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古诗词英译中意境的处理与研究


CONTENTS

Abstract…………………………………………………………….1 Introduction………………………………………………………..3 Chapter 1 An Overview of Artistic Conception……………….4
1.1 Studies of Artistic Conception…………………………………..4 1.2 Features of Artistic Conception………………………………....6 1.3 Artistic Conception and Imagery………………………………..7

Chapter 2 Main Difficulties of Manipulating Artistic Conception…...................................................................................9
2.1 Language Element…………………………………………....9 2.2 Cultural Element…………………………………………….13

Chapter 3 Principles and Strategies of Manipulating Artistic Conception….................................................................................17 3.1 Principles of Manipulating Artistic Conception……….17 3.2 Strategies of Manipulating Artistic Conception…….....19 Conclusion………………………………………………………...31 Notes…………………………………………………………….....33 Bibliography……………………………………………………....34 Acknowledgements…………………………………………….....35

On Manipulation of Artistic Conception in C-E Poetry Translation

Abstract: Chinese classical poetry is the essence and treasure of Chinese
language with rich cultural connotation, and artistic conception is one of its main attractions and it is vital in poetry creation and appreciation. Also, as the soul of poetry, it concretizes poets' subjective emotion and thought which is abstract and hard to grasp, achieving the aesthetic effect of unlimited meaning with limited words. And owing to its abstraction, artistic conception is one of the primary difficulties in poetry translation. Many scholars from home and abroad such as Witter Bynner, Xu Yuanchong have made some studies on Chinese poetry translation issues. However, systematic studies on artistic conception manipulation are few. So the scientific research of artistic conception manipulation in C-E poetry translation has great significance. The purpose of this thesis is to find some useful strategies by analyzing and studying some examples with descriptive translation research method. This thesis firstly gives an overall view of artistic conception. Then, some difficulties when manipulating artistic conception are presented. At last, the thesis discusses the principles and strategies of manipulating artistic conception in detail. Based on the above analysis, we can handle the artistic conception flexibly in translating the Chinese classical poetry. Thus, the original taste can be well transferred.

Key Words: artistic conception; difficulties; principles; strategies



要:古典诗词是中华民族语言的精粹,凝聚着丰富的文化内涵。其中,意境是中

国古诗词的最大魅力所在。 意境在诗词的创作和鉴赏中有着非常重要的作用, 它作为诗歌的 灵魂将诗人抽象的、不易把握的主观感情和思想加以形象化、具体化,以达到“言有尽而意 无穷” 的效果, 也正是它的抽象性使中国古典诗词的翻译成为翻译实践活动和研究中的一个 难点。国内外的一些学者如宾纳、许渊冲等对中诗英译已经做了一些研究,但对古诗词英译
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中意境的处理的系统研究则为之较少。 因此, 在意境处理这一问题上对其进行进一步的科学 性研究具有较大的意义。 本论文的研究目的在于通过对一些诗例进行描述翻译研究来探讨一 些实用的翻译策略。该论文首先对意境做了一个大概的介绍。接着,列出了处理意境时所遇 到的一些难题。最后,详细地讨论了处理意境的原则与策略。通过以上分析,我们就能在古 诗词英译中灵活地去把握意境,从而译出原诗词特有的韵味和风采。 关键词:意境;难点;原则;策略

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Introduction

Chinese culture was the most artistic and longest-established culture that had ever existed. With the stronger and fast-developed economy of China, China?s position in the world is more and more important. In recent years, more and more foreigners have begun to learn Chinese language, Chinese culture and Chinese literature. Therefore, to make our culture understood and accepted by people all over the world is essential and of great importance. Poetry is the succinct part in Chinese and culture-loaded. Artistic conception is the charm of poetry. So it is vital in poetry creation and appreciation. Meanwhile, artistic conception is a difficult point in poetry translation. Time-consuming and pains-taking as it is, many scholars try to do this job in spite of the fact that the target version may not be as beautiful as the original. Began with an overall view of artistic conception, the thesis seeks out the previous studies on it. Different views of artistic conception was put forward by scholars such as Wang Changling( 王 昌 龄 ), Wang Guowei(王国维) etc. These views are very helpful to understand the features of artistic conception and distinguish the similarities and dissimilarities between artistic conception and imagery. In Chapter one, all these will be discussed in detail.

