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2014高考英语任务型阅读专题(二)


2014 高考英语任务型阅读专题(二)
学会归纳概括词汇 概括词汇有时可以在文章中找到, 有时要注意常见的搭配和文章的结构另想它词。 在平 时练习中注意运用和记忆。 概括性词汇:
原因和结果 cause(s) (of…..); reason(s)( for….); analysis ( about..) effect(s); result(s); consequence(s) 态度观点 比较 异同 优劣 attitude(s) ( to/ towards…); opinion(s) (on/about….) comparison(s) between A and B difference(s); similarity(similarities) benefit(s); weakness(es) 目的 建议预计 问题 方式方法 purpose(s); aim(s); goal(s) advice; suggestion(s); tip(s); problem(s) means (of….); method(s)(of…) ; way(s)(to do); approach(es)(to doing) ; solution(s) to sth; how (to do….) 总结概括 特点 重要意义 定义主题 来源用途 种类 步骤过程 措施行动 评论评价反应 summary; conclusion feature (s); characteristic(s) significance; importance; meaning definition(定义); theme(主题); topic(话题) source(来源); origin(起源); use; usage; function(功能) kind; type; category steps; procedures; process measures; steps; action(s) comment(on/about…); remark(on/upon); assessment( 评 估 ); prediction; forecast (dis)advantage(s); (in)convenience; strength(s);

response (to .sth) ; reaction(to sth) 背景信息简介 事件时间地点 background information(on/ about….); brief introduction(to…) event(s); time; place

和人有关的名词

birthday, birthplace, death, nationality, education, appearance, salary, activity(activities); achievement(s)

和地方有关的名词

a place of interest, a tourist attraction, tourism, destination, area, location, history, climate, population, culture—cultural, tradition(s),

politics—political;

economy---economic;

custom(s),

transport/ transportation; the living conditions 和疾病有关的名词 definition; cause(s), symptom(s); prevention; treatment(s)

例: A smart card is a card that is carried with either a microprocessor and a memory chip or only a memory chip that is not programmable. The microprocessor card can add. delete, and deal with the information on the card, while a memory-chip card can only do one thing. Smart cards, unlike magnetic stripe cards, can do many different things and hold a lot of information. In this way, they do not need to get information from a faraway place when they are used. Today, there are several kinds of smart cards, all of which are very popular in the market: IC (Integrated Circuit) Microprocessor Cards Microprocessor Cards (chip cards) offer a larger memory and better security than the traditional magnetic stripe cards do. Chip cards can also hold data. These cards are used for many things. Thus, chips have been the main platform for cards that hold a secure digital identity. Some examples of these cards are: Cards that hold money. Cards that provide safe access to a network. Cards that allow setting stop boxes on televisions to remain safe from privacy. Optical Memory Cards Optical memory cards look like cards with a piece of CD on the top. Optical memory cards can store up to 4MB of data. But once written, the data can not be changed or removed. Thus, this type of card is good for keeping records, such as medical files, driving records or travel histories. Today, these have no processors in them (although this is coming in the near future). While the cards are almost as cheap as chip cards, the card readers are expensive. Title: Smart cards

(1)___________ IC Chip Cards

(2)____________ A larger memory & Better security Hold data

(3)_____________ Not mentioned

(4)____________ Popularity Large memory Low cost of

Optical Memory cards

Store much data Good for doctors Drivers and travelers to keep records Cost not much

Unchangeable data No processors Expensive car readers

cards

附:任务型阅读中的高频词:
1.使某人能够做 enable / allow sb to do 2.不能做某事 fail to do 3.绝非易事 no easy job 4.避免做 avoid doing 5.包括……including sth= sth included 6. 导 致 result in= lead to=contribute to=bring about = cause= give rise to 7.符合需求 meet/ satisfy / suit one’s needs/ wants/ demands/ requirements 8.充分利用 make the most of=make the best(use) of= make full use of 9.依靠 depend on=be dependent on 10.建立在……基础上 be based on 11.做某事有困难 have difficulties with sth have difficulty / trouble (in) doing sth 12.参与 participate in =get/be involved in 13.献身于,投入于 devote ….to sth/doing 14.一刻,四分之一 quarter 49.一开始 in the beginning 在……开始 at the beginning of… 50.使某人想起;提醒某人注意 remind sb of sth 51.和……和谐相处 live in harmony with = live harmoniously with 52.对……造成损害 do /cause damage to.. 53.成本高 at high cost 54.以认可……in recognition of…. 55.阻止某人做 prevent / stop/ keep sb from 56.保持健康 keep fit/ healthy 57.鼓励某人做 encourage sb to do 在某人鼓励之下 under one’s encouragement 在某人指导之下 under one’s guidance 58.成功地做 manage to do= succeed in doing 59.受伤(v) injure 受伤(n) injury 受伤(adj) injured

