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黑人性的遗失与保存——从黑人文化传统看《最蓝的眼睛》


华中师范大学 硕士学位论文 黑人性的遗失与保存——从黑人文化传统看《最蓝的眼睛》 姓名:王明霞 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:英语语言文学 指导教师:曾庆强 20060401

内容摘要
当代美国黑人文坛群星璀璨,其中最亮的一颗巨星当属托尼?莫里森。作为美 国历史上唯一荣膺诺贝尔文学奖的黑人女性,她的作品深深扎根于美国黑人的历 史,传说和现实之中,具有强烈的时代感,其作品的文学语境涵盖黑人,妇女和美 国,深切地关注黑人的生活境遇及其在双重文化冲突中的命运,探索他们的内心体 验,尤其是黑人妇女的精神世界。与此同时。她的小说具有很强的黑人文学性,渗 透其中的黑人传统比如黑人音乐,黑人语言,神话及仪式等反映了黑人文学作品的 艺术特色。而这些传统文化的表现与作品的主题紧密联系,使作品的思想性和艺术 性达到完美结合。她的处女作《最蓝的眼睛》就是这样一篇经典之作。 作为一名美国当代黑人女性作家,莫里森致力于保存和弘扬黑人文化。 莫里森曾说过,黑人民族要生存下去,除了拥有政治权利和经济独立以外,必 须保留住黑人文化。由此可见在解读莫里森作品时,对黑人文化因素的探寻具有至 关重要的作用。纵观所有对《最蓝的眼睛》的解析,黑人传统文化仅仅是在探讨小 说的写作特色时才被少许提及,鲜有将其上升到主题的高度进行分析的。为了弥补 这一空白,本文即以黑人文化传统为主线,将黑人传统文化与小说中人物的命运、 遭遇及其表现连接起来,旨在突出传统文化对黑人自我身份或黑人性的保存与缺失 所具有的决定性的作用。小说通过两种人物对传统文化的态度及其相应的表现具体 阐释了如下的思想意义,即那些盲目追求白人文化、割断自我与家庭,社区以及传 统文化联系的黑人将无法抵御种族主义观念的侵蚀,最终会在白人文化占统治地位 的社会中丧失自我的黑人性: 反之, 那些坚定地继承了黑人文化传统的自我及家

庭,则会在保存黑人性的同时,能够抵御外来白人文化的负面影响,从而在一个贬 低黑肤色的文化中寻找到生存价值和生存空间。 本论文由四部分组成。第一部分简单概述托尼?莫里森作为黑人女作家的创作 艺术来源及写作立场,同时简要叙述了《最蓝的眼睛》的内容纲要。第二部分以黑

人音乐——布鲁斯,黑人社区责任感等在具体人物如麦克蒂尔太太,克劳迪娅,妓
女波兰及其姐妹,还有黑人社区的黑人妇女身上的体现,分析了她们如何通过继承 黑人传统而保存了独立的自主性,完整地保留了自身的黑人性;第三部分以对黑人 音乐,黑人祖先和黑人社区的抛弃为线索,探讨了另一类黑人个体如波琳、乔利, 黑人中产阶级妇女杰拉尔丁等因抛弃黑人文化传统而最终完全丧失自身黑人身份, 迷失在白人社会之中。第四部分结论一方面进一步深化了作家莫里森在本小说中的



硕士学位论文
MASTER’S THESIS

写作意图一就像惠特曼当年号召美国人民“赞美自己,歌唱自己”一样,莫里森
通过其作品引导黑人,尤其是黑人妇女儿童唱“自己之歌”,强调黑人只有坚持本 民族的文化传统,才能保持自我的黑人性;另一方面指出黑人民族传统文化与黑人 性的更深层次的探讨,还有待于今后的进一步探索和研究。

关键词:托尼?莫里森;黑人性;黑人文化传统



硕士学住论文
MASTER’S THESIS

ABSTRACT

Toni Morrison,one of the most shining stars in the black

Americ锄literary

circle,is deeply

tlle Only bIack female winner of the Nobel Prize for literature.Her works footed in the bIack history,black lOre and the reality 0f the blacks.As writer,her works
are a

are

black female

contextualjzed wim tllree

te肌s—black

female and American.

Through

hcf writin岛she shows掣eat concem about the lives,experiences and the

spiritual wodd of the blacl(s,espedally that of the black women.Meanwhile,her works is

pe姗eated

wim rich black culturaltraditions,such

as

the black music__blues,thc
as

sense

of the black community,the ancestorS,alld the black language

wen

as

the myths and
of lhe themes

muals.Tbni MoHison’s 1iterary exceUence lies in her cfcative combination
0f the works and ttle

anjst珥Her

concems about the l主fe alld experience of the black

pcople,her social consciousness and her spedal craftsmaIIship havc shaped her writing into tIle typical bIack literatufe. According to~幻rrison,the survival of the black emnic謦Oup oIlly
can

not be guaranteed

througlI

its possession of political

rigllts

and economic independence,but aIso pojnt pIovjdes
on us

thmugll the
、Ⅳith


retaining of tlleifblack traditional for either allalyzing
or

culture.nus ttlis

readerS

st柚dpoint

comprehendiⅡg hef noveIs.Based

this point,

this thcsis,f如m the perspective Of Ihe black cultural t船ditjon,tries to probe into the relationship of the black culture alld the black people’s

self_identity.nmugII



detailed

趾alysis

of

the咖contrasting gmups of charactefs and
as帆ll
as

thejr coⅡesponding behaviors in

the white culture dominated society

their ensuing fate弛d consequence,the

th骼is is meant

to show that

those who have adhered to thejr cultural tradjtion could

prescⅣe their subjectiVity aIId wholeness,so fhey could live throu曲tlle su£I'erings in che
white society by resisting the evil innuences of the wh“e cultufc;however,those who have consciously
of

unconsciously曲柚doned their cunural heritage aIld

cut of!f the ties

with the black family and community will be doomed tO get lost in the white society and caged in the pain of seeking themselves. Thjs thesis is composed of four pans.The firSt part presents Tbni Mofrison
as
a a

brief introduction to

black fcmale wrjter and the synopsis of her first

book劢e丑me盯EyP.

Pan Two and Paft 1nhree,on the basjs of the specific aspects of the black traditjon,j.e.the

blues,the probe into

sense

of the black community'the ancestor and the taste for an and

so on,



series of major characters in the noVel by analyzing their disparate behaViors

a11d representatiOns rcsulted f如m their attitude tOward the traditional culture for the purpose of fornling


Sharp contrast betwecn tllem.The condusion fIlndions
out 1’oni

on

the

one

h柚d

as

an

emphasis iⅡdig百ng

Morrison’s intention jn c01mecting the black

cultural tradition wit量l the loss

or

preservation of blackness,on the other hand,it also

poillts out the author’s limitations in comprehending and analyzing the novel,leaving much to be studied funher in the fIlturc.

Key wOrds:1bni Morrison;blackness;me black cultufal tradition



硕士学住论文
MASTER’S THESIS

华中师范大学学位论文原创性声明和使用授权说明
原创性声明
本人郑重声明:所呈交的学位论文,是本人在导师指导下,独立进行研究工作 所取得的研究成果。除文中已经标明引用的内容外,本论文不包含任何其他个人或 集体已经发表或撰写过的研究成果。对本文的研究做出贡献的个人和集体,均已在 文中以明确方式标明。本声明的法律结果由本人承担。

作者签名:

彩彬豸

日期:州年』,月名日

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作者签名

a娟召

日期:p。C年F月H日

摊劫

荔 彩嵋

本人已经认真阅读“cALIs高校学位论文全文数据库发布章程”,同意将本人的 学位论文提交“CALIS高校学位论文全文数据库”中全文发布,并可按“章程”中的

规定享受相关权益。圃枣诠塞埕窑蜃溢卮!旦圭生;旦二生;旦三生筮查!

作者签名:沙哺根
日期:P5年j月坫日

导师签名

舀镪 日期咖(年厂月,6日

ACKNoWLEDGEMENTS
For ttle completiOn of my thesis,I’m indebted tO many peopIe’s help and support.

First蛆d fotemos匕my hearIf邑It th缸ks go

to my supefvisoI,PIofessor z£ng

Qingqian昏

without his

inuminating instnlction,valuable suggestions aⅡd
as

wa册encouragement,the

thesis could not have been

it is.

1 would alsO express my genuine thanks to al王the teachefs and profcssorS in the

En西ish

haVe not only increased my entbusiasm Department.’nleir enIightening lectures

蛐d appredatjon forthe En91ish languagc,but also increased my academic abjlities in
researches. Last butⅡot least,equal tllanl【S should of


be百ven

to my roommates fbr the王r creation I

mom atmosphere both comfortable for living越d suit曲le for leafnmg;at 1aSt

should express my special lhanks to my friend Li Xia 0_bing who has spent his preciOus time gathering materials for me f如m

Bejjjng while

he is slriVing f缸llis Ph.D.

1.Introduction

rIbni Morrison was bom Chloe Anthonv Wbfford in 1931 in Lorain,Ohio,a small

Midwestem steel—mill town,which she often used

as

me selling of her earlief noVels


(such醛the

setting

for砀e曰缸船f毋已)because

iII Mo仃ison’s View'“Ohio is

curious

iuxtaposition of what was ideal in this

country and what was base.n was also



Mecca

fof black people;they came tO the miUs and plants because ohio offered the possibility of


good life,the possibility of仃eedom,eVen
aIl

thou曲mere

were some terrible obstacles.
nor

0hio also o丘色rs

escape nDm stereotyped black settings.n is neither planlation such


曲etto.’’fraylor-Guthrie,1994:158)I董I
time

place,she

Spem“about 60 perccnt ofher

hiding’’(Ibid.)'quietly

observing all Hnds of people—whites and blackS around her of self by the cohesiVeness of her communit y.Fmm her

and stren百hening hef

sense

parentS,George and Rallmah

Willis

Wb勘rd,south锄mig啪ts

who left ffom the deep

south jn se缸ch of improved social,poljtjcal,educational,aIld economic opponunitjes for

ttIeir伽nily,Morrison
jmponancc of
on


le栅ed

many eVeflasting lessons,first among which is the

black’s pefsonal identity and Value擎一a lessOn that MoIrison has passed

to the characters血her noveL
On

Her目andmot圭ler,Afdelia Willis,pmduced笋eatest

impact

Mo玎ison during her childllood,acquainting hcr wim the Black lore that now her fiction,playing thc mle

pe加eatcs

of“timeless卸cestor,’(EV柚s,1984:343)as
an

ttle

foundatiOn“her creative writin昏This family backg∞und,wim
historjcal a】1d sOcial coⅡscjousness,mysticism,craftsmanship'and
to fhshion Tbni


ambieIIce of

IoVe of work helped

MO仃json into

an

excellent anist.