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Chapter 1 An Overview of Artistic Conception

Artistic conception is a fundamental and important feature in Chinese classical poetry. Therefore, the manipulation of artistic conception in the translation of Chinese classical poetry is a very significant yet rather difficult subject to be explored. Even though almost every scholar use the term “artistic conception” when discussing Chinese classical poetry translation, there is no definite and uniform understanding about it so far. Different people hold different opinions about it. Hence, in order to do better in translating Chinese classical poetry, firstly we should get a comprehensive understanding of artistic conception including the studies on artistic conception, the features of artistic conception, and the relations between the artistic conception and imagery.

1.1 Studies on Artistic Conception
The theory of artistic conception is the principal concept in the traditional Chinese aesthetics concerning artistic imagery. To some degree, the term “artistic conception” only belongs to Chinese literature. In particular, the flourish of poetry in the Tang Dynasty provides the necessary material base for the emergence of the theory of artistic conception.
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Artistic conception(In Chinese, we call it “yijing”), was firstly put forward by the well-known Tang poet Wang Changling(王昌龄). In his essay entitled The Poetic Form(《诗格》), he advocated “Three Jings of Poetry”, namely, wujing(material conception), qingjing(emotional

conception) and yijing(artistic conception), of which yijing was the highest. From then on, yijing was discussed by many poets and scholars again and again. Sikong Tu(司空图) once proposed “象外之象”(images beyond images), “境外之境”(scenes beyond scenes), which touched upon the essential features of yijing. Later on, Yanyu( 严 羽 ), a well-known scholar of the Song Dynasty, authored “Canglang?s Notes on Poets and Poems”(《沧浪诗话》) and conspicuously put forward the concept of “inspired interest”(兴趣), giving a vivid description of the aesthetic features of artistic conception. After that, Wang Guowei(王国维) made a comprehensive and systematic summarization of the ancient and modern theories of artistic conception. He pointed out in his Notes on Ci Poems(《人间词话》): “文学之事,其内足以抒己,而外足以感人者, 意与境二者也。”(What can sufficiently express oneself internally and touch people to the heart externally are no more than yi(idea) and jing(realm)) .He was the first to point out directly that the fusion between scene and emotion, the subjective and objective, and in his opinion,

There exist in literature two essential elements: jing(scenes) and qing(emotions), with the former describing the main nature
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and facts in human life, and the latter lying in people?s mentality and attitude toward them. Therefore, the latter concerns the subjective world while the former, the objective.[1]

Even though Wang?s exposition about yijing is far from perfect, many people are still in favor of his viewpoint. This thesis is also based on this theory: the fusion between scene and emotion forms the artistic conception.

1.2 Features of Artistic Conception
Since we have an overall view of artistic conception, it is necessary for us to know about the main features of it because it will be helpful to understand and render the artistic conception when translating the Chinese classical poetry. Generally speaking, artistic conception involves two basic aspects: the objective reflection of the natural settings and the subjective creation of the author?s thoughts and feelings. On one side, the poets use the language to describe what they see; on the other side, they fuse what they think into the language to let the readers understand their mood under the certain circumstance. Artistic conception consists in creating an artistic realm capable of leading the reader into an imaginary space by way of artistic description which is characterized by a visualized fusion of feelings with the natural setting. Usually, there are two realms exist in artistic conception: an actual realm and an imaginary realm. The artistic images produced by the
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fusion of feeling with the natural setting is an actual realm, which is individual and limited; while the realm triggered by the actual realm is an imaginary realm, which is intangible and unlimited. The actual realm prescribed by the artists in a concrete way presents itself directly before the readers, providing the foundations for the emergence of the second infinite images or realm in his mind. We should always remember that artistic conception is a unity of “actual” and “imaginary”, “factual” and “fictitious”. It may highlight describing scenes sometimes, or expressing thoughts or feelings at other times, but feeling and scenes can never be separated. We should take both the two into consideration when translating the Chinese classical poetry.

