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人教版八年级下册英语第八单元知识点复习及练习


一、基础自测:
用本单元所学单词或短语的适当形式完成短文。 Mike is a Chinese boy. He likes reading _____________1(science fiction)very much. When he reads it, he can't _______________2 (put it down).He has read it _____________3 (ever since)five years ago. He wants to be a writer when he ________________4(grow up).Last Friday night,he had a dream. In the dream he ____________5(go abroad)by plane.Unluckily, the plane stopped working during the trip. The captain said to all the passengers , “__________6(hurry up), or you ________________7(lose one's life). ” Mike flew into the sky with the power of a magic stick and landed safely. Then he found a big box. It was ________8(full of)treasure,and the treasure ________________9(belong to)him then. He was so happy that he woke up,and felt very tired. 根据汉语意思完成句子 1.我已经吃过早餐了。 I________ already________ my breakfast. 2.他以前读过那本书。 He ________ ________ that book before. 3.我朋友还未离开。 My friend________ ________ yet. 4.我还没有找到丢失的钥匙。 I________ ________ the lost keys. 5.你决定要去哪里了吗? ________ you ________ where to go?

二、知识梳理
1、Have you read Little Women yet? 你已经读过《小妇人》了吗? (1)本句时态是现在完成时,其结构为“助动词 have/ has+ 动词的过去分词”,表示相对 于现在来说已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。 eg:I have watered the plants already. 我已经给那些植物浇了水。 (2)yet 为副词,意为“还;已经”,多用于否定句和疑问句,通常放在句末。not yet 的意 思是“尚未;还没有”,它常用于否定回答。 eg:I haven't done it yet.我还没有做它呢。 —Have you read the new book that you bought yesterday? 你已经读了你昨天买的新书了 吗? —Not yet.还没有。 2、put down 放下 (1)put down 放下

eg:Don't put up your hands. Please put them down. 你们不要举手,请放下。 (2)can't put sth. down 意为“对某物爱不释手” 。 eg:It is an interesting book and he can't put it down.它是一本有趣的书,他对它爱不释手。 (3)put down 还意为“写下,记下” ,等于 write down。 eg:Let me put down your telephone number. 让我记下你的电话号码。 注意:put... down 为“动词+副词”型短语,宾语若为代词,应放在 put 与 down 中间。 拓展:put 的相关短语: put away 收起来 put on 穿上 put off 推迟 put up 张贴

3、hurry up 赶快;急忙(做某事) eg: Hurry up, or you will be late.快点,否则你会迟到的。 难点:与 hurry 相关的短语: (1) hurry off/away 意为“匆匆离去” 。 eg:Miss Zhao hurried off to look after the man. 赵老师匆匆赶去照看那个人。 (2) hurry into 意为“匆忙进入” 。 eg:Her parents are trying to hurry her into marriage.她的父母设法催她快点结婚。 (3) hurry out 意为“匆忙出去” 。 eg: The man hurried out of the car before reporters could speak to him.记者们还未来得及与他交 谈,这个男人就匆匆离开了汽车。 (4) in a hurry 意为“匆忙地” 。 eg: (乐山中考)He left home in a hurry and forgot to turn off the light this morning.今天上午他 匆忙离开家,忘记关灯了。 4、The book report is due in two weeks.读书报告两周后必须交。 (1)due 此处作形容词, “预期;预定;预计” ,后面引出预期的时间、地点等。 eg:Her baby is due next month.她的宝宝预计在下个月出生。 Our plane is due at Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport at 12:30.我们的飞机预计于 12:30 降落在上海虹桥国际机场。 拓展:be due to do sth.意为“预期做某事” eg:The meeting is due to start at 3:30.会议预定 3:30 开始。

