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英语音标教学PPT


简明当代英语语音

为什么要学习音标?

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1.发音准确,说地道的英语 2.拼读法记忆单词

3.提高自主学习性,增加词汇量
4.整体语感提高

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第一单元
最新国际音标简介

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第一节 国际音标简介
1,学习英语首先是掌握英语音标,记录英语音 素的符号叫作音标。音标通常放在两条斜 线(//)内. 2,英语语言在其发展的历史进程中产生了繁多 的音标种类。而我们要学习的,同时也是 教科书中所采用的最新“国际音标” 。

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3,最新“国际音标”共有48个音素,由发音时 气流是否受阻可分辅音和元音两大类。在 发音过程中由气流通过口腔或鼻腔不受阻 碍而发出的音叫元音;在发音过程中由气流 通过口腔或鼻腔受阻碍而发出的音叫辅音. 4,英语辅音和元音在英语语言中的作用,就相 当于汉语中的声母和韵母。

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+ 要想掌握好英语音标,我们要了解发音器官和发音

部位,并学会运用舌,唇,软颚,硬颚等位置和形 状的变化正确发出各种不同的音。为了更好的理解 各小结的发音要领描述,从而以正确的方式调动所 需的发音器官,我们必须仔细学习下面的发音器官 图。

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+ 最新“国际音标”中元音音素共有20个,分为单

元音和双元音两种。单元音即为发音时,舌位、 唇形、开口度等始终不变的元音。双元音是由两 个单元音组成,发音时由一个元音向另一个元音 滑动,口型有变化的元音。 + 根据元音发音时舌位(即舌的最高点的前后位置) 变化可以把单元音分为前元音,中元音,后元音。
1. 2. 3.

舌位在口腔前部的时候发出的元音叫做前元音。 舌位在口腔中部的时候发出的元音叫做中元音。 舌位在口腔后部的时候发出的元音叫做后元音。
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最新“国际音标”中辅音音素共有28个. + 按发音时是否振动声带可分为浊辅音和清辅音两 大类。英语辅音中有许多音素是清辅成对的,即 发音时,两个音素的发音器官位置相同,只有声 带振动与否的区别。

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1,/i:/
+ 例词:be meat sleep

believe weak + 发音要领:发音时,, 嘴角向两边张开,口 型扁平,舌尖轻抵下 齿,前舌部向上颚抬 起,流露出微笑表情, 发音时间持续较长。

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2./i/
+ 例词 big , fifty, city

发音要领:发音时舌尖 抵下齿,嘴唇微微张 开,舌前部抬高,口 型扁平,发音时间短 促。

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3./e/
+ 例词:fed best fresh

Wedding + 发音要领:发音时, 张口程度比/i/大,上 下齿之间可容纳一个 食指尖,舌尖抵下齿, 舌前部稍抬起。

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+ 4./ ? /
+ 例词:at have flat

stand Saturday + 发音要领:发音时, 舌尖抵下齿,嘴角尽 量拉向两边,上下齿 容纳两个指尖

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发音练习: A:Beef or chicken? B:Let me see. Chicken for me , please. A: Tea or coffee? B:Tea for Lee and coffee for me, please. A:I’m pleased to meet you. A:Is it chicken? B:No, it’s cheese A: Is it ready to eat? B: Yes, you needn’t heat it before you eat.
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+ 1. Jim gives Lily a big kiss + 2.His little sister is sitting in the middle

+ 3.It is still winter not spring yet.
+ Chant:

+ Two little kittens are sitting on the hill, one is Bill, one

is Jill. + Run away Bill, run away Jill. + Come back Bill, come back Jill.

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Dialogue A:Who is this fellow? B:He is Ted A:Who is Ted? B:He’s my best pen-friend. A:How did you get to know him? B: You make a guess before I tell you.

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+ A: Hi! How’s your back?

+ B: It’s getting btter, thanks
+ A:Well, I’m glad to hear that. + A:What’s the matter, Mary? + B:I had a bad day yesterday. + A:What happened? + B: I went shopping and lost my bag.