1.3 Artistic Conception and Imagery
Artistic conception and imagery are two different terms in poetry even though they two are interrelated in innumerable ways. Actually, they have similarities and dissimilarities. Specifically speaking, imagery is a product combined by the individual image of object with the subjective feeling and thought. The similarities between these two concepts lie in that they both require a unity of feeling and scene, a unity of “subjective” and “objective”. However, as their names suggest, imagery(yixiang) is a unity of yi(thought) and xiang(image of object), while artistic conception(yijing) is a unity of yi(thought) and jing(realm): imagery is the important organic component of artistic conception, and artistic
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conception is of a higher-lever category than imagery. Therefore, imagery to artistic conception is what “word” to “language”. As far as a poem is concerned, the imagery is related to the single word or phrase concerning the individual image of object, while the artistic conception is connected with the conception of the whole discourse of a poem. It can be said that the relationship between imagery and artistic conception is that of the parts and the whole. According to Gestalt Theory, the whole is composed of the parts, but is greater than the sum of its parts. Here the artistic conception has a relative meaning, referring to any group of words which has a complete semantic meaning. Then it may refer to one single sentence, several sentences, or a complete poem which can produce an artistic conception. As we all know, artistic conception is a dominant characteristic of Chinese classical poetry. Therefore, it is vital to grasp the artistic conception and understand it accurately when doing the translation.

Chapter 2
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Main Difficulties of Manipulating Artistic Conception

Translation is a complex task. However, translating Chinese classical poetry is rather difficult; nevertheless say reproducing the artistic conception. On one hand, translators should have rather well-knit language capability of English and Chinese, and literature attainment. They must exert subjective creation, conquering the obstacle in translating process, trying to reproduce the artistic conception beauty of the original poetry. On the other hand, because the differences of two languages, especially grammatical differences, many untranslatable elements exist in the process of translating Chinese classical poetry. Only if translators know clearly about what these difficulties are first can they do better when dealing with these difficulties. In this chapter, it is to be analyzed from two aspects: language element and cultural element.

2.1 Language Element
English and Chinese belong to two different language families: English, the Indo-European family; and Chinese, the Sino-Tibetan family. Thus, there exist many differences between these two languages. Chinese is a language of art: refined and succinct. Chinese sentences allow omission of subject, preposition, or conjunction. A person can get the information expressed in a sentence yet unexpressed in words. Moreover, there is no tense in Chinese. A Chinese verb can be either real
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or subjunctive; it can refer to the past, the presence, or the future. English, on the contrary, is a language of science with strict rules. In Chinese, the grammatical function of words is not obvious, without change of tense and voice. The sentence construction of Chinese emphasizes meaning rather than grammar formation. Although sentence is the language unit which expresses the complete meaning, many Chinese sentences have no subject or without obvious subject; Chinese sentence has connective meaning without connective form. The logical relation concealed in it. These unique grammatical characteristics have enough reflections in Chinese classical poetry. Chinese has the characteristic of meaning combined. In Chinese classical poetry, different images can set out freely, without any conjunction in the middle of sentence. There is no need to consider the limitation of time and space because the flexible syntax of Chinese endowed the poet much more freedom. They can rank and enchase images what they choose at his pleasure, producing the endless aftertaste, showing readers a dynamic picture produced by montage technique. However, English has strict grammatical rules. The logical relation of every sentence is clear and obvious by change of word class, tense and rich conjunction word. Conjunction plays a crucial role in the construction of sentence. Word class is also comparatively fixed. Chinese?s imprecision has superiority in writing poem. Since
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Chinese is analytical language without person, number and tense, it makes the creation of classical Chinese poetry much flexibility. However, this flexibility cannot be kept in translation for English is synthesized language; noun and verb both have inflective change. Since the subject of Chinese poem is often omitted, the blurring realm of subjective and objective achieve, leaving unlimited imaginative space for readers. On the contrary, English is a typical language established on form principal axis. On usual occasions, subject must exist. Subject is always implied or omitted in classical Chinese poetry, but when they are translated into English, the rigid syntax of English requires subject definitely come out. This will lead to the lost of implication beauty of classical Chinese poetry, making the artistic conception severely destroyed. Example 1:

身无彩凤双飞翼,心有灵犀一点通。(李商隐《无题二首(其 一)》) Though I have for my body no wings like those of the bright-colored phoenix, Yet I feel the harmonious heart-beat of the Scared Unicorn.[2]

We cannot find any personal preposition in original poem. We can imagine the principal part of this poem is the writer himself, or third person, or the reader himself. Owing to the omission of subject, poet