(2)in two weeks 意为“两周之后” 。 “in+一段时间”表示“在??以后” ,常用在一般将 来时的句子中。对此提问用 how soon。 eg:He will be back in a week. 一周之后,他将回来。 注意: “after+一段时间”常用在一般过去时的句子中。 eg:He got to Beijing after two hours. 他是两个小时后抵达北京的。 5、lose one's life 丧生 lose one's life 相当于动词 die。life 意为“性命” ,属可数名词,在数上要与 one's 一致。 eg:The Greens lost their lives in the car accident. 格林一家人在那次车祸中丧生了。 拓展:①life 泛指一般意义的“生活”时,为不可数名词。 eg:Our life is getting better and better. 我们的生活变得越来越好。 ②life 表示某种方式的“生活”时,常用单数形式。 eg:We are living a happy life. 我们过着幸福的生活。 6、else /els/ adv. 另外的,其他的 else 为副词,常用在 who, whose, what 等疑问代词及 when, where 等疑问副词之后; 也放在以?one, ?body, ?thing, ?place, ?where 结尾的复合不定代词/副词之后。 eg:Would you like something else to drink? 你还想喝点别的什么吗? 拓展:other 为形容词,意为“别的;其他的” ,常放在名词之前作定语。也可用作代词, 表示“其他的人或物” 。 eg: What's that in your other hand? 你的另一只手里拿着什么? Other people may not think that way. 别人可能不那样想。 7、One...the other... (两者中的)一个??另一个?? eg:I have two brothers. One is a doctor;the other is a teacher. 我有两个哥哥。一个是医生,另一个是教师。 拓展:some...the others 用于三者或三者以上,意为“一些??其余的??” eg:Boys are on the playground. Some are playing basketball,the others are playing football. 男孩们在操场上。一些正在打篮球,其余的正在踢足球。 8、towards prep.朝;向;对着 [辨析]for, to 与 towards for 常用在 leave, start 后, 表 示运动的方向或目的地。 They'll leave for Xi'an to travel.他们要去西安旅游。

to

置于 go, come, return, move 等词后,表示目的地。 意为“朝;向”,只说明运动 方向,无“到达”之意。

When will you come to our school?你将什么时候来我 们学校? She was walking towards the town.她正往镇上走去。

towards

例题:In a basketball match, players move _________(朝,向) one end of the court while throwing the ball to each other. 9、can't wait to do sth.迫不及待地做某事 eg:Bill couldn't wait to open his present. 比尔迫不及待地打开他的礼物。 拓展:(1) can't help doing sth.意为“情不自禁地做某事” 。 eg: He could not help laughing. 他忍不住笑了起来。 (2) can't stand doing sth.意为“不能容忍做某事” 。 eg:I can't stand waiting for such a long time.我不能容忍等这么久。 (3) can't stop doing sth. 意为“不能停止做某事” 。 eg:The boy couldn't stop crying when he heard the bad news. 当他听到这个坏消息时,这个男孩不停地哭起来。 10、make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事 make 意为“使变得;促使;迫使” ,是使役动词,常见结构: (1)make sb. do sth.意为“使某人做某事” 。 eg:The news made my father feel sad. 这个消息使我的爸爸感到伤心。 (2)make +名词/代词+形容词,意为“使??处于某种状态” 。 eg:He always makes us happy. 他总是使我们快乐。

(3)make 作动词,还可意为“制订;做” 。 eg:He can make a model plane. 他会做飞机模型。 拓展:make 的相关短语: make money 赚钱 make the bed 铺床,整理床铺 make a mistake 犯错误 make friends with 与??交朋友 make a decision 作出决定 make sure 确信 make fun of 取笑??

