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高中英语语法——时态,语态总复习


语态: 被动语态由“助动词 be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。人称、数和时态的变化是通过 be 的变 化表现出来的。现以 speak 为例说明被动语态在各种时态中的构成。 一般现在时:am/is/are+spoken 一般过去时:was/were+spoken 一般将来时:will/shall be+spoken 现在进行时:am/is/are being+spoken 过去进行时:was/were being+spoken 现在完成时:have/has been+spoken 过去完成时:had been + spoken 含有情态动词的被动,由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成 特殊情况 1.He made the boy work for two hours yesterday. The boy was made to work by him for two hours yesterday. 2.Mother never lets me watch TV . 时态 一般现在时 1) 描述当前时间内经常出现、反复发生的动作或存在的状态。 在这种情景中,句子常带有表示频率的时间状语:always , everyday , often , once a week (month , year , etc.) , sometimes , seldom , usually 等等, 以表示句中的动作或状态是习惯性的、 经常性的。例如: I cycle to work every day .我每天骑自行车上班。 It seldom rains here .这儿很少下雨。 2)仅为了描述状态、性质、特征、能力等等。 这里的目的是为了"描述现阶段的动作或状态",其重点"不是强调动作发生的时间、或 进行的状态"。例如: He can speak five foreign languages .他能说五种外语。 That is a beautiful city .那是座美丽的城市。 She majors in music .她主修音乐。 3) 陈述客观事实、客观真理。 顾名思义,客观的情况是"没有时间概念"的;也"不会在意动作进行的状态"。例如: The sun rises in the east .日出东方。 The earth goes around the sun .地球绕着太阳转。 4) 根据英文语法规定,当主句的谓语动词是一般将来时,那么时间或条件状语从句的 谓语动词只能用一般现在时来表示将来要发生的动作。例如: I'll tell him the news when he comes back. 他回来时,我将告诉他这个消息。 If you take the job , they will talk with you in greater details. 如果你接受这份工作,他们将和你谈谈细节。 一般过去时 主要是用来描述在过去某个时候发生的动作或存在的状态。 它也可以用来表示在过去某段时 间里经常发生的习惯性动作。 一般过去时由谓语动词的过去式表示,也就是说动词词末要加-ed(除不规则动词外) 。 常和一般过去时连用的过去时间状语有:last night (week ,month , year , century , etc.) , yesterday , the day before yesterday , yesterday morning ( afternoon , evening ) , in 1999 , two hours ago ( one week ago , tree years ago , …), just now 等等。 使用一般过去时,在某种意义上说就是要强调动作或状态发生或存在于过去的某个时 候。"过去"的时间概念有两层意思:一是指"现在某个时间"以前的时间;二是指"说话、写文 章的那个时间点"以前的时间,

--Where's Jim? 吉姆在哪里? --He just went out.他刚刚出去。 一般将来时 主要用来描述将要发生的动作或存在于未来的情况。这里所说的“将来时间”是指“说话、写 文章那一刻以后的时间”。它的表示方法主要有如下几种: 1)shall / will + 动词原形这种表示方法是说,动作在现在或目前还未发生,要在将来的 某个时间内发生;它没有主观性,是“纯粹的将来动作”。例如: I shall / will not be free tomorrow .我明天没空。 He will arrive here this evening .他今晚抵达这里。 2) be( am / is / are ) + going +不定式 例如: It is going to rain soon .马上要下雨了。 3) be( am / is / are ) + 不定式表示方法描述两钟情况: 按计划安排要发生的动作,这个动作发生的时间一般不会很远; 要求或命令他人做某 事。例如: A) The new bridge is to open to traffic in three days. 新桥三天后通车。 B) You are not to bring any mobile communication means into the exam-room . 任何移动通 讯工具都不得带入考场。 4) 用一般现在时或现在进行时(限于某些动词)表示按计划安排要发生的事。主要强 调“按计划安排要发生的事”。例如: The plane takes off at 11:00 a.m. 那架飞机上午十一点起飞。 Mr. Reider is leaving for New York next week. 里德先生下周动身去纽约。 过去将来时 表示过去的某时以后将要发生的动作。 但这个"将来"时间绝不会延伸到“现在”; 而仅限于“过 去时间区域内”。由此可以看出,含这个时态的句子常带一个表示“过去某个时间点”的状语。 这个状语或是一个短语,或是一个句子。A)宾语从句或间接引语中;B)表示过去习惯性 的动作;C)表示过去情况中的“愿望”、“倾向”,多用于否定句。 She told me that she would go on trip to Europe the next day.她告诉我, 她第二天要去欧洲旅行。 Whenever he had time, he would help his mother with some housework. He didn't expect that we would all be there. 他没料到我们会全在那儿 Even after the lecture ended, the audience would not leave 现在进行时 主要用来描述“说话、写文章的当刻”正在发生的动作,或是“现阶段”一直在进行的动作。它 适用于下面的情况 1) “说话、 写文章的当刻”正在发生的动作, 常用时间状语及标志词: now( at the moment ) , listen , look , this week , this evening , these days 等。 She is writing her term paper. Listen , Someone is playing the piano in the next room . 2)“现阶段”一直在进行的动作。这种情况并不是说某个动作在说话的那会儿正在发生,而 是说某个动作在当前一段时间内一直在进行着,或是重复地发生着。例如: He is preparing for CET Band Six. 他在为大学英语六级考试作准备。How are you getting along with your new job? 你那份新工作干得怎么样? 3)表示说话人的情感,如:赞许、批评;喜欢、厌恶等。这时的动作并不是正在发生 或进行,而是表示经常性,相当于“一般现在时”所描述的情况。例如: He is always thinking of others , not of himself . (表示赞许)Are you feeling better today? (表示亲切)你今天觉得好一些吗?One of my roommates is constantly leaving things