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invites readers to come into his emotional world, making readers and poet have common mind resonance, making readers explain the original poem from multiple perspectives, obtaining different aesthetic experience. In translated version, subject has been clearly given, and the imaginative space has been reduced greatly. Compared with the original poem, the translation looks so straight, resulting in the disappearance of implication beauty. The original lines without subject have wider vision and emotion; while in translation version “I” was added to fit the English usage. Its artistic conception is reduced obviously. Example 2:

露从今夜白,月是故乡明。(杜甫《月夜忆舍弟》) He knows that the dews tonight will be frost. How much brighter the moonlight is at home! [3]

In the translation version, the implicit beauty without subject of Chinese language is not kept and the artistic conception is lost somewhat. Many Chinese poems are unfolded by image arrangement, and it will blur the relationship between emotion and scene, producing diverse understanding. Example 3:

雨中黄叶树,灯下白头人。(司空曙《喜外弟卢纶见宿》) And as the raindrops brighter yellow leaves, The lamp illumines my white head. [4]

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The addition of the conjunction “as” in the translated verse makes the first line belong to the second line, protruding the subtle and blur sense between emotion and scene. The distinct difference of thought way and symbols makes the reproduction of artistic conception which somewhat comes from fuzzy traits of Chinese language rather difficult.

2.2 Cultural Element
Some poets point out that poetry is what is lost in translation. That is to say, loss is unavoidable in rendition; translation of actual realm is no exception. Due to different natural environments, social conventions and cultural traditions, actual realm in different cultures may have varied connotative meanings. The carrier of artistic conception is language symbol, and language not only has relation with consciousness and logical thinking, but also is affected by unconsciousness and subconscious. These unconsciousness and subconscious soaked from culture, history, nationality, individuality and every kind of external and inner element. Entering to the deep level of some actual realm elements, we can get more social, political and cultural information. Chinese is a paratactic language while English is a hypotactic one. Only about 40% of the Chinese words can find their equivalents in English. It seems that equivalence is not as practical in translating Chinese into English or vice versa, particularly not realistic in poetic translation. Due to various factors, images, notions and phrases within one particular culture operate
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in a way that can seldom have a precise counterpart in any other culture. An encounter with the cultural issue is unavoidable. Example 4:

锦瑟 锦瑟无端五十弦,一弦一柱思华年。 庄生晓梦迷蝴蝶,望帝春心托杜鹃。 沧海月明珠有泪,蓝田日暖玉生烟。 此情可待成追忆,只是当时已惘然。 I wonder why my inlaid harp has fifty strings, Each with its flower-like fret an interval of youth. …The sage Chuangzi is day-dreaming, bewitched by butterflies, The spring-heart of Emperor Wang is crying in a cukoo, Mermen weep their pearly tears down a moon-green sea, Blue fields are breathing their jade to the sun… And a moment that ought to have lasted for ever Has come and gone before I knew. [5]

This poem is full of historical allusions and is so obscure that even Chinese readers will find it difficult to understand. Readers can never fully get the deep meaning beneath the surface unless they know the implication about Master Zhuang( 庄 子 ), Emperor Wang( 望 帝 ), Lantian(蓝田) and Pearl?s tears(珠泪). Inevitably, when translating this poem into English, a translator must add a long passage of explanation to help the readers to understand the poem. Consequently, the artistic conception of the poem will be undoubtedly lost or spoiled.

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Some actual realm with cultural elements is provided with relatively secure and unique signification; some are affluent in far-reaching associations and imagination. When it is roughly translated into English version, the cultural connotation full of Chinese characteristics is irretrievably lost. A research shows that readers of the target language prefer to read the translation with well-preserved exotic flavor. This is a natural desire arising from readers? aesthetic appreciation. However, some translators worry about causing obstacles and troubles in the readers? understanding of the version if they translate an alien image from a different culture. So they resort to ready expressions for substitutions in the translated text, or omit the original cultural term, etc. In fact, cultural images containing different nation?s historic and cultural wisdom have developed into the cultural symbol and possess a unique and securing cultural signification full of exuberantly meaningful association. Hence, actual realm with cultural elements should be fully and truly conveyed in line with the essence of translation with every possible means. If they are translated directly and bluntly, the aesthetic association and misty flavor will be lost. Readers of the target language will have no opportunity to enjoy these expressions with exotic flavor. So the appropriate disposal of actual realm elements is the other main difficulty in reproducing artistic conception. Since the main difficulties have been discussed, we should take
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these into consideration when doing translation and try to decrease the loss of aesthetic interest that may cause because of them.