As



black writer'ttIe ultimate aim for MoⅡison is to write t11e life and experience of Shourell puts it,“Morrison deVotes herseIf to preserve and

the bIacks.As Wang

promulgate the black culture through fcpresenting and exploring the history’the fate and spirit of me criticS
as

blacks…”(W抽g shouren,2002:303)HoweVeL
a a

while attacked by some

a虹nd of ethnic naⅡDwness,she respoⅡds in

conVerSation with Claudia 1’ate, wodd of black peop】e.It’s

“When

1 vjew the world,perceiVe it,and write about it,it,S

not that 1 won’t write about white people.I

just

know that when I’m trying to develop the
are

Varjous themes 1 write about,me people who best manifcstthose Ihemes for me

the

black people whom l

jnvent”(,rate,1994:157).But

more imponaIIt for

us

readers to

understand her works is her丘eauent acc】aim to be



black female writeL


Wjth

the eyes of



black woman,Morrison perceived

void jn the

canon

where



black fbmale voice should be,although the 1960s,since described renaissaIlce,brought
an

as

the second

explosion of lalented black writers to the attcntion of也e

American readjng public.Then she used a“different voice”to descfibe the“genderized, sexualized and wholly black women.A voice—.heard

racialized”(Middleton,1997:4)world

from the perspectjVes of

cllIDnolo百cal

reading of Mo盯ison’s works will show mat her own and
as

in功8 口加甜f上≯e

舰肠,where

she

fbcuses

on

the

black

female—唱athers strcngttl in Iatef work diffbrent aspects of love,and the

she considers me issues of female丘iendship, afforded by conlmunit y.The Voice is aVOwedly

succors

black卸d f色maIe。In
beiIlg described
as


an

intc“iew with也e BBC in 1988,she cXplains hcr insistence upOn
sense

black female writeL She recalls her

that writers like Richard was


Wright,Ralph Ellison and

J姗es Baldwin,whose published

success

guarantee that

thc black voice was heard,werc not speakjng to heL Nor could they speak for.She listened in vain to hear in meir worU‘tllat imerior life of the

femalc,’(Kuenz,1993:423).

Although rcjoidng

that black wTiters were being paid serious attcntion,Morrison was masculjnizatjon 0f the caIlon,wittl its implicit

questioning the perpetuatiOn of ttle

assumption

that men,black

or

white,spoke for both genders.Black women,she says,are

mterested in each otIler,柚d s0“write from卸other “other place”is
one

place”(Kubitschek,1998:23).nat
black male Voice,shc fclt,

where llIeir physjcal and spjrjtual beauty was denied,and thejr

sexual髋ploitation and economic displacement

su疵red.ne
rcjects

could aniculate the cxpcTjence ofblackness'but not fcmaleness.Howevef,despite her acclaim
as a

black fcmale writcf'Morrison still fIatly



black feminist model of

crjticism

or

eValuation.But still,on the other hand,she is proud of her identity'one wjth

di丘brent experiences in dif!Ebrent ways ffom ttIat of male writers'as she says:“I am valuable
as a

writer because I am



woman;because women,it seems to me,have some she still decisively
are

speciaI l【IIowIedge about cenain

ltIings”(Mackay'1998:54).And

assens that she writes forblack women:“1 wriIe for black

women.Wb

nol addressing

the men

as

some white female w血es

do.We

are

not attackjng each other’as both black
are

and white men

do”(McKay,1998:46).Ljke

othcr black women wrjters,Morrison

trying to rc?possess,re-name,and re-own someming belonging to black 1997:561.

name(Peterson,



As



consequence,aS a black female writer,Tbni
on

Morrison

roots her works deeply in

the black culCure

me

one

hand,and focuses

on

her black womanhood through
on

rcvealing the black women’s su饪erings,pains and her writjng,MOrrison Offers scmtinizes the innuence


strIlg出es

the other hand.Through

penetrating look at the 1ives of Afrjcan Americalls and the mainstream culture, especially
on

of

the

lives

of

A丘ic蛐一Americall women(Mori,1999:29).

缸it

is,in her very 6rst

novel乃8鼬l酣f印已,Toni
p∞ple
against me

Mo玎ison writes about

historically prejudiccd and diScriⅡlinated black

backdr叩of

1930s and
on:no

1940s,a time when MOrrison believes that black women“had nOthing to faU back maleness,no whiteness,no ladyhood,not reprcsents ttle voice of black women who maIe dominated sodety,aIId prcsents


anything”(Mc勋y’1998:398).so
positioned at me lowest sIatus in


she

are

white

more complicated ponrayal of their psychjc

ordeal TeSulting from the whjte cIlltIImI dominaIIcc. The novel establishes bo血tlIematjc and tcchnical elements that her later wOfks.It realistically explores


relmin

imponant in

black community in



panicIllar time and

plaoe一_I Drain,Ohio,in the 1940S,锄d shows the cvents that resun from wider social

州ities
bl锄d

of radsm and poVeny.1'o explore mese
an

subjects,the

noVel

uses



complex

of narration丘Om

0mniscient

n婀ator

mne who】【Ilows all the ch甜acters’

thougllts柚d histories)柚d a他tmspectiVe
remembering hef proceed in the

firSt—person

narrator(in

this

case,an

adult
not

childhood).Akin

to

Morrison’s othcr works,the narratjon does

straiglltfonⅣard

chfonological order ofthe events told,but illStead moves in山e black

back姐d fbrtll in

time.砌e曰f“耐毋g shows the da砌ging emcts of racjsm
on

communjty at largp and

black families.As the black community alld individual black cultIlre’s racist pictures of themselves,they focus their

pe叩le

absorb
on

the

wllite

self-hatred

the most Vulne碍ble character,twelVe—year.Old Pecola Breedlove.Pecola’s the culmination 0f mally

tragedy,then,is

otherIragedies.However,功已占胁船f毋e

also

contains stories 0f Before any we first acquaint novel.

perseve瑚ce趾d
fo加al
us

sun,ival.

exploration to tlIe text jn the

li班of the black cllltural tradjtion,


with some back伊ound{nformation and

brief synopsjs about the

。After Wbdd Whr

I,manyⅡew opponunitjes were giVen to the growjng and

expanding grollps of A行ican Ameficans living in lhe

nonh.~most

50,000 AfricafI



Americans moved to the northem states between 19lO and 1920.This waS the beginning of


cOntinuiⅡg migration nonhward.More than 150,000 blacks went nonh in the 1930’s

aIld 250,ooO in lhe 1940’s.Ljfc in the nonh was very hard for African Amcricans.Race riots,1imited housing resulting in slum housing,and restricted Only


job

opponunities were

few of the many hardships tha¨he AfricaIl American people had

to∞nfront

at this

time.Families ofIen had to separate,sOcial agencies were overcmwded witlI people that an needed help,crime rates increased aIld many other resulting problems

ensued.劢e

肋耐正弦by Toni Morrison takes place during tllis time period.
砌e口m嚣f毋e
wants nothing mOre that the darker and
rcaSon

depicts the tragic lifc of



young black gm,Pecola BreedloVe,who

th锄to

be loVed by her family and hcr sch00lIllates.She

su珊ises
is


she is despised and ridiculed is Ihat she is otherblack

black(actually,her skin
reason

lot

m趾most of

pe叩le,which

is the main

that she gcts

ridiculed),


thercfore,ugIy_consequently'Pecola

sublimates her desife to be loVed into

desire

to have blue eycs aIm blond haiT,in omcr words,to basicaUy lOok l像e Shirley Temple,

whO Pecola thiIlks is adored by a11.Pecola,soon after

ente咖g

yOung womanhood,is

faped柚d imprc弘ated by her father,Cholly’孤d lifc柚d meaIling
as a

her mother,Pauljne,find haven,hope,

scrvantto ttIe white,bIond,blue—eyed,dean,rich famjly lo which
an

she dedicates her loVe锄d hcf fespect for

ordedy lifc

that

pOVeny

does not

a肋rd(McKay'1998:396).unable
Pecola goes quietIy

to endure the


b邝tality toward hef疔ail self-image,

ins姐e锄d

withdraws into

fantasy、Ⅳodd in which she is the most

bel0Ved litne girl because she ends up having the bluest eye of

a11(Thte,1994:156).

nus,on
mat au these

the surfacc,the novelis



tragedy of



little black girl

Pe耐a
on

and her the fact

family’the B佗edloVes;however'a probe into me text will throw mofe light

tragic

consequences

arc

deriVed fmm raciaI

dis“mination


and cultural
or

impact.In this nOvel,the racial discrimination may ta薹【e place in wray;but
as

subtle

non—subtle

forthe whjte cIlltural impact
us

on

the blacks and the black community’it is


quite obVious to perceive for have to explore the roOt

readers.So for

bener understandjng 0f the novel,we

causes

for me Vulllerability of the psychology of the blacks in the

face Of the coⅡnicts bet、】l,een the wllite and black cultures. Besides,the book’s panicular slant comes from the jmnical iuxtapositjon of the white mythology of the Dick.Jane pIimer and me lives of A矗ican Americans
as

pan of



lafger interplay of differences.The apparent cultumI孤d mofal cenainty that informs the



traditi咖a1 white成触lH鼬r0珊口n

is

c帅trasted

with the inner djslOcation and search for

cohe陀nce jn the lives of Pecola and her parents.11le novelitself is orgaIlized into fouf sequenccs,each associated wjttl season.T1lere
are seven a

se船on and beg协ning with Claudia’s memories of that

subsections,introduced by 1ines taken f如m the primer extract in
an

the pmface,relatcd from me perspective of

omniscjent narfator.The lines,reprinted
so as

winl托moved punctuation alld spaces,are Ostensibly uniIltelligible dislocation

to

emph船ize the

be懈ecn

the white Dick_Jane mymolOgy and the
an

no册s

of black exp盯ience.


