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Unit 1

Friendship

学案 3

Grammar 2014.09.03

Direct speech and Indirect speech
Ⅰ. Learning aims: 1. 知道直接引语与间接引语转化的规则,会进行一定的变化。 2. 了解一定的宾语从句时态变化。 Ⅱ . Definition 引述别人的话语一般采用两种方式:一是原封不动地引用原话 ,把它放在括号 内 , 这叫直接引语 (Direct speech); 一是用自己的话加以转述 , 这叫间接引语 (Indirect speech). ● 间接引语在多数情况下构成宾语从句。 Ⅲ . 陈述句 对于陈述句,变为间接引语时,由连词 that 引导,从句中的人称,时态,时 间状语,地点状语等要做相应的变化。 1. 人称、指示代词的变化 直接引语代 词 I we you me us this these 间 接 引 语 he/she 代词 they I him/her them that those

1) Jane said, “I’m very fond of traveling.” ? Jane said that she was very fond of traveling. 2) “We go to school on Saturday, too.” they say. ? They say that they go to school on Saturday, too. 3) “You must be on time for your lessons.” He said to me. ? He told me that I must be on time for my lessons. 注意:当直接引语的主语为第一人称时,变间接引语后与主句主语的人称保持 一致。当直接引语的主语为第二人称时,变间接引语后与主句宾语的人称保持 一致。当直接引语的主语为第三人称时,变间接引语后人称不变。 即:一随主,二随宾,三不变。 2. 时态的变化 “退一步” 直接引语 间接引语 直接引语 间接引语 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般过去时 过去完成时 现在完成时 过去完成时 过去完成时 过去完成时 现在进行时 过去进行时 一般将来时 过去将来时 1) “I don’t’ want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne. ?Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary. 2) I said to Jack, “You didn’t tell me anything yesterday.” ?I told Jack that he hadn’t told me anything the day before. 3) Jim said, “I’m expecting a long distance call.” ?Jim said that he was expecting a long distance call.

4) He said, “Our team has won the match.” ?He said that their team had won the match. 3. 状语变化 直接引语

间接引语

Then now Before ago That day today The next day/the following day tomorrow In two days’ time the day after tomorrow The day before yesterday That night tonight Two days before the day before yesterday Come/go go Bring/take bring There/here here 1) He said, “It’s ten o’clock now.” ?He said that it was ten o’clock then. 2) He said, “I haven’t seen her today.” ?He said that he hadn’t seen her that day. 3) She said, “He’ll be back tomorrow.” ?She said that he would be back the next day. 4) He said, “This happened yesterday.” ?He said that had happened the day before. Ⅳ .祈使句 一般情况下, 通常直接引语里含有 please 表示请求: 使用 ask sb (not)to do sth. 直 接 引 语 里 不 含 please 表 示 命 令 , 建 议 等 语 气 : 使 用 tell/order/advise/warn/require/request sb (not) to do sth. 1) He said to me, “Open the window, please.” He asked me to open the window. 2) The teacher said to the students, “ Stop talking!” The teacher told the students to stop talking. 3) Mother said to him, “don’t cry!” Mother told him not to cry. 祈使句变化“顺口溜”: 去掉引号要加 to, ask / tell 须记住, 直接引语是否定, not 加在 to 前部。 Ⅴ .疑问句 直接引语为疑问句时, 变为间接引语时除注意在人称、时态和状语等方面相应 变化外,还应注意: 1.间接引语应改为陈述语序。 2.特殊疑问句的疑问词应保留。 3.一般疑问句、 选择疑问句和反意疑问句在变为间接引语时要用连词 whether(或 if)。 Eg. 1) “Is there something wrong, Madam?” asked the policeman.

?The policeman asked the woman whether/if there was something wrong. 2) “Is it Mary or Lucy?” asked Jane. ? Jane asked whether it was Mary or Lucy. 3) 当疑问词作主语时,间接引语的语序不变。 “What’s the matter with you?” said the doctor. ?The doctor asked what was the matter with me. Ⅵ .直接引语变为间接引语时态不变的情况 ? 当直接引语是客观真理时。 ? 当直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语时。 ? 当直接引语是过去完成时态时。 ? 当主句谓语动词是一般现在时、现在完成时、一般将来时态时。 ? 当直接引语表示的是谚语或名人名言时。 ? 当直接引语表示客观的时刻表时。 1)He said, “The earth goes around the sun.” ?He said that the earth goes around the sun. 2)Mr. Wang said, “I was born in China in September, 1972.” ?Mr. Wang said he was born in China in September, 1972. 3)He said, “ Where there is a will, there is a way. ” ?He said that where there is a will, there is a way. 4)He said, “The plane takes off at 6:30 am.” ?He said that the plane takes off at 6:30 am. ★人教版英语必修一 page87 有“直接引语和间接引语”语法板块,学生可以自 行参考。


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