 Elat kind of learning strategy and lethod you usually reconmend to your students

口H¨to deal vlth ezns ■H“toilprove_.ritinE
口Eov to

i-西m

contaficatton in English

Question

4.7

wh丑t

kind

of language

abilities emphasized

by

your English

teacherind8SS

m question(Appendix皿SQ,3)is
gralnmar

designed



multiple-choice one,which is

made up of five items:listening ability,reading ability,spoken ability,phrase and

abil时and

writing

ability.ne

sample

stud№are
English

required in class is results of

listening(70呦,reading(57蜘,writing(46蜘,spoken
this qucstloanairc survey p∞ved that AT plays
4 are

00呦.皿e

correspond with that obsa-ved in dass.It hs fully

positive part in/reproving the students’listening and phrase

andgrammaraswell岱writing
4.1.1j Teachingandlearning

a坩mde

Question4.8The Question
students

criteriathat you ev虹u^teyourshadents

4.9 In the opinion of students,the criteria that teachers evaluate their

The results of Appendix L TQ,5 and Appendix II,SQ,4 show that students’
ixtformancein all kindsoftests ha¥beenthemostimportantand depeadablewayfor

teachers
34

to evaluate

thHr students 50%ofthe teachers admit that thev have mueh

m寐师范太学硕+学位论i

more got

used

to“test_0nented”evaluation in their teaching than any other terms.

such

as

students’character(20%),their homework(10%),classroom performance
same time,48%of the investigated students
on

(20%)and other aspects(0%)At the

agreethattheirteachers evaluatethemmainly depending
tests

students’achievementin

In addition to it,what the English teachers

are

concerned with in their teaching
an

ale

students’achievement in tests

The writer makes

conclusion that the teachers

consider students’AT astheir

coflccrn

Fig∞e t 5 Ihe criteria that you evaluate y。Ⅱstudents

日St删eats d盟rscter
I Students achi吖明em

口3tudents Hole T『ork 口Performance in class

FigtⅡe屯6

In the opinion of students the that teachers

criteria

evaluate their students

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞
∞ charact时*
aehievelent

■students 口students

厂]
r._● -l

口students

homeword


口Derforaance in clas 口others



i一㈣蚓豳


』坠.

m东师范大学硕±学位论文

Question

4.10 The purpose of teaching in your school after the

quail白Ⅶrlented

aducafionhas retumedtonormal

neteachers’quest/orma/re(Appendix‘Quest/on,14)dataindicates&at40%of
theteachers considertheir school prefertheteachingmethodsthat canmake students
gm“good
soorfs

in public

examin“on,35%ofthem
can

admit that their schools

are

in

favor ofteaching methods that

be fit for students’overall

En或sh

development,

while 20%choose t%chmg methods concerned with English Curriculum Standard, 10%mention the
oⅡes

that

are

fit for fostering students’personality,and


no

on@

chooses‘'Know Nothing'’The wtiter has made

condusion that

the methods have
are

also been influ∞ced by the AT.As mainly evaluated bythe
SCOldS



teacher interviewed said.the teachers

still

ofstudents.whichthe admirliatzaturs of

sch00l still

oollconU'atoon.althoughthc chiefdcparOncntofaducationin Shimdongmade alist of policiesinOctober2007 Therefore.1heirteachingmethodshave changedlittle

lqgureI

7伽哪se oft口曲iqin ym口sch0。l aftfftM
“41i+}融∞t酣e如ti∞h!T”Ⅱ堆d to rmd




l『



gtudmts’overall瑰lish押el。坤衄f
5C01'E

Ⅱ钿in good

口枷csp删tlth耻lishQ盯iadtl StUd



Fost口"stunt(1monllty









15





30



40



4.1.2

Major

factors affecting the nature ofAT washback
on

The part above has revealedthattheAThas exerted greatinfluence

Seniorlll

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

English classroom teaching and

learning.What

are

the

major factors也at affect the

Nature ofAT washback,apart from AT? In the

TQ(see

Appendix II,1 6),teachers have reported several

major factors that

affect the quality of ELT in senior middle schools.Those ranked among the first three

are all AT unrelated factors(see Table 4.3,below).

Table 4.3 school

Teachers’reports of the

major

factors affecting ELT in the target

Factors

Percentage

Rank

order

Students’source and levels of English

70%



Teachers’English proficiency and teaching levels

50%





Teachers’privilege

50%



According to the results of questionnaire survey and interview,three factors are identified to have very great impact They
on

the quality of ELT in senior middle schools.
of English,students’motivation,and

are:1)leamer factors,eg.students’level

self-discipline;2)teacher

factors,eg.Responsibility,degree

and title;3)privilege

factors,eg.providing the fee for teachers’further studies,offering school bus for teachers who
are far

away from school

and improving

office condition.