十年 decade 一个世纪 century 15.和……相似 be similar to 16.熟悉……be familiar with 17.重要/有价值/有用/有帮助 be of importance/ significance/ value/ use/ help= be important/ significant/ valuable/ useful/ helpful 18.在……帮助下 with the help of =with the aid/ assistance of…. 19.在某人许可之下 with one’s permission 20.开始存在 come into being/ existence 21.影响……have a…effect on = affect 22.被……取代 be replaced by/ with 23.在上升中 be increasing/ rising =be on the increase/ rise 在 减 少 中 be decreasing/declining/

60.遭受……suffer from…. 61.被限制到 be limited to n/ doing 一个……的限制 a limit to… 61.人们普遍接受… It is widely(=generally) accepted that. 我认为……是可接受的 I think it acceptable that… 62.获得成功 achieve success; 达到目的 achieve one’s goal 63.除了..之外还有 in addition to= besides= apart from=as well as… 除了..没有 apart from=except=but =other than 64.在……方面取得进步 make progress=an advance in sth 65.对……厌倦 be bored with=be tired of =be fed up with 66.谨慎(n)caution 67.结合(v)combine 结合(n) combination 谨慎(adj) cautious

dropping=be on the decrease/ decline 24.除了做……别无选择 have no choice/ alternative/ option but to do 25.对……负责;是……成因 be responsible for= take responsibility for 26.对……有害 do harm to= be harmful to 27.对 …… 有好处 be good for=do good to=be beneficial to = be of benefit to….= benefit sb/ sth 28.对……造成威胁 be a threat to sth = be dangerous to ….

68.和 sb 交流 communicate with =have communication with 69.对….自信 be confident of… =have confidence in… 70.由……组成 consist of= be made up of 71. 对…作出贡献 make contributions to=contribute to.. 72.被控制住 be controlled =be under control 73.处在灭绝的危险中 in danger of dying out 74.为某人树立榜样 set an example to sb

29.意识到 be aware / conscious of 提高意识 raise/ increase one’s awareness of 30.有机会利用/进入 have access to…. 31.和……相等;胜任于 be equal to… 32.有规律的/地 regular(ly) 33.舒适的/地 comfortable-comfortably

75.符合某人的期待 come/ live up to one’s expectations 76.面对……be faced with= face 77.成长(v) grow 成长(n) growth

78. 缺 少 实 际 经 验 lack practical experience =be lacking in …..= be short of…… 因为缺….for lack of…. 79.身心健康 physical and mental health be healthy physically and mentally 80.积极的 positive 消极的 negative

34.大多数 the majority of the students= most of the students = most students 35.占多数 in the majority 占少数 in the minority 36.大的百分比 a large percentage of… 37.毁坏(v) destroy 38.可得到的 available 39.建立 set up=found=establish 组成 form a team/ band 40. 消 失 (v)disappear 消 失 (n) 毁坏(n) destruction

81.现象 phenomenon→phenomena 82.受某人欢迎 be popular with=among 欢迎(n) popularity 83.使某人满意 satisfy 满意(n) 84.全心全意为人民服务 serve the people heart and soul 85.社会(n) society 社会的(adj) social satisfaction

disappearance 41.对…感到自豪 be proud of=take pride in 42.描述(v) describe 描述(n) description

86.各种各样的 varieties of=a variety of = various +名词 (动词)vary 87.某人/某事可能 be likely to do 88.实现 realize sth=turn sth into reality 89.随着……发展 with the development of.. 90.A 不同于 B A differs from B= A is different from B 91.改善,提高(n) improvement

