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汽车专业英语教程教案 (5)_图文

Chapter 5 Automobile Reception and Maintenance English 第五章 汽车接待与维修实用英语
Section 1 Receptionist English 第一节 前台接待英语 Section 2 Maintenance Reception English 第二节 接待英语 Section 3 Reading Materials of Automobile Maintenance 第三节 资料选读 Section 4 Reading Materials of Present Automobile Technology 第四节 技术资料选读

Section 1 Receptionist English 第一节 前台接待英语
Lesson 第一课 Lesson 第二课 Lesson 第三课 One Introduction of New Models 车款推介 Two Negotiation of Price 价格讨论 Three Terms of Payment 支付方式

Lesson One Introduction of New Models 第一课 车款推介
Dialogue 1 对话1 Dialogue 2 对话2 Dialogue 3 对话3 NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS NOTES

Dialogue 对话1

1

A:Now I’d like to show you the new model,2000 Toyota Landcruiser. A:现在我向您介绍一款新车,丰田巡洋舰2000。 B:oh,it looks nice. B:很漂亮。 A:Yes,I bet you’ll like it more after my introduction.It’s Power Steering with Alloy Wheels. Cruise Control,4 Wheel Drive. A:我肯定在听完我的介绍之后您会更喜欢它。它带动力转向的 合金车轮,有巡航系统和四轮驱动。 B:Very good.Could you tell me more about the specifications of this model? B:很好。你能告诉我关于这款车更多的特点吗?

A:Sure.As you can see it’s of sports utility body style with Mahoghany exterior,4.7 Liter V8 engine. A:当然。它的发动机是4.7L V8发动机。正如您所见,这辆车 有红褐色运动型的外壳,非常好看。 B:I like it very much.What's the price? B:我非常喜欢。它的售价是多少呢? A:$49975.00 A:49975.00美元。 B:Any discount? B:能打折吗? A:Yes,We can offer you 5%0ff. A:可以,我们可以给您打9.5折。 B:Good.I’ll take it. B:好的,那我就买吧。

Dialogue 2 对话2
A:This way,Mr.Smith.What do you think about our new model Audi A6 Quattro? A:请这边,史密斯先生。你觉得我们的新型号奥迪A6 Quattor 如何? B:oh,it looks good.But I’d like to know something about its feature. B:看上去不错。但是我想多了解一些它的特性。 A:It’s auto transmission and 4 wheel drive with power brakes.Let me tell you more specification.The Mileage is 14415.The engine,4.2 Liter V6.The price is $27299.00.I think it’s quite a good car. A:这辆车带有动力制动器的自动变速器和四轮驱动。让我告诉 你更多它的特性:这辆车行驶了14415英里,4.2L V6发动机,售价 是27299美元。我觉得这是一辆很好的车。

B:Yes,I think so.But I’d like to look around and make a decision after seeing some other models. B:是的,我也这么想。但我还是想看看周围其他的型号然后再 下决定。 A:Sure. A:好的。

Dialogue 3 对话3
A:Are you interested in our new model?Would you like to know more about it? A:你对我们这款新车有兴趣吗?要多了解一下吗? B:Yes,I would.But does it have Anti-Lock Brakes and Auto Transmission? B:好的。它有防抱死刹车装置和自动变速器吗? A:Yes,of course.And also with the other features such as Dual Air Bage,Tilt Wheel and Power Locks Etc. A:当然有。而且还有其他的特性,如双层气囊、可调式车轮和 驱动力差速锁等。 B:Perfect.I love it.think I’ll take this one. B:太好了,我很喜欢。我想买这辆。 A:Thank you. A:谢谢。

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Lesson Two Negotiation of Price 第二课 价格讨论
Dialogue 1 对话1 Dialogue 2 对话2 Dialogue 3 对话3 Dialogue 4 对话4 NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS NOTES

Dialogue 对话1

1

A:How much is this new model 675? A:这款新的675多少钱? B:It’s 465,000 Yuan. B:465000元。 A:I like this car very much but it's bit expensive for me.Can you give me discotmt? A:噢。我很喜欢这辆车,但价钱有点贵,能打折吗? B:Well,this is the newest model and very popular.I think it’s worth. B:这是最新的款式,而且非常受欢迎,我觉得这个价格很合理。 A:Ok,I’ll think about it. A:好吧。我再考虑一下。

Dialogue 2 对话2
A:You could save a lot if you would order a little mole A:如果你多定一点可以省不少的钱。 B:How could we do that? B:怎么说呢? A:We offer a discount for large orders. A:我们对大量订购有折扣。 B:Let me take another look at our requirements. B:那我得看看我们的需要量了。

Dialogue 3 对话3
A:We can offer a 10%discount for orders over 10 000 pieces. A:订购10000个以上,我们可以打九折。 B:I‘m not sure we can use that many. B:我怕我们用不了那么多。 A:It would represent quite a savings. A:这省下的可是一笔不少的钱哩。 B:ok,I’ll see what I Can do. B:好吧,我考虑考虑吧。

Dialogue 4 对话4
A:Why are there three prices quoted for this part? A:这种零件为什么有3种不同的报价? B:They represent the prices for different quantities. B:不同的量有不同的价钱。 A:I see. A:原来如此。 B:The more you order,the more you wilt save. B:订购越多,优惠越多。

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Lesson Three Terms of Payment 第三课 支付方式
Dialogue 1 对话1 Dialogue 2 对话2 Dialogue 3 对话3 NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS NOTES

Dialogue 1 对话1
A:Let’s discuss the terms of payment. A:我们谈一下支付方式吧。 B:Well,do you accept credit cards or I should pay in cash? B:好的。你们接受信用卡付款还是现金? A:Yes,either is OK.And you can pay by installment. The first installment should be paid a week beforethe shipment.The second one would be paid 1 day before the shipment.Then pay the last installment when you get the car. A:当然,两种方式都可以。您还可以采取分三期付款方式:第 一期在汽车运送之前1星期,第二次于运送前1天,最后,在收到车 后付清其余的款项。 B:That’s very good. B:好的

Dialogue 2 对话2
A:I've one proposal to make on the mode of payment. A:对于我们的支付方式,我有一个建议。 B :What’s it? B:什么建议? A:Our business is concluded by way of L/C.Frankly speaking,a letter of credit will raise the costs of my goods.I heard you would accept different kinds of payments. A:我们的交易是用信用证支付的,也就是说这会增加我的货物 成本,我听说有其他的方式支付。 B:That’s true.But we can’t do it.Payment by L/C is our usual practice of doing business. B:是的。不过我们不能这么做。信用证支付是我们一向做生意 的惯例。

A:Would you consider another way of payment?Otherwise I would probably stop the business. A:那你考虑一下吧。否则我要考虑终止和你的交易了。 B:OK.I’ll think about that and talk to you later. B:那好,我考虑后再和你联系。

Dialogue 3 对话3
A:I'm glad our business is going quite smoothly. A:很高兴我们的生意进行地如此顺利。 B:Yes.But is it OK I pay by Banker’s Transfer? B:是啊。我能通过银行汇款付款吗? A:Sony,I’m afraid not.We accept payments in cash or by credit card only. A:不好意思,恐怕不行。我们只接受现金和信用卡付款。 B:Oh,I don’t think I have enough cash with me and I have no credit card. B:噢,我现在没有足够的现金,而且也没有信用卡。

A:We have installment payment that can help you.The down payment is 1/3 of the price. A:那可以采用分期付款方式。您只要先付1/3的订金就行。 B:That’s great.I’ll pay the down payment now. B:太好了。那我现在就付订金。

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Section 2 Maintenance Reception English 第二节 汽车维修接待英语
Lesson 第一课 Lesson 第二课 Lesson 第三课 One Reply for Customers' Complain 接受顾客投诉 Two Visiting Maintenance 登门维修 Three Users' Feedback 用户反馈

Lesson One Reply for Customers‘ Complain 第一课 接受顾客投诉
Dialogue NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

NOTES

Dialogue 对话
Manager:Hello,This is Sales Department,New Century Automobile Company. 您好,新世纪汽车公司销售部。 Customer:I’m afraid I have to make a complaint with your corporation.It’s a most unpleasant incident. 我得向你公司提出投诉,这并不是一件令人高兴的事情。 Manager:Oh,what is it about?I′m so sorry to hear that. 什么事?真遗憾听到此事。