about.(表示不满)我的一个室友老是乱扔东西。 4)表示在近期按计划或安排要发生的动作,用于这种情况仅限于少量的动词,如: go , come , leave ,arrive , see , have , lunch( 吃午饭 ) , return, dine ( 进餐,尤指晚餐 ) , work , sleep , stay , play , do , wear( 穿,戴 ) 等。例如: I'm dinning out with my friends this evening. 今晚我将和朋友在外面吃饭。 An American professor is giving a lecture this afternoon. Are you staying here till next week? 你要在这儿呆到下星期吗? 过去进行时 主要表示在过去的某个时间点上正在发生、进行的动作。句子常带有一个表示“过去某个时 间点”的状语。也可能是通过上下文来表达这层意思。 1)表示在过去某时刻正在进行的动作,例如: At this moment yesterday, I was packing for camp.昨天这个时候,我正在收拾东西去露营。 What were you doing at eight last night ? 昨晚八点钟你在做什么? 2)用于故事的开头,交代故事发生的背景情况。 One night, he was typing in his study . Suddenly , a man broke into his house and cut off the electricity … .一天晚上,他正在书房里打字。突然,一个人闯进屋来,切断了电源…… 3)(仅限少数动词)表示在过去的未来时间要发生的动作。例如: When National Day was coming near , they began to make a plan for the holiday .国庆节即 将来临的时候,他们开始制订度假计划。 注意: (1)when 引导的时间状语从句中,从句动作,主句用过去进行时,表示一个动作发 生时,另一个动作正在进行。 When he called me , I was having dinner . (2) while 引导的时间状语从句中, 从句与主句的动作在过去某一时刻同时进行, while 常译为 “当……的时候, 同时” Tom was doing his hmework while hie sister was watching TV . 。 将来进行时 主要表示:A)在将来某时候正在进行的动作;B)预计、安排即将发生或势必发生的动作。 例如: A)在将来某时候正在进行的动作: You can have a meeting in my office on Friday . I won't be using it. 星期五你可以在我的办 公室开会。那会儿我不用它。 It won't be long before that we will be making a new computer for more advanced calculation. 不 久我们就要造一部新计算器进行更高级的运算。 B)预计、安排即将发生或势必发生的动作: 在这里,将来进行时与一般将来时很接近,但是前者强调动作"按计划、安排要发生;间或 也表示委婉、客气",而后者只表示"动作会在未来时间发生"。 We shall be meeting at the school gate .我们在校门口见面。 What shall we be doing next ? 我们干什么? 现在完成时 现在完成时主要表示,发生在过去的动作延续到现在刚刚完成、或许还要延续;侧重于这个 动作对现在带来的结果、产生的影响、积累的总和等等。常接有 just , before , already , often , never , ever , not…yet , always , just, recently, lately , now, up to these few days/weeks/months/years 等等 She has been to the United States. 她已去美国了。 It has been five years since he joined the army .他参军五年了。

