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?Phonetics (n.) is the study of speech sounds, which concerns all aspects of the production and perception of speech sounds, as well as the acoustic properties of speech sounds 研究言语声音(即语音)的学科 ?A person who does research with phonetics is a phonetician (n.). 语言学家 ?When you are talking about the pronunciation of a certain word, you are talking about their phonetic (a.) features.

Articulatory phonetics发音音声学 Lungs (肺) ?Larynx (喉) ?Vocal folds (声带) (within larynx) ?Pharynx (咽) ?Nasal cavity (鼻腔) ?Oral cavity (口腔) articulator发音器官

Vocal tract includes 声道包括 –Both source of articulation and the filter of sound

voiceless 清音 When air passes through, no vibration in the vocal folds 不震动

voiced 浊音 When air passes through, vocal folds will start vibrating 震动

fundamental frequency基频:震动频率 Oral口音 Nasal鼻音 区别在于通往鼻子部分是否封闭

Active articulators活动 Tongue 舌 –Tongue position 舌位 ?Lips 唇 –Lip rounding or not 唇型

Passive articulators不活动 ?Alveolar ridge齿槽脊 ?Palate 上颚 ?Velum (soft palate)软腭 ?Uvula 小舌头

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) 国际音标

Consonant (辅音) –Produced by obstructing the air flow as it comes up from the lungs, e.g. [p], [t], [k] 发音时气流在发音器官某一部分受到完全或部分阻碍。

Vowel (元音) –Produced without any restriction, e.g. [a], [i], [o] 元音是在发音过程中由气流通过口腔而不受阻碍发出的音。

Place of articulation (i.e. place of restriction) 用部位分 –Bilabial (唇音): e.g. [p], [b], [m] –Labiodental (唇齿音): e.g. [f], [v] –Interdental : 齿擦音e.g. [?], [?] –Alveolar 齿龈音 : e.g. [t], [d], [n] –Palatal : 龈颚音e. g.[?], [?] –Retroflex (卷舌音): e.g. [?] “是”, [?] “日” –Velar: 软颚音 e.g. [k], [ɡ] –Uvular: 小舌音 e.g. [R] in French. –Glottal: 会厌音 e.g. [h], [?]

Manner of articulation (configuration of articulators) 用方式分 –Stop (or plosive 塞音): e.g. [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [ɡ] –Fricatives (摩擦音): e.g. [f], [v], [?], [?], [?], [?] –Affricates (塞擦音): e.g. [t?], [d?] –Nasals (鼻音): e.g. [m], [n], [?] –Approximants :(半元音) [j], [w], [l], [r]

Voice (or voicing) 用语音分 –Voiceless consonants (清辅音) –Voiced consonants (浊辅音)

Describing consonants 描述方式 ?Three major features –Place of articulation 部位 –Manner of articulation 方式 –Voice 语音

与中文的对比 Differences –Chinese does NOT have voiced plosives ([b], [d], [ɡ]. What we have are aspirated (送气) plosives ([ph] “趴”, [th]“他”, [kh] “咖”) and unaspirated plosives ([p] “八”, [t] “大”, [k] “嘎”)

Aspiration The presence of noise after the release of a plosive” In IPA, aspirated stops are written with a subscript h after the stop consonant, e.g. [ph].

Vowels元音 Tongue position –Height : close (or high), mid, open (or low) –Backness : front, central, back

Lip posture 唇型 –Rounded vowels = vowels produced with lip rounding, e.g. [u] 圆唇元音 –Unrounded vowels = vowels produced without lip rounding, e.g. [i] 不圆唇元音

Identifying a vowel 描述方式 –height + backness + roundedness

图中红色的是圆唇(Rounded vowels) 其他都是不圆唇(Unrounded vowels)

Diphthong (双元音) Transition from one vowel position to another在语音学中,指联合的两个元音,它们作为一个整体出现。之间有 平滑的过渡,也就是说,双元音中的发音牵涉到两种不同的舌位,并且从其中一种舌位滑动到另一舌位。 E.g. house, my, 好, 埃