Customer:Yes,I ordered a set of wheel alignment the other day.1 received and after I examined them one by one, I found that there must be something wrong with the related cornputer because it can’t give any signal. That’s。why 1 want to see the manager. 确实是这样的,前几天我订购了一套四轮定位仪,等我收到后 逐个检查时,我发现配套的计算机屏幕一点信号都没有。这就是我 要见经理的原因。 Manager:I am sure everything is a11 right with that shipment.You see I know you’re our regular customer and it is the first time for me to meet with such an inconvenient thing. 我肯定那批货的装运一切都是正常的。我们是老交易了,这你 是知道的,我也是第一次遇到这类问题。 Customer:1 want t0 return this. 我要退货。

Manager:Without sufficient evidence to support,your claim is untenable.If we were at fault。we should be very glad to compensate for your loss. 你必须有足够的证据。如果责任在我方,我们当然乐意赔偿你 方损失。 Customer:What’s your opinion? 您的意见如何? Manager:I’m terribly sorry about that.May I know your name and address,sir?I’ll check it and send a repairman to your side at once. 真的很抱歉,请问您的姓名及地址,等我核实后,我会立即派 修理工去你那里处理此事。 Customer:This is Edward Johnson,from No.120,Rose Avenue. 我叫爱德华·约翰森,露丝大街120号。

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Lesson Two Visiting Maintenance 第二课 登门维修
Dialogue NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

NOTES

Dialogue 对话
Customer:You’ve finally arrived. 你们终于来了。 Repairman:What’s the matter? 什么问题? Customer:I think something must be wrong with the computer for wheel alignment because there is no signal on the screen. 我想四轮定位仪的计算机一定出了故障,因为屏幕上没有任何 信号。 Repairman:Oh,the engine went dead. 发动机不转了。

Repairman:We’re s0 sorry t0 have caused you so much inconvenience and we have to replace it.Let me have a look at your warranty certificate? 对不起,给您带来了诸多不便,我们得更换它。可以看一下您 的保修单吗? Customer:Here it i s. 给你。 Repairman:Well,your warranty is expired.We have to charge for the parts. 哦,抱歉您的保修期已过,所更换的配件需要付款。 Customer:That’s all right,We’re dying for the normal work condition at any expense. 没有关系,只要能修好就行。 Several minutes later,The repairman replaced the wrong unit. 几分钟后,修理工更换了坏的部件。

Repairman:It’s OK,you can turn on the power now. 好了,您可以开机了。 Customer:I appreciate your coming here in time. 感谢你们及时维修。 Repairman:If anything is wrong with your computer, don’t hesitate t0 call us a moment and we’re at your service. 如果电脑再出现什么问题,请立刻打电话给我们,我们随时为 您效劳。 Customer:Thank you. 谢谢。 Repairman:My pleasure. 不客气。

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Lesson Three Users‘ 第三课 用户反馈
Dialogue NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

Feedback

NOTES

Dialogue 对话
Salesman:Hello,This is New Century Automobile Company.I’m calling to know whether everything has gone well with your computer. 您好,这里是新世纪汽车公司。不知您的计算机现在运转是否 正常。 Customer:Thanks a lot.It works excellently after being repaired. 非常感谢,维修之后一切正常。 Salesman:I’m very happy to hear you say so and I do hope the minor problem didn′tcause you much inconvenience. 很高兴听您这么说,但愿这一小问题没有给您带来太多不便。

Customer:Thank you very much for your good service.I’m sure your company will bemaking more money. 谢谢你们真诚的服务,我相信贵公司生意会更加红火。 Salesman:It is always our policy to give reliable and satisfactory services to our clients.Let’s find out what you like by doing a market research and it will give us an indication. 给顾客提供优质、满意的服务是我们的宗旨。让我们做个市场 调查吧,我想这将帮助公司成长。 Customer:Ok,I feel the height of the computer is too high that I have t0 operate by standing. 我认为电脑的高度太高以致我只能站着操作。 Salesman:It’s a good suggestion,1’ll report to the manager right now! 这是个很好的建议,我会立即向经理汇报。

Customer:I recommend a pleasant color to match with the house’s color. 我建议色泽要好看一些,并且与房子的颜色要匹配。 Salesman:Thank you for your warm-hearted reply.I feel more optimistic and more confident about our relations in the future. 谢谢您热情的回答。我对我们未来的合作更加乐观和充满信心。 Customer:It’s just my own opinion,I’d like you to think it over. 这仅仅是我个人的观点,希望你们能够再考虑一下。 Salesman:We’lI go into it further,and let you know what decision we reach. 我们会做深入的调查,并且把我们的决定告诉您。 Customer:I shall be glad to hear from you. 我会很乐意听到你们的决定。 Salesman:Thank you,bye-bye! 谢谢,再见! Customer:See you later. 再见.

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Section 3

Reading Materials of Automobile Maintenance 第三节 汽车维修资料选读

Lesson One Engine Troubleshooting 第一课 发动机故障诊断与维修 Lesson Two Fuel Injection Manual 第二课 燃油喷射系统维修手册 Lesson Three Automobile Testing Equipment 第三课 汽车检测设备

Lesson 第一课

One Engine Troubleshooting 发动机故障诊断与维修

Engine overheatin 发动机过热 Cleaning the Cooling System 冷却系的清洗 High Oil Consumption 机油消耗过多 LOW Oil Pressure 机油压力过低 Chassis and Engine Vibration 底盘和发动机振动 Abnormal Engine Noises and their Causes 发动机异响及其原因 NEW WORDS AND EXPRKSSIONS: PHRASES Notes on the Text

Engine overheatin 发动机过热
There are many conditions of the automobile that result in overheating,and the degree of overheating is indicated by the temperature gauge on the instrument panel.Some conditions will cause only a slight change in the recorded temperature, other causes will result in a rapid rise in temperature and violent boiling of the coo1ant. Still others while causing only a slight increase in recorded temperature,while will be more noticeable in engine performance. 汽车在很多工况下都会有发动机过热产生,此时的温度会则在 仪表板上的温度表中显示。有些工况会引起发动机温度的微小变化, 而另外工况则会引起发动机温度迅速上升并使得冷却水剧烈沸腾。 同时也有些工况会对发动机温度上升稍有影响,但对发动机性能影 响会更显著。

When troubleshooting the cause for overheating and consequent 1oss of Coolant,the 6rst step is to make careful visual inspection to see if there is any evidence of external 1eakage. A1l surfaces of the radiator and its hose connections should be carefully inspected.Leaks generally cause corrosion,which is easily seen.The Visual inspection also must include the cooling fan and its drive belt.It is not too unusual for cracks to form in the engine water jacket.When cracks occur,the condition is usually indicated by extreme overheating.The crack is often difficult to locate,because it is not always visible to the naked eye.The condition is also complicated by the fact that the crack usually will close when the engine is cold,and open only when the engine is at operating temperature. 当要查找引起发动机过热和随之而来的冷却水丧失的原因时,

首先要进行仔细的外观检查,确保是否有外部泄漏问题。对散热器 的所有表面和软管连接处进行仔细的检查。冷却水泄漏处通常有锈 蚀,这容易被看到。同时也要对冷却水风扇和驱动皮带进行外观检 查。发动机水套的开裂也偶尔存在。当开裂发生时,发动机就会表 现出过热。水套开裂一般很难被查找到,因为对肉眼而言通常是不 可见的。发动机冷态时开裂处闭合,只有在发动机热态时开裂处才 开启,所以寻找开裂处会很复杂。

冷却系的清洗 High Oil Consumption
Unless very severely clogged with rust and hard scale, cooling systems can be cleaned with special chemicals designed for the purpose.The procedure is to fill the system with water,then put in the chemical.The chemical, after dissolving the rust and scale,is flushed from the system.In severe cases of c1ogged radiators.it is necessary to remove them and have them cleaned by specialized equipment. 冷却系内除非已被铁锈和水垢严重堵塞,否则可以使用特殊的 化学物质来清洗。先给冷却系加注水,然后加入化学物质。化学物 质将铁锈和水垢溶解,之后被水冲洗掉。散热器严重阻塞时,可将 散热器拆卸,并用专门的设备对散热器进行清理。