43.起……作用 play a role in… 44.保持平衡 keep a balance 45. 考 虑 … … consider …..= take….into consideration/ account 46. 和 … … 有 联 系 be related to= relate to=be linked with/ to= be connected with/ to = be associated with 47.以纪念/以对某人表示敬意 in honor of 48.以庆祝 in celebration of

【备考建议】 1.注重词汇和语法的记忆和运用 许多考生最大的障碍就是词汇。重视词汇不仅要大量背生词,而且要注重“猜词”能力的 培养,善于运用构词法来扩充词汇。不仅要求在单词量上有突破,而且要把高频词学到位. 2.加强阅读训练 阅读是一个语言知识输入的过程,同时也是文化体验的过程。平时在阅读训练当中既 要注重文章细节理解,也要注重文章主旨理解,更要注重文脉逻辑的理解。

【经典导引】(江苏省 2012 届高三百校大联考一模试题) 阅读下面短文,根据所读内容在表格中的空白处填入恰当的单词。 注意:每个空格只填一个单词。 What Should You Do When an Earthquake Hits? If you find the ground shaking beneath your feet, there's an international consensus on how you should act. Earthquake safety boils down to tht-ee basic steps: 1 . Drop to the ground. 2. Take cover by getting under a sturdy deck or table. 3: Hold on to it until the shaking stops. If there isn't a table or desk near you, drop to the ground in an inside corner of the building and cover your head and neck with your hands and arms. Do not try to run to another room just to get under a table. If you are in bed,hold on and stay there,protecting your head with a pillow. You are less likely to be injured staying where you are: Broken glass on the floor has caused injury to those who have rolled to the floor or tried to get to doorways. If you are outdoors,move to a clear area if you can safely do so;avoid power lines,trees, signs, buildings, vehicles, and other hazards: If you're at the movies ox a sports game, at your stay seat and protect your head and neck with your arms. Don't try to leave until the shaking is over,

Then walk out slowly watching for anything that could fall in the aftershocks. If you're driving a car,pull over to the side of the road,stop,and set the parking brake. Avoid overpasses, bridges, power lines,signs and other hazards. Stay inside the vehicle until the shaking is over: If a power line falls on the car,stay inside until a trained person removes the

wire. If you're by the shore,drop,cover and hold on until the shaking stops. Estimate how long the shaking lasts. If severe shaking lasts 20 seconds or more, immediately evacuate to high ground as a tsunami(海啸)might have been generated by the earthquake: 1Vlove inland 3 kilometers(2 miles)or to land that is at least 30 meters(100 feet) above sea level immediately. Don't wait for officials to issue a warning. Walk quickly, rather than drive, avoid traffic. to debris and other hazards If you live downstream for a dam,you should know flood-zone information and have prepared an evacuation plan. Latastrophie failure is unlikely,but dams can fail during major earthquakes. The main point is to try not to move and to immediately protect yourself as best as possible where you are. Earthquakes occur without any warning and may be so violent that you cannot run or crawl;you therefore will most likely be knocked to the ground where you happen to be. You will never know if the initial jolt will turn out to be start of the big one In addition,studies of injuries and deaths caused by earthquakes in the US over the last several decades indicate you are much more likely to be injured by falling or flying objects(TVs, lamps,glass,book cases,etc.)than to die in a collapsed building. "Drop,Cover,and Hold on" offers the best overall level of protection Theme:71_______ to be taken during an earthquake: Drop,Cover and Hold on When indoors you are ● Get under a desk/table or drop to the ground in an inside comer with your head 72.______ with your hands and arms. ● Don't move to other places, 73._______ you might get injured by broken glass. When outdoors you are ● Moving to a clear area and 74.______ staying near power lines are recommended. ● You are 75.______ not to leave until the shaking is over. When driving When you are by you are ● You should 76.______ over to the roadside and keep away from dangerous places like overpasses , bridges or power lines. ● You should walk inland to a higher place to 77._____ from a

the shore

possible Tsunami.

When downstream

you

live

● You should 78._______ a plan for necessary evacuation if you live downstream from a dam.

