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ASTM D2140-2003 石油制绝缘油的碳类成份的测试方法


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Designation: D 2140 – 03

Standard Test Method for

Carbon-Type Composition of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin 1
This standard is issued under the ?xed designation D 2140; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 1.1 This test method may be used to determine the carbontype composition of mineral insulating oils by correlation with basic physical properties. For routine analytical purposes it eliminates the necessity for complex fractional separation and puri?cation procedures. The test method is applicable to oils having average molecular weights from 200 to above 600, and 0 to 50 aromatic carbon atoms. 1.2 Carbon-type composition is expressed as percentage of aromatic carbons, percentage of naphthenic carbons, and percentage of paraffinic carbons. These values can be obtained from the correlation chart, Fig. 1, if both the viscosity-gravity constant (VGC) and refractivity intercept (ri) of the oil are known. Viscosity, density and relative density (speci?c gravity), and refractive index are the only experimental data required for use of this test method. 1.3 This test method is useful for determining the carbontype composition of electrical insulating oils of the types commonly used in electric power transformers and transmission cables. It is primarily intended for use with new oils, either inhibited or uninhibited. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: D 129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General Bomb Method)2 D 445 Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and the Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)2 D 923 Practices for Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids3

D 1218 Test Method for Refractive Index and Refractive Dispersion of Hydrocarbon Liquids2 D 1481 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Speci?c Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer2 D 2007 Test Method for Characteristic Groups in Rubber Extender and Processing Oils and Other Petroleum Derived Oils by the Clay Gel Absorption Chromatographic Method2 D 2501 Test Method for Calculation of Viscosity-Gravity Constant (VGC) of Petroleum Oils2 D 3238 Test Method for Calculation of Carbon Distribution and Structural Group Analysis of Petroleum Oils by the n-d-M Method4 D 4052 Test Method for Density and Relative Density of Liquids by Digital Density Meter4 3. Terminology 3.1 De?nitions: 3.1.1 percent of aromatic carbons (% CA)—the weight percent of the total carbon atoms present in an oil that are combined in aromatic ring-type structures. 3.1.2 percent of naphthenic carbons (% CN)—the weight percent of the total carbon atoms present in an oil that are combined in naphthenic ring-type structures. 3.1.3 percent of paraff?nic carbons (% CP)—the weight percent of the total carbon atoms present in an oil that are combined in paraffinic chain-type structures.
NOTE 1—The resolution of carbon atoms into structural classi?cations is independent of whether the structures exist as separate molecules or are combined with other structural forms in a molecule. For example, a paraffinic chain may be either an aliphatic hydrocarbon molecule, or may be an alkyl group attached to an aromatic or naphthenic ring.

1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D27 on Electrical Insulating Liquids and Gases and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D27.07 on Physical Tests. Current edition approved March 10, 2003. Published May 2003. Originally approved in 1963 as D 2140 – 63 T. Last previous edition approved in 1997 as D 2140 – 97. 2 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 05.01. 3 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 10.03.

4. Summary of Test Method 4.1 A sample of the oil to be analyzed by this method is ?rst tested to determine its viscosity, density and relative density (speci?c gravity), and refractive index. From these measured properties the viscosity-gravity constant (VGC) and refractivity intercept (ri) are obtained by calculation, using the equations given. The calculated values of VGC and ri are used with
4

Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 05.02.

Copyright ? ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

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D 2140 – 03

FIG. 1 Correlation Chart for Determining % CA, % CN, and % CP

Fig. 1, to correlate those parameters with carbon-type composition. The composition in terms of % CA, % CN, and % CP may be read directly from Fig. 1.
NOTE 2—Fig. 1 is a form of correlation chart that has been found satisfactory for use with this method. Other chart forms may be devised and used in preference to Fig. 1 if it is determined that the data obtained are consistent with similar data from Fig. 1. In addition, some users will ?nd it convenient to develop a computer program or spreadsheet which will provide a consistent evaluation of the data.

5.2 Results obtained by this method are similar to, but not identical with, results obtained from Test Method D 3238. The relationship between the two methods and the equations used in deriving Fig. 1 are discussed in the literature.5 5.3 Although this test method tends to give consistent results, it may not compare with direct measurement test methods such as Test Method D 2007. 6. Apparatus 6.1 No speci?c apparatus is required for use by this test method. However, to obtain the VGC and ri parameters of Fig. 1, certain measurements of basic physical properties of the test

5. Signi?cance and Use 5.1 The primary purpose of this test method is to characterize the carbon-type composition of an oil. It is also applicable in observing the effect on oil constitution, of various re?ning processes such as hydrotreating, solvent extraction, and so forth. It has secondary application in relating the chemical nature of an oil to other phenomena that have been demonstrated to be related to oil composition.
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5 Kurtz, S. S., King, R. W., Stout, W. J., Partikian, D. G., and Skrabek, E. A., “Relationship Between Carbon-Type Composition, Viscosity-Gravity Constant, and Refractivity Intercept of Viscous Fractions of Petroleum,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol 28, pp 1928–1936 (1956).