High Oil Consumption 机油消耗过多
Quite often high oil consumption is blamed on the piston rings.While worn piston rings and cylinder walls do cause increased oil consumption,there are a great number of other things that could be at fault,either singly or in combination.Worn valve guides are also a frequent cause of high oil consumption.When oil is being consumed by passing through the engine,it usually will cause heavy blue smoke to come from the exhaust,particularly after the engine has idled for several minutes. 通常认为机油消耗过多归咎于活塞环。活塞环和气缸壁的磨损 确实会引起机油消耗过多,但还有很多其他零部件单独或同时出现 故障也导致机油消耗过多。气门导管磨损也时常引起机油消耗过大。 润滑油窜到燃烧室燃烧时,通常会产生浓的蓝烟从排气管中排出, 这种现象在发动机怠速了一段时间后更加明显。

LOW Oil Pressure 机油压力过低
In most cases of low oil pressure,the pressure is satisfactory when the engine is first started up,then it drops as the engine warms up.This condition is almost positive proof that excessive clearance exists at some point,or points,such as connecting rod bearings,main bearings,camshaft bearings,etc.When cold,the oil has thickened and does not flow as readily through the clearance.When the oil heats up and thins out,it flows through the worn bearings so fast that the pump cannot maintain sufficient pressure. 多数机油压力偏低的情况是:发动机冷起动时,压力合格,当 发动机走热后,压力下降。这肯定说明在某处或多处间隙过大,如 在连杆轴承、主轴承、凸轮轴承等地方。冷态时,机油粘度大,不 容易流人这些间隙。机油温度上升时,粘度下降,机油很快流人磨 损的轴承,油泵不能维持足够的油压。

Chassis and Engine Vibration 底盘和发动机振动
Consider the case where there is a pronounced vibration in the car at a certain speed range.First of all it is necessary to determine whether the unbalance is in the engine or the chassis. Or both.If it is in the engine,or the parts that rotate with the engine,the vibration should occur at the critical engine speed when the car is not in motion. If it is in the chassis,it will occur only when the ear is operated at the critical speed.It is most likely to be found in the chassis,because the engine assembly is carefully balanced at the factory.Out-ofbalance tires and propeller shafts are the most common causes of chassis vibration. 假如汽车在一定的速度范围内产生明显的振动。首先有必要

是发动机内还是底盘处或是两者同时出现了不平衡。如果振动是在 发动机内产生,则当汽车停止而零件随着发动机旋转时,振动应该 在发动机的某个临界转速下产生。如果振动在底盘,则只有当汽车 达到了某个临界速度时发生。通常振动出现在底盘,因为发动机总 成在出厂前已经被仔细地平衡过。轮胎和传动轴动不平衡是底盘振 动的最常见原因。

Abnormal Engine Noises and their Causes 发动机异响及其原因
The following listing will point out the most common causes of sound itself and what must be done to eliminate them. 下面列举了产生各种异响的常见原因及其排除方法。 1.Piston slap is a very common noise most noticeable when an engine is cold.A piston that slaps against the cylinder wall produces a hollow,muffled,belllike Sound.quite audible when an engine is operating under load at low rpm.Piston slap results from worn pistons or cylinders,collapsed piston skirts,excessive piston-tocylinder wall clearance,misaligned connecting rods,or a lack of lubricating oil.Therefore,in order to correct piston slap,it will be necessary to replaced or resize the

pistons,rebore the cylinder or replace the sleeves, replace or realign the rods,or add oil to the engine. 1.活塞敲缸是非常常见的异响噪声,尤其在发动机冷态时最明显。 活塞敲击气缸壁产生了一种空的,沉闷的,敲钟状的声音,当发动 机在低速带负荷下非常容易听得见。活塞敲缸声是因活塞或气缸的 磨损、活塞裙部变形、活塞与气缸壁间间隙过大、连杆变形、以及 润滑油不足 等而产生的。所以,为解决敲缸声音,有必要更换或 改变活塞尺寸,镗缸或更换缸套,更换或校正连杆,或给发动机加 机油。

2.An abnormal sound originating from some form of piston-ring problem is audible during engine acceleration. To correct the cause of ring noise,it may be necessary, therefore,to replace the rings,the pistons,or the sleeves or rebore the cylinders. 2.当发动机加速时会产生明显的来自活塞环的噪声。为解决活 塞环噪声问题,有必要更换活塞环、活塞、缸套或对气缸进行镗缸。

3.A sound not frequently heard in an engine is that of a piston ring striking the ring ridge at the top of the cylinder.This particular problem causes a very distinct and high-pitched,metallic rapping or clicking noise audible at all engine speeds but particularly on deceleration.To repair the cause of this sound,it will be necessary to replace the piston pin or connecting rod bearings. 3.发动机内有种不常见的异响是活塞到达气缸上止点时活塞环 敲击活塞环槽造成的。这种特殊故障会引起一阵清晰高音的金属敲 击声,它在发动机的各个速度范围内均产生,尤其在发动机减速时 明显。为排除这种噪声,有必要更换活塞销或连杆轴承。

4.A piston-pin knock is noticeable most of the time when an engine is idling.Piston pin noise is usually the result。of a worn piston pin,piston-pin boss,pin bushing ,or a lack of oil.To correct this problem,install oversize pins,replace the bushings and pins,or service the engine with oil. 4.活塞销敲击声在发动机怠速时显而易见。活塞销噪声通常是 由活塞销磨损、活塞销座孔磨损、销轴瓦磨损或机油缺乏等原因引 起的。安装大尺寸的活塞销,更换销轴瓦和销,或给发动机添加机 油能排除这种故障。

5.An abnormal noise that is audible when the engine is running at speeds above 35 miles per hour(mph)without a load is usually the result of loose connecting-rod bearings.Loose rod bearings cause a light to heavy knock or pound,depending on how badly the bearings are worn.Connecting.rod bearing noise can be due to a worn bearing,crankpin,misaligned rod,or lack of oil.To correct the noise,it will be necessary to replace the bearings,service or replace the crankshaft,realign or replace the rod,or service the engine with oil. 5.发动机在无负荷下运行,若活塞线性速度超过35英里/小时 就产生噪声,则通常是由连杆轴承松动造成的。随连杆轴承磨损程 度不同,松动的连杆轴承会引起不同轻重的碰撞声。连杆轴承、曲 柄销磨损,连杆弯曲或缺乏机油都会引起连杆噪声。这种故障可通 过更换连杆轴承、维修或更换曲轴,校正或更换连杆,以及添加发 动机润滑油等方法来排除。

6.An abnormal noise that is audible upon engine acceleration under load is usually the result of a loose crankshaft main or thrust bearing.Main or thrust bearing noise is usually the result of worn bearings,crankshaft journals,or a lack of oil.To correct this noise,it will be necessary to replace the bearings,crankshaft,or Service the engine with oil. 6.发动机在带负荷下加速时产生的噪声通常是曲轴主轴承或推 力轴承松动引起的。主轴承或推力轴承噪声通常是由于轴承磨损、 曲轴轴颈磨损,以及缺乏机油等引起的。为解决此故障,有必要更 换轴承、曲轴,以及添加发动机润滑油等来实现。

7.A loose Vibration damper or flywheel can also cause abnormal engine noises.This sound is more noticeable during engine acceleration from idle under load or at an uneven idle.but it is less apparent at higher engine rpm or during smoother engine operation.A loose flywheel,on the other hand,sets up either a heavy thump or a light knock at the back of the engine,depending upon the amount of play the flywheel has and the type of engine.You can detect a loose flywheel by shutting off the ignition switch at idle and then turning it on again just before the engine stops rotating.Also,operating the clutch pedal, at the same time the noise is audible at running speeds,will vary the sound enough so that it is easier to identify and then locate its source. 7.减振器或飞轮松动也会引起发动机异响产生。发动机在怠速 下加速,或怠速不匀时这种声音非常明显,但在发动机高速或发动

机平稳运转时不明显。换句话说,随飞轮的重量和发动机类型的不 同,飞轮松动时,会对发动机后端产生轻重不同的敲击。可通过在 发动机怠速时断开点火开关,并在发动机将近停止时接通点火开关 来查看是否有飞轮松动产生。踩动离合器踏板,同时噪声仍然听的 见,离合器动作改变了噪音的大小,使得辨认这种异响变得容易, 然后定位出噪声部位。