A:I heard you got a pet, didn’t you? + B:Yes, I got a cat from Ann + A:What does it look like? + B:Oh, it’s black and white
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5,/a:/
+ 例词:art fast march

party father + 发音要领:发音时, 舌身放低,后缩,舌 后部拢起:口型张大, 全开:声带振动,发 音延续较长。

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+ 例词:saw born course

talk morning + 发音要领:发音时, 舌身尽量降低并收缩, 舌后部抬起;双唇收圆 收小,并稍向前突, 发音延续较长。

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+ 例词:hot boss lost

doctor want + 发音要领:发音时, 舌身尽量降低,并后 缩,舌后部抬起:口 型稍收圆,但不向前 突出,发音短促。

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+ 例词:do you tooth

choose rule + 发音要领:发音时, 舌身后缩,舌后部尽 量抬起:口型较小, 较圆,更突出。发音 延长。

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+ 例词:book good put

wood push + 发音要领:发音时, 舌身后缩,舌后部抬 起;口型收圆,稍微突 出,比/u:/的口型稍放 松,发音短促。

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+ Dialogue:

+ A:Where do you live, Mark?
+ B: I live in the Fifth Street near the National Park. + A:The National Park? Is it a large park? + B:Oh, yes. It’s the largest park in the Canada. + A: By the way, is there a supermarket near your place? + B:Oh, yes. There’s a very large supermarket near my

home. It’s also the largest in Canada.
+ 1.The farm is far from the park.
+ 2.Please park the car in the car park. + 3.It’s very hard to start the car. + 4.It will do a lot of harm to the heart.
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+ Dialogues:

+ A: Can we have a dinner before you leave for the north?
+ B:Thanks. But we have more things to do before leaving + A:What if you run into a storm in the sea? + B:We’ll wait till the storm is over. + A:Have you ever been in a storm before? + B:Yes. We ran into a storm last fall.

1.I was bored to death by the boring job in the shop 2.When the storm was coming, the ship had to call at a port 3.The general manager’s office is on the fourth floor at the end of the corridor.
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+ Dialogues:

+ A:Shall we go swimming, Mary?
+ B:I’m not in the mood + A:What’s the matter? + B: My daughter is trying to stay away from school. + A:That’s why you are singing the blues. + B:Anyway, I’ll have to work things out and put her

back to school.

1.The news is too good to be true. 2.This is a once in blue moon chance 3.You must pull out the decayed tooth. 4.He bought some fruit for the group.
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+ Dialogues:

+ A: May I have a look at the book?
+ B: Which book? + A:The book Jack gave you last week. + B:You mean the book on woodcarving? + A:Yes. I think it’s a very nice book. + B:But what do you want it for? + A: Not me. My husband wants it. He ‘s big on

woodcarving.

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/?/ /?:/ /?/ 10, /?/
+ 例词:up but dose just

rough + 发音要领:舌身后缩 至口腔中部,舌后部 稍抬起:双唇较扁, 开口较大,发音短促。

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+ 例词:sir her third

worth early + 发音要领:发音时,舌 位抬高,舌身放平, 口型微张,双唇扁平, 双唇肌肉较紧张,发 音时间较长。

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+ 例词:about again

teacher paper river + 发音要领:发音时, 舌身放平,舌中部稍 抬起;口型微开,双 唇扁平,双唇肌肉较 放松。/ ? /在词首或词 中发的较模糊,在词 尾时应适当延长。

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+ Dialogue:
+ A:Look at this guy. He seems to have too strong lust for

+
+

+
+ + +

bucks. B:But you can’t go without money. A:And one can’t have bucks and love at the same time. B:But few girls would love a man without bucks. A:And few girls would love a man who only has bucks. B:well…er… A:Trust me. Love built on money is not true love.

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+ Dialogues:

+ A:Who are these two girls, Mark?
+ B:I don’t know. But one seems to be older than the

+
+ + + +

other. A:Sure. The one on the right is certainly older than the one on the left. B:What is the girl on the left wearing? A:She ‘s wearing a mini-skirt B:Where are they? A:They are in the church.

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+ Dialogue
+ A:What’s the name of this magazine? + B:It’s the famous Time magazine.

+ A:The Time magazine? What is it called in Chinese?
+ B:It’s 时代周刊 in Chinese. + A:Can people in China have access to the magazine? + B:Yes,they can.

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第三单元

双元音
/ei/

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13./ei/ 例词:eight day face gate pay + 发音要领:发音由/e/ 向/i/自然滑动,滑动 过程中,口型由半开 到半合,舌位随之抬 高。

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+ A:Hey, Rachel. Did you take the test? + B:No, I couldn’t make it. + A:How come you couldn’t make it?