11、 come to 逐渐??;开始?? come to 相当于 begin/get to,后面跟动词原形,其后常跟的动词有:like, understand, realize, see, know 等。 eg:I came to like her.我逐渐喜欢上她了。 I came to understand his love. 我开始理解他的爱。

拓展:come to do 意为“来做(从事)某事” 。 eg:Excuse me,would you like to come to help me with my English? 打扰了,你愿意来帮助我学英语吗? We hope you'll come to do business with us...我们希望你们来与我们做生意。 12、ever since 自从 ever since 相当于 since, ever 起强调作用,其后可接短语或句子。接句子时,从句用一般 过去时,主句用现在完成时。 eg:I haven't heard from him ever since last year. 拓展:ever since 可单独使用,放于句末。 eg:He fell ill at Christmas and has been ill ever since. 他在圣诞节生病了,此后就一直不适。 13、[辨析] such as 与 for example such as 列举整体之中的部分同类人或事物作例。 其后没有逗号, 直接加所列举的内容。 列举整体之中的一个为例,在句子中多用作插入语,用逗号与其前内容隔开, 位置可以在句首、句中或句末。 自去年以来我就未曾收到过他的信。

for example

拓展:like 也常用来表示举例,可与 such as 互换。但 such as 用于举例可以分开使用,此 时不可与 like 互换。 eg:Some warm?blooded animals,like/such as the cat,the dog and the wolf,do not need to hibernate. 一些温血动物,像猫、狗和狼都不需要冬眠。 He has several such reference books as dictionaries and handbooks. 他有几本像字典、手册之

类的参考书。 Tom, for example, is my good friend. 例如,汤姆是我的好朋友。

I have some good friends,such as Tom,Kate and Wang Bin. 我有一些好朋友,例如汤姆、 凯特和王斌。 例题:I have lots of hobbies, basketball. A. such as B. namely C. that is D. for example playing table tennis, playing football and playing

14、belong v.属于;归属 eg:I used to belong to a youth club.我曾是一个青年俱乐部的成员。 belong to 意为“属于??,为??所拥有” 。belong to 不能用于被动语态,也不能用于进 行时态。 eg:The fantastic world surely belongsto young people and the future. 这个神奇的世界肯定属于年轻人和未来。 注意:belong to 中的 to 是介词,后接名词或人称代词的宾格形式,不能接名词性物主代词 或名词所有格。 eg:The bike belongs to my mother. 这辆自行车属于我妈妈。 This classroom belongs to us. 这间教室属于我们。 15、one another 互相 英语中表示“相互”的词组有两个,即 one another 和 each other。二者都是“相互,互相” 之意,通常作宾语,不能作主语,可通用。 eg:They looked at each other/one another. 他们彼此对视。 拓展:each other 和 one another 都有其所有格,即可在其后加“'s” 。 eg:The students borrowed each other's notes. 学生们互借笔记。 例题:They put the food into A. each other B. each other's bags. C. one other's D. one another

注意:one after another 是一个常用短语,表示“一个接一个” 。 eg:They left the room one after another. 他们一个接一个地离开了这个房间。 16、have/has been to 去过 “have/has been to+某地”意为“去过某地(已经回来) ” ,当表地点的词为副词时,则省 略 to。

eg:I have been to Beijing Zoo. 我去过北京动物园。 He hasn't been there before. 他以前没去过那儿。 拓展: “have/has gone to+某地”意为“去某地了(尚未回来) ” 。 eg:—Where is Tom? 汤姆在哪儿? —He has gone to the library.他去图书馆了。 17、famous adj.著名的;出名的

famous(=well known) ,常见的搭配: be famous as... 作为……出名 Bruce Lee is famous as an actor.李小龙作为演员而出名。

be famous for...

