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SAT 2 Chemistry


Chemistry
Questions cover topics emphasized in most high school courses. Because of course differences, most students will find that there are some questions on topics with which they ar

e not familiar. You may not be able to complete all the questions in the time given, but it is not necessary to get every question correct to get a high score or even the highest score on the test.

FORMAT/CONTENT
85 multiple-choice questions Topics Covered Structure of Matter Atomic Structure, including experimental evidence of atomic structure, quantum numbers and energy levels (orbitals), electron configurations, periodic trends Molecular Structure, including Lewis structures, three-dimensional molecular shapes, polarity Bonding, including ionic, covalent and metallic bonds; relationships of bonding to properties and structures; intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces, dispersion (London) forces States of Matter Gases, including the kinetic molecular theory, gas law relationships, molar volumes, density, stoichiometry Liquids and Solids, including intermolecular forces in liquids and solids, types of solids, phase changes, and phase diagrams Solutions, including molarity and percent by mass concentrations, solution preparation and stoichiometry, factors affecting solubility of solids, liquids and gases, qualitative aspects of colligative properties Reaction Types Acids and Bases, including Br?nsted-Lowry theory, strong and weak acids and bases, pH, titrations, indicators Oxidation-Reduction, including recognition of oxidation-reduction reactions, combustion, oxidation numbers, use of reduction potentials Precipitation, including basic solubility rules Stoichiometry Mole Concept, including molar mass, Avogadro’s number, empirical and molecular formulas Chemical Equations, including the balancing of equations, stoichiometric calculations, percent yield and limiting reactants Equilibrium and Reaction Rates Equilibrium Systems, including factors affecting position of equilibrium (Le Ch?telier’s principle) in gaseous and aqueous systems, equilibrium constants, and equilibrium expressions Rates of Reactions, including factors affecting reaction rates, potential energy diagrams, activation energies

Approximate % of Test

25%

Skills Covered in the Context of Chemistry






Recalling knowledge: remembering fundamental concepts and specific information; demonstrating familiarity with terminology (about 20% of test) Applying knowledge of a single principle to unfamiliar and/or practical situations to obtain a qualitative result or solve a quantitative problem (about 45% of test) Synthesizing knowledge: inferring and deducing from qualitative and/or quantitative data; integrating two or more relationships to draw conclusions or solve problems (about 35% of test)

16%

Important Things to Note on This Subject Test
■ ■ ■ ■

A periodic table indicating the atomic numbers and masses of elements is provided for all test administrations. Problem solving requires simple numerical calculations. The metric system of units is used. Calculator use is not permitted.

Recommended Preparation
■ ■

14%

■ ■

One-year introductory chemistry course at the collegepreparatory level Laboratory experience — a significant factor in developing reasoning and problem-solving skills — even though this multiple-choice test can only test lab skills in a limited way, as in data analysis Mathematics preparation that enables handling simple algebraic relationships and applying these to solving word problems Familiarity with the concepts of ratios, direct and inverse proportions, exponents, and scientific notation

14%

5%

Getting Ready for the SAT Subject Tests 25

FORMAT/CONTENT
Topics Covered Thermochemistry Including conservation of energy, calorimetry and specific heats, enthalpy (heat) changes associated with phase changes and chemical reactions, heating and cooling curves, entropy Descriptive Chemistry Including common elements, nomenclature of ions and compounds, periodic trends in chemical and physical properties of the elements, reactivity of elements and prediction of products of chemical reactions, examples of simple organic compounds and compounds of environmental concern Laboratory Including knowledge of laboratory equipment, measurements, procedures, observations, safety, calculations, data analysis, interpretation of graphical data, drawing conclusions from observations and data

Approximate % of Test 6%

Directions for Classification Questions
Each set of lettered choices below refers to the numbered statements or questions immediately following it. Select the one lettered choice that best fits each statement or answers each question and then fill in the corresponding circle on the answer sheet. A choice may be used once, more than once, or not at all in each set.

12%

Questions 1-3 refer to the following aqueous solutions. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 0.1 M HCl 0.1 M NaCl 0.1 M HC2H3O2 0.1 M CH3OH 0.1 M KOH

8%

1. Is weakly acidic 2. Has the highest pH 3. Reacts with an equal volume of 0.05 M Ba(OH)2 to form a solution with pH = 7 Questions 4-6 refer to the following ionic species.

Sample Questions
Three types of questions are used in the Chemistry Subject Test: classification questions, relationship analysis questions, and fivechoice completion questions. The types are noted below in the practice questions that follow. The directions given are identical to those that are in the test. Relationship analysis questions use a different format, and you will mark your answers to them in a separate section of the answer sheet, as explained in the directions. Note: For all questions involving solutions, assume that the solvent is water unless otherwise stated.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

X+ X 2+ X3+ XO32– XO42–

4. A type of ion found in sodium acetate 5. A type of ion found in aluminum oxide 6. A type of ion found in potassium phosphate Questions 7-10 refer to the following atoms in the ground state. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Ar O S Ti U

7. Has the electron configuration 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p4 8. Has the same number of electrons as Ca2+ 9. Has electrons in f orbitals 10. Is the LEAST chemically reactive

26 Getting Ready for the SAT Subject Tests

On the actual Chemistry Test, the following type of question must be answered on a special section (labeled “Chemistry”) at the lower left-hand corner of your answer sheet. These questions will be numbered beginning with 101 and must be answered according to the following directions.