The retfospecIive naturc 0f aaudia’s na玎ative is

important deVice in deconstmcting
an

bourgeois bIack cultm℃in the noVel.AⅡd we come to realize that the narrator is

0lder

Claudia,living in the North,and she js tracing the stages that haVe led to her present maturity of

outlook.nerefore,on

one

leVel,the narratiVe takes

us

backwards矗om the
us

p螂ent

in the N0nh int0 the past锄d the South,on another leVel,ta|【ing

forward in the

events of Pccola’s

tragedy.(Peach,2000:34).
at most of the critiques of this noVel,I have found that the focus is
as

嗽ing a出柚ce
no

more than such topics

the

d嘲aging

e珏ects caused by the white ideology,Ihe

exploration of thc black souls underthe impact ofthe white culture,the victimization of the bl∞ks,姐d
so

on.1II somc degree,these cfitjqucS put much more emphasis

on

the

extemal re觞。嬲which lead tllc blacks

tO tbeir tragic fate than on the inncr cxplomtions

aboutthe blacks t|Iemselves.W色know that the blacks,since the slavery’have been

心gardcd弱ma删nal
treated in


people by the white

mainstre珊society.Thus

they

arc

usually

way

Of“otheme对’instead
once

of being Tegarded醛individuals with alIy made her writing purpose Vefy much cIear to

subjectiVit y-As
the rcade稻in

for Mo盯ison,she has

an

inten,iew.She says that she does not want to cxplajn anything“to yOu”,

but something“for

us.”(Taylor-Guthrie,1994:238)From
an

this point of view’we,as

readc墙or critics,should makc

exhaustive exploration ofthe blacks and their inside
reasons save

community in order to矗nd out the

fof their tragic suffcrjngs fmm the white fhemselves.As she has stated in her novel,


sOciety.The blacks must knOw hOw to

she鹊kS her black compatriOIs
some de伊ee they
are

to explofc how to survive in

malicious society where in tlle cjrcumstance that while

all

vjctims(Awkward,1991:20)under
be adVanced
as

“why”is difficult to blacks themselves.

h柚dle,“how”should

t量le primary concem forthe

Therefore,for all those expIor王ng the extemal factorS,such

as

how the blacks

are




to disCinguish

硕士学位论文
MASTER’S THESIS

vjctimized in the white sodety,how fhe white culturalimpacts gct to innuence the black family aIld cOmmunity,aIId
so on,are

not at all

sumcient for tlle black people t量lemselVes

anytlliⅡg.All they have
living
on

to do is to djg outthe root causes fof theif being

fegarded

as

ma晒nal,for

the edge of the white sodety'and for why they,as the
one

equal sodal individuals,should be engulfed in the floOd of ttle white ideology.In word,the black peopIe have got to矗nd out the
reasons

aIld try to constrIlcl the打Own

subjectivity

and wholeness in ordeT to sun,ive.

11Iis thesis,in the those

li班of me

bIack people’s own cultural仃adition,tIies to pfompt keep
on

who锄brace their own culture to

thejr belief for me purpose of rctaining


theiT black idcntity,or tlleirblackness锄d getting survived in the white sociely tO live better life;on tlle other halld,it alsO inteⅡds to pojnt out white culture and getting totalIy assimilated by the


way for those immefsed in the and losing their

mainstre砌culture

black indiViduality.On the pan of the black people,they should not always think of being vjctimjzed how ttIey
or

cultumlly colonized by the whites,jnstead,they should think more abOut

can

pre∞rve their wholeness botIl

as



black and

an

Amcfican.





硕士学住论丈
MASTER’S THESIS

2.Preservation of Blackness

Toni Morrison always p『oudly pTesentshersdf

as



branch

on

the ancient tree ofblack

assertiVeness and self_definifion that is fichly and deeply rI)oted iII the fblk culture.BIack

lore,black music,black lallgIlage,and all the mytIls and rituals ofblack culture

are

the

most prominent elements in her works.In her writm吕she s埘vcs to capturc the richness of black culture

th唧l班its

specificity.In moIe血an

twenty years she has been



wTiter,

Mofrison has sougllt

to delineate the defining qualities of writing by
as

Afr主c柚Americans


and cenailI distinctive characterjstics that she has identified

authenficating

piece of


black literat驻re which she employs in her works:“a participatory quality betwcen

book

and rcader;an aural quality in the writing;an open—endedness in the finale that is

agitatillg;and

acceptance of and keen ability to detecl dif!l-crences of


versus



th兀Ist toward

h咖ogenjza“0n;acknowledgement
to bear witIless;service as


broader cosmology alld system of lOgic in touch
as

with mytlI,mystery and the body;a functional

well

as

aesthetic qualjty;an 0bligation
are

conduit for the‘ancestor’;uses of humor mat

frequcntly
an

i州c;an achieVed clarity
to take tlle‘tribe’Via

of

epiph锄y

and thus




tendency to be pIophetic;and

abiljty

artⅡurou曲the

pain of

historical

exp硎ence

t}lat has been haunted

by mcc to



heaIillg

zone”Craylo卜Gutllric,1994:128).

As it is,Morrison inVests her first
to make it


noVel功P曰缸部f点独with

such definiⅡg qualities

book sbe wants to read.Besides the fragmenta巧foIk cultufal fcatures

scattering in the whole text,she also anaches great importaIIce to cultural trad“ions
as


them—taking

the

kind of touchstone to test the charadeTs'black identity.F0r those
or

、Ⅳho persisten£Iy adhere to the ethnjc culture,they will preseⅣe meir own self-identity “blackness”;for those who
arc

totally assimilatcd into me white culture,they will be
as a

doomed to lose£heir black indiViduality,and the white culture dominated society As

result,they

are

doomed

to

get lost in

for而e引k船f毋g,jt
Prqudice

is not only



story of the destnlctive effects of inter.and


intra。racial

upon impressionable black women in the Midwest;it is also

story

ofAfro—Amcrican folk culIure in the process.T1le black culturc is pfesenIed

in砌P Bm部f


毋已in

fragments.The blacks who
can

can

collect it and constructit into

si趴ificallt

naⅡatjOn

live through in Amerjca.



Besides,Morrison also extends her
Cholly Breedlove and

pen tow盯ds some minor ma】e characters such as

so印head church.Thmu曲subtle


and not?so—subtle ways,Toni

MOrrison suggests mat the folk culture plays
preServat至on
or

vital fole in the characters for their fonunes and misfonunes of

loss of the扛“blackness”.It
on one

runs

throu曲the

the dharacters aIld

level

serves

to baptize them into kinship with each other'on


another level,it makes those who emse the folk culture go nowhere iIl

white sodety.
sense

The representations of the cuIture in this novel fange from the blues to ttle

of black

community’to tlle taste for an and me black ancestoL Still器for Lorain,ohio,the setting of也e nOvel,it sharcs with historical Mack

folk∞mmunmes pattems

of survival and
arI

∞ping

traditjons mat comfon in times ofloss and beliefS that point to

enduring

aeativ吩(Harfis'1988:68)

2.1 Clinging to the blues
1bni Mo“ison,in
or aIl

i珏tcrvicw with Nellie Mackay'stales也at she is“not like Joyce

H缸dy

or

Faulkner,but my ef如n is to be like something that has probably only been

flIlly expressed in

music”(McKay,1983:139).The

music mentioned herc refcfs to the

bIack American music ill particular,which falls in幻three categories in fIlnction:music of work,music of

tems

0f its

worship

aIld music of

play.No

matter what changes

haVe taken placc through the centuries,it“retains itsAfro-American

identity.”(Ibid.)

ne

bIack sp试tuals,tlle olderhymns,modem gospel songs,chaIlted prayers and

semlons belong to the music worship.The music is litcrally moVing;it adivatcs the Holy Spi订t,which sends some people into shouts of ecstas y,swooms,shakes,hOly daIlces,and trance.In this setting,music is Very e伍ects.A work song,as its on.The song

poweml


activity,and the church is prepared for its song that wOrkers sing to help them carry

n锄e

implies,is

helps by

taking their minds of:f the monotonous and ti“ng bending,pu¨in昌

cuttjng,and breaking锄d lifting….In tlle process of slave trade,tIle black people sing songs of Various

kinds(esp.the

blues and

jazz)to

expfess their desire for仃eedom,to

expeltheir weariness,to na仃.1te their suf:f!erings and to comfon meir fellows. As forthe blues

in砌e口m田r毋B,we


can

understand iIjn the

following

two
can

aspects.First,a quotatjon from sllrely shed some

paper by Cat Moses in African American Review

li曲t on

its positjon in me whole text.



It

says,“her(Morrison)narrative

effort is to be like sometlling that has probably Bf“?巴sf

onIy been fLllly expressed perhaps in

music....”(Moses,1999:143)髓P

Ey已is

the

genesis ofhef eff‘)n“to do what tl】c music did forblacks,what we used to be able to do with each otbef in private and in that ciVilization mat existed undemeath the white

dvitiz采ion”(ka豳
rhctofical underpinnings

1994:126).11le

catharsis

and

the lrallsm至ssion

of

cultufal

knowledgc and values that have always been central to the blues forrIl the thematic and

of豫e BZH甜f毋e.And

it contains

an

abundance of cIlltural


wisd哪.The
1930s and also

blues lyrics mat punctuatc the narrative at c—tical points suggest
are

system

of folk kIlOwledge and values that

crIlcialto



young black woman’s sun,ival in the

1940s柚d
the

which supports Claudia’s cathanic fole勰storytell er.111e lyrics folk blowledge and values mat
as a

illustrate

缸e

not

tr柚smined

to

Pecola—-inf0玎natiOn witlIout which she cannot suwjVe

whole and heanhy human

being’(Moses,1999:106). wb
know tllat in traditional blues song,the singer is the story.IIl刀le

subject,the“I”who

tells

hef(or his)own
for


Bm卵f毋已,howeVer’claudia
the noVel has£Dcused tlIe problema£ics of


tells Pecola’s st眦y.Except

fcw丘agmented lirIes of diaIogue,Pecola remains silent within Claudia’s narrative.
on on on

“Much 0f me critical discourse
vojce 柚d empdwe皿1ent, and p】.olago碰st while

the relationsllip

beMeen

narrativc that

silences its

djspossessed
Power

scekj丑g幻锄pawcf

tbe djspossesScd and lo

cdliqne

rclations”(Moses,1999:143).So subject,its

from the pe。spective of narrativc technjque, bluest“I”and repfesentative blues figure,and
are

Claudia is the nanative’s blues Pecola as“the
assen

abject

tablet

on

wllich the community’s blues Pecola’s

inscribed.”(1bid.)So



mat,ratller

Ih锄sin酉ng

bIues,Claudia“sings”me whole black

community’s blues. Anotllcr poiIlt iII this noVel deserves
our

readers’equal attention.Wb notice that Mrs.
aIe

MacjIber,Claudia,s mother’and Poland,one 0f the three whores
F珀gment缸y pieces
as us

always singing songs. in meaning if

their songs are,they appear tO be

so∞herent

ex锄ined

deeply by

readers.we discem



kind of fcmale blues

subjectivity in觋已
traditions and in the whores’

口m甜f印e,a subjectiVity constrtlcted through African American oml embodjed in CIaudia’s namtive voice,Mrs.MacT毫er’s songs wen as
as

speech,song,and 1aughteL 11his

subjectivity

is

just

one

of those defining qualities which

fbIm meir blackness.