Chapter 3
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Principles and Strategies of Manipulating Artistic Conception

As we have mentioned in the previous chapter, the translation of Chinese classical poetry is difficult and translators will encounter difficulties from different aspects. Anyhow, we should always keep it clear in mind that Chinese classical poetry is translatable and artistic conception can be transferred into another language. We can use different strategies to deal with it flexibly if we grasp the principles correctly and appropriately. In this chapter, the principles and strategies of manipulating artistic conception are to be discussed in detail.

3.1 Principles of Manipulating Artistic Conception
When referring to the principles of manipulating artistic conception, we can discuss from the following aspects: principle of imagery equivalence, principle of semantic equivalence, principle of emotional equivalence, principle of aesthetic equivalence. 3.1.1 Principle of Imagery Equivalence Imagery is the basic element for the thinking process when composing, appreciating and translating a poem. Poets express their emotions and thoughts through imagery materialized in the form of linguistic symbols. When the readers read the poem, the first thing they encounter is the linguistic symbols and images they represent, from
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which they understand the emotions and thoughts of the poet and also form corresponding mental images in their own mind. A translator has the responsibility to make common readers reconstruct an equivalent imagery. Therefore, translators should reproduce the imagery accurately or at least similarly in order to let the readers get a faithful translation. 3.1.2 Principle of Semantic Equivalence Any translation activity must be the transition between two language symbols in different system. During the process of language expression, thinking must be confined by various language rules. Therefore, translators should choose a proper way to complete the transference between two languages without bringing misunderstanding. Firstly, a translator should understand the semantic meaning of the source language. And then, proper words should be used in proper way to convey the semantic equivalence in target language. 3.1.3 Principle of Emotional Equivalence Emotion is also an important constituent in artistic conception. Sometimes, the poets express their emotions directly which can easily be seen through language symbols; however, sometimes the emotions are expressed indirectly which can only be attained through logic thinking or subjective imagination. Hence, translators should grasp the ton of the poems accurately, no matter it is obvious or hidden in the language symbols. To fully transfer the emotion is the key element to vender the
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artistic conception well. 3.1.4 Principle of Aesthetic Equivalence As for aesthetic equivalence in poetic translation, it is not hard for us to bring to mind Professor Xu Yuanchong?s(许渊冲) “three-aspected beauty of poetry”, which refers to the beauty in sound, the beauty in sense and the beauty in form. Aesthetic equivalence means that translated versions should attempt to give the same or similar aesthetic enjoyment to the target language readers as the source language text to the source language readers. Thus, in translation, translators should not only translate the literal meaning of the poem, but also the associative sense of it. This is the basic requirement. At the same time, it?s better to present meter, rhyme in the original poem and keep the original form if possible. These principles should always be kept in mind when manipulating the artistic conception. Based on these principles, translators can easily decide which one is a better strategy to manipulate artistic conception under different circumstances.

3.2 Strategies of Manipulating Artistic Conception
The Chinese classical poems are marked with a few fine and vivid images with rich suggestiveness, subtlety and simplicity. So it is an important task to represent the actual realm in the target language for the transference of artistic conception, to convey the poet?s feelings and thoughts. Due to the different languages and the different cultural
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backgrounds, it is hard to keep the original aesthetic conception, sometimes. Then a translator should try to change it into the similar actual realm which can associate the target readers with the same or at least the similar imagination, or add some notes to the original one which does not make sense to the readers. By doing this, the translator can transfer the artistic conception more efficiently. But sometimes he cannot but delete the original elements and explain the hidden meaning, namely, generalize it. No matter what methods will be adapted, one principle is virtual realm (the emotion or thought) which is the soul of the whole poem should be furthest transferred. In this chapter, main attention will be focused on strategies of how to convey artistic conception in translating practice.