8.Excessive clearance in the Valve train produces a noise that is usually more apparent during engine idle rpm than any other time.Valve-train noise is brought about by improper valve adjustment,worn or damaged parts,dirty hydraulic lifter,or lack of clean lubricating oil.In order to correct the cause of the noise,it will be necessary to adjust the valves, replace worn or damaged parts,clean or replace the lifters,or service the engine’s lubrication system. 8.配气机构间隙过大会产生噪声,这种声音在发动机怠速下更 为明显。配气机构噪声是因气门调整不正确、气门部件磨损或损坏、 液压挺杆污染以及润滑油杂质过多等而产生的。在排除这种噪声时, 有必要调整气门、更换磨损或损坏的零件、清洗或更换挺杆,或维 修发动机润滑系。

9.The one abnormal sound unrelated to worn,damaged, loose,or maladjusted engine parts is detonation knock.The noise is most noticeable during acceleration with the engine under 1oad and operating at normal temperature. Excessive detonation is very harmful to the engine,and you should do everything possible to correct the cause as soon as possible.Detonation knock in an engine is usually the product of advanced ignition timing, excessive carbon buildup in the combustion chambers,or use of too low an octane fuel.To correct this malfunction.check the distributor’s advance mechanisms,check and reset the ignition timing,decarbonize the engine,or recommend a change in fuel to one with a higher octane rating. 9.与零件磨损、损坏、松动或发动机零件调整不当等无关的不 正常噪声是爆震。在发动机带负荷正常工作温度的条件下,车辆加

速时这种噪声最明显。爆震过严重对发动机损坏非常大,这时应想 尽一切办法,尽快地排除故障。发动机爆震敲击声通常是因点火提 前、燃烧室内积炭过多以及燃料油的辛烷值过低等而产生的。为排 除这种故障,需要检查分电器点火提前装置,检查和重新进行点火 正时,去除发动机积碳,建议换用较高辛烷值燃油。

NEW WORDS AND EXPRKSSIONS:

PHRASES

Notes on the Text
NOTE 1 There are many conditions of the automobile that result in overheating,and the degree of overheating is indicated by the temperature gauge on the instrument panel. 汽车在很多工况下都会有发动机过热产生,此时的温度会则在 仪表板上的温度表中显示。

NOTE 2 In severe cases of clogged radiators,it is necessary to remove them and have them cleaned by specialized equipment. 散热器严重阻塞时,可将散热器拆卸,并用专门的设备对散热 器进行清理。 语法:It is?to中的it是形式主语。此句的原始顺序是to remove them and have them cleaned by specialized equipment is necessary.在英语中表达中,为了避免主语太长,造成句子头 重脚轻,常用it作为形式主语来引导整个句子,词序需改变。

NOTE 3 When oil is being consumed by passing through the engine,it usually will cause heavy blue smoke to come from the exhaust.particularly after the engine has idled for several minutes. 润滑油窜到燃烧室燃烧时,通常会产生浓的蓝烟从排气管中排 出,这种现象在发动机怠速了一段时间后更加明显。 语法:When和after引导的从句都是时间状语从句。

NOTE 4 Piston slap results from word pistons or cylinders, collapsed piston skirts,excessive piston.to-cylinder wall clearance,misaligned connecting rods,or a lack of lubricating oil. 活塞敲缸声是因活塞或气缸的磨损、活塞裙部变形、活塞与气 缸壁间间隙过大、连杆变形、以及润滑油不足等而产生的。 Result?from表示“(因而)发生,产生,出现”。强调的是原因。 例如:injuries resulting from a fall因摔倒而受的伤。 区别于result?in。它表示“产生某种作用或结果”。强调的是结 果。 例如:The efforts resulted in success.我们的努力终于成 功了。

NOTE 5 Valve-train noise is brought about by improper valve adjustment,worn or damaged parts,dirty hydraulic lifter. or lack of clean lubricating oil. 气门机构噪声是因气门调整不正确、气门部件磨损或损坏、液 压挺杆污染、以及润滑油杂质过多等而产生的。

NOTE 6 Detonation knock in an engine is usually the product of advanced ignition timing,excessive carbon buildup in the combustion chambers,or use of too low an octane fuel. 发动机爆燃敲击声通常是因点火提前、燃烧室内积炭过多以及 燃料油的辛烷值过低等而产生的。

Lesson Two Fuel Injection Manual 第二课 燃油喷射系统维修手册
Pretest System Checks 系统预备检查 Fuel system 燃油系 Electrical System 电路系统 Battery&Charging System 蓄电池和充电系 Miscellaneous 其他项目 Typical Fuel Injection Pressure Test 典型燃油喷射压力测试 Procedure to Relieve Fuel System Pressure 释放燃油系油压发热步骤 ??

Pretest System Checks 系统预备检查
The following basic checks should be performed and any detected faults corrected before.e a fuel system test is performed. 对燃油供给系测试前,先要进行下列基本检查,并将所有检查 出的故障排除。

Fuel system 燃油系
A.Look for broken or 1oose fuel 1ines(metal or rubber). B.Make sure fuel tank has sufficient fuel(do not rely on fuel gauge). C.Check for water or other contaminants in fuel. D.Check condition of fuel system related fuses. E.Check condition of fuel tank venting systems. F.Check condition of fuel tank filler cap. A.查看油管(金属或橡胶)断裂或松动。 B.确保油箱内燃油足够(不要依赖油表读数)。 C.查看燃油内是否有水或其他污染物。 D.查看燃油系的电路上的熔断丝状况。 E.查看油箱通风装置状况。 F.查看油箱加油口盖状况。

Electrical System 电路系统
A.If engine won’t start,check for ignition spark using a test plug.If no spark,repair ignition system. B.Observe check engine lamps or other computer fault indicators. C.Look for ignition wires broken,disconnected or arcing. D.Look for distributor cap or rotor disconnected or arcing. E.Check for component grounds 1oose or corroded. F.Look for disconnected electrical components. A.如发动机不起动,用测试火花塞检查火花强度。如无火花, 维修点火系。 B.观察发动机指示灯或其他计算机故障指示灯。 C.查看点火系线路断路、未连接或放火花情况。 D.查看分电器盖或分火头处断路或放火花情况。 E.查看零部件搭铁是否松动或腐蚀。 F.查看未连接的电子元件。

Battery&Charging System 蓄电池和充电系
A.Check battery condition.A weak battery will not ensure proper pump delivery or injector triggering.Should be over 12 volts. B.Check basic operation of charging system. C.Look for loose or corroded battery cables. A.查看蓄电池状况。蓄电池容量不足将不能保证正确的油泵泵 送量和喷油器的触发。蓄电池电压应高于12伏。 B.查看充电系的基本电路。 C.查看蓄电池连接线缆的松动或腐蚀情况。

Miscellaneous 其他项目
A.Check vacuum lines for loose or disconnected lines. B.Look for water leaks. C.Look for excessive oil leaks. D.Listen for any audible air leaks,unusual noises, fuel pump buzz(a noisy pump may not be an indication of poor operating condition),engine rattles or knocks. E.Check Valve timing and adjustment. A.检查真空管是否松动或未连接。 B.检查冷却水是否泄漏。 C.检查机油是否大量泄漏。 D.听是否有空气泄漏声,油泵嗡嗡声(油泵有声音并不意味着 工作不良),发动机卡嗒卡嗒声或爆震声。 E.检查气门正时并调整。

Typical Fuel Injection Pressure Test 典型燃油喷射压力测试
All pressure tests should be made at idle on the highpressure side of the system. 所有压力测试均在发动机怠速下,测定燃油系的高压侧压力。 1.With engine off,locate fuel pressure port(Schrader Valve)and attach fuel pressure gauge.If no schrader Valve is provided and system must be opened, residual pressure must be released before fittings are loosened to keep gasoline from spraying all over,possibly causing eye injury or a fire.Connect tester using the correct adapter and access point. Always wrap a shop towel around fitting before loosening. 1.关闭发动机,查找油压端口(斯奇拉德阀)并安装燃油压力 表。如没有斯奇拉德阀,而又要将燃油系打开时,必需在这之前将 残压释放,以便防止汽油四处喷射,引起眼睛受伤或火灾。使用合 适的连接器和入口将测试仪连接好。通常用车间用毛巾裹在要旋松 的装置上。

2.If the adapter you use is a banjo bolt adapter,ours is designed to use with standard banjos.If a car manufacturer uses a nonstandard banjo,more than one washer may be needed on either or both sides of the banjo. 2.如果你的连接器是个中空螺栓连接器,而我们提供的是标准 中空管。如果汽车厂使用非标准中空管,则在中空管一端或两端均 需要使用垫片。 3.With gauge connected to system using proper adapters, reactivate fuel pump.start the engine and check for leaks. If no leaks are detected,observe gauge.Pressure should rise to slightly above operating pressure and then stabilize at operating pressure. 3.当使用合适的配接器将油压表连接到燃油系上后,起动油泵, 起动发动机并检查泄漏。如果未发现泄漏,观察油表。压力应慢慢 升到超过工作压力然后稳定在工作压力上。