On the actual Chemistry Test, the remaining questions must be answered by returning to the section of your answer sheet you started for the Chemistry Test

Sample Answer Grid
*Fill in circle CE (correct explanation) only if statement II is a correct explanation of the true statement I.

Directions for Five-Choice Completion Questions
Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding circle on the answer sheet.

Directions for Relationship Analysis Questions
Each question below consists of two statements, I in the lefthand column and II in the right-hand column. For each question, determine whether statement I is true or false and whether statement II is true or false and fill in the corresponding T or F circles on your answer sheet. *Fill in circle CE only if statement II is a correct explanation of the true statement I.

11. The hydrogen ion concentration of a solution prepared by diluting 50. mL of 0.10 M HNO3(aq) with water to 500. mL of solution is (A) 0.0010 M (B) 0.0050 M (C) 0.010 M (D) 0.050 M (E) 1.0 M . . .Cu2+(aq) + . . . I–(aq) . . . CuI(s) + . . . I2(s)

I
101. The rate at which sugar dissolves in water increases with stirring 102. Diamond has a high melting point BECAUSE

II
stirring exposes the surface of a solute crystal to a less concentrated layer of solution. in a diamond crystal, the carbon atoms are held in place by ionic bonds. potassium has more protons in its nucleus than lithium has. zinc is a more active metal than copper is.

12. When the equation above is balanced and all coefficients are reduced to lowest whole-number terms, the coefficient for I–(aq) is (A) 1 (D) 4 (B) 2 (E) 5 (C) 3

BECAUSE

Gas h

103. Potassium has a lower BECAUSE first ionization energy than lithium has 104. Zinc metal will reduce BECAUSE Cu2+ in solution HC2H3O2 + H2O

Liquid Mercury

C2H3O2– + H3O+ the equilibrium constant of a reaction changes as the concentration of the reactants changes.

13. The bulb of the open-end manometer shown above contains a gas. True statements about this system include which of the following? I. Only atmospheric pressure is exerted on the exposed mercury surface in the right side of the tube. II. The gas pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure. III. The difference in the height, h, of mercury levels is equal to the pressure of the gas. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) II only III only I and II only I and III only I, II, and III

BECAUSE 105. If some acetic acid, HC2H3O2, is added to the equilibrium mixture represented by the equation above, the concentration of H3O+ decreases

Getting Ready for the SAT Subject Tests 27

14. A thermometer is placed in a test tube containing a melted pure substance. As slow cooling occurs, the thermometer is read at regular intervals until well after the sample has solidified. Which of the following types of graphs is obtained by plotting temperature versus time for this experiment?

17. Analysis by mass of a certain compound shows that it contains 14 percent hydrogen and 86 percent carbon. Which of the following is the most informative statement that can properly be made about the compound on the basis of these data? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) It is a hydrocarbon. Its empirical formula is CH2. Its molecular formula is C2H4. Its molar mass is 28 g/mol. It contains a triple bond. C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l)

18. The combustion of propane, C3H8(g), proceeds according to the equation above. How many grams of water will be formed in the complete combustion of 44.0 grams of propane? (A) 4.50 g (B) 18.0 g (C) 44.0 g (E) 176 g (D) 72.0 g 19. The number of oxygen atoms in 0.50 mole of KHSO4 is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

1.2 × 10 23 2.4 × 10 23 3.0 × 10 23 1.2 × 10 24 2.4 × 10 24

20. All of the following statements about carbon dioxide are true EXCEPT: (A) (B) (C) (D) It can be prepared by the action of acid on limestone. It is used to extinguish fires. It dissolves in water at room temperature. It sublimes rather than melts at 20°C and 1 atmosphere pressure. (E) It is less dense than air at a given temperature and pressure. 21. For elements in the left-most column of the periodic table, properties that have increasing values as the atomic number increases include which of the following? I. Ionization energy (potential) . . . SO3(g) II. Atomic radius III. Atomic mass (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) I only III only I and II only II and III only I, II, and III

15. From their electron configurations, one can predict that the geometric configuration for which of the following molecules is NOT correct? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) PF3 trigonal planar CF4 tetrahedral CHCl3 irregular tetrahedron OF2 bent (v-shaped) HF linear . . . SO2(g) + . . . O2(g)

16. According to the reaction represented by the unbalanced equation above, how many moles of SO2(g) are required to react completely with 1 mole of O2(g) ? (A) 0.5 mol (B) 1 mol (C) 2 mol (D) 3 mol (E) 4 mol

22. All of the following can act as Br?nsted-Lowry acids (proton donors) in aqueous solution EXCEPT (A) HI (D) H2S
28 Getting Ready for the SAT Subject Tests

(C) HCO3– (B) NH4+ (E) NH3


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