3.2.1 Literal Translation
Human experiences and observations of the world are in many respects similar. So there are some actual realm elements in both languages carrying the same association. They should be kept when translated. Images unit are vital to the constitution of artistic conception, so they must be faithfully retained in the translation. There may be the case that one symbolic image in classical Chinese poetry may not have the equivalent image in English, then some translators may worry that if we faithfully retain the image without any adjustments, foreigners are less likely to understand it. But since the implied meaning of the symbolic
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image is generally fixed, and the same symbolic image is often employed in various poems, foreigners are supposed to gradually comprehend the symbolic meaning of the symbolic image they frequently come across. Newmark has said:

In principle, in authoritative and expressive texts, these should be translated literally…because such original metaphors are a source of enrichment for the target language.[6]

As we all know, poem belongs to the expressive text, hence symbolic image, metaphor usually should be retained in the target language. But considering the acceptability of target readers, sometimes the explanatory notes should be added at the end of the translation, which can help readers appreciate the artistic conception better. The typical example of literal translation is the line of Li Bai?s poem translated by Pound. Example 5:

抽刀断水水更流,举杯消愁愁更愁。 Drawing sword cut in to water, water again flows. Raise cup, quench sorrow, sorrow again sorrow.[7]

When we read the original poem, we are easily recalled a sense of sorrow by the repeated words “水”and “愁”. The literal translation of “water” and “sorrow” with the repeated form also let readers easily
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imagine the endless sorrow deep within the poet?s heart. The preservation of original form gives us the same artistic conception, making the foreigner feel the poetic sense of more oriental flavor. Sometimes, the literal meanings and intended meanings may seem different, but this kind of fresh metaphor will provide foreigners exotic flavor. So the brought out of real signified object is dispensable. Besides, the adjustments in some aspects are necessary. Example 6:

回眸一笑百媚生,六宫粉黛无颜色。(白居易《长恨歌》) Version 1: If she but turned her head and smiled, there were cast a hundred spell, And the powder and paint of the Six Palaces faded into nothing. [8] Version 2: Turning her head, she smiled so sweet and full of grace, That she outshone in six palaces the fairest face. [9]

“六宫粉黛” refers to the beautiful imperial concubines in all palaces. In China, people are very familiar with the metonymy used in these two lines. In version 1: Bynner translated its literal meaning without clarifying the implied meaning “women”, which is close to the source text and vivid and fresh, but for some foreigners who know nothing about Chinese culture, it may be unreadable. In version 2: Xu translated only the implied meaning and give up the images of the colorful and delicate
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cosmetics, the translation is faithful but too ordinary. So the better treatment may be Bynner?s version added a piece of annotation—“the powder and paint” represents the beautiful imperial concubines. Some images are difficult to understand or may even cause misapprehension but they are of key importance to the poem, thus that can?t be omitted. One solution to this dilemma is to preserve the image with annotation. For example, the image of “玉门关”(the jade Gate Pass) may mean little to an English reader; however, we can add an annotation in translation as: it is a military stronghold in northwest China with a large number of troops garrisoned there in Han Dynasty, it is often associated with endless and melancholy yearning for home by the frontier soldier. With this annotation, the text two lines then can easily draw forth the same emotions in an English reader as in a Chinese reader. Example 7:

羌笛何须怨杨柳,春风不渡玉门关。(王之涣《出塞》) Why should the Mongol flute complain no willows grow? Beyond the jade Gate Pass vernal wind never blow. [10]

Keeping the original image in target language will keep the poetic quality as well as the cultural uniqueness in source lanuage, and the image is acceptable to target language readers with the help of explanations or annotations.
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Some images are both employed in Chinese and English for the same tenor. For example, “flower” for “girl” is a common metaphor in the two languages. In such occasions, we can retain the original metaphor. However, some other images can still be retained, though they don?t share the two languages, with explanative words or additional complements as compensation for meaning to help understand as in the version of “彩袖 殷勤捧玉钟”(“That year you in a colorful robe/urged me to drink wine with a jade cup.”[11]) “彩袖”(colorful robe) is a special metonymy, which refers to the person in colorful robe. “玉钟”(jade cup) refers to a kind of wine cup made of jade. Both of the two images are retained to preserve the original flavour which also set obstacles in understanding for English readers. Therefore, the complement “you” and explanative words “to drink wine” are added to the version.