4.start engine.If an adjustable fuel pressure regulator is used,pressure should be maintained during running.If a compensating fuel pressure regulator is used ,pressure should drop approximately 8-9 PSI,depending on manifold vacuum. 4.起动发动机。若使用了可调节式燃油压力调节器,燃油压力 在发动机运行中将保持恒定。如果采用补偿式燃油压力调节器,则 根据不同的歧管真空度,燃油压力将下降大约8-9PSI。

5.Locate a flexible hose on the return side and gently squeeze off return flow briefly.Never squeeze a steel braided hose.CAUTION:Some pump designs can be damaged by this test and test should not be performed unless recommended by manufacturer.Observe rapid increase in dead-end pressure.CAUTION:Pressure could exceed 75 PSI and may blow any loose fittings or defective lines.Observe condition of system before this test. 5.查找到回油侧的软管,并稍微轻轻挤压掉回油。千万别挤压 外裹有钢编织层的软管。注意:有些油泵在这种测试中会损坏掉, 因此要在厂家的建议下进行该项测试。观察末端的压力上升。注意: 压力可能会超过75PSI,并且可能吹掉松动零件和松动管路。注意测 试前的系统状况。

6.If pressure is acceptable,some manufacturers also require a flow test.If so,at this point open then fuel system into a graduated plastic container and observe flow rate.Close system. 6.如果压力合格,有些厂家还要求进行燃油流量测试。测试时, 将燃油系接到一个塑料量筒内,观察流速。关闭系统。 7.Turn key off and observe residual pressure.Some manufacturers prescribe a minimum holding time. 7.断开点火开关,并观察残压。有些厂家规定了最小的保持时 间。

8.In conjunction with an injector pulse tester,turn key on,observe pressure.pulse one injector,observe pressure drop,turn key off, move tester to next injector, turn key on, observe pressure,pulse injector,observe drop,turn key off,continue with remaining injectors. CAUTION:Do not repeat this test more than manufacturer’s recommendations. 8.进行喷油器脉冲测试,闭合点火开关,观察油压,脉冲一个 喷油器,观察压力降,断开点火开关,将测试仪移到下一个喷油器, 闭合点火开关,观察油压,脉冲喷油器,观察压力降,断开点火开 关,继续下面的喷油器检查。注意:这种实验不能做得超过厂家建 议次数。

9.Deactivate fuel pump and relieve fuel system if necessary.With key off.put bleed.off tubing in a fuel can and press bleed-off valve.If your tester has no bleed .off valve assembly,wrap rags around connections and release slowly. 9.停止油泵并且在必要时释放燃油系的燃油。断开点火开关, 将泄放管伸人到燃油罐中,按下泄放阀。如果测试仪未带泄放阀装 置,那么要在连接处裹上碎布并缓慢释放燃油。

10.Remove tester and reconnect all lines. 10.拆除测试仪并重新接好管路。 11.Start engine ad check for leaks. 11.起动发动机并检查泄漏。 12.Remove fuel from all hoses.If fuel remains in gauge hose assembly,connect the smallest banjo bolt adapter into the quick coupler over a fuel container.Hold gauge above hose and fuel will now into the fuel call. 12.清除所有软管中的燃油。如果油压表的软管中残有燃油,应 将油表上最小的中空螺栓接头接到快速耦合连接器上,并伸入到燃 油容器内。将油表抬高于软管之上,燃油将流人燃油容器中。

Procedure to Relieve Fuel System Pressure 释放燃油系油压发热步骤
1.Do not smoke. 2.Wear a pair of safety glasses. 3.Keep a dry chemical(Class B)fire extinguisher near you. 4.Release gas cap with ignition off. 5.disable fuel pump. 6.on some vehicles,a satisfactory method of disabling the fuel pump(s)is to remove the fuel pump fuse (s). But on other Vehicles,removing the fuses(s) disables the fuel injectors or ignition Systems,so another disabling method must be used. 7.Some vehicles not specifically mentioned in our“Fuel Pressure Release”chart may have two fuel pumps. Make sure both are disabled.

8.Turn the ignition key on and start the engine. 9.Run the engine until it stalls. 10.Try to restart the engine for 3-5 seconds.For cars with inertia switch pressure relief.engage starter 15 seconds to relieve fuel pressure. 11.Turn ignition key off. 1.勿吸烟。 2.戴上一副安全眼镜。 3.将干化学(B类)灭火器置于身旁。 4.断开点火开关后,旋松油箱盖。 5.停止油泵工作。 6.在有些汽车上,可通过拆除油泵熔断丝来停止油泵工作。但 在其他的汽车上,拆卸熔断丝只能使喷油器或点火系统失效,所以, 必须使用其他得方法来使燃油泵工作停止。 7.在“油压释放”中未提及的有些汽车上可能有两个油泵。注 意确保两个油泵均停止工作。

8.闭合点火开关,起动发动机。 9.运行发动机直至停止。 10.试着重新起动发动机35秒。对于使用惯性开关压力释放装置 的汽车,应使起动机工作15秒来释放燃油压力。 11.断开点火开关。

Additional Instructions for Testing GM TBI 测试GM节气们体燃油喷射系统的额外说明
1.Relieve fuel system pressure. 2.Remove the air cleaner assembly. 3.Temporarily plug the vacuum port on the throttle body. 4.Using proper adapters, install the tester in line between the fuel filter and throttle body. 5.IF steel tubing is removed,use two wrenches to prevent damage. 6.On some cars,it is easier to put the car on a lift and test from underneath. 7.On some cars with GM TBI systems,it is hard to install adapters. 8.Reactivate fuel pump,start the engine and check for leaks.

9.When fuel pressure has stabilized after a minute or so,gauge should read 9-13 PSI(62-90kPa). 10.Deactivate fuel pump,and relieve fuel system pressure.With key off,put bleed.off tubing in a fuel can and press bleed-off valve.If your tester has no bleed-off valve assembly,wrap rags around connections and release slowly. 11.Remove tester and reconnect all lines. 12.Start engine and check for leaks. 13.Remove fuel from all hoses.If fuel remains in gauge hose assembly,connect the smallest banjo b1ot adapter into the quick coupler over a fuel container.Hold gauge above hose and fuel will now into the fuel can. 14.Remove the plug from the vacuum port and replace air cleaner. 1.释放燃油系的油压。

2.拆除空气滤清器总成。 3.暂时将节气们体的真空端口堵上。 4.用合适的连接器将测试仪安装在燃油滤清器和节气们体之间。 5.若拆除钢管,需用两个扳手来防止损坏。 6.在有些汽车上,容易将汽车开到举升器上,从而在汽车下方 测试。 7.在安装有GM节气们体燃油喷射系统的某些汽车上,较难安装 连接器。 8.接通燃油泵,起动发动机并检查泄漏。 9.当燃油压力在几分钟左右后稳定,油压表读数应为9~13 PSI (62~90kPa)。 10.切断燃油泵电路,释放燃油系压力。关断点火开关后,将燃 油释放管接入到一个燃油罐内并按下释放阀。如果测试仪没有释放 阀装置,则用布条裹在连接处并慢慢释放油压。

11.拆下测试仪并重新接好所有管路。 12.起动发动机并检查泄漏。 13.清除所有软管内燃油。如果油压表的软管中残有燃油,应将 油表上最小的中空螺栓接头接到快速耦合连接器上,并伸入到燃油 容器内。将油表抬高于软管之上,燃油将流入燃油容器中。 14.将塞子从真空端口拆下并更换空气滤清器。

Fuel Pressure Diagnosis 燃油压力诊断
Fuel Pressure problems generally fall into two categories:higher than normal and lower than normal operating pressures.The fuel supply system is a closed loop system.Fuel is pumped from the tank to the pressure regulator and injectors, and excess fuel is returned to the tank.The fuel pressure regulator is the dividing point between the supply side and the return side .A higher than normal pressure is generally caused by a malfunction in the return side,and a lower than normal pressure is generally caused by a problem in the supply side. 燃油压力问题通常属于两大类:高于正常工作压力和低于正常 工作压力。燃油供给系是个封闭的循环系统。燃油从油箱内泵出, 送到燃油压力调节器和喷油器,过多的燃油回到油箱。燃油压力调 节器是供油管和回油管之间的分界点。高于正常的压力通常是回油 管路故障引起的,低于正常的压力通常是供油管路故障引起的。

