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超全的定语从句的讲解和练习


定语从句知识结构图解
概念:定语可以由形容词,名词,代词,分词,不定式以及介词短语等来担任,也可以由一个句子来充当,充当定语功能的句 子称为定语从句。 ① 指人的先行词 ⒈ 先行词: 被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词 ② 指物的先行词 ★ 先行词还可以是前面整个句子所叙述的事情。 He has passed the driving test, which surprises all of us. (which 替代前面所叙述的事情) 先行词 ① 替代前面的先行词 (替代作用) 关系词的作用 ② 连接主句和定语从句 (连接作用) ③ 在定语从句中作句子成分(成分作用) 定语从句“三要素” ⒉关系词: 引导定语的词 标准:根据关系词在从句中做的句子成分种类 关系词的分类 关系代词:在从句中做 主,宾,表,定 (that/which/who/whom/whose/as) 关系副词:在从句中作状语 (When/where/why) ⒊ 定语从句:用来做定语,修饰限定先行词的句子。 ① 限制性定语从句:对先行词起限定修饰作用。 He is a teacher who works at our school. ② 非限制性定语从句:对先行词起补充说明作用 (先行词与定语从句之间有逗号隔开) Beijing, which is the capital of China, is a beautiful city with a long history. 比较: He has two sons, who work in the same company. (He has only two sons.) He has two sons who work in the same company. (Perhaps he has two more sons)

定 定语从句的分类 语 从 句

① 关系代词在定语从句中作宾语 She is the girl (whom / that) I loved before. (可以省略 whom/that) ② 关系代词在定语从句中作表语 ⒈关系代词的省略 He is no longer the boy (that) he used to be. (可以省略 that) 限定性定语从句 ③ 关系代词作介词宾语,介词在从句句尾时可以省略 Housing price is a problem (that/which) people are interested in. 比较: Housing price is a problem in which people are interested. (此时只能用 which 且不能省略) ① 以疑问词 who 开头的句子中 定语从句几个难点 Who is the man that is shouting there? ② 关系代词在从句中作表语时 用 that 的情况 She is not the girl that she used to be. ③ 先行词被 the very, the right, the only 修饰 This is the very person that we are looking for. ⒉先行词是人 that/who 的区别 ①先行词是 one, ones, anybody, all, none, those 等 Those who want to go to the cinema will have to wait at the gate of the school. ②句子中有两个定语从句,一个用了 that,另外一 用 who 的情况 个用 who Who is the boy that won the gold medal? ③在 there be 结构中 There are many young men who are against him. ④ 在非限定性定语从句当中 Tom, who is my best friend, has gone abroad to study.

用 which 的情况

① 在非限定性定语从句中. She lost the game, which depressed her greatly. ②关系词置于介词之后,作宾语. The pen with which you write is Jack’s. ③先行词是 that 或定语从句中套定语从句,一个关系 词用 that,另一个用 which. Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which is newly open to us. ①先行词是不定代词如 all, little, few, much, anything, everything, nothing, none, no one 等 She did all that she could to help us. ②先行词被 all, every, no, some, little, much, the only, the very, the right,the last 等所修饰时 This is the very book that I want. ③先行词中既有人又有物时 She described in her compositions the people and the places that impressed her most. ④先行词前有序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。 This is the best book that I have ever read. This is the first film that I’ve seen since I came here. ⑤定语从句中套定语从句,其中一个关系词以用 which, 另外一个用 that He built a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. ⑥当主句的主语是疑问词 which,另一个用 that Who is the person that is standing at the gate?

⒊先行词是物 that / which 的区别

用 that 的情况



语 从 句

定语从句 10 个难点

⒋As 引导定语从 句的用法

①As 既可以引导限制性定语从句也可以用于非限定性定 句中充当主语,宾语,表语等。 常用于以下句型当中 ★ Such/so….. as…. 像…..一样 the same …. as… 和…...同样的 A computer is so useful a machine as we can use everyday. He is not the same man as he was. ②引导非限制性定语从句,此时 译为“正如,像”等。 可以放在句首,句中或句末。 As I remember, there were a net bar here. Taiwan is an inseparable part of China, as is known to all. ★the same as...和 the same that...引导定语从句的区别 This is the same bike that I lost yesterday. (同一事物) This is the same bike as I lost yesterday. (同类事物)

①When 在定语从句中做时间状语,先行词为表示时间的 time, day 等 I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. (when=on which) ②Where 在定语从句中做地点状语,先行词为表地点的 place, spot 等 Can you tell me the office where he works? (where = in which) ③Why 在定语从句中做原因状语,先行词只有 reason. ⒌关系副词的运用 I don’t want to listen to any reason why you were absent. (why = for which) ★ 关系副词 = 相应的介词 + 关系代词 ★ Where 引导的定语从句还可以修饰抽象空间的名词如 case(情形), situation, position(位置),stage (阶段),point(地步)等 What are the situations where body language is the only form of communication? 在哪些情况下身体语言是唯一的沟通方式。 (此时 where = in which)