舡we

have illustrated in the above

para野叩hs,豫e剧H甜t印e
whole∞mmullity

is Pecola’s blues

stofV and at the same time,a blue story of the

narrated by Claudia.

Claudia.稿the intimate and omniscient na盯ator who is sometimes in black community

aIId∞metimes outside

to keep



distance from n,the altemative perspectiVe empowerS

hef in unveiling the prcsent situatioⅡof the blacks,“who surviVe aIld why”(Birch, 1994:341.The survivors of the lower class in this novel,Mrs.Macrreer and the three whorcs
as

tlle older generatiOn,aⅡd Claudia

as

the younger generation,are characterized
or

by humming blues songs when they meet tmubles pains and

take it

as柚outlet

to

relieVe their

loneliness.sin西ng,in

the

literal

sense,signjficantly

enables Morrison’s

charactefS to express their emotions and link them to tlIe commullity,the reservoir of collective l【IIowledge and the 2.1.1
source

of

cafing.(Bloom,1990:95)

Mrs.MacTee卜_a
one

cuIturalbearer

Singing blues is

of tlle black women’s traditions which manifest black women’s


c啪tivity.And

black women c柚not live without singing blues.n is

way for“silenced”
as

black women to express their

feelin擎aIld锄otions.(Came柚,1993:15)IIl A衔ca
cassaVa

in

America,when women spend all their time in fields tendiIlg lheir crops,singjng release their tiredness,‘‘They sing to the earth aⅡd IO the sky and to their groundnuts,songs of love and

caJl

and

farewell.”(Fu珊an,1996:42)A衔can Ameri咖cIlllural
tha¨he
bIues fuse tlIe hean and soul of African

cfiti话柚d theorists widely agrce
American Icul“lre.

M塔.Maclreer’s sin舀ng the blucs

has thrown much

li曲t

on

our

understanding of

her bI婶kncSs,which is de盯ly manifested in her expressi04 of hcr own lOst yOuth如l

feelin签’herlo、,e forher family锄d for the black community髂well. W1len MrS.Macl’eer sings about“hard limes,bad times,and somebody?done一

锄d-left-me-times”(Morrjson,1970:24),the
one

blues song she is

singiIlg

is actually

of tlle tradi“onal blues son萨“ST.Louis blues”by W:C.H卸dy,which touches the black coⅡsciousness.Mrs.MacTeer’s humming of

deep鲫ll柚d
first
verse

the舶gments

ofthe S T.

L0uis BIues rccoums her yearning forthe long lostlove.}Ier song is part of of this traditional Blues.Her controVersiaI

a舀oomy

sin百ng

moods and the somber

words Of this blues song transfcr its nature that there is always the loss in 1ifc,but at the same time,there is always the sweet tune accompanyjng tIlem,aTld the communal intefaction ofⅡle words and tune makes the miserable black survive and mOve on.and ljfe becomes endurable by mal【ing the pain sweet.

10


Mo玎json


硕士学侄论文
MASTER’S THESIS

once

said that the Affican American women

are

culIuraI bcarers,searching

fof identity and culturaI

roots.(Mbalia,1991:11)As



cultIlml bearer'Mrs.MacTeer

sjngs tlle blues to exprcss her loVe for the family aIld tlle communjty,and tmnsmjt the black cultuIal knOwledge to heI daughteIs singing mOOd,“wasn’t
so

as

wen.As Claudia said,“Ⅱmy mother was in
On

bad”,“But without song,Satufdays sat

my head like



coal scuttle…”(Morrison,1970:24).

With

che blues

as

one

of the key manifestations 0f herblackness,Mrs.MacTber'


quitc in contfast to Pecola’s momer,Pauline BrecdloVe,manages her childrcn.Poor
as

wholesome lifc for

tIley are,they do not lose confidence and enthusiasm for 1ife.MrS.
t0 keep their

Mac,recr孤d her husballd work hard

lifc柚d pmted the childrcn from

d锄a幽g
aesthetic

effects of the whitc Tacism and the white

ideolo舀es,especiauy’the

white of

noIIIls.Furthe册orc,

Mrs.

Mac,rceL
no

ttlough under the

circumstalIces

stnl鹊ling wh蛐her

fof the family’s suⅣiVal,stjll sparcs

energy to educate her

daugllterS.She

taught them not to“play nasly”,and not to“go to the eldcr

whorcs”(Mo玎ison,1970:27).

daugllter
so

Frjeda was scxualIy moIested by hefboarder ML Henry,she

锄d herhusb锄d 90t

furious and l【icked

the蚰sty

glIy out of meir
even

house.舡a

mother' fof

unavoidably sho complailIs about,sometimes cufses柚d

beats her

dauglltcrs

their misdeeds.As she always does,she Ofkn fIlsses to hl≥rself aloud柚d makes her chiIdren humiliated,but she is not anFy with lhe childfen,her angcf is pointed to tlle children’s illness and life pressure.Unlil【e Pauline,Mrs.Maclreer steadily loves and protects her childrcn柚d makes them fcel her lOve. Consequently’as tlle ljttle Claudia was gradually growing up,the love lcIIowledge trallsmitted
as

a加cultural

thmugll

her mother’s songs are rcvealed to her little by 1ittle.Just

tlle older Claudia recalls her childhood,she asks herself'

4Bm wns n

re口lly


l{ke thnt?As

p口t哪试4s



remember?o拜ly mild强or

rathe‘n wⅡs

pmd“d却e口nd pHct啦tng p口i玮.Love’thick n’ld dn墙位s
thm cr口c娩d windoW.I co“ld smeu i}—缸s把

Alag口Syrup'ensed叼谊to

矗L咕we鸥mHJ锄w矗^n以已如e D,w加把rg陀e玎汛f如6口靶—n,P叫¨啦e陀胁
幽at honse.It s“lc;【'nlong With 7ny tongHe,to 爿nd

the{沁sted Wi耗d。wpnnes…

H旃eH,历胁七D,口“m卅珥,珐跏七D,sD坍e幻咖w把^^Ⅱ咒d,wJ|l。如甜n口f

w口甩r卅e幻掘.”(Morrison,1970:14)

Mrs.MacjI.cer took goOd

care

of her daughter while Claudia was ill in autumn.And

herlove impresses aaudia deeply.

‘。It conted my chest,nlong wnh the salvet und。ne

and when the

fIam他l

c n1咀e

in畔steep,the

clenL

shnrp“rves嘶Ⅱ打oHtl谊ed

ns presence

on

幔y珐rDⅡt爿nd m曲e

n喀^‘¨啦e以"ly

cDH曲协g¨Ⅵs岫n蒯幻“g啊扛ef

p口砌ed胁f0曲e r0D坞^册出r甲mned确已,7口,l玎已‘reⅡ巧淞f耐曲P q“溉口耐

船删口m洲已肿oH删,D陀^明正”(Ibjd_)
She not only devotes her loVe to her chiIdren,but also provides in the mjdst of metaphorical孤d rcal her own admiration forher momer’s From the above analysis,we


souIce

of stability

sto皿s.In

the later pan 0fthe nOvel,aaudia shows independence.

beauty,toughness,and darin醇y

can

assen tllat i“s the songs or the blues or in

omcr words,the enchanting power of the black folk trad矗ion that

constnlds Mrs.

Mac,reer's st】.ong individuality

to protect her

family协away
an

from the erosions of the

white cIIlture.Herblacl【Iless is fully

m越ifested

in the blues.It is also due to the black iIlllate ability to nllnure Claudia’s
so

cultural tradition that invests M培.Mac,rcer with posiIive self-identity and effectiveIy help her

rcject

whitc culturc

that shc avoids the

s锄e fate with Pecola.
Sincc inheritcd with the prccious propeny from the black aⅡcestOrs,Mrs.MacTcer
not only uses her blues to innuence hef own daughter,but aIso

dem叫strate her

care

and

concem

abou仆er

communit y.When alolly,Pecola’s father'bums up his own house and

“puts the whole family outdoors”,she willingly takes the poor Pecola in and also toId the girIs“to be nice to her and not

figtIt.”(Morrison,1970:17)As Mrs.MacTber(and put叫td00rs,she

hcr

daughters
much

as

well)dearly
for little

unde巧tands me meaniIlg of being

shows
care

concern

Pecola.Wllile

Pec01a stans her menstmation,she took Prood

ofheL And she lcd herto tlle bathroom柚d prodded Pecola妯side to deaII heL

While so

doing,“we(Claudia

and

Frieda)could
it tums

hear Ihe music of my mother’s laughteL”
conveys

(Morrison,1970:28)As

out,Mrs.Maclbef

her

love

for

the

neighborhood gjrl jn the singmg mood.

Mrs.Maclleer’s songS

not

only conVey her loVe and care,but also express her
arc

responsibility in waming those who

indi雎rent

to the famil y.In

fact,MrS.Mafrcer’s

blues initially come from Pecola’s unbearable ovcrdr恤king of thTee quans of milk beyond her recommendatjon.She begins complaining about n with a“fussing soliloquy”

(Ibid.).As



matter of fact,she does not point her complaints toward Pecola;she is

actually blaming Pecola’s parents.“Foll【s ‘bout they business.Ain’t nobody
even

just

dump tlley cllildren o任on you and go
see

on

peeped in here to she furiously

whether ttIat child has



loaf

ofbread…”(Morrison,1970:23).Thcn
kind of something is

curSes

Cholly and Pauline,“what

that?”Obid.)

Still quite unlike Pauline,who gcts fid of any connection with the community,Mrs.