Higher than normal pressures can usually be attributed to faults such as: ·defective fuel pressure regulator · restriction(bend or kink)in return line · flexible coupling at tank ·excessive tank pressure caused by a poor vent system 高于正常燃油压力通常归因于下列故障: ·燃油压力调节器损坏 ·回油管受阻(管路弯曲或缠结) ·油箱连接处松动 ·通风不良导致的燃油箱内压力过高

Lower than normal pressures can usually be attributed to faults such as: ·clogged fuel filter ·restriction(bend or kink)in supply line ·defective fuel pump ·defective pressure regulator · flexible coupling at tank ·clogged fuel filter sock in tank ·1ow pressure in tank(vacuum)caused by improper venting 低于正常燃油压力通常归因于下列故障: ·燃油滤清器堵塞 ·供油管受阻(管路弯曲或缠结) ·油泵损坏 ·燃油压力调节器损坏 ·油箱连接处松动 ·油箱内滤清器堵塞不工作 ·通风不正确导致的油箱内压力过低(真空产生)

Restrictions are usually coupled with a low flow rate, whereas a defective pump or pressure regulator could maintain proper now rate but not pressure.If any of these conditions exist,component isolation is generally the fastest rate of diagnosis(Example:whenever possible, disconnect lines before and after component or line.Check pressure and flow before and after component or line). 油管受阻通常伴随着燃油流量下降,然而,油泵或压力调节器 损坏可能仍会维持正确的流量,而不是油压。如果上述情况存在, 则元件分离法通常是最快的诊断方法(比如:如有可能,则在故障 元件或油管的前和后分别断开油管,检查元件或管路的前和后的燃 油压力和流量)。

NEW WORDS AND EXPRKSSIONS:

PHRASES

Notes on the Text
NOTE 1 The following basic checks should be performed and any detected faults corrected before a fuel system test is performed. 对燃油供给系测试前,先要进行下列基本检查,并将所有检查 出的故障排除。 语法:before a fuel system test is performed是时间状语 从句。

NOTE 2 If an adjustable fuel pressure regulator is used, pressure should be maintained during running. 若使用了可调节式燃油压力调节器,燃油压力在发动机运行中 将保持恒定。 语法:during running是时间状语从句。

NOTE 3 If Fuel remains in gauge hose assembly,connect the smallest banj。bolt adapter into the quick coupler over a fuel container. 若燃油油残留在油表软管总成中,则将最小的中空螺栓连接器 与快速偶合器连接,并置于燃油容器之上。

NOTE 4 But on other vehicles,removing the fuses(s)disables the fuel injectors or ignition systems,so another disabling method must be used. 但在其它的汽车上,拆卸熔断丝只能使喷油器或点火系统失效, 所以,必须使用其他得方法来使燃油泵失效。 语法:removing‘g the fuses(s)是动名词作主语。

NOTE 5 A higher than normal pressure is generally caused by a malfunction in the return side,and a lower than normal pressure is generally caused by a problem in the supply side. 高于正常的压力通常是回油管路故障引起的,低于正常的压力 通常是供油管路故障引起的。

Lesson Three Automobile Testing Equipment 第三课 汽车检测设备
The tune-up technician must be very familiar with and competent in the use of various forms of test equipment. With the aid of this equipment,the technician can perform two very important tasks.For instance,the test instruments when properly used quickly pinpoint malfunctions within the engine and the ignition,fuel, electrical,and emission control systems.In addition,this same equipment is an excellent quality control tool. 汽车修理技师必需熟悉和掌握各种各样的检测仪器。应用这些 仪器,技师能完成两种重要的任务。例如,正确使用检测仪器有助 于快速查找发动机、点火系、燃油系、电器和排放控制系统内的故 障。另外,这些仪器也是很好的汽车维修质量控制设备。 Leak detector泄漏检查器 Diesel Smoke Meter柴油机烟度计 ??

Leak detector 泄漏检查器
This instrument is used for locating leaks in any pressure and vacuum system,and is also used to examine the discharge troubles in electric apparatus.The instrument consists of main body,ultrasonic probe.ultrasonic microphone and ultrasonic transmitter etc. 泄露检查器用于查找所有压力和真空系统中的泄露点,也用于 检查电气设备中的漏电故障。这个仪器由仪器主体、超声波探测器、 超声波扩音器和超声波信号发送器等组成。

Diesel Smoke Meter 柴油机烟度计
This instrument is used for the measurement of smoke emitted from vehicle with diesel engine.The instrument is thus suitable for investigating both steady-state and transient conditions,but suffers from lack of sensitivity.Also,with smoke other than completely black, changes in ambient light may influence readings.The opacimeter is essentially an instrument for use a engine test bed or chassis dynamometer and an exhaust extraction system is needed;this should not cause distortion of the plume.If used in the open air it is clear that the plume must be shielded from wind. 该仪器是用于柴油机碳烟排放的测定。这个仪器能适于发动机 稳态和瞬态工况下烟度的测量,不过烟度计常有灵敏度低的缺点。 并且,在排烟未全黑的情况下,烟度计读数会受到环境光线的影

响。吸光系数烟度计实际上是用于发动机试验台或底盘测功机上的 仪器,它要与废气采集系统同时使用,这种烟度计测量烟度时不会 错误。若在开放条件下测量烟度,那么必需将烟柱遮蔽起来,免受 风的影响。

Fig.5-1 Diesel Smoke Meter

Automotive Emission Analyzer 汽车排气分析仪
This is a type of non-dispersive infrared absorption analyze-r.The infrared analyzer is a device that measures the amount of hydrocarbons(HC)and carbon monoxide(CO)in a vehicle’s exhaust.Both of these compounds are harmful air pollutant-s.Hydrocarbons in a Vehicle’s exhaust represent unburned gasoline.If the engine does not burn up all the fuel during the combustion process,raw gasoline goes out the tailpipe and registers as HC on the meter.the meter on the analyzer measures HC emissions in parts per million (ppm).on the analyzer’s cometer,the richness or leanness of a mixture is shown by the position of the needle.The richer the mixture,for example,the higher the needle deflects,indicating a greater percentage of CO in the exhaust sample.The analyzer measures the amount of

CO in the exhaust.Using a percentage figure.other than the task of measuring emission levels to determine if a vehicle′s exhaust emissions comply with legal standards, the infrared analyzer has three other common usages.First ,you can perform emission tests with this machine at various engine speeds and conditions to uncover quickly a variety of engine,ignition,and fuel-system malfunctions. Second,the analyzer provides the accuracy and range for checking and adjusting most carburetors, except those found on many vehicles with catalytic converters. Finally,the analyzer serves as a valuable quality.control tool after a tune-up to make sure that all the repair work and adjustments corrected a noted problem and restored the vehicle to manufacturer’s specification. 这是种非分散型的吸收式红外分析仪。这种吸收式红外分析仪 可以检测汽车排气中碳氢(Hc)和一氧化碳(C0)的排放量。这两种化

合物都是有害空气污染物。汽车排气中碳氢代表未燃的汽油。如果 发动机在燃烧过程中未能将燃油燃烧完全,纯汽油就从排气尾管中 排出,并在仪器上显示为HC排放。分析仪上测量HC排放是以百万分 之几为单位的。分析仪上CO计是以指针偏转位置来显示c0的浓度的。 混合物的浓度越高,指针偏转的越高,表明排出的样气中c0的百分 比越大。分析仪用百分比来显示排气中C0含量。除了检测排放水平, 来决定汽车排放是否达到法规标准,红外分析仪还具有其他三大常 规用途。首先,可用仪器 测量发动机在不同转速和工况下 的排放,以发现发动机、点火系 和燃油系的各种故障。其次,除 了在安装有催化转化器的汽车上, 分析仪可衡量对多数化油器的检 验和调试的效果。最后,分析仪 还是个优秀的维修质量控制工具, 在发动机维修后能确保所作的维 修和调整工作已经校正了显著的 Fig.5-2 Automotive Emission 故障并将汽车恢复到厂商的技术 Analyzer 规格。