因为……出名

Lang Lang is famous for playing the piano.郎朗因为弹钢琴出 名。 Liu Qian is famous in China now.刘谦现在在中国很出名。 The programme is famous to many young people.许多年轻人都 熟悉这档节目。

be famous in... be famous to

在……出名 为 ……所熟知

语法
现在完成时(一) 现在完成时表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果, 也可以表示从过去某一时间开 始,一直持续到现在的动作或状态。常与 already(已经) ,just(刚刚) ,ever(曾经) ,never (从不) ,before(以前) ,yet(仍然)等连用。 (1)现在完成时的结构 主语+have/has+动词的过去分词+其他. 肯定句 eg: I have already finished my homework. 我已经完成了我的作业。

主语+have/has+not+动词的过去分词+其他. 否定句 eg: I have not heard from him yet. 我还没收到他的来信。

Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词+其他? Yes,主语+have/has. 一般疑问 句和简略 回答 No,主语+have/has not. Eg: —Have you ever been to Beijing?你曾去过北京吗? —Yes,I have.是的,我去过。/No,I haven't.不,我没去过。

(2)already 与 yet 在现在完成时中的用法 already adv.已经;早 已 yet adv.还;已经 通常用于肯定句中, 一般用于 have/has 后, I have already had breakfast.我已经 实义动词前,也有放在句尾的情况。 吃过早饭了。 用于否定句和疑问句中,一般用在句末。 I haven't done my homework yet. 我还没有做作业。

例题:Has your sister finished reading —Yes. She has finished it.



A. yet; yet B. yet; already C. already; yet (3)一般过去时与现在完成时的区别 1、一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情。现在完成时强调过去的动 作对现在造成的影响或结果。

eg: I saw this film yesterday. 我昨天看了这部电影。 I have seen this film. 这部电影我已经看过了。 2、 一般过去时常与具体的表示过去的时间状语 (如: yesterday, last week, three days ago, in 1990 等)连用;现在完成时不与表示明确的过去的时间状语连用,但可以与 in the past...years/weeks, so far 等时间状语连用。 eg:Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.昨晚汤姆给他父母写了一封信。 The weather has been so hot so far this summer.到目前为止,今年夏天天气一直很热。

三、典例精析
Hurry up! The movie will begin 10 minutes. A.over B. in C. for D. at 【点拨】本题用语法判定法。句意:赶快!电影将会在 10 分钟之后开始。 “in+一段时间” 表示“一段时间以后” 。 The meeting is on the 22nd. it in your diary. A. Cut;down B. Look;down C. Turn;down D. Put;down 【点拨】本题用短语辨析法。cut down 砍倒;look down 往下看;turn down 调低;put down 记下。 If you do things ,usually you can't do them well. A. in a hurry B. from now on C. just now D.at once 【点拨】 in a hurry 匆忙,仓促;from now on 从现在起;just now 刚刚;at once 立刻, 马上,句意:如果你做事很匆忙,你通常是做不好的。 My family has two dogs. One is white; is black. A.other B. another C. the other D. others 【点拨】根据上句“我家有两只狗。 ”可以推测下句应为“一只狗是白色的,另一只狗是黑 色的。 ”one...the other...意为“ (两者中的)一个??另一个??” 。C 项符合结构及句 意。 My parents said they would come to visit me. I couldn't to see them after several months away from home. A. wait B. Help C. expect D. afford 【点拨】本题用固定短语法。wait 等待;help 帮助;expect 期待;afford 提供。句意: 我父母说他们要来看我。离开家几个月了,我迫不及待地要见到他们。短语 can't wait to do sth.迫不及待做某事。 How time flies! We should show love for our parents and make them how much they mean to us. A. to know B. knowing C. knew D. know 【点拨】本题用固定短语法。句意:时间过得真快啊!我们应该向我们的父母表达我们的 爱,并且让他们知道他们对我们是多么重要。make sb.do sth.使某人做某事。 I met Lucy in primary school and we have been close friends . A. as usual B. again and again C. sooner or later D. ever since 【点拨】as usual 和往常一样;again and again 一次又一次;sooner or later 迟早;

ever since 自??之后。句意:我在小学的时候遇见了露西,自从那之后我们一直是亲密 的朋友。 —The American warships (军舰) have appeared near South China Sea Islands again. —We must let the Americans know clearly that the islands China. A. come from B. belong to C. care about D. believe in 【点拨】本题用短语辨析法。come from 来自;belong to 属于;care about 在乎;believe in 相信。句意:——美国军舰再次出现在中国南海岛屿附近。——我们必须让美国人清楚 地知道这些岛屿属于中国。 Monica, you the exam! Congratulation! A. pass B. have passed C. will pass D. are passing 【点拨】本题用语境判断法。由 Congratulation!可知是已经通过考试了,对现在的影响, 用现在完成时。