⒍几个特殊 的先行词

① way 在定语从句中做状语时的三种引导方式 that / in which / 不填 The way in which / that / 不填 he explains the sentence to us is quite simple. 比较: The way which /that/不填 he told to us was quite simple. (★way 在定语中作 tell 的宾语) time 表示“次数”时,用关系代词 that 引导定语从句 ②先行词 time This is the first time that the president has visited the country. time 作“一段时间” 讲时,应用关系副词 when This was the time when there were no radios, no telephones or no TV sets. (★此时 when = during which 在..期间) ③先行词 reason 当在定语从句中作状语时,定语从句的 4 种引导方式 why/for which/that/不填 This is the reason why/for which/that/不填 he can not come here. 比较: Is this the reason that/which/不填 he explained to us for his absence from the conference. (★reason 在定语从句中做 explain 的宾语) ★该结构的关系代词只有两种即 介词+which(指物) 介词+whom(指人) ★该结构介词的选用原则: ① 根据定语从句中谓语动词的习惯搭配 This is the book on which I spent $ 8. This is the book for which I paid $ 8. ② 根据先行词的搭配习惯 I remember the days during which I lived there. I remember the day on which I graduated from university. ③ 根据整个句子所表达的意思来决定 The colorless gas without which we can’t live is called oxygen. ④ 英语中为了强调某一名词,不定式前面也可以加上关系代词。 Here is the money with which to buy the piano. She is the right person on whom to depend. 注意:Ⅰ如果介词后移,关系代词可以省略 The person (whom/who/that) you will write to is Todd. Ⅱ有些含有介词的动词短语介词不能提前如 look for/after; take care of; send for; hear from/of/about deal with 等 This is the baby that you will look after. ①当先行词是 one of + 复数名词,定语从句的位于动词要用复数形式 The Great Wall is one of the world-famous buildings that draw lots of visitor every year. ②当先行词是 the only + one of +复数名词,从句谓语用单数形式 The Great Wall is the only one of the buildings on the earth that is seen from the moon. ③ 先行词如果是整个句子,定语从句的谓语动词用单数 Great changes have taken place in China, as is known to all. He has passed the driving test, which surprises all of us. 定语从句可以转换为 –ing 或-ed 形式 The girl (who is) dancing now just returned from Taiwan. I love the stories (which were) written by Hemingway. The man (who stands) standing there is my friend. ①判断从句是否为定语从句 (先行词,关系词,定语从句) ②准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分 (主、宾、表、定、状) 从而正确选定使用关系代词或关系副词 例:Is this the museum ___ you visited a few days ago? Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held? A. where B. that C. on which D. what

⒎介词+关系代词

定 语 定语从句 10 个难点 从 句 ⒏定语从句的 主谓一致

⒐定语从句的 转化

10.定语从句的 解题方法

注意:Ⅰ.关系代词 whose 的用法。Whose 在定语从句中做定语。 当先行词是人: whose = the + 名词 + of whom 当先行词是物:whose = the + 名词 + of which Do you know the boy whose parents / the parents of whom are on holiday? I’d like a room whose window / the window of which faces the sea. Ⅱ.That 引导定语从句,名词性从句 和 强调句型的区别 定语从句中的 that: 关系代词,在后面的定语从句中做句子成分。 名词性从句中的 that: 从属连词,只起连接主从句的作用,在从句中不做句子成分。 强调句中的 that, 运用于 it is/was…that..结构;判断标准:去掉强调句型结构,成分仍然完整。 比较:This is the book that I am looking for. (that 引导定语从句) It is at Bashu middle school that I have studied for three years. (that 和前面的 it is 构成强调句型) The fact that he stole the money surprised all of us. (that 引导名词性从句--同位语从句) That he will come to the conference has excited all of us. (that 引导名词性从句--主语从句) We all expect that they win, for members of their team are stronger. (that 引导名词性从句--宾语从句) The reason for your failure is that you lack confidence in yourself. (that 引导名词性从句--表语从句)

定语从句练习题:
1. They will fly to Washington, _______ they plan to stay for two or three days. A. where B. there C. which D. when 2. The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, _______ are beyond our control. A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that 3. I will give you my friend’s home address, _____ I can be reached most evenings. A. which B. when C. whom D. where 4. All the neighbors admire this family, _______ the parents are treating their child like a friend. A. why B. where C. which D. that 5. Villagers here depend on the fishing industry, _______ there won’t be much work. A. where B. that C. by which D. without which 6. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread out further, _____ New York is an example. A. for which B. in which C. of which D. from which 7. We went through a period ____ communications were very difficult in the rural areas. A. which B. whose C. in which D. with which 8. We shouldn’t spend our money testing so many people, most of ____ are healthy. A. that B. which C. what D. whom 9. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, _____ wanted to buy it. A. none of them B. both of them C. none of whom D. neither of whom 10. It is reported that two schools, _____ are being built in my home town, will open next year. A. they both B. which both C. both of them D. both of which 11. By serving others, a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself, _____ can be very eye-opening and rewarding. A. who B. which C. what D. that 12. Look out! Don’t get too close to the house_____ _roof is under repair. A. whose B. which C. of which D. what 13. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us._____ we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which 14. Many children,____ parents are away working in big cities,are taken good care of in the village. A. their B. whose C. of them D. with whom 15. —What do you think of teaching, Bob? —I find it fun and challenging. It is a job ___ you are doing something serious but interesting. A. where B. which C. when D. that 16. The house I grew up ________ has been taken down and replaced by an office building. A. in it B. in C. in that D. in which 17. She brought with her three friends, none of _____ I had ever met before. A. them B. who C. whom D. these 18.Whenever I met her, _____ was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. A. who B. which C. when D. that 19.Life is like a long race _____we compete with others to go beyond ourselves. A. why B. what C. that D. where 20. That is such a well-known place_____everyone wants to visit ____we can find it in the map of the world. A. that; which B. as; as C. that; that D. as; that


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