Microcomputerised Engine Analyzer 计算机控制的发动机分析仪
It consists of the main part, sensors and indicator. The main part is a measuring and data.handling system with a microcomputer. There are seven sensors-ignition,power supply,voltage,oil pressure,cylinder pressure,Vibration and fuel injection sensors. 它由仪器主体、传感器和指示仪表组成。主体是个带微机的测 量和数据处理系统。传感器则有7种:点火传感器、电源传感器、电 压传感器、机油压力传感器、气缸压力传感器、爆震传感器和燃油 喷射传感器等。

Chassis Dynamometer 底盘测功机
The chassis dynamometer is another very important diagnostic tool,found in many tune-up specialty shops. The chassis dynamometer measures the mechanical power of the vehicle at the drive-wheels and provides the operator with a readout in units of road speed and power.In addition,the chassis dynamometer along with an engine analyzer permits the operator to examine engine systems in detail with the vehicle operating under a 1oaded condition.The typical chassis dynamometer consists of two rollers,a remote control pendant.and readout instruments.The two rollers cradle the Vehicle’s drive wheels.one of the rollers couples directly to a power absorption unit.The power absorption unit applies a

varying load on this roller upon command from the operator.The power absorption unit then acts as a very effective brake,which applies,through the roller, resistance to drive-wheel rotation.The greater the 1oad applied by the absorption unit to the roller,the more horsepower is necessarily to turn it at any given speed. Thus,at constant drive.wheel speed,the horsepower output can be made to vary by changing the 1oad,applied by the absorption unit.Also,the operator can vary the horsepower output with a constant load applied to the drive.wheels by changing the engine speed.The remote pendant is a handheld contro1 used to activate the power absorption unit. The control itself has two buttons:on and off.When the technician pushes the on button in,the power absorption unit begins to load the roller.The off button,on the

other hand,deenergizes the power absorption unit,thus releasing the load from the roller.The speed and power instrument panel contains two large,illuminated meters: speed and power. 底盘测功机是另外一种非常重要的诊断工具,常出现在许多汽 车专业维修店。底盘测功机能测量车辆驱动轮上的机械功率,并能 给操作员提供出以道路行车速度和功率为单位的读数。另外,底盘 测功机和发动机分析仪一起使用可使操作员仔细检查汽车在带负荷 的条件下其发动机的技术状况。常见的底盘测功机包括两根滚筒, 一个遥控面板,一个读数仪器。两根滚筒托起汽车驱动轮。其中一 根滚筒与动力吸收装置直接耦合。动力吸收装置根据操作员命令而 将不同的负荷作用在这根滚筒上。动力吸收装置然后起到一个有效 的制动作用,通过滚筒阻止驱动轮的旋转。动力吸收装置作用在滚 筒上的载荷越大,就需要驱动轮发出更大的功率来使滚筒按给定转 速转动。因此,在驱动轮稳定转速下,可通过改变动力吸收装置的 作用载荷来改变驱动轮输出功率。同时,在固定作用在驱动轮的载

荷下,操作员也可以通过改变发动机转速来改变驱动轮输出功率。 遥控面板是个手持式控制装置用以遥控动力吸收装置。遥控面板上 有两个按钮:“启动”和“停止”。当技师按下“启动”按钮,动 力吸收装置开始给滚筒加载。按下“停止”按钮,相反,动力吸收 装置断电,使滚筒卸载。速度和功率仪表板有两个大的指示计:速 度计和功率计。

Fig.5-3

Chasis Dynamometer

Automobile Front wheel Aligner 汽车前轮定位仪
This is a special device for measuring the wheel camber, the kingpin caster and the kingpin inclination of automobile. 这个是专门用于测量汽车车轮外倾角、主销后倾角和主销内倾 角的装置。

Automobile side-slip Tester 汽车测滑仪
This instrument is used for testing the dynamic location of the front wheels of automobile.It consists of the testing device,the quantitative indicating device and the qualitative displaying device of the sideslip. 这种仪器用于检测汽车前轮的动力学部位。它由侧滑检测装置、 侧滑量指示装置和侧滑量显示装置组成。

Fig.5-4 Automobile side-slip Tester

Automobile Speedometer Tester 汽车车速表测试仪
This equipment is used for checking the precision and the performance of automobile speedometer.It consists of the speed-test device,speed-display device and speed. 这是用来检查汽车车速表的准确性和工作特性的设备。它由车 速检测装置、车速显示装置和车速警报装置组成。

Torquemeter 扭矩测试仪
This is a torquemeter with microcomputer;it’s used for measuring torque,speed and power of engine,motor and gearbox,etc. 扭矩测试仪带有微机,用于测量发动机、起动机和变速箱的扭 矩、转速和功率。

Reaction Type Automobile Brake Tester 反力式汽车制动实验台
This is an instrument for checking the braking performance of automobile.It consists of the actuating device,braking force supporting device,braking force detecting device and braking force indicating device. 这是个检测汽车制动性能的仪器。它由执行装置、制动力支撑 装置、制动力检测装置和制动力显示装置组成。

Automobile Comprehensive Tester 汽车综合测试仪
This instrument is used for the determination of dynamic and economic property in automobile test.1t consists of main part and sensors.The main part consists of a single board computer and an interface circuit plate. Sensors include the 6fth wheel sensor,fuel consumption sensor,pulling force sensor,revolution sensor and brake pedal sensor. 这个仪器用于测量汽车的动力性和经济性。它由主体部分和传 感器组成。主体部分由单片机和界面电路板组成。传感器包括五轮 传感器、燃油消耗传感器、牵引力传感器、转数传感器和制动踏板 传感器。

Performance Tester of Internal-Combustion-Engine 内燃机性能测试
This is a tester for measuring the power,fuel consumption and rotational speed of engine.It consists of a microcomputer and a printing system.It is used in engine test run in combination with various dynamometers. 这是测量发动机功率、燃油消耗和发动机转速的仪器。它由一 个微机和一个打印系统组成。它与底盘测功机结合,可用于发动机 测试。

Wheel Dynamic Balancer 车轮动平衡仪
This is a special equipment for conducting balancing. The electrical logging system analyses and handles signals with a single board computer.Dynamic imbalance.Unlike static imbalance,can only be detected when the wheel is rotating.Dynamic balancers of the first type require the tire to be in static balance before any dynamic balancing is attempted.Dynamic imbalance can then be checked as the wheel is spun.The weights of the size indicated are placed on the wheel rim in the proper position(180°from each other on opposite wheel rims).The wheel is respun to make sure that the imbalance has been corrected.Balancers of the second type,those that combine static and dynamic balance functions,use a sensing mechanism that is

sensitive to the entire weight characteristic of the tire and wheel assembly.This allows imbalance to be corrected with one weight on each side of the wheel. 这是个专门用于校正平衡的装备。其电子记录系统使用单片机 来分析和处理信号。和静不平衡不同,动不平衡只有在车轮旋转时 才能被检测到。用第一种动平衡仪 测试车轮动平衡前需要对轮胎进行 静平衡。然后当车轮旋转起来时动 不平衡才能被检测到。显示的平衡 重块要安装在轮辋正确的位置上 (平衡重块间在轮辋上呈180°对 立)。然后,要将车轮再次旋转, 以确保动不平衡已被纠正。第二种 动平衡仪,同时具有静平衡和动平 衡功能,它使用对轮胎和车轮总成 的整重特性敏感的感应装置。这样, 可以使用一个平衡重块安装到车轮 Fig.5-5 Wheel Dynamic 对应位置上来纠正不平衡。 Balancer

NEW WORDS AND EXPRKSSIONS:

PHRASES

Notes on the Text
NOTE 1 This instrument is used for locating leaks in any pressure and vacuum system.and is also used to examine the discharge troubles in electric apparatus. 泄露检查器用于查找所有压力和真空系统中的泄露点,也用于 查找电气设备中的漏电故障。

NOTE 2 This instrument is used for the measurement of smoke emitted from vehicle with diesel engine. 该仪器是用于柴油机排放碳烟的测定。

NOTE 3 The opacimeter is essentially an instrument for use on engine test bed or chassis dynamometer and an exhaust extraction system is needed:this should not cause distortion of the plume. 吸光系数烟度计实际上是用于发动机试验台或底盘测功机上的 仪器,它要与废气采集系统同时使用,这种烟度计测量烟度时不会 错误。

NOTE 4 The richer the mixture,for example,the higher the needle deflects,indicating a greater percentage of CO in the exhaust sample. 混合物的浓度越高,指针偏转得越高,表明所排出样气中CO的 百分比含量越大。 语法:the richer?the higher是the more?the more的变体 形式。在英语中,常用这种类似的方法来表达“越??越??”。