+ B:I went to see a Broadway Play.
+ A:What a shame! When will you take the makeup

test? + B:Maybe in April or May A:Mrs. Taylor is a good dressmaker, isn’t she? B:Yes. The new dress she made is great. A:Maybe I need her to make one for me. B:Wait a minute, Jane. It’s time to bake the bread.
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+ 14./?u/ + 例词:old so show

note cold + 发音要领:发音时, 由/?/向/u/自然滑动, 滑动过程中,口型逐 渐由半开到小而圆, 舌位由半低到高。

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+ A:I’m going to the grocery store. Would you like to go
+

+
+ + +

with me? B:Sorry. I have to write a letter. A:Anything I can do for you? B:Can you get some tomatoes for me? A:OK. How many do you want? B:One kilo. Thanks.

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+ 15./ ai/ + 例词: eye tie ride

knife arrive + 发音要领:发音时, 由/ a /向/i/自然滑动, 滑动过程中,口型从 开到合,发此音时, 注意将音发足。

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+ All day long the sun shines bright, + The moon and stars come out at night. + From twilight time they line the skies. + And watch the world with quiet eyes.

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+ 16./ au/ + 例词:out how about

cloud shout + 发音要领:发音时, 由/ a /向/ u /自然滑动, 滑动过程中,双唇收 拢收圆:口型由大到 小,舌位由低到高, 注意声音发足。

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+ A:I need someone to help me with the housework
+ B:What do you want him to do? + A:Well. Milk the cow, kill the mouse, wash the towel

and clean the house. + B:How could you find the one that could do these things well? + A: That’s what I am worried about.

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+ 17./ ? ??i/ + 例词:boy joy join

enjoy spoil + 发音要领:发音时, 由/ ? ??/向/i/自然滑动, 但不到/i/时,舌位就 停止。滑动的过程中, 双唇逐渐由圆变扁, 口型由大变小。

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+ A:I want to buy a toy for Roy.

+ B:For Roy? You want to buy him another toy?
+ A:Why not? He enjoys playing with toys. + B:He enjoys destroying toys, too. You’d better not

spoil him.
+ A:We are going out tomorrow. Will you and your

friends join us? + B:That’s a good idea, but I have an appointment . + A:I guess you are going to a joint adventure for a job interview. + B:That’s right. I don’t think I will miss the chance.
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+ 18./i?/ + 例词:ear fear here

clear near + 发音要领:发音时, 由/i/向/?/自然滑动, 滑动过程中,/i/发音 较清楚,/?/发音较模 糊,双唇始终半开。

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+ A: Would you like to have anything to drink? + B:Yes.I’d love to have some beer. + A:How do you like it, iced or without ice?

+ B:Without ice. I don’t want to have the taste spoiled.
+ A:Here you are. + B:Thanks. Oh, it’s very good beer.

+ A:I’m glad you like it. By the way, what’s your plan for

the summer holiday? + B: I’ve no idea. Maybe I’ll be going surfing with Jack. + A:What about going surfing together? + B:That’s a good idea.
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+ 19./e?/ + 例词:air care hair share

parent + 发音要领:发音时, 由/e/向/?/自然滑动。 第一个成分/e/有似于 /ei/,但开口比/ei/大。 滑动过程中,开口程 度稍稍收小。

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+ A: Where will the trade fair be held, Jack?

+ B: The trade fair will be held in the Town Hall.
+ A: Why don’t you go there for your pears? + B:I don’t think we can sell the pears at such a trade

fair.
+ A:Do you know that Mike has been meddling with

your business? + B:Yes, I do. But I don’t care what he has been doing. He won’t harm us a hair. + A:Does your boss know that? + B:Yes, he does. But Mike didn’t seem to get in his hair.
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+ 20./u?/ + 例词:poor tour sure

rural Europe + 发音要领:发音时, 由/u/向/?/自然滑动, 滑动过程中,口型由 收圆变为半开。

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+ A: It’s a pity that there are fewer and fewer well-

preserved old structures. + B:Yes. And I’m sure they will totally disappear in a few years’ time. + A: But tourists are not interested in the high-rise modern blocks. + B: The trouble is that people cannot see that point.

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第 四 单 元

辅 音

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第一节 爆破音 (/p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/)
? 1, /p/ 、 /b/ ? 例词:pit pay open happy proper ? Bit blue baby bike better ? 发音要领:发音时, 双唇紧闭,气流突然 冲开双唇,冲出口腔。 / p/是清辅音,声带不 振动,/b /是浊辅音, 声带振动。
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2./t/、/d/
例词:too take tie touch right Do dirt card tired would 发音要领:发音时,舌 尖紧抵上齿龈,形成阻 碍,然后突然张开,气 流冲出口腔。 / t/ 是 清辅音,声带不振动, /d/是浊辅音,声带振