Learner factors Senior middle schools at all levels fall into two categories in term of their human and

financial

resources:key schools and ordinary schools.Key schools
are

enj oy some

privileges.They

given



larger share of the educational budget,better-qualified

teachers,and permission to enroll students before ordinary

schools(Qi,2004a:5).The

37

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

students’average level of English in



key school is much higher than that in
all

all

ordinary one.The target school in this study is

ordinary school。In the observed

classes,one of the teacher’S lessons was interrupted by the students twice.The

teacher had whisper
or

to stop to control the

class because several students were talking in

fell asleep.In the interview,the teacher complained that usually half of her
a score

students

could only get

of less than 70 in the English exam administrated by
not

municipal education department(the total score is 1 50),and some of them did
plan to go to college.It seems"that many students have English in the ordinary sch001. Teacher factors In the classroom observations,both of the teachers responsibility.
no

motivation of studying

observed

have showed hi[gh

According to the teacher questionnaire,1 00%of teachers have received any training for the
use

ofnew textbook in local place.However,over the past three years.
never

98%of the teachers have
or

got

any

opportunity for further studies,either at home

abroad.In

the interview,Teacher A stated that after years’working experience,her
no

English proficiency has

obvious

progress,and

even

her English proficiency has
are

decreased,especially in spoken English.In fact,academic research and teaching

closely interrelated.As is known to US,the former provides the latter theoretical guides

and

the latter supplies the

former practical

basis.The two

can

promote each

other.
Teachers’privilege In the interview,Teacher A condition.On rainy days,in


complained

that her office is in



state

of poor

way,the roof of the apart from

office danger

would be soaked by rain.She and
no

described that
or a

she also felt


depressed

more than

one

office

building is in

state of

this.Teacher B added that the headmaster of the target for many teachers who
are

school

promised

to buy a school bus

far away from sch001.

After a11,in this target school,the teachers must attend the meeting in the evening of

Sundays.However,the school bus has still been
both of teachers
38

out of sight SO

far.Another thing,

interviewed hope

that if they have any opportunity for further studies,

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

the school should provide some fees for teachers,because further studies would cost teacher




sum of money.What the target school did,really disappointed teachers who
or

hope to get further studies

who have already got degree.In



word,the teachers’

professional development is not paid attention by the administrator of the target sch001. Other factors Apart from the factors above,more factors that affect the nature of backwash identified by researchers through theoretical and empirical backwash and
are

studies.Wail

Alderson(1 993)have

identified

factors

such

as

teacher

ability,teacher

understanding of the test and the approach it is based on,classroom c洒nditions,lack of resources,and management practices within the sch001.Other factors that have been identified include the al,1 996);teacher
status of

the subject in the curriculum(Shohamy et
to

style,commitment and willingness

innovate(Alderson&
general social

Hamp—Lyons,1 996);teacher political

background(Watanabe,1 996a);the
of

and

context(Wall,1 996);the amount examination(Shohamy

time that has passed since the
in

introduction of the materials

et al,1 996);the role of publishers

design

and teacher

training(Cheng,1 997);and motivation
factors
call

of teachers

and

students(Kyung-Mi,2001).These
characteristics of

be

classified into two categories:

participants(i.e.administrators,teachers,students,etc.)and
on

contexts.Thus,depending different

participants

or

contexts,the

sarlle

test

may have

consequences.

4.2 Classroom observation
Altogether

sixteen

lessons in

Senior

III by two teachers have been observed,

including revision lessons,new lessons,achievement test paper practice examinations.The time that the teachers spend class iS recorded.
011

and

mock

all kinds of teaching activities in

Table 4.4 The time that the teachers

spend on

all kinds of teaching activities in class

39

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Teaching Types of the lesson Achievement
test

Activities Language Class control

Linguistic knowledge

using

Revision lesson

2.6%

74.9%

3.2%

1.%

New 1esson

41.8% 100%

17.6%
N.o

38.1%
N.o

2.5% N.O

姆materials

Mock examinations
and analysis Results

93.1%

6.8%

N.O

0.1%

Total

57.1%
Note:N.O=not observed

34.6%

7.3%

1%

In table

4.4,linguistic

knowledge refers to what the teachers explain to students

and t11ey practice some exercises
test

according to

the

teachers’explanation.Achievement

means

that students do some mock examination papers and teachers deal with
test skills to

some items or introduce some
refers to the

them.As

to language application,it mainly

communication

between teachers
one

and students

in class while the teacher

is doing with the text.The last teachers do to organize and

is about the class contr01.In class what the class.
test test—taking

control the

From table 4.4 we can find that 0f all activities the achievement
skills take up most time of


class,about

57.1%.The

percentage of the linguistic

knowledge
on

is second to none,which is 34.6%,while little using.Of course,the time that is used
on on

time(about 7.3%)is spent
items is different in

language

different

various classes.In revision c

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