Nasalized vowel 鼻化元音 –Produced when the nasal passage is open, often preceded or followed by a nasal sound鼻化元音是发音时气息从 口腔和鼻腔同时流出的元音。 ?E.g. bean, bone …

Suprasegmentals ?Segments = single consonant or vowel ?Suprasegmentals: larger units than segments 更广域的系统 –Duration 音长 –Loudness (intensity) 响度 –Pitch 音调

Duration –When we speak, each speech sound has a duration because it cannot be infinitely long –The pattern of durational change comprises speech rhythm –In some languages, duration is an important feature of segments

Loudness ?Related concepts: intensity, amplitude 强度振幅 –Amplitude: difference between peak and valley of a sound wave 振幅 –Intensity: the energy of sound wave (amplitude ^2) 强度 –Loudness is measured in Decibel (dB).

Pitch Closely related with fundamental frequency (F0) ?Fundamental frequency (F0) is the frequency of vocal fold vibration ? voiceless sounds have no F0 or pitch 清音无振动

How does pitch matter for language? –Lexical tone 声调 ?E.g. Mandarin has four lexical tones. –Intonation 腔调 ?In many languages, questions often end with rising intonation and declarative sentences end with falling intonation

What is stress in English? 重音 ?Stress is an important part of English pronunciation –?convert vs. con?vert, ?conflict vs. con?flict ?Stress has no direct phonetic representation, but it is believed to be associated with the combination of duration, intensity and pitch.

Phonetics studies the properties of individual sounds, but phonology studies the system of speech sounds in a language 音韵学 研究不同的声音元素是如何被串接、组合起来而形成一个特定的语言,并且表达出特定的意义,偏向于心理 层面,研究我们人类是如何运用这些声音元素来表达我们内心的想法

The idea of phoneme 音素(音位) ?Phoneme = The smallest unit of sound capable of distinguishing between two words. Phonemes are contrastive segments. 人类语言心理上的抽象最小单位,即音位 ?Minimal pair = A pair of words that are only different in one sound, e.g. cat and kit. ?If you can find a minimal pair to distinguish two sounds =>The two sounds are contrastive => They are two phonemes.

Allophones = Different phonetic varieties of the same phoneme. 同位异音 ?If two sounds are allophones of the same phoneme, it is not possible to find a minimal pair to distinguish the two sounds 一个音位可以表示多于一个音。

How do we know if two sounds are separate phonemes or allophones? 如何区分 ?If there exists a minimal pair, the two sounds are separate phonemes. 存在最小音位,是独立的音素 ?Otherwise, if the following conditions are met, the two sounds are probably allophones: –Two sounds are phonetically similar 读音相似 –Two sounds are distributed separately, either in complementary distribution (i.e. predictable) or in free variation (i.e. unpredictable) Complementary distribution –Two sounds occur in different, non-overlapping types of environments, predictable 两个声音发生在不同的非重 叠的环境中 –E.g. Superman only shows up in case of emergency, other times you would see Clark. ?Free variation –No condition can be found for the appearance of allophones 自由形态 –E.g. 白骨精 decides to appear in various forms randomly, i.e. unpredictable

Phonological rule: Definition 描述方法 ?A rule that indicates how an underlying phoneme is realized phonetically in actual speech. ?General form: ?AAA = underlying phoneme (i.e. Clark Kent) ?BBB = phonetic representation (i.e. Superman) ?CCC = condition (i.e. emergency)

?AAA becomes BBB under the condition of CCC Phonological rule: Examples 例子 ?Eg1: English aspiration rule –Observation: initial stops in pull, top, kill are aspirated, stops in other positions are often unaspirated (e.g. top, stop, skin, etc) –Rule: ?stop ?aspirated stop / beginning of stressed syllable

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