Maclber easily socializes herself with the otherbIack women in the communjt y-In劢P Bm酷f至’ye,Mrs.Maclber is


l【ind of ardletype of the caretaker in the traditional is represented by Morrison
as

坩ricaⅡ-AIIIeric锄communily.She
her mother chatting wjth her fHends:

socializing with



gmup of women witll whom she casuany shares hcr fcelings for life.aaudia oVerhears

“Ihe打com,ersdtion is

l哦e口ge眦ly

wicl(ed d口札ce:sound meets soHnd,

curtstes-shtmmies,口nd retires.AtIomer sollnd e嗽ers bm is upstnged by sml

4加me,?抽e

m,D

cf比如即c_Il

D加er口甩d

sfclp.勘珊d拥时珐e打sH船,di小Dve加 4H研n
is

lol睁spirdts;other tim船thq

tnke slridenl knps,n’ld

pmcmnted

w£哦¨,口rm.p“缸ed缸“g^把卜of妇峨e

mr06口,口^en"o,弘啦了’^e e妇eJ出e

c“r‘确已脯r“甜D,f^ef,绷D“D忍s括口“哪爆ck口r幻^帕疵Ⅱ玎d,,ze….”
(Mo戚son,1970:16)

The casual gossip,the warnlm of their tone and the imponance of their conversation function bejng
as


Vital emotional 0utlet forthe black women,like iIlto


an

open cirde vigorously

trallsfb瑚ed

spiral.0bViously'Mrs.Macl色er l【Ilows Vef)r well aboutthe

impon蛐ce of

socializing with the community.By exprcssjng their

thougllts unrcsen,edly,

they VirtualIy dircct the spirjt Of their fcelings丘om confinement toward release,toward fke movemcnt.MrS.Mac’reer sought survival communally
no

conseIves

the wisdom of her fbremothers who have

mattef how oppressed their situation
act to

might

have been.

sin酉ng

serves

as



collective,coIⅡmunal

defy

oppIession

and to sunrive

di艏cultjes.

13

2.1.2

CIaudia—a

cultural舶cejver

As we have mentioned in the above para掣aphs,while Mrs.MadTeer is singing Ihe blues, Claudia is observing alld ljsteniIlg attentiVely.

MofeoVer,

she
or

notices the

conStnlctive and healing potency of blues which her mother hums

chants.When

Claudia hears hcr mot量lcr s血giIlg of mose bad tjmes that she has endured,Claudia realizes tllaI“misefy colored by the掣eens and blues in mother’s voice t00k all of the

芦ief
waS

out to the words and left me with



conViction tlIat pain was not only endurable,it


sweet.”(Morrison, 1970:24).By

listening and tllen speal【ing,Claudia becomes

modem—day酉rl

who affirIIls the culture,as she participaces in singing Pecola’s and the
caII

whole commullity’s blues.More ilnponaIlny,the blues and suflIering of AfricaⅡ一ArnericarI cxpcriences int0


tmsfb咖the
as

pajn,so爪}w

source

of lyfic energy fof liVin舀as bejng able to appeal

Ralph

Ellison suggests iⅡcharacterizing the
to a

e疵ct

of me blues

emotionally

black audience without relying on l锄guage.Thus,aaudia builds up her
of all,

ind印endent thinl【in岛self-confidence toward the bitterlifc柚d mostimponant

ffom hcf mothcr’s blues,she lea玎1s to ke印her own black cunufe and resist the

ovenvhelm崦deVastating e脏cts
how little Claudia behaves ill As



of me

no珊s

ofbeauty of tlle whites.11le following is

white mains打eam society. with her Mother M巧.MacTcer'is the

matIer of

fad,Cl卸d斌togcther

ctI盯acter Mo丌ison makes

e勖ns

to celebfate,on one lcvel forher gpDwing
scenc t0

subjectiVity,
rcsists the

On卸otherlevel.forhef inherited blackIIess.11le first
white temptation is
on

jn which

aaudja

tlIe ChristIIlaS day.She refIlses

be contfolled by thc dominant

cult盯e and rclentlessly newspaperS,window

rejeds



white baby

doll,althou班“adults'older舀rls,shops,


signs—all

the world had agreed mat child

blue-eyed,yellow-haired,

piIIl【-ski皿ed

doll was what

every舀rl

tfcaSured''(MoIrison, 1970:20).she

questions thc baSis for white cultural domination aIId its m柚ipulating power ovefblacks.

h order tO inVestigate what makes lhe don“lovablc'’and black gms such

as

Pecola and

herself unlovable,to“see of what it waS made,to discover the deamess,to find the

beauty”(Ibid.),aaudia

dismembers tIIe baby doll.she

just

wants to“examinc it to

see

whal jl was that a儿tl】e worJd said was Claudia understands that there is
an

lovabJe”.(Moffis锄,1970:21)如slinclivel yI
invisible whi把cultural force that

eno珊ous

diminishes black presence and insists that“Maureen Peal was not the EnemV and not worlhy of such intense hatred.T1le thing to fcar was me Thing thal made her beautiful”

(Mofrison,1970:74).
14

When she leams that Pecola is pfegllaIlt,she challenges thjs invisible power,
wishing well fDr Pecola and her unbom baby:“MoTe Pecola,I fcn


stron西y

then my fondness for
to counteracl the

need for someone to want the black baby to

live—just

univcrs“Iove of wllite baby doll,shidey

Temple,aild Maureen Peal”(Mofrison,
assure

1970:90).Claudja when

plants madgold seeds,praying that the heanh of seeds wiIl
race.

the

health of the baby'which fof her rcprcsents that collective sunrival of her she realizes that“the eanh itself surely

might
cause

have been

unyielding”(Morrison,

1970:7)’she

is曲je

to

artjclllate the

which leads ineVitably to PecoIa’s


madness:the society’s destnlctive victimizatjon of

defenseless

little舀d.Contrary

to

the silent Pecola,Claudia retailIs her Mackness through rcsisting the whjte dev船tatjng

effcc£s卸d obtains her independ曲t thinkjn吕
As we have said iIl t11e ab(Ⅳe

para目aphs,Mrs.Maclbcr

is the cultural beareL
on

MoIrison,s anotllcr word migIlt most pmbably stren垂hen the mothcr’s in玎uence

the js

daugllterS.F0r MoIrison,black
nothiIlg rnore than a

Inotllerhood with its culture?bearing matemal love

s娩of

empow锄en£O札Hna玛1987.25).Chud遍fIom her mothef’s
bladme璐.Wllile
we come to aII锄d about discIlssing aaudia,s

“sweet voice”,jIlllerits the

blackness,hcr appreciation of her mo也er’s vo妇is Still is
so

e酗ng近ouf ears:“But hcr voice

sweet aIld hef singiⅡg 2.1.3

eyes∞melty…”(MoⅡjson,1970:24). cha肋els tllrougll

Poland—an
one

Independenl sing盯 whjch the depresscd blacks burSt out
an

Blues is emOtion,so
as

of the

to soothe meir souls.Once again the“voice sweet and hard,lil【e new

strawberries”(Mo玎json,1970:43)was
storefront-It is Pol锄d’s
“eVen

heard f如m the apamnenl above che Breedloves couldhear me strawberrylike Voice eVery tjme

Voicc.Pe删a

befbre the door was opened to her tapping.”

“l gotb址cs谊my me4lbdrrel

Blues叩onthe she咎


fo£bln黜讯my me口lbnrret shel}

BhesupoHthe

Blu船汤mybedmom

fc“se

I’m sleeping

by"Iyse臻”
(MoⅡison'1970:441

Like Mrs.MacTeer

siIl醇ng

lhe‘‘ST.Louis Blues”,P01and the

transfoms



kind of 1ack Poland’s

intO her blues song.Central

to

transfo册ation

of lack into poetry in

“Mealbarrel Blues’’is
not

an

assenjon of

Subjectiv时访singing to a蚯册not


having(blues,

meal,励I ttle mealbarrcl),Pol柚d establishes

desjring self.In desirin岛she exists,

and in naming her desire,she acts to fIll6ll it.7Ihe yeaming fbf mealbarrel and 10Ve consists ofher black self—jdentity. TDgetlIer with P0land,tlle other two prostitutes China姐d Marje,these“three me玎y gargoyles,three merry harridans”

(Morrison, 1970:47)

“did

not
are

belong

to

those

generations of prostitutcs created in survivors,retaining their blackness

noVels….”(Ibid.)They

another group of

thmu曲ttIeif independent柚d ins蟾htful thougllts

ab叫t
as

lifc,ttleir hatred for tlle despicable men and ttlose“sugaf_coated whores”,as welI

their genuinc Iespcct for those“900d chTisti姐coloIed As the lower-class blacks,thcy
are

women'’(MoⅡison,1970:48).
can

me

rare

ones

who

ke印Ihe打subjectjVity

and

indiViduality-BIues songs alId laughter is the atmospherc of tlle prostitutes’apanment.It
is


pIace fllll of ene喀y and liveliness witll‘‘Pol卸d alWays in



sin百ng mood”(Morrison,

1970:42),Marie
hcr hair

always chewing some food in her mouth卸d China always doing w“h atmosphcre puzzles Pecola卸d makes

styles.Allthis drcamlike

her∞ntemplate

tIlcir feal presence,as she豁ked herselrwere they such


real?”(Morrison,1970:49)However'

dreaml柚d

call

pmvide Pecola with the only∞mfon,but disappointingl y'Pe∞1a
one

fails to underSt卸d tIlem.1nhis is society. As the novel says,Pecola

of the factors for Pecola t0 get lost in the white

taks

reftIge in them and loves them,Visits them,and

rIIns

t量leir errands.They in tum,do nOt despjse her but pity her'bfing some comfon in her bitter life,柚d also show her lhat
no

matter how much they

are can

despised by others,theif define themseIves rather

lifc is inVested with mealIing simply because these women than rely
on

the

judgments

of Shidey 1bmple’s white beauty.