Conclusion: You should stay 79.______ you are and protect yourself in an earthquake, because you are 80._______ likely to die in a collapsed building than to be injured

by falling or flying objects. 【解析】 71. Measures/Steps/Action 根据文章第一段中的 on how you should act 可以推知是在地震 发生时应该采取的措施,因此用 take measures/steps 或 take action。 72. covered 根据文章第二段中的 cover your head and neck with your hands and arms 可知 是用手和臂膀来遮住头部,句中使用动词的过去分词表示被动。 73. or/otherwise/since 根据文章第三段内容可知转移到其他地方的危险可能是被碎玻璃 刺伤,因此用 otherwise 或 or 来连接前后两个句子,表示假设,或用 since 连接,表示原因。 74, avoiding/not 和前面的 Moving to a clear area 两个并列的动名词短语作句子的主语。 75. supposed/expected 表示“不应该”的意思时,应该使用 be supposed/expected not too 76. pull 根据文章第五段中的 pull over to the side of the road 可知。 77. escape 根据文章第六段内容可以推知应该步行逃离(escape)该区域。 78. prepare 根据文章第七段中的 have prepared an evacuation plan 可以推知。 79. where 全文都说应该呆在原处,因此说 stay where you are。 80。 less 根据文章最后一段的内容可以推知两者之间的关系。

实战训练 ﹙一﹚ No one knows who made the first ice cream. Some people think water ices and milk ices may have been made by the Chinese between three thousand and a thousand years ago. In that timt, the dish reached India. The Indians, in turn, many have passed on the secret to the Arabs and Persians.

Marco Polo, an Italian who traveled widely in the thirteenth century, noted that he found the Chinese had long been making ices out of fruit juices and milk. From the fourteenth century on, ices became popular first in Venice and then throughout Italy. At first ice cream was a luxury﹙奢侈品﹚ in France. Only rich people had the money to buy it. Then , in 1660, a young man from Sicily, Francisco Procopio, arrived in Paris. He opened a shop that sold ice cream at prices people could afford. Then his ice cream became so popular that other shops were opened. About 1640, King Charles introduced ice cream to England and soon ice cream quickly became popular in England too. Americans now eat more ice cream than any people in the world. But they are not the only ones who are fond of it. Greeks are also fond of ice cream. In the large cities of Germany there are many small shops that sell only ice cream. Ice cream shops are not as common as in England, although large London stores do have soda fountains﹙﹚. Ice cream sodas first became popular sometime in the 1880s in the United States. In fact they soon became too popular to suit some of the good people of Evanston, Illinois. They thought it was not proper to drink soda on Sunday. A city law was passed to stop the ice cream soda on Sundays. To keep within the law, it is said that one man served ice cream with syrup﹙糖水﹚ . Throughout its long history, ice cream has been a favorite dish, But only in this century has it been made with so many different tastes. People today can select from more than 240 flavors.

The ﹙1﹚ In Asia

of Ice Cream a thousand years ago

· Perhaps first in China at﹙2﹚ · Then﹙3﹚

to the Indians, the Arabs and the Persians ﹙5﹚ Italy who

In ﹙4﹚

· First popular in Venice and then all

· Popular in France due to a young man from Sicily, Francisco Procopio opened a shop selling ice cream affordable to common people · ﹙6﹚ in many small shops in the large cities of Germany · as many ice cream shops in England Not