3.2.2 Generalization
When actual realm elements in the source language can not find its counterpart and draw forth the same association in the readers of the target language or even may cause misunderstanding, they should be transferred into a general one in the target language to preserve the connotation of the original expression. This method in translation is called generalization or substitution, which means to transfer the original actual realm elements into a different more general one in the target language.
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Rigid adherence to the original expression can not be called faithful since the association and the true meaning of the expression are not reproduced in the target language. In this case, deliberate generalization is a better solution when the expressions are too aboriginal to transplant. Example 8:

渔阳肇鼓动地来 But rebels beat their war drums, making the earth quake. [12]

Here “渔阳”, instead of being literally translated into “Yuyang”, is generalized as “rebels” which is true implication of the original word. By doing this, the original meaning is effectively conveyed without causing any misunderstanding. This word has the same association in target language as that of the original. There are several metaphorical images in Chinese classical poetry with the same feeling of deep sorrow; while in English their only counterpart is “heartbroken”. “肠断”(intestines-broken) is one of the most popular images in classical Chinese poetry used to mean deep sorrow. In Chinese, the expression of deep sorrow is also related to other organs such as 心(heart) or both heart and liver(心肝) or both liver and intestines(肝肠). Except “心碎”(heartbroken), the others will confuse the target language reader, even arousing the disgusting feeling. Hence the original can only be replaced by heartbroken in English versions like the
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example. Example 9:

料得年年肠断处,明月夜,短松冈。 Can I not be heart-broken when I am awoken From her grave clad with pines, Where only the moon shines. [13]

There are many other culture-loaded images often be generalized in translation. Such as, “茱萸” is generalized as “branch”, “嫦娥” is generalized as “the Moon Goddess” etc. There are some proper names of palaces in the classical Chinese poetry which are unintelligible to foreign readers. If they are the ones that are essential to the understanding and appreciation of the whole poem, they should be rendered by annotation; otherwise, they can be left out for they are of minor importance. They are often substituted by the words in general sense. Example 10:

暖风熏得游人醉,直把杭州作汴州。(林升《题临安邸》) The revelers are drunk with vernal breeze and leisure; They?d take the new capital for old place of pleasure. [14]

“杭州” and “汴州” are not just two common names of places, but names with the strong cultural and historical color. “汴州” refers to the capital city of the Song Dynasty, which had already been conquered by
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Jin Nationality when the poet wrote this poem. The rulers of the Northern Song Dynasty did not make any efforts to regain the lost capital but were indulged in drinking and pleasure in the new capital Lin?an, Hangzhou. The last line has the satirical meaning that if the rulers did not stop seeking pleasure; Hangzhou would also be taken by the invaders. So it is easily understood by the target readers and more acceptable to generalize the proper names. At the same time, it transfers the virtual realm the author wants to express. Converting original images into familiar ones can not only eliminate cultural obstacles in understanding, but also convey the poetic beauty to target readers and fully evoke their imagination of the metaphorical meanings. However, generalization may lose the beauty of image and form in source language, and can hardly convey all the obscure meanings contained in the original. The poetic beauty suffers greatly from it, thought the original meaning is well interpreted by generalization. Therefore, it is the strategy used only when literal translation cannot work well in poem translation.

3.2.3 Addition
Generally speaking, the translator is not entitled to add things to the original text as he likes. However, for the sake of equivalent effect in the translated text, the translator might add some expressions according to the context. In this way, the readers of the target language can enjoy the same
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aesthetic effect, and the original is entirely reproduced. Example 11:

故园东望路漫漫,双袖龙钟泪不干。 马上相逢无纸笔,凭君传语报平安。(岑参《逢入京使》) It?s a long way home, a long way east. I am old and my sleeve is wet with tears. We meet on horseback. I have no means of writing. Tell them three words: “He is safe.” [15]

Based on his life experience, Bynner shaped the scene of prescribing the messenger of entering the capital of a country, turning the abstract report to concrete speech, “tell them three words: ?he is safe?”, like everything is in your eyes and ears. Here the use of the addition method preserves the original artistic conception of the slight sorrow come from the urgent meeting and tough environment. It is necessary to point out that the addition aims to bring the suggested meaning of the original to surface, or to make the translated text more vivid so that similar aesthetic effect could be achieved. But the prerequisite of such addition is the maintenance of the original meaning. A serious translator is not supposed to add images casually.