四、课堂巩固:
用所给单词的适当形式填空。 1.—What did you see Jim doing? —I saw him ________(swim) in the river. 2.________ you ________ (visit)the art museum yet? 3.The match makes me ________(feel) excited. 4.She________________(practice)the piano ever since. 5.We decided________(plant)some trees on the hill near our town.

五、课后练习
动词应用 阅读下面短文,用括号内所给词的适当形式填空,必要时可加助动词或情态动词 One day, I took my daughter to the park.As soon as we got there, my daughter 1.________ (run) to the swing (秋千)and asked for a push.When I was helping my daughter, I noticed another girl trying to make her own swing 2.________ (go) high by herself.Her old grandmother was sitting on the chair nearby and smiling at us. Gradually, my daughter 3.________ (push) higher and higher by me.Then I walked towards the little girl.I asked if I 4.________ (give) a big push to her.She smiled and said “Yes”.For the next hour, I pushed the swings, and played with my daughter and the little girl.When we went home, I 5.________ (be) tired but very happy. One day two years later, after a day's work, I went to pick up my daughter before going home.While I 6.________ (wait) outside the school gate, a little girl smiled sweetly at me and gave me a big hug.As I watched her 7.________ (run) away, I realized that she was the girl whom I gave a big push in the park.So far, I 8.________ (not forget) her sweet smile and the warm hug that she gave me. In fact, if we give love to others, love 9.________ (find) its way back to us.It may travel from heart to heart or it may blossom (开花)in the heart.The love we share, the kindness we 10.________ (give), and the happiness we create will come back to us with a pleasant surprise. 阅读理解 I think that a great friend is a great artist who can change my feeling about life

greatly.When I talk about the person who influenced me most,I must think of my best friend quickly. When I was in my university, one of my classmates sat beside me.His name is Wang Tao.He is my unforgettable friend in my life.He is good at study and handsome.Everyone knows that he is a genius (天才) of my university. He is kindhearted and is always ready to help others.But he doesn't like others to praise him, because he thinks what he did is common.There is an old saying: A friend in need is a friend indeed.Wang Tao sets a good example in many parts of my life. I remembered that my mathematics was mediocre at that time, but he was excellent in solving mathematics questions.He often received high scores.Of course, I wished I could reach his level.When we talked all day long, he was patient and polite to answer my mathematics questions.Slowly, I made great progress in mathematics.I passed the examination finally.Then we became friends naturally.And now, I still remember his strong will to study. We know that we live in the society, so we need a lot of friends.There are two kinds of friends, good and bad. Bad friends may make our life failed, while good ones make our life successful.To me, Wang Tao is a very good friend.I learned so many advantages from him, and I became more and more excellent. We separated three months ago.Now I miss him very much, and I hope that our friendship will continue to be just as strong as before after we graduated(毕业). 1.The writer believes that an excellent friend ________. A.is a man who works on art B.can change his life slowly C.can influence his idea about life D.must think of him quickly 2.Which of the following about Wang Tao is NOT true according to the passage? A.He has a strong will. B.He is warmhearted. C.He is good at maths. D.He likes art very much. 3.The underlined word “mediocre” most probably means “________”. A.better B.not very good C.the best D.very good 4.In the fifth paragraph, the writer mainly suggests that we should ________. A.make good friends and learn from them B.have two kinds of friends, good and bad C.make our best friends successful D.make fewer bad friends 5.What's the best title for the passage? A.My university life B.An unforgettable friend C.How to make friends D.How to learn maths well


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