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Lesson 3 Scientific Breakthroughs

Lesson 3 Scientific Breakthroughs

Do you know the major discoveries of the scientists in the pictures?

Albert Einstein was
considered the greatest scientist of the 20th century and one of the greatest of all time. His greatest discovery is the creation of his famous Albert Einstein

Theory of Relativity.

American astronomer. Hubble’s study leads to the most important astronomical discovery of the twentieth century — the expanding universe. Edwin Hubble

Hubble space telescope

哈勃空间望远镜是人类第一座太空望 远镜,它以时速2.8万千米沿寂静的太 空轨道运行,默默地窥探着太空的秘 密,是有史以来最大、最精确的天文 望远镜,它上面的广角行星相机可拍 摄到几十到上百个恒星照片。




太 空 中 的 宝 石

猫 眼 星 云



星 系 之 心


Alexander Fleming

Scottish biochemist On February 14, 1929 Fleming discovered Penicillin, when an accidental discovery led to one of the great developments of modern medicine.

Mauchly & Eckert

Mauchly was an American physicist who, along with his student Eckert designed ENIAC, the first commercial computer made in the United States.

世界上第一台电子计算机ENIAC的问 世,宣告了人类从此进入电子计算机时 代。

Words preview
dilemma microscope procedure organ donate correspond meanwhile split n. 困境,进退两难的窘境 n. 显微镜 n. 程序,步骤 n. 器官 vt. 捐赠,赠送 vi. 通信 conj. 同时 vi. 分开,分离 premier adj. 最重要的

Words preview
outspoken telescope galaxy mist mould penicillin outcome cure navy adj. 直言的,坦率的 n. 望远镜 n. 星系 n. 薄雾 n. 霉,霉菌 n. 青霉素,盘尼西林 n. 后果,结果 vt. 治愈 n. 海军

Words preview
missile wrestle wrestle with something circuit microwave patent jet n. 导弹,飞弹 vi. 摔跤,搏斗 努力解决难以处理 的事情 n. 电路 n. 微波炉 n. 专利 n. 喷气式


Read fast and match the discoveries with how they were discovered a. Scientists worked 1. E = mc2 together as a team 2. penicillin b. There was a lucky accident 3. the first c. A scientist did computer research for many 4. other galaxies years d. A scientist was inspired

Skim the passage to get main ideas

1. The passage is main about ____. A. Scientific discoveries B. Pioneers of Science C. Scientific discoveries in the 20th century D. Pioneers of science in the 20th century 2. How many famous scientists are mentioned in the passage? A. One B. Four C. Six D. Eight

Language Points 1. figure out

figure sth. out 想出,理解某事
It took me hours to figure the problem out. figure sb. out 看透,理解

Women, I just can’t figure them out .

2. wrestle 摔跤,扭打 wrestle with sb. 与某人扭打 The kids are wrestling with each other. wrestle with sth. 努力解决某事 I spent hours wrestling with maths homework. 3. nothing like 一点也不像 He is nothing like his brother. something like 大约 Something like 80% of the population has no running water.

4. turn to 转向,变成,求助于,开始行动 The baby fell down. He turned to his mother for help. to turn love to hate 转爱为恨 5. turn on 开启 turn off 关闭 turn up 调高 turn down 调低

6. measure n. 尺寸 clothes made to measure vi 有……(长,宽,高等) The room measures five meters across. vt. 测量 I measured his height.

Scan the passage to get detailed information

Reading Strategies: Identifying accurate information Read to get general idea. Read questions to identify important words. Find the relevant part. Decide if the above two express the same meaning. Decide if there is no information.

Decide if these statements true or false or no information. Use the strategies to help.
1. Einstein was at work when he thought of the equation “E=mc2 ”. F 2. Einstein participated in the program that developed the nuclear bomb. NI

3. Einstein observed changes in time, size
and mass. F

4. Hubble studied the universe for over twenty years. NI 5. Hubble discovered that our galaxy is bigger than we thought it was. NI 6. Fleming had been studying bacteria in his laboratory when the discovery happened. F 7. There was a blue mould around the bacteria in the dish. T 8. Fleming developed the process for making penicillin. F

9. The first computer project failed to meet its original goal. T 10. The first computer was extremely difficult to program. NI 11. The scientists who discovered microwaves invented microwave ovens. T 12. Today, it is possible to donate your heart to hospital when you die. T

Complete the table Time Name Discov How ery 1905 Albert Theory of Sudden Influence

Not Einstei relativity inspiratio mentioned n n
By using the most high-power telescope of the time proved the universe was vastly larger than previously thought

after Edwin expandi the Hubbl ng First universe e World War

Time Name Discove How ry 1929 Flemi penicil by



helping to accident save lives not mentioned


Eckert &the first working Mauchly computer hard

Vocabulary: Compound Words

Match the categories with the examples.
a) compound noun (noun + noun) b) compound noun (verb + preposition) c) compound noun (adjective + noun) d) compound verb e) compound adjective 1. one-year-old world-famous far-reaching 2. CD player jet engine 3. flying machine nuclear bomb 4. breakthrough outcome 5. mass-produce double-check

Quiz Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words. predicted It is _________(prediction) that there will be 5 scientific breakthroughs in the 21st century. First, we'll know where we came from. Since the 1920s, scientists have known the universe is expanding(expand). ________ Second, as scientists learn more about the genetic code and the way cells work at the molecular(分子) level, many serious diseases —cancer, for one—will become threatening less__________ (threat).

Third, we’ll live longer (long), maybe 120 _____ manage years old. Fourth, we’ll “_______ ” (management) Earth. In the next millennium(千年期), we'll stop talking about the weather but will do something about it. Fifth, we’ll have a brain “road map". This is the real "final frontier of the 2lst century: The brain is__________ the most complex (complex) system we know. We'll be able to say with certainty which ones are working when you read a word, when you think about a word, and so on.

single out 1. It is possible to _________(选出) a few

pioneers of the 20th century.
2. The navy turned to Eckert to wrestle with _________ (解决难题) the problem. 3. The first world computer was nothing like __________(一点也不像) our computer today.

4. These pioneers of the 20th century were _____________(对……做出贡献) dedicated to improve the quality of human life. 5. __________________(毫无疑问). There is no doubt Without the discoveries, the world would have been a completely different place.

Rewrite the five scientific breakthroughs mentioned in the text in about 150 words.

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