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3./k/、/g/
例词:kick book bike dock keep Gate get egg ghost girl 发音要领:发音时,舌 后部抬起,紧贴软颚, 形成阻碍,气流冲开阻 碍后,冲出口腔。 /k/ 是清辅音,声带不振动, /g/是浊辅音,声带振

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A:Peter, would you like to have a meat pie? B:No, thanks. Please pour some water into the pot.I’m thirsty.
A: I love you, Miss Brown. B:Sorry, Mr Black. But I love Paul. A: Miss Brown , but Paul won’t be a good husband B:Maybe not. Will you be a good husband, Mr Black? A: You bet, Miss Brown. B:But this is just your own opinion.
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Tongue twister:
This is a hat, that is a cap This is a cat, that is a rat. The cat is in the hat, the rat is in the cap

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语音小知识:
? ? ? ? ?

-ed 在/t/、/d/结尾的动词后发/id/ He mended the radio for me They boarded the plane on time She wanted to see the film Paul admitted he made a mistake.

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2.如果词中有三个辅音相连,中间的/t/、/d/通常弱 化甚至脱落 Exactly, mostly, handbag, dustman, landlord

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3.如果前面的词以/t/或/d/结尾,而后面有辅音开头 ,/t/h和/d/很容易脱落 Next week, first sight, last night, bend back, old man, world wide.

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? ? ? ?

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-ed在清辅音结尾的动词后发/t/ We walked for a long time She stopped and have a look I reached school at 8. I missed my mother a lot.

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第二节摩擦音
1,/f/ & /v/
例词:fly far wife off laugh Very village live over save 发音要领:发音时,下 唇轻触上齿 ,气流由 唇齿间的缝隙通过, 摩擦成音。 /f/是清辅 音,声带不振动;/v/ 是浊辅音,声带振动。
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2./θ /& /?/
例词:think thank thief mouth teeth This those then that 发音要领:发音时,舌 尖轻触上齿背部,气流 从舌齿间的缝隙送出。 / θ /是清辅音,声带不 振动,/ ? /是浊辅音, 声带振动。
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3./s/&/z/
例词:so sir pencil piece dress Zoo zone zero user close 发音要领:发音时,舌 端靠近上齿龈,气流从 舌端 和齿龈间通过,形 成摩擦音。 /s/是清辅音, 声带不振动,/z/是浊辅 音,声带振动。
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4./ ?/&/ ?/

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例词:she sheep wish sure shy Pleasure vision division decision leisure 发音要领:发音时,舌 身抬起,靠近硬颚,舌 端抬向上齿龈,形成狭 长的通道,气流由此通 过。双唇稍微收拢,并 略突出。 / ? /是清辅音, 声带不振动,/ ? /是浊 辅音,声带振动。
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5./h/
例词:he her how who ahead 发音要领:发音时,口 张大,在通过声门时, 发出轻微的摩擦。气流 经过口腔时,不受阻碍。 /h/是清辅音,声带不 振动。
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6./r/
例词:run right cry bread red 发音要领:发音时,舌 尖卷起,抬向上齿龈后 部,但不发生摩擦,舌 两侧稍收拢。口型略突 出,气流通过时,发生 轻微的摩擦。 /r/ 是浊 辅音,声带振动。
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? ? ? ?

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A:What can I do for you? B:I’m looking for a pair of earings. A:Well, here they are. The latest style. B:How beautiful! I’ve never seen anything like them. A:Well, you can have them for eleven pounds. B:I think five is enough. A:What? Five pounds? B:Well, seven pounds,then.

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A:Could you pass me that book, Catherine? B: Oh, you mean this one ,father? A: No, not that one, the other one. Yes, that’s it. B:There you are, father. Is that all? A: Yes, that’s all for the moment. Thank you, Catherinr.

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A:He has lots of hobbies. B: And he said he’s always busy with his paintings and photographs A: He’s won a dozen prizes for his paintings and photographs. B: But as for his restaurant in the town… A:He lets his cousin look after his restaurant. B: He sounds more like an artist than a businessman.

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A: Sir, this will suit you. It’s in a very fashionable shade. B:But I just need a simple shirt. A: This one, perhaps. It’s got some special sewing on the sleeve. B:Can’t you show me a simple shirt in a ordinary shade? A: Why not try it on, sir? B:Perhaps I should try the next shop.
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A: That gives us a lot pleasure. B: What do you mean? A: Well, the lost national treasures have come back. B:I heard of that, The national treasures were stolen. A: The detective cracked the criminal case and returned the national treasures. B:It seems that measures must be taken to protect the national treasures.
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A: Carol, it was wrong of you to get your mother worried B: I’m so sorry I’m late. But Henry’s car broke down. A: You shouldn’t go out with Henry. B:But I do love Henry. And I’m going to marry him. A: Really, Carol, it’s a horrible decision.