Besides their love forthe

1ittle鲥,mey live姐证dependenllife and hold
enjoy me

insiglltfIll

tlloughts aboutljfc.In stark

contrast to Pauline and Geraldine who repress their taste for

the passion of lifc,these prostitutes have ttle ability to their bodies.They sell their bodies
on

freedom of commanding

the

one

hand because they need to surviVe in the
on

condition of racism and its ensuing poveny;but

the other hand because they hate all

men,both‘哳hite

and black.”Except for Marie’s fabled love fof Dewey Prjnce,these

16


use

硕士擎住论文
MASTER’S THESIS

women hafed men,all men,without shame,印ology'or discrimination.“They abused thejr visitors with


scom growⅡmechanical from use….”(MoⅡison,1970:47)These

men in their eyes缸e bast盯ds who need t圭lem but also ravage and deni孕ate them.They their bodies to express meir anger against ttle onslaughl of oppressive forces and they

also pmtcct themselVes magnificenⅡy by iheir hatred of all men.T1le Holloway h勰ever de矗ned the quality of such behaviors and
not

sociolo百st

Karla

thougllts:“jt is

ourbodies,

our∞lVes.The tra酉c Ioneliness black women constantly face…demands that we

have some wisdom,experience,aIId some passion with wllich to combat ttIis abuse”

(Holloway,1987:38).
These th北e pmstitutes,the lowest—class black women in the black cOmmunity,have succeeded in managiIIg to fcel wonhy and pmud.They and her mOther Pauline’s f色eIing shames
are

in total contrast with Pecola

and unworthiness about themselves.They

embody thc blues singer’s ability'desirability’and ownership of thejr bodjes,and nowhefe in the noVeljs tlIis dearerthan in me

paragraph desc“bing

their laughter:

啊玎f^陀e口,f^e¨,D,摊蹦缸“曲以^妃虎砌Iew 64政^er^e口正,,Dm出印
讯s谢e,her

l口醒hler

cnme ltI【e the

soHnd研mn叼r如ers—ch讯n oHt研her by
on

giggted

sp船tic融ly.E口ch弘sp jerking
nna
unseen

seemed to be yankd

H船een hnnd

s仃讯g.Pola砸.wh0
ol

seldom spoke untess she w口s

d朋村岛肠哪耐w妇DHf∞H九d胁蹦曲e¨,口s∞6纠幽e矗埘wm耐m珊咖
or

chamed

bhes

songS'

whtch

she

hew

mn畔.”

(Morrison,1970:52—53)

1rhe three black women

are

so

free and
Or

even

frcc to be
as

o唱anic.They
nothing.Thejr
to lead
an

absolutely dismiss any blue-eyed baby do玎s powerlies in ttIeir

Shirley’Ibmple
tnle

dete册ination iIl ke印ing

their

self柚d choosing

authentic life.Tllus they prcserve tlleir blad【ness.

2.2 The

sense

of the black

com咖nity
in Morrison’s chafacters toward self.definition

2.2.1 T1le relationship between the con¨nunity and the individuals The tendency we have traced

17

thmugll cxpansion,dispersi呻,aIld

jnteraction reaches its fullest deVelopment in her

rcpresentation of the cOmmunity.Generally speaking,in the tradition of the American society,the community and tlle indjvidual
are

placed in opposjtion;characters acquire

consistency thmugh Iheir distiIlction from the lafgef group.In Morrison’s ficl王on,as well



that

of

other

minority

writers,

contradistinction to tlle

Westem

“community’Lin sjgnificant teminological funher conc印t of“sodety’Lis fof characters
a a

extension of personal detenniIIation.MoⅡison's charactetS exhibit self alld to
In

dual

alle西ance

t0

collectivity(H甜djllg,1994:87).

MorrisOn’s noveI the individual’s only ch卸ce for sun,ival lies wimin the


community;outside is the threat of anllihilation.As

consequence of this cxtemal
are

pressure,Morrison’s Edional communjties haVe



Village quality when they


located

within modem cities,for the inhabitants have banded togemer into
ensure

tribal unit in order to as“village

their

sunrival.(Hardillg,1994:89).MoⅡison
thatis really for the villagc,for me
to reaeate


described her work

lite呲ure,nction
incrcasin—y

t抽e'’(kclair'1994:126).Her
suppon for


fictional world aims

milieu
or

of

cohefence a玎d

people the
are

thfeateⅡed w“h dispeISion

destnlction:“my novel...should
to

clarify

rol髓that haVe become obscurcd;they ought uscful柚d tllosc thiIlgs that
pfincipaI
arc

identify

those mings in the past that

not;趾d

they ought Io

givc nourishment.”(Ibid.)T1le

strategies

fof suⅣival in Morrison’s f.ctional communitjes consists first in
secure

keeping membcrs withjn their rclatiVcly cifcumscfibed existcncc.In the auIhor’s


boundaries and second jn enriching this js“both


words,∞mmunity

suppon

system柚d

h锄mer

at the same

time”(Washington,1998:20).T1le
on

collectivjIy both fosters and
to group vaIues as wen
as

restricts its membefs,for survival depends

0ne’s∞nfomliIy

individu“development.IndiIcctly’the richness and intensity of life within the black

咖munity result from the const卸t prcssure coming丘om outside.
Tb dte MoⅡison,in the black community’“tllere was thjs life—givin岛very,very strong sustenaIlce that

pe叩le

90t舶m

lhe

neighborb册d.”(ca姗en,1993:10)In


other

wOrds,alienation f硒m the community inevitably me柚s

lack of communal suppon and

understanding,which is deletefious for the heaIthy fonnatjOn of individual identit y. At the end of ZhP—BmeJf—ED旧,Pecola is geographicalIy driven to the periphery of the communit y.And this isolation aIld decjmated

displacemenl

from

me black community undeflines her total

identity.(Morj,1999:104)
18

HislOrjcally,in

the Unites

States,each

ethnic

group

o唱anized jls members

voIⅧ岍ilV
cultuml,

into political and economic blocs to tend to the打own intercsts with respect to aIld ethnic lines. Pfinciples of ethnic solidaI“y were adopted
no

咒ligious,

deIiberatdY to enhance suⅣival and imp萤ove sodal status.Black such altemative “self_consdous
to achieve

folk’how“er,had

collective solidariI y.T1ley

were therefore regarded show people


as

outgmups”(Rigney'1991:28).Nowadays,records

quite

di妊brent story:there were actually systematic rev01ts,insuⅡection5,and guerrilla actiVity 1aunched by black slaves durjng the infamous period of AmericaII

histO阱Meanwhile,W.

M.Philips,JfI points
acts of defiance

out that these largely inllIitiVe,desperate,aIld

fIlnd姗entally humaIl

fb加s“lhe

lbundation of what today is caIlcd black culture”(Harris,

1988:21).ncse
slav鹉in

activitieS conStitute址lc survival deviccs and lechniques of the black marks the staning-point ofthe
sense

histoⅨwhich

ofblack communityt

2.2.2 The black womelr—the“tar women”

Morrison proclajms the purpose of
survive wh01e jn


writing砌e口m耐毋e

js

to

show“how to

world where we

are

aU 0f us,in some measure,vjctims of something”

∞tc,1994:30).TIIe也Iee
thcir kind of strong
sensc

whores锄d thc MacTbers,besid鹳the fact也at也ey retain
adtlering to the songS,孤e

blacl【Ile蟠througtI unde巧t柚曲19觚d

s伽inVested

with



of black community to foster their black iIldividuality and black

solid捌ty

as

well.And the black women of Aunt
as

Jimmy’s咖mun“y
to

are

those people

who rctailI their indivjduality

di删illg

well by

clin醇ng

the communal commitment and

the wh“e aesmetics.
sense

Surcly'the most significant cluster of women who sincerely tr孤smit the

of

black community js those who come togethcr at Ihe time of Aunt Jimmy,s death.Being keep吧rs of tradition,tlley surviVe ttle multiplc oppressiOns.Upon hearing about Aunt Jilnmy’s illness,they come to
sce

heL“Some made caIIIomile tea;otherS nIbbed her with they hear the rcmedy is to“drink pot liquor and women“brought bowls of pot ljquor fmm

liniment”(MoITison,1970:108).when
notlIing

else”(Moffison,1970:109),tlle

black.eyed peas,f幻m mustards,丘om cabbagc,from kale,f如m collards,from tumips,

ff(竭beets,from酎een

beans.EVen tlIe
oVeIsee

juicc

from



boiling hog

jowl.”(Ibid.)when

Aunt Jimmy dies,they unite to
one

and conduct the appropriatc ritual of depaIture foI

of their members.They“cIeaned the hOuse,aired eVerytIling out,notjfied everybOdy’ stjtched together what looked lil[e


姐d

white wedding dress for Aunt Jimm y,a maiden

19


quintc站ential

硕士学位论文
MASTER’S THESlS

lady,to wear when shc met

Jesus….”(Morrison,1970:111)Those

women representthe

neigllbofhood.They come

atlhe moment when lhey should arrive.
as

HoweVer'they suf:f=er the same oppfessiOns

the other black women because:

“Everybody谊me

world wqs in



pos诳on to g-ve them orders.砖hiIe

¨,0忧鲫j口瞄伽抽纽’臃妇曲f幼硼s口珏皙fve卅P髓口t 7矸仍妇肌eH翎越 ‘cD晰e壳ere.’砌政m朗阳磁Z缈如肌.’蒴e D玎眵pe印绝f矗纠以e耐行Df
把lce 0rders

from

were black

child陀n勰d

ench othet Bm
rnn

lk£took nn《 of
whtte

th瞰nnd re-cre口ted it访the{r oWn imnges,1hey

the houses

p跚此删d砌Pw把玎协删腩e砌妇胁鲫6已谢历e—m%抽钞c艟删耐印
f^e

6fDod口以w趴f^Dme幻陀cP如已d6“靶加m me yfcf咖.”砌e.jl细‘Dw口,
W幻te
l却es话o

thdr

history研oppression

becnuse r口ce.gender qnd

pe船on越formH|a:The ltves对these
Ihe扣eyes—电p秘ree

old blnck women were¥mhesized in

of tragedy∞谢hHmo‘w记ic£由tess n以sereni魄trum

鲫d如触l趴”(Morrison,1970:110)
Ev姐suf!I_erilIg
all kinds of oppressjons,lhese blackⅥromen


use

their“hands’’to

managc theirhouschold柚d crcate

kind of“bIack

solidarity,’. for thm with tk

“1飘e)’be4t their childreH,with

one

h口nd nnd stole

otheL wrH,瑶

2强e^4,lc虹蛹口f歹邑f矧扫10已s口Z∞c“f“挪6fffc球f cD,矗,;绣e,懈雄.出踊口f
胁e

nec砖o,c_Ilfcl瞎,岱n,ld

6“托^ered,logs口bo”“dg芒d缈fcnH vfDf£拈f,l幻
flaky ovnb西i托noce眦。—口nd shrouded
home to nestk lilce ptums Hnder the

bloom;the nrms thnt to口dl诅shem,es,bales.n他d sqcb rocked b口btes in幻

sle印.拍ey

p口tted bisc派如into

de口d-1h叫ptowed 4tl dny

a丽cnme

tk

枷撕o,蛹芒f,脚帆劢e妇萨抽口fs帅姒厶积口牌“如警6口政w已理瓶e s口玳e佩es
that str口ddl£d

the打m饼X hips.A砸the dij和瑚tce

w口s nn the

di】和reMe

f^e心¨,口鼠”(Ibid.)