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D 2140 – 03
oil must be made. The apparatus required for those measurements is as speci?ed in other ASTM test methods as detailed in Section 7. 7. Procedure 7.1 Obtain a uniform sample of the oil to be analyzed for carbon-type composition, using sampling procedures as speci?ed in Practices D 923. 7.2 Determine the viscosity, density and relative density (speci?c gravity), and refractive index of the sample experimentally by the procedures speci?ed in the following test methods: 7.2.1 Viscosity—See Test Method D 445. 7.2.2 Density and Relative Density (Speci?c Gravity)—See Test Method D 1481 or D 4052. 7.2.3 Refractive Index— See Test Method D 1218. 8. Calculation 8.1 From the measured viscosity and speci?c gravity properties of the oil sample (7.2) calculate the viscosity-gravity constant, VGC, as follows (Note 3):
VGC 5 G 1 0.0887 2 0.776 log log ~10V 2 4! 1.082 2 0.72 log log ~10V 2 4! NOTE 4—Commercially available oils of the types to which this method applies normally have sulfur contents of less than 0.8 %. Therefore it is unlikely that a sulfur correction will be necessary. For new or experimental oils, or whenever the true sulfur content is unknown, the determination of that quantity is recommended. A satisfactory method is described in Test Method D 129.6

9. Report 9.1 Report the following information: 9.1.1 Designation of test method used (D 2140), 9.1.2 Sample identi?cation. 9.1.3 Percent of aromatic ring carbons (% CA). 9.1.4 Percent of naphthenic ring carbons (% CN), and 9.1.5 Percent of paraffinic chain carbons (% CP).
NOTE 5—The total of 9.1.3, 9.1.4, and 9.1.5 should equal 100 %.

where: G = relative density (speci?c gravity) at 15.6°C (60°F), and V = viscosity, cSt at 37.8°C (100°F).
NOTE 3—This equation for VGC was devised by Moore and Kaye.6 Accurate VGC data may be obtained using other equations and other measurement temperatures. Test Method D 2501 gives some of these alternatives.

10. Precision and Bias 10.1 Precision—The precision of this test method has not been the subject of an interlaboratory test. This procedure involves calculations based on three experimentally observed values whose precisions are given in their respective methods. The precision of this test method (without the sulfur correction), calculated from the precisions of these values and using the equations of Section 8, is as follows: 10.1.1 Repeatability— The difference between successive results obtained by the same operator with the same apparatus under constant operating conditions on identical test material should, in the long run, in the normal and correct operation of the test method exceed the following values only in 1 case in 20:
CA = 0 % CA 0.2 CN 0.3 CP 0.2 CA = 25 % 0.1 0.2 0.2 CA = 50 % 0.1 0.5 0.5

8.2 From the measured density and refractive index properties of the oil sample (7.2) calculate the refractivity intercept, ri, as follows:
ri 5 nD 20 2 ~d/2!

10.1.2 Reproducibility— The difference between two single and independent results obtained by different operators working in different laboratories on identical test material should, in the long run, exceed the following values only in 1 case in 20:
CA = 0 % CA 0.2 CN 0.7 CP 0.5 CA = 25 % 0.2 0.4 0.4 CA = 50 % 0.2 1.0 1.1

where: nD 20 = refractive index at 20°C (68°F) for D line of sodium, and d = density at 20°C (68°F). 8.3 Enter the correlation chart, Fig. 1, with the values of VGC and ri, from 8.1 and 8.2. Read from Fig. 1 the corresponding values of % CA, % CN, and % CP. 8.4 For oils containing 0.8 % or more sulfur, the accuracy of this test method may be improved by applying a sulfur correction. This may be done by use of the following equations (Note 4):
Sulfur correction for % CN 5 2weight % S/0.288 Sulfur correction for % CP 5 1weight % S/0.216 Sulfur correction for % CA 5 100 2 ~corrected % CN 1 corrected % CP!

NOTE 6—The precision of the carbon-type composition calculation varies with position on the CA–CN–CP plane of Fig. 1. Sensitivity to experimental error for the CN and CP values is greatest at high CA values. The precision values given above do not apply if routine test methods, rather than the precision methods speci?ed, are used for determining density and refractive index.

10.2 Bias—Since there is no accepted reference material suitable for determining the bias of this test method, no statement on bias is being made. A comparison of results from this test method and a complex separation and puri?cation procedure has been reported7 for petroleum fractions, with agreement between the two methods being dependent on the viscosity-gravity constant of the fraction.

6

Proc., 15th API Annual Meeting, November 1934, Section II, p. 7.

7 Stout, W. J., et al, “Adsorption and Physical Property Methods.” Symposium on Composition of Petroleum Oils, ASTM STP 224, ASTM, 1957, p. 230.

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D 2140 – 03
11. Keywords 11.1 carbon type; composition; electrical oils; mineral oils; oils
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