So far we've only discussed the first five chapters.至今我们还只讨论了前五章。 过去完成时 表示过去某一时间或某一事件之前已经发生的动作或状态,即过去的过去 1、 过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或者某一动作之前完成的动作或状态; 句中常用 by, before, until, when 等词引导的时间状语。 e.g. By the time she got up, her brother had already gone into the bathroom. 2、在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等动词后的宾语从句。例如: She said (that) she had never been to Paris. 3、by the time “直到??时候” 。指从过去某一点到从句所示的时间为止的一段时间。如: By the time we got to his house, he had finished supper. 4、 表示意向的动词, 如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等, 用过去完成时表示 “原本…,未能…”。例如: We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 几点注意: 1)一个句子应该用什么时态只能取决于它需要表达的意思,以及它所处的语言环境。 He speaks English .(一般现在时,说明动作发生的经常性。 ) He spoke English when he was in New Zealand .(一般过去时,说明动作发生的时间。 ) He is speaking English.(现在进行时,说明动作正在进行。 ) He has spoken English for three years since he came to the USA. 现在完成时, ( 这里说明动作的 总和。 ) 2)如果主句的谓语动词是一般将来时,那么从句的谓语动词就只能用一般现在时来表示将 来时; 如果主句的谓语动词是过去将来时, 那么从句的谓语动词就只能用一般过去时来表示 过去将来时。 例如:I will not play tennis if it rains tomorrow. I would not play tennis if it rained the next day. 3) 有些动词表示无法持续的动作,它们一般不宜用于进行时态中。这类动词常见的有:be , believe , consist , find , forget , hate , have , hope , hear , know , like , love , notice , prefer , remember , see , seem , smell , suggest , taste , understand , want , wish , sit down , stand up 等 等。 Be 动词若是用于进行时态, 可表示暂时、 短暂的情况或表现。 例如: Tom is being a good boy today . He is being childish .他这样做是耍孩子气。 4)关于现在完成时的时间状语问题 现在完成时中,延续性动词能与表示一段时间的状语連用,瞬间动词却不能。但是,可用別 的表达方式:①瞬间动词用于“一段时间 + ago”的一般过去时的句型中;②瞬间动词可改 成与之相对應的延续性动词及短语,与一段时间連用;③瞬间动词用于“It is + 一段时间 + since + 一般过去时”的句型中,表示“自从??以来有??时间”的意思,主句一般用 it is 来代替 It has been;④瞬间动词用于“Some time has passed since + 一般过去时” 的句型中如: He has joined the army for five years. (错误) It has been five years since he joined the army.(正确) 5)for 和 since 的用法及区别。for 与一段时间连用,since 与时间点连用。 注意:since 后接过去时的时间状语或过去时的句子。 e.g. I have been to Shanghai twice since 1970. I haven’t seen her since she left Shanghai. 6)have/ has gone to 去了,在去某地的路上或在某地, 人还未回来

have/ has been to 曾经去过, 人已经回来了 have/ has been in 已经在, 常与一段时间连用 练习 1.I will tell him as soon as he _____ back A. come B. comes C. will come D. came 2. Mary _____ on shoes when she ____ them. A. tries…buys B. tries… buies C. trys… buys D. trys… buies 3. The girl often ______ cold when she ______. A. cathcs…dances B. catches… dances C. catchs…dancees D. catches… dancee 4. _____ he ____ himself there? No, I don't think so. A. Do…enjoy B. Does… enjoies C. Does… enjoys D. Does…enjoy 5. _____ your teacher ____ from them very often? Certainly. A. Do…hear B. Does…hear C. Do… receive D. receive 6. _____ your mother _____ some cleaning on Sundays? A. Does…does B. Do…does C. Does…do D. Do… do 7. _____ Tom _____to work hard to help his family ? Yes, he _____. A. Has… x…does B. Has…x…does C. Does…has…has D. Does… have…does 8. Which teacher _____ lessons to you every day ? A. does …gives B. does… give C. do… give D. gives 9. Smith does not go fishing on weekdays, ____? _____ , he does. A. does he…No B. does he…Yes C. doesn't he…No D. doesn't he…Yes 10.Mr Black often _____ fishing on Sundays, _____ he ? A. goes…doesn't B. goes…isn't C. doesn't go…does D. doesn't go…is 11.He usually _____ TV on Sunday evening. A. watch B. watches C. watching D. is watching 12. We'll go to play with snow if it ______ tomorrow. A. snow B. snows C. will snow D. snowed 13. Neither I nor he ______ French. A. speak B. doesn't speak C. speaks D. doesn't speak 14. Nobody ______ how to run this machines. A . know B. have known C. knows D. is knowing 15. The Young Pioneer _____ water for the old man every day. A. carry B. bring C. takes D. carries 16. Some are ______ in the river and some are ______ games. A. swimming… playing B. swimming…plaiing C. swimming… I playing D. swimming…plaing 17. Look ! The boy students are _____ football while the girls are _____ . A. playing… dance B. playing… dancing C. play… dancing D. play… dance 18. He _____ to do his lessons at eight every evening. A. is beginning B. is beginning C. begin D. begins 19. _____ he _____ on well with his friends this term ? A. Does…gets B. Does…get C. Is…getting D. Is…geting