T量lese black womcn possess keep




strong

sense

of the black communny.They manage to

good hOusehold for me famjly members,besides,they apply lheir marvelous“tar round up che members of the community to resist the

曲ility”(zhu Rongjje,2004:32)to


on

硕士学位论文
MASTER’S THESIS

damagiIlg ilIIpacts from the outside.On the the otIler hand,they pmducc“the black

one

hand,they preserve lheir Own blackness; the wholeness of

sol埘arity”(Ibid.)to retain

theco岫岫ity.
In

Mofdson’s words,“black womcn,are both safe harbor and sh韬,they
women
are

are

both inn

aIId

trail.”(Taylor-Gut埘e,1994:161)11lese
to the A丘ican

also called“Tar Women”

(according

myth)who

demonstmte tlleir“tar abiIity’'_-the historical abjlity
carc

of black women tO keep their familjes and their households togetheL’nley take 【heir families,10Ve thejfhusb锄ds,卸d
not
are

of

not brainw鸲hed by the white culture.T11ey do

abhor their roles both in their families aⅡd the commulli“es where they live.In
are

essence,they

tlIe roles tlIat sustain black family and community life.They appmVe

their trad砸onal Values and tlleir own beauty aJld culture.

strength

them with the help of ethnic



硕士学位论文
MASTER。S THESIS

3.Loss of Blackness

ln Pan TlⅣo,we have analyzed t量le rolc of Ihe blues in the characters’preserving and

tr柚smitting the black culturc.The blues makes Mrs.MacTeer



loving mother and



cafing member ofthe community;it’s the blues that mal【es aaudia understaⅡd the black culture aIId keep herblack identity to resistthe hostile socjal envimnment,it’s stm the blues that prompts Poland and the other two whores to sustain live
a an

ind印endent self and
the white societ y.

yeafning life which

can

guarantee them



kind of

subject王vity in

HowcVer,in this black communit y,mose who d0 not possess the ability tO sing thc blues,
Or

comprehend it will be doomed to end in failure in lifc.

W毫】mow that in the Affican—American traditjon,singing h鹤functioned


not only as

way to achjeVe

one’s

indiViduality

or

subjectivjty,but

also

as

an

imponant meaIls to

communicale and to fostcr solidariIy in the

black∞mmun“y.In

slavery'which siIenced
secret code

spcech柚d dehumanized the Victims,the song was Ihe
which expressedⅡ比unspeakable experiences that

Africall-Am“can
slave

the

holders persisted in

r印rcssing.Afdcan-AmericaIl
communaI

musjc has been characterized by reciprocal panicipation,

suppon柚d
which

healjng potency.A衔can-American music involves collective individual and personal expressiveness while it

panicipation,

encourages

noudshes intemctjons among pe叩le.Thus,the absence of music indicates jsolation from


community'a lack of nunuring,caring and support which伊aduany

undemines

the

black individuality but also me solidafity of。African Americans.

3.1 The loss of the black music
3.1.1 Pauline

B删love—.an aband蚰er

of the blu船
oncc

11l tIIe eadicr times ilI the South,Pauline was

connected to



communitv that

embodjes me cultural VaIues expressed in the blues.Having mi争ated furthef north to Lo阳in,Ohi0,the blues,associated with imagination and

hope,seldOm∞mes to

hcr mind.

Pauline then is exiled from the most imponant way for the blacks to express themselves.

a)nsequently'she seⅣers the cultural and spiritualcje with the black people and follows


tI可ectory

away from the vaIues of the black,poor'fIlral south and toward values that

⑥慧差‰。
seⅣes the jnterests of


priVileged,white upper_middle class and of c叩italism itself-Thjs


trajectory

serves

to instill in Pauline

sense

of wonhlessness and lack because she has


broken the chains of cOntjImity jn culture pOtential to nunure heL Then,she exists in world of疔agmentation,in


world where Mrs.Macrreer and Poland

mi曲t

s110w signs of

me morc sustaining Southem black culture. 1n tlle mral south,she always sings blue songs in rctrospect 0fthc good Iimes.L丑ter, her blues deVelops to
sweetness
an

extreme melancholy for the lack of man and loVe.T11e dark for


of the

lon酉ng

stIanger is



persistent healcr during her yeafs of


approaching maturity-At that time,Pauline,Very much like Poland,liVes

desiring 1jfe

粕d posSesscs hcr subjectivity.hl the noVel,MorrjsoⅡmakes it cleaf that jn Pauline’S
italicized delicious

na哪tivc甑gments
yeamiⅡg and

conceming her girlhood in the fllral South,she recalls
associated
not



Pleasure

with

consumer products but

with

communitv and with the assodated fmits of the eanh:

“wk玮I尉st se矗chollylwa哪yoMto‰wttw4shlce qlltheb“s研cotor

.知m埔讲ff,玎P dbMl|IlD小e H啦跚淞幽甜’℃竹w衄f
知nernl
乱p nnd n托d I pHt some in the

6er叫pfc七f—g

q加r



pocI(et研my Su硼掣dr∞s.n硝thq

m口shed

s细med朋吵矗咖.坞,w幻k舭黜w口sme船缸w泐pllrp地8ndff
d啪s
Hor

n鲫er did w∞h佻t.No“k

me.I co让ld

fee|thf

purPle deep

讥幽妇川巴一雎d,^耐比mD甩口出肘h牌口H5ed细小口妇H啦B一Pf甲cⅡ州e胁o“f the乒elds.It
be coot qnd yettoWish…it wns tike them berries.mem

昆掰口牲口如娩e掰s抛痒缸D,g,嘲撬P西聆e 6甜gs掰拉如D雄确e f坪嚣历B甩动f
we

l球}}om down

home.AH

of

them colors wns h me.”

(Mo玎ison,1970:91-92)

Paullne’s

use

of tlle colors to name

aJl

abstract emoIional yeaming recalls the blues

yeaming inst珊ed jn Claudia by tIIe sound of her mothef’s Voice.The above paSsage is,in esscnce,Pauline’s blues,alld it expresses choice to movc on,to“go down to the


Ion舀ng

for home aIld community and



cfossroads”,(K驻bitschek,1998:12∞as

Roben

Johllson puts it in hjs historic blues,and to head nonh.In this ly“cal song,Pauline exprcsses


lon画ng

for the rIIral southem community that revolves

around

church

(‘‘Sunday dress’’)aIld ritual(“be力des pickjng”,“fhneral’’).Pauline

accomplishes what lhe

blues singer accOmplishes:She recreates ttlat which is lost强d for which she lOngS,

t啪sfo册ing lack into

poetry(Moses,1999:106).

Unfortunately'the

tmsfornlation

is temporary

and exists oⅡly in her memory.

PauIine’s narrative traces her movement toward the whOle bou唱eois values represented by the HoIlywood films lhat seduce heL aIldby me nawlesShome of the lure of tlle material supplallts her memories of commuIlity'eVen hopctoposscss what shelon簪f0L n tums out that Pauline begiⅡs to get immersed in imitating tlle whites锄d isolates

Fishers.ne
can
never

thou911

she

f咖n

ttle blad【community.This isolation rcsults in

an

inability to sing any morc.Unable

tO sing,she

ca加ot

share the coUecIive suffering of Affican Americans,and lacks me

jIItcgml strcngtlI ofher

people.without柚y

knowledge of how to connect herSelC no£

only t0 her cOmmunity but also to her own daughter,Pecola,it is inevitable that Pauline wml failto pfoVide Pecola wim thc

loVe,adVice卸d咖JtioⅡcmdalto

Ihe

dau曲ter’s

蛐rvivalin ahostjlesodety.
The moment when Pauline desened the blues,she 90t fid of hef black indivjduaiity, lct alone hcr

subjectivity

of course.she indulged herself in the“picture shows”,and

im“ated the wlIi把life style柚d血en a“nd of

self-ha订ed啪s
me锄illg

rcsulled in thereafteL


When

she

90t呐o

babies,shc wOIked

as



dcvoted

and僦thfIlI“mammy”in

white

family_Then耋he total loss of her blackness made“all tlle

Of her lifc jn hef wOrk’’

(MoITison,1970:102)she

regarded the white kitchen

as

her whole wodd where“she was

que蜘of canned Vegctables bougIltby
up in tiny silVef

lhe case,special

fondallts柚d ribbon candy cIlded

dishes…”(Ibid.).without any

black cultural tie to connect Pauline with

hcf family卸d the community’she“neglected her house,hcr clljldren,and her they were like the aftertlloughts One of most chⅢjng
one

man—

has justbefofe

sleep”(Ibid.).

scenes

among all of her representations in her lost bIackness,
one

Only riValed iIl emOtional content by the rape of the faIher’is tlle

in which Pauline

sIaps Pecola for accidentally ovenuming the blueberry cobbIer'thfows her out of the

ho璐e,锄d then tenderly embraces the white Fisher child,who calls herby her

nickn锄e

口ccola

must calI her

mother“Mrs.Brcedlove”.)CIeall y,Pauljne

has intenlalized Ihe

notion that black is not beautifIll.Pecola alld the dark beⅡies in the bubbling cobbler with wllich she is associated
are

objectS

to be swept out of tlle way as

Pauline mshes to

embrace the rjch white cbild.

3.1.2 Choll)卜一a dangemus freeman Anv lack of musical expression seems characters,preventing
to

have



serious effect in


MoⅡison’s
communal

th锄丘Dm developjng

an

ideⅡtity and cultiVating

relatio璐hip

with other

people。ln强e鼬le甜印e,Pauline’s husb瓤d,alolly,represses


his fcelingS'which couId be creatively expressed if he were allowed to be

singer.