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第三节 破擦音

1. /t ?/&/ d ? /
例词:child check reach teach catch Job page June just judge 发音要领:舌尖舌端抬 高,贴住上齿龈后部, 形成阻碍。气流冲出 阻碍摩擦成音。口型 略突出,稍微成方型。
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第三节 破擦音

1. /t ?/&/ d ? /
例词:child check reach teach catch Job page June just judge 发音要领:舌尖舌端抬 高,贴住上齿龈后部, 形成阻碍。气流冲出 阻碍摩擦成音。口型 略突出,稍微成方型。
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? 2./tr/&/dr/ ? 例词:try tree trick true track ? Dry dream dread drop drive ? 发音要领:舌身与/r/相 似,舌尖向上卷起,并 抵住上齿龈后部,气流 冲出舌尖和齿龈之间的 阻碍。双唇收拢,稍向 前突出。
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? 3./ts/&/dz/
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例词:pets coats gets points wants Roads aids reads seeds lands 发音要领:舌端贴住上 齿龈,形成阻碍,气流 冲破阻碍,口型扁平。

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A:We’ll have a pleasant journey, I guess. B:Oh, it’s going to be a challenge. Having a journey by jet A:Take it easy. Just get some rest, John. B:Actually, I’m a little excited. I’ ve never taken a jumbo jet. 1. Great changes have taken place in China 2.Jenny had chicken and French fries for lunch 3.Jim urged uncle John to buy a digital watch. 4.Jane enjoyed sandwiches very much .

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? ? ? ?

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A:How are you, Jane? B:Not bad, thanks. A:How about your children? B:They’re doing fine. These are their pictures. A:How cute they are! Which one is the oldest child? B:Oh, he is. He is Charles. A:And what an angelic child! Who is that? B:Well, that’s the youngest child. It’s Jim.

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?
? ?

A:What can I do for you? B:Well, I’ll join a make-up party, so I want my hair strangely. A:No problem. The hairdresser is coming, But your hair is very dry, let’s have a try to… B:No ,thanks, I just want to dress my hairstyle at once. A:It’s too dreadful that so many people are crowding the train. B:Yes. And the traffic is too bad A:My clothes are creased badly B:But why not dress yourself casually?
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?
?

?

?

?
? ? ?

A:Do you like keeping pets? B:Yes, I have two cats and one of them will have several kids next week. A:In that case, you’ll have another several new cats. B:Yes. There might be three or four. A: I would like to have one of your new cats B: No problem. A:Oh, I must prepare some pet’s things B:Well, I’ll make a list for you.

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第四节 鼻音
? 1,/
?

(? ? ?)

?/

?

例词:me my come tomorrow farm 发音要领:发音时,双 唇紧闭,软颚下垂,气 流从鼻腔送出,在词尾 时,略需延长,以防止 吞音。

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2, /?/
?

?

例词:need name know skin nice 发音要领:发音时,舌 尖紧贴上齿龈,软颚下 垂,形成阻碍,气流由 鼻腔送出,在词尾时, 稍需延长,以防吞音。

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3, /?/
?

?

例词:bank song singing long English 发音要领:发音时,软 颚下垂,舌后部向软颚 抬起,堵住口腔通道, 气流从鼻腔送出。词未 时,发音清晰有力,稍 微延长。

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第五节 舌边音

/ ?/

/ ?/ 在元音前时,发音清晰, 舌端 抵上齿龈,气流从舌 的一侧或两侧泄出。 例词:late like long low close /? / 在辅音前或词末时,发 音含糊。舌端也抵上齿龈, 但是与清晰音相比,舌前 部较低,舌后部较高,发 音略长。 例词:all sell pull little girl

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第六节半元音

(? ?)

1, /?/
例词:we week want where would 发音要领:发音时,舌 后部向软颚抬起,舌 位较高。口型收圆并 稍向前突出,发音短 促,一经发出,立刻 向后面的元音滑动, 起辅音的作用。

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2,/?/
?

?

例词:yes you young yet year 发音要领:发音时,舌前 部尽量向硬颚抬起,双 唇平展,口微开,舌面 和硬颚稍有摩擦,该半 元音一经发出,立刻向 后面的元音滑动,起辅 音的作用。

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英语最新“国际音标”发音讲解到此结 束,望同学们课后认真练习,掌握发音规 律,学好英语学科!

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