3.2.4 Conversed Translation
Sometimes the conversed translation can have same aesthetic effect with the original. Example 12:

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独怜幽草涧边生,上有黄鹂深树鸣。 春潮待雨晚来急,野渡无人舟自横。(韦应物《滁州西涧》) At Chuzhou on the Western Stream Where tender grasses rim the stream And deep boughs trill with mango-birds On the spring flood of last night?s rain The ferry-boat moves as though someone were poling. [16]

“无人” of the source language is translated as “someone”. The original poetic picture and translated version are respectively dynamic and static. Being greatly divergent, they have the similar graceful artistic conception. Example 13:

但见泪痕湿,不知心恨谁。(李白《怨情》) You may see the tears now bright on her cheek But not the man she so bitterly loves. [17]

“Hate” in this poem is caused by “love”, so Bynner translated it into “love”. It is more reasonable in English culture. Besides the specific translating skills mentioned here, we also have conversion, omission, repetition, division, combination and so on. Different atmospheres require different diction and sentence structure. From the above illustrations, we can draw the conclusion that the actual realm elements in poetry can be preserved, substituted, added or even omitted, and the sentence order, structure and word class can be changed
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according to different situations. But one thing is certain that only when similar virtual realm of the artistic conception is achieved in the readers of the target language can the rendition of the poem be called successful.

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Conclusion

By using the descriptive translation study method, the paper cited many poem translation examples and tried to find some operable translation strategies of transferring artistic conception based on the Chinese poetry artistic conception theory. With a historical review of the evolution of the theory, the main features have been completely expounded: it can be deconstructed into two realms-actual realm and virtual realm, in other words, the vivid imagery group and the implied poets? emotion. Based on the analysis of artistic conception elements, the thesis also summed up some principles which will be instructive in practical translating activity, including principle of imagery equivalence, principle of semantic equivalence, principle of emotional equivalence, principle of aesthetic equivalence. According to these principles, the thesis then discussed some main strategies: literal translation, generalization, addition and conversed translation. Although it is impossible to reproduce the completely same artistic conception as the original, translators can still try their utmost to reproduce the approximate essential equivalence with flexible handling. With more and more frequent cultural exchange, it is vital to promote the translation of classical Chinese poetry into English. In practical translating activity, many more strategies are to be explored and
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studied. The artistic conception will definitely be manipulated perfectly someday.

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Notes
[1]吴战磊.中国诗学[M].北京:东方出版社,1997:43. [2][3][4][5]Witter Bynner.The Chinese Translations[M].New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1982:126,186,170,127. [6]Peter Newmark.A textbook of translation[M].New York: Prentice-Hall International, 1988:112. [7]Ezra Pound.Poems and translations[M].New York:Library of America, 2003:260. [8]Witter Bynner.The Chinese Translations[M].New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1982:159. [9][10] 许 渊 冲 , 陆 佩 弦 , 吴 钧 陶 . 唐 诗 三 百 首 新 译 [M]. 北 京 : 中 国 对 外 翻 译 出 版 公 司,1988:285,15. [11]Witter Bynner.The Chinese Translations[M].New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1982;111. [12] 许 渊 冲 , 陆 佩 弦 , 吴 钧 陶 . 唐 诗 三 百 首 新 译 [M]. 北 京 : 中 国 对 外 翻 译 出 版 公 司,1988:287. [13]许渊冲译.英汉对照宋词三百首[M].北京: 中国对外翻译出版公司,2006:203. [14]张智中.许渊冲与翻译艺术[M].武汉: 湖北教育出版社,2006:432. [15][16][17]Witter Bynner.The Chinese Translations[M].New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1982:174,231,107.

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Bibliography
1.Ezra Pound.Poems and translations[M].New York:Library of America,2003. 2.Peter Newmark.A textbook of translation[M].New York: Prentice-Hall International,1988. 3. Witter Bynner.The Chinese Translations[M].New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux,1982. 4. Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang.Tang Poems [M].Beijing:Foreign Language Press,2001. 5.黄新渠.中国诗词英译的几点看法[J].翻译通讯,1981,(5). 6.黎德锐.诗歌文本解读与创作[M].北京:中国戏剧出版社,2007. 7.连淑能.英译汉教程[M].北京:高等教育出版社,2006. 8.王宏印.中国文化典籍英译[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2009. 9.王国维.人间词话[M].上海:上海古籍出版社,1998. 10.吴战磊.中国诗学[M].北京:东方出版社,1997. 11.许渊冲.翻译的艺术(论文集)[C].北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1984. 12.许渊冲, 陆佩弦, 吴钧陶.唐诗三百首新译[M].北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1988. 13.许渊冲译.英汉对照宋词三百首[M].北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2006. 14.张保红.汉诗英译中的意象再现[J].外国语,1994,(2). 15.张智中.许渊冲与翻译艺术[M].武汉:湖北教育出版社,2006.

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