MOfrison explicitly implies that



musical sensitivity could convey his djstoned and

d砌agcd sensitivmes: “砀Pp诂c酣D,劭D母j托忙co“耐6ecDme c础er跚f伽砂抽历P|IlP耐D,n m淞ic抽甩.’’口删 “加扣口蜥淞衙口n wDH磁5e船岛hDm w{编。眦e、,跏
bIowi托g thm he k托ew’thnt whqtever he

Chot玲was pee。D口ngerousb{沁e.Free
to

to

feet

felt—fe口‘gHilt'sh口me.10ve.矿t曝p晦Free

be把nd盯or

v面跆砧细舶西如Dr胛印”(Morrison,1970:125)
His lack of talem硒a musician signjficantly跚ggests his rcstrjc£ed selfh00d and fcttcred emotionaI life.As Melvin Dixon

commcnts,“W“hout musjc,alolly’s

frcedom

h舔∞voice,no

meaningfIll

of∞hcring

ped.0皿ance

to tie tight盯tlle 100se

tan出ing
outln

straIlds ofhis lifc mus like music
or

f一’(Di】(0n,1987:102)without柚y appIoprjate cmotional
sexually assaulting her;he mixes his

blues to make his shattercd life cohercm,ChoUy perversely displays his

love towafd his

daugllter'Pecola,by

a骶ctjon

wjth

sexual desjre,confIIsing his daughter witIl his remembrance Of his wifc when shc was about Pecola,s age.Obviously'his lack of creative outlet is cong邝ent with his failurc of emotional articulation.His bmtal expression of loVe toward his daughter renects the o出envise unexpectcd devasCation of his own lifc. T1le art of living through,however,isn’t inherited in,tbe seIf-concentrating black man he seldom sillgS bIues songs,but

enjoys


the statIIs of being a“ctim,of rcfIlsing to

find ways out of sitIlatio璐that render llim him and his famil y.In the end,his family wilhOut any dignity 3.1.3
or

Victjm,of refIIsing to take responsibjljIy for him,and he djes


nejects

lonely death in

jan

compassion. girl unconscious of cuIture

Pecola—a

As for Pecola,her fatc is also jn some de静ee deterrIlined by the blues.As is the common rule for all tlle members of the black community,only when they have the

acoess

to the various black cultura】activities and the acuteness to comprehend the black
can

cIIltllIal 1【Ilowledge

they suⅣive.Quite unfortunately,unlike C1audia,Pec01a

neVer

a壮ajns t0 thoSe channels and lacks the sensitivity of comprehending the world,which

血lallv leads

to



doom.We know lhat Claudia is
essence



talented obseⅣer卸d tIlinker of black

lo他so that she is able to absorb the

of the women’s c0IⅣersations,collect the pcrception is manifested in her middle dass

如掣nen£s and tI孤sfer
blackS.The

them into her

own虹owkdge.Her

pierciIlg into the personal and historicaI backgrollIld

ofthose—Vilegcd

ljgllt一∞lored Maureen

Peal’s“long brown hairbfaided imo t、】l,o lynch ropes hcr of the lynching histoTy,the

that hung down hef

neck”(Morrison,1970:62)re】:Ilinds

savagcd behavior of the whjtes.Pecola,however'js disabled to hef intenlalizatjon of the wh主te culture. On the other haIld,while in stay with the thrce whores,Pecola be aff醣ted by their singing and laughing Iack of all the material and mental desires “BIues”,which is
a way

fta舀lity

a玎d her

eVen

was not able to
or

atmospherc.Fof
can

me three women,the loss

be ameliontcd by the sillger’s repetition of

of dissolvjng the pressure on山em.(Kuenz,1993:425)However,

Pecola’s 10ss of blackness,first of all lics in her disability t0 unde飓tand these women’s eoonomic conditjon and their desiring for trope ofher hungcr for

sexuality.Pccola’s印ithet

created by Marie

are

various劬ds,∞mmon menus柚d


dishes in

other胁mes with
the

bett时economic situation,such

as“dumplin岔’‘‘chilltin”and“Pudding’,聪d m柚to

loneli∞ss in Poland’s bedr00m exhjbjts hcr锄ger for
atⅡlosphcrc

loVc heL The lallguagc

and the frequency of men’s Visit to the whores’house diVerge Pecola’s

understandilIg tO the expectation of their oIlIy in lhejr house,not in their emotion
or

fi血less

and happine站.Thereforc,she exists

feeling.She is f打away from thejr blue heans

due to herlack of common black l【Ilowledge and the ability t0 intemct with Ihem. Pecola is doubly excluded from her own black culture and white ctllture,the blacks’ long血g that is
an

assertion of one’s

subjectivily

is beyond hcr understanding.One’s mind.Pecola’s yeaming forblue

subjediVjty

is tIIe

ideas锄d

feelings existjⅡg in

one’s

eyes is distinctive nDm the whores’desiring for meal ban.el柚d sexualjty,the former bejng the conse(1uence of the intemalized white cultuTe,while the later welling up from
onc’s

own natural fcelings,for they stilI live in their t兀le native cIllture and in lhemselves

The cIaimjng for food and love,to study it fllrther,even if they c柚not be satisfied,can be exp咒ssed through songs,which is


way of gettjng relie£Pecola,however,has to be in



split

self二a

destiny presupposed first in her distoned cultural Values aⅡd ide0109y,tllen

jn her voiceless position. Pecola’s fate,besides the above-anaIyzed reasons,owes much t0 her mother whose abseⅡce in mother’s positjon Violates the valuable mother-daughter Pec01a
sees

relationship.What

at the fjrst

sight ofher mottler is Pauline’s∞ntempt

and indifference and the

wintry face of her momer that must make her tremble.We l【Ilow that

Momer-daughter
or

relationship

is



hot issue

in圳can—American,Chinese—American

other minority

writers’works.MottIer is the cultural bridge Of botlI cultures by£elling folk stories,

sin百ng

folk songs to her children.Pauline herself is assjmilated in the materialized and

white Amefican wofld,whjch tell


dis曲les

hcr to sing
or



song before hcr baby falls asleep
neVef

or

legend intentionall y'so the Values

wisdom ofblack culture

attain to Pecola

thmugh her motheL Both exjlcd fmm her parents’love and£he love songs,Pecola have
no

conception of loVe,thus the s∞undrel

soaphead

church’s pmmise of grallting bluest

eyes t0 her composes her distoned notion of loVe and her latef conVictiOn of possessing the bluest eyes in the world indicates her state ofbeing jn船ne. At the same

time,dep晰ed of a咖rtuTing mother.dau曲teI Telationship,Pecola
alld

does

not have any role model to follow in orderto avoid her owlI isolation aIld victimization,

her unexpected

misery'加stmtion

unh印pincss

acc啪ulate

linle by littlc until her

life is inepa船ble.FinaUy overwhelmed by the unbearable burden of her incestuous

pre驴柚cy’she
dcstmctiVe

confines herself to柚insanity mat isolates her

c嘶pletely丘Dm

the

outer wodd.Hertmgedy is induced because“Pecoh is unable to aniculate

thc pain she fcels aIld to channel it

tllrough
Pecola

the

fom

of the blues,”as T11ldier Harris
I”

rem盯ks(|王arfis, 1998:75).nus,
1999:104),a pun
stofy to the blues
on

indeed

becomes“the bluest

(Moses,

the title of the book.As Harris funher points out,connectillg the is


tradition.“砀e丑m耐毋e,then
America蛐d

bIues moan in which it describes

tIIe pain of blacks in

lheir attempts to grapple with the pain which crippIes

boch their 1iVes and the Iives oftheir

children”(Harris,1998:78).But no¨ave


to Pecola,even the

namtjvc

is a“blues”mo卸;Pecola herself does

voice to sing herblues,which

suggests that her total isolation in derangement emphasizes the dest八lctive result of uncxpected fcelings.

3.2 The loss ofthe community
11Ie black community

sense

in踢已曰m部f毋e

is envisaged

as

existing like



cell witllin
as

the largcr white body of America,sustained by traditional strengttls and Values

we

have analyzed in也e above paIa铲aphs,but being weakened by divisions within it.These divisions


arc

me result of

an

increasin西y bou唱eojs

black people,itself



consequence of

complicatcd process of

adjustment

and accommodation to white noIIIls.These blacks
yet

remain witlljn the community aIId attempting to maintain social
or

attempt to keep

tIIemselVes印an

from it by

radal distinction in imitation of the dominant酽oup.

As we shall see,in the novel,in a粤oup ofblack women whOse authentic black self is buried
sO

deep

that theif

perceptions of themselVes amount to
are

self-hatred.nis

self-loathing js stmngest in those characters that and cmehy.The self_hatred is often fc'cused
on

farthest since di丘’erence brings abuse
as

the body

ttle most obVious indicators

of racc,hair and color,for example,are recurrcnt concems.The black middle-class woman Gemldine coming“from Mobile,Aikcn,行om Newport News,ffom Marietta, 丘om

Meridian.”(Mo玎主son,1970:67)pmvides

us

with

all

e10quent proof for the

desertion of the“fhnHness”to embrace me whiteness.

On仰e

leVel,Geraldine,who haS tal【en advantagc of what thc
an

fcw叩portunities

exist for black women f幻m her back粤Dund,is

example of



middle-class black

woman who has become divorced fh)m her A翻can.American r00ts:

“Thq go

to l口nd嚆rnnt

college,∞rmnt sc的ots,n’td

learn how to do the

枷豇e川口厅奢H旧地w打^r咖e卅eHc.IlD肌e
tencher ee址cmion
to

ecDnDm比s fD

pr弓P4肥^妇加D西
to

tnstrHct b14ck chtldre拽tn obedterIce:mI堪ic

s00the

幽e we口删州ns把r n,ld en把r胁跏^括6m以把d∞“f…”

(MorrisoIl,1970:68)

On柚otherlevel,herhistor)r suggcsts t量lat African-Americall women in her position
surrender


deep—r00ted passion that whites both envy aild fear:“the dreadful funkiness

of passion,the funkiness of nature,the fIlnkiness of the wide rangc ofhumaII emotions’’

(MoⅡison,1970:68).ne

word“dreadful”here does not convey the views of the black

omnjscicnt naIralor but of the land—grant colleges that jnculcate black stIldents with white

values. In placing‘‘funk”at the centrc of t王Ie Afrjcan-AⅡlerican

sensjbility,Morr王son’s

text
aIl

risI【s

c0Ⅲi加ing



wh“e stercotype of black women.But Geraldine’s loss of passion is

indicator of the emsion of her black identit yI Her physjcal being within the cultural frame she has adopted is described in terIns of experiencing
an

absence.ne

clOsest tlling for

herto∞me

to

orgasm is when her n印kin slips free of her sanitary belt.In Geraldine’s

lifc,the family kilten of血e Dick—Jane mythology also becomes the emotions.The cat,which she cI。adles in“the deeply private
areas

object

of displaced

of the

lap”(Morrison,

1970:71),is

the only thing to which she
as

can

show aIly kind of

wa珊th.Geraldine’s

marriage is described

bunding



nest;howeVer it seems to consist only of ironed shirts

卸d de卸liness aIld ordeL The pllrase“birthed Louis junior'’suggests that pafenthood,
too,for hcr is


cold affairI Even the black cat,which with blue eyes seems to
as

signify

the

ide0109y tO which GeraIdine aSpircs,is

c01d

as

an

icebe唱.1rhe colOrs of 0eraldine’s

home。Of which we become aw甜c when Junior invit

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