In the

· Americans eat the largest ﹙8﹚

of ice cream in the world

﹙7﹚

· cream soda was not allowed to be . ﹙9﹚ Ice Illinois

on Sundays in Evanston,

Conclusion

Ice cream is of different tastes and people have more

﹙10﹚nowadays

﹙出处:2012 江苏省质量调研篇高考全真模拟试卷八﹚ ﹙二﹚ Equal Opportunities for Quality Education It is widely accepted that human resources are playing a very important part in China’s economic growth. Education, which greatly affects the qualities of human resources, has undergone rapid developments in recent years. Last year, China had more than 2 million graduates from colleges or universities, and another 3.5 million graduates from vocational schools. Despite the great developments in education, in the era of reform, lawmakers exposes and criticized many problems in the developments of education , which trouble, if not anger, the public. One of the most glaring problems is that in China’s vast rural areas, even the most basic education is not available to some children. And elsewhere, even if they have access, the facilities available for them are still a far cry from those in cities. Official statistics show that at the primary stage, there are a big number of rural students who drop out of school because they do not have the money to pay their tuition fees. At college level, there have been some big increases in tuition fees over the last few years. So, some students from rural areas have also been forced to abandon their dreams. China has a long tradition of valuing education and Chinese parents are willing to save each and every penny to support their children’s schooling. But in a nation of more than 1.3 billion people, upholding equal opportunities in the education sector is a discouraging task. The central government is delicated to quickening the development of the cause, It will cancel rural school fees and offer the children in poverty-stricken areas financial support so they can all enjoy the equal education and complete the nine-year compulsory schooling programme. The most important part of the issue lies in the amount of cash put into it. On the other

hand, it is more than an issue of fiscal input﹙财政收入﹚. The unbalanced distribution of resources between rural and urban schools risks slowing down the future of China’s vast rural areas, where two thirds of the population live. Education is undoubtedly the long-term lifeline of citizens. Good education promotes more than personal well-being or the fulfillment of individual ambition. As individual ability grows, the nation will become stronger and more prosperous. Equality in education is vital to the sustainability of our nation’s economic progress. It has a big impact on every citizen’s quality of life, so the government must do all it can to achieve this goal.
An overview of As China’s economy grows, education, which has a great ﹙1﹚ qualities of human resources, has experienced great developments. on the

education in China

﹙ 2 ﹚ development education

in he of

In

﹙3﹚ of great developments., what worries the public is that there are ﹙4﹚ to the most basic ﹙5﹚compared with

still children in vast rural areas who have no education and the facilities available are far from those in cities.

Serious consequences

A large number of rural primary school students have to quit school because they can’t ﹙6﹚ their education. ﹙7﹚

With the college tuition fees increasing sharply, rural students have no but to give up their dreams. ﹙ 8 ﹚ Of solving the problems To ensure ﹙9﹚

in the education for rural students, the central

government will cancel rural school fees and provide them with financial support, The distribution of resources between rural and urban schools should be ﹙10﹚, which will surely accelerate the development of vast rural areas.

Conclusion

Equality in education makes it possible for individual ability to grow, which guarantees our nation’s economic prosperity.

﹙出处:2012 满分计划高考英语一轮复习模拟试卷四﹚

答案解析 (一) 1. 根据第一段句意和文章的最后一段中的 Throughout its long history 可知 History 2.根据第二段第二句话可知 least ,at least 至少 3, 根据第四段填 introduced 4. 根据文章中出现的国家的名字,他们都属于欧洲国家,所以 Europe 5.根据第二段最后一句话中的 throughout Italy.可知填 over / around 6 根据第五段的句意填. Available ,something be available to somebody 某事被某人获得或 使用 7.由第五段可知 USA 8.由第五段第一句话 Americans now eat more ice cream than any people in the world.转换而 来 amount / quantity 9.由第六段最后一句话可知 served 10.由最后一段的俄最后一句话 People today can select from more than 240 flavors.中的 select 转换而来,所以填 choices (二) 1.填 effect/influence/impact。从文章第一段 Education, which greatly affects the qualities of human resources…可知答案。 2.填 Problems。从文章第三段的 problems in the developments of education 可直接得出答案。 3. 填 spite。从文章第三段 Despite the great developments in education, in the era of reform,转 换而来。 4. 填 access。从文章第四段 even the most basic education is not available to some children 和 even if they have access 可知答案。 5. 填 enough。从文章第四段, the facilities available for them are still a far cry from those in cities.可知答案。 6. 填 afford。从文章第五段 because they do not have the money to pay their tuition fees. 可知 答案。 7. 填 choice。从文章第六段 some students from rural areas have also been forced to abandon their dreams. 可知答案。have no choice but to do sth.意为“别无选择只能做某事”。 8. 填 Ways。文章第八、九两段都是讲述政府解决教育问题的做法,故填 Ways。

9. 填 equality。从文章第八段 so they can all enjoy the equal education 可知答案。 10. 填 balanced/equal。从文章第九段 The unbalanced distribution of resources between rural and urban schools 可知答案。


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