20. Mr Smith _____ short stories, but he ____ a TV play these days. A. is writing…is writing B. is writing… writes C. writes… is writing D. writes… writes 21. I _____ to the cinema. I ______ there every Sunday. A. go…go B. am going… go C. go… am going D. am going…am going 22. Look, they______ a good time, ____ they ? A. have…do B. have…don't C. are having…are D. are having… aren't 23. You ______ about the future now, ______ you ? A. don't think…don't B. aren't thinking… aren't C. don't think… do D. aren't thinking… are 24. She always ______ something whenever she ______. A .studied…played B. studied…plaied C.. studied…plaied D. studied… played 25. He often _____ late in the forest. It _____ me very much., A. stayed…worried B. staied… worried C. stayed…worryed D. staied… worried 26. I ______that the boy _____ with no tears in his eyes. A. noticed… cryed B. noticed… cried C. noticed…cried D. noticed… cryed 27. We _____the floor and _____ all the windows. A. mopped… cleanned B. moped… cleaned C. mopped…cleaned D. moped… cleaned 28. When I _____ the Children's Palace, the children _____ with joy. A. visited… jumpped B. visited… jumped C. visited… jumped D. visited… jumpped 29. ______ a sports meet last Sunday ? Yes , they ______. A. Did they have… did B. Did they have… had C. Had they… had D. Had they… did 30. ____ you _____out for a walk after supper ? Yes, I ______. A. Did…went…went B. Did… go… went C. Did… went… did D. Did… go… did 31. _____ Jack _____ on with his work or ______ to have a rest? A. Did… went… stopped B. Did… go… stop C. Did… went… stop D. Did… go… stopped 32. You gave them a talk two days ago, _____you ? Yes, I ______. A. did… did B. did… gave C. didn't… did D. didn't… gave 33. ____ your brother _____ a letter to ? My father. A. Who… wrote B. What…wrote C. Who did…write D. What did… write 34. They _____ about the TV news then in the sitting-room. They often ____ such talks A. talked…had B. talk…have C. were talking…had D. are talking…have 35. He ______ some cooking at that time, so _____ me.

A. did… heard B. did… didn't hear C. was doing… heard D. was doing… didn't hear 36. " _____ you angry then?" "They_ too much noise.” A. Are…were making B. Were…were making C. Are…made D. Were… made 37. This time yesterday Jack _____ his, bike. He _____ TV. A. repaired… didn't watch B. was repairing… watched C. repaired… watched D. was repairing… wasn't watching 38. We _____ for Tom at ten last Sunday. He often kept us ______. A. were waiting… waiting B. were waiting… wait C. waited… waiting D. waited… wait 39. When you _____ at the door, I _____ some washing. A. knocked… did B. was knocking… did C. knocked… was doing D. knock… am doing 40. The boy_____ English on the radio when I _____ his door. A. learned… was opening B. was learning… opened C. learned… opened D. is learning… open 41. When they______ through the forest, a bear _____ at them. A. walked… was coming B. were walking… came C. were talking… comes D. walk… is coming 42. A young man _____ her while she _____ her work . A. watched… was finishing B. was watching… finished C. watched… finished D. was watching… was finishing 43. While mother _____ some washing, I ______ a kite for Kack. A. did… made B. was doing… madeC. was doing… was making D. did… was making 44. I _____ myself French from 7 to 9 yesterday morning. I _____ to work. A. was teaching… didn't go B. taught… didn't goC. was teaching… went D. taught… went 45. He _____ a model plane when I came to see him. A. makes B. is making C. was making D. made 46. I ______ a letter at nine last night. A. is writing B. was writing C. wrote D. is writing 47. The teacher_____ (give) us a history lesson when Tom walked into the classroom. A. gave B. is giving C. was given D. was giving 49. We ______ class meeting this November. A. had B. have C. will have D. are having 50. He ______ in his garden every morning next year. A. will work B. works C. worked D. is working 51.He asked me _____ during the summer holidays. A. where I had been B. where I had gone C. where had I been D. where had I gone
答案: 1—5 BABDB 6—10 CDDBA 11—15 BBCCD 16—20 CBDCC 21-25 BDDDA 26—30 BCBAD 31—35 BCCCD 36—40 BDACB 41-45 BDCAC 46—50 BDDCA A


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