NOTE 5 The chassis dynamometer measures the mechanical power of the vehicle at the drive-wheels and provides the operator with a readout in units of road speed and power. 底盘测功机能测量车辆驱动轮上的机械功率,并能给操作员显 示车辆的道路行车速度和功率具体读数。

NOTE 6 This is a special device for measuring the wheel camber .the kingpin caster and the kingpin inclination of automobile. 这个是专门用于测量汽车车轮外倾角、主销后倾角和主销内倾 角的装置。

Section 4

Reading Materials of Present Automobile Technology 第四节 汽车技术资料选读

Lesson One Introduction to the Emission Control System 第一课 汽车排放控制技术介绍 Lesson Two ITS and GPS 第二课 智能运输系统和全球定位系统 Appendix 附录

Lesson One Introduction to the Emission Control System 第一课 汽车排放控制技术介绍
The purpose of the emission control system is just that; it controls the emissions and exhaust from your vehicle. The idea is to turn the harmful gases your manufactures into harmless ones that don't ruin the environment, or us. Some of the problem gases are: ·Hydrocarbons(unburned) ·Carbon monoxide ·Carbon dioxide ·Nitrogen oxides ·Sulfur dioxide ·Phosphorus ·Lead and other metals

汽车在很多工况下都会有发动机过热产生,此时的温度会则在 仪表板上的温度表中显示。有些工况会引起发动机温度的微小变化, 而另外工况则会引起发动机温度迅速上升并使得冷却水剧烈沸腾。 同时也有些工况会对发动机温度上升稍有影响,但对发动机性能影 响会更显著。 ·碳氢化合物(未燃) ·一氧化碳 ·二氧化碳 ·氮氧化物 ·二氧化硫 ·磷 ·铅及其他金属

To help control these substances.,some changes have been made in our gasoline to eliminate them. We also have developed ways to test emissions. Which have caused automotive manufacturers to develop better, safer emission systems. Although emission control systems vary between manufacturers and vehicles. They all have the same goal and use many of the same methods. Emission controls have reduced carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emission by about ninety-six percent from pre control vehicles. Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen are created during the combustion process and are emitted into the atmosphere from the tail pipe. There are also hydrocarbons emitted as a result of vaporization of gasoline and from the crankcase of the automobile. The need to control the emissions from automobiles gave rise to the computerization of the

automobile. An oxygen sensor was installed in the exhaust system and would measure the fuel content of the exhaust stream. It then would send a signal to a microprocessor. Which would analyze the reading and operate a fuel mixture or air mixture device to create the proper air/fuel ratio. [4]As computer systems progressed. They were able to adjust ignition spark timing as well as operate the other emission controls that were installed on the vehicle. The computer is also capable of monitoring and diagnosing itself. Devices related to the emission control system installed on the automobile are: Tailpipe, Muffler, EGR valve. Catalytic Converter, Air pump, PCV valve, Charcoal Canister. 为有助于控制这些物质,已经对汽油组分进行了改进,以消除 有害排放。我们也制定了相应的排放检测方法,这也促进汽车厂商 研制更好、更环保的排放控制系统。虽然排放控制系统会随着厂商

和车辆的不同而有所差别,但他们的作用都相同,且多数使用相同 的方法。与未装排放控制装置的汽车相比,装有排放控制装置的汽 车可以将一氧化碳和碳氢化合物排放降低96%。碳氢化合物、一氧 化碳和氮氧化物是在燃烧过程中产生的,并通过排气管排到大气中。 也有一些碳氢化合物是以汽油蒸发物和从曲轴箱中窜人大气的形式 排放的。对汽车排放控制的需要促进了汽车的计算机控制化。在排 气系统中安装氧传感器用于测量废气流中的氧含量。氧气传感器将 信号传递给微处理机,微处理机分析读数并控制燃油/空气混合装 置以便获得正确的空燃比。当计算机系统按程序设定后,计算机可 以像控制其他安装在车辆上的排放装置一样调整点火时刻。计算机 同时能够自我检测和诊断。安装在汽车上与排放系统有关的装置有: 排气尾管、消声器、EGR阀、催化转化器、空气泵、PCV阀以及活性 炭罐等。

Exhaust Manifold 排气歧管
The exhaust manifold, usually constructed of cast iron, is a pipe that conducts the exhaust gases from the combustion chambers to the exhaust pipe. It has smooth curves in it from improving the flow of exhaust. The exhaust manifold is bolted to the cylinder head. 材料通常为铸铁的排气歧管是将废气从燃烧室引入排气管的管 道。内部流线形结构改善了排气流。排气歧管采用螺栓联接固定在 气缸盖上。

Exhaust Pipe 排气管
The exhaust pipe is the bent-up or convoluted pipes you will notice underneath you car. Some are shaped to go over the rear axle, allowing the rear axle to move up and down without bumping into the exhaust pipe; some are shaped to bend around under the floor of the car,connecting the catalytic converter with the muffler. 排气管是我们在汽车底部看到的弯曲或盘旋的管道。有些是做 成一定形状,它能穿越过后桥之上,这样,后桥上下运动时就不会 触及排气管;有些是在汽车地板下方,连接催化转化器和消声器。

Muffler 消声器
Exhaust gases leave the engine under extremely high pressure. The pressure of the gases is reduced w hen they pass through the muffler, so they go out of the tail pipe quietly. The muffler is made of metal and is located underneath the body of the car. It's connected between the tail pipe and the catalytic converter. 废气在非常高的压力下排出发动机。气体经过消声器后,压力 减小,所以离开排气尾管时很安静。消声器用金属材料制造,被安 装在车身底部。连接在排气尾管和催化转化器之间。

Tailpip 排气尾管
The tailpipe is a long metal tube attached to the muffler.It discharges the exhaust gases from the muffler of your engine into the air outside the car. 排气尾管是安装在消声器后的长金属管。排气尾管将流经消声 器的发动机废气排到汽车物停留在曲轴箱内,则会产生各种副作用 (如锈蚀,腐蚀及生成油泥的组分),因此,必须将它们清除出去。

Fig.5-7

Location Emission Control Systenm

Dual Exhaust System 双排气系统
The advantage of a dual exhaust system is that the engine exhausts more freely, there by lowering the back pressure which is inherent in a exhaust system. With a dual exhaust system, a sizable increase in engine horsepower can be obtained because the “breathing” capacity of the engine is improved, leaving less exhaust gases in the engine at the end of each exhaust stroke. 双排气系统的优点是使发动机排气更加通畅,因此降低了单排 气系统中的固有的背压。使用双排气系统后,大大增加了发动机功 率。这是因为双排气系统使得每个排气冲程终了时留在发动机内的 残余废气减少,从而增大了发动机吸气量。

Catalytic Converter 催化转化器
When you engine burns fuel,it produces gases that are bad fro the environment.These noxious gases are hydrocarbons,carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.To prevent the engine from polluting the environment with thee gases,we include a catalytic converter in our emission systems.The catalytic converter is installed in the exhaust line,between the exhaust manifold and the muffler,and makes use of chemicals that act as a catalyst.In the case of the catalytic converter,the chemicals it contains cause a reaction in the pollutants in the exhaust.The converter is lined with chemicals such as aluminum oxide,platinum and palladium.These chemicals cause the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to change into water vapor and carbon dioxide.Some converters have a third lining of

chemicals.Platinum and rhodium, that reduce nitrogen oxides (three-way, dual bed converter). 当发动机燃烧燃油时,它产生有害于环境的废气。这些有害气 体是HC、CO、NOx。为防止发动机排放的这些气体污染环境,在排放 系统里安装了催化转化器。催化 转化器安装在排气管内,位于排 气歧管和消声器之间,利用化学 制品作为催化剂。催化转化器内 的化学物质使得用橡胶软管将PCV 系统连接在发动机和进气歧管之 间。曲轴箱正压强制通风装置 (PCV)的作用是将正常燃烧过程中 曲轴箱产生的油气改道引入可燃 Fig.5-8 Catalytic Converter 混合气的进气系统中以便燃烧。

PCV Valve PCV阀
The process of combustion forms several gases and vapors; many of them are quite corrosive. Some of these gases get past the piston rings and into the crankcase. If left in the crankcase, these substances would cause all kinds of bad things(rust, corrosion, and formation of sludge), so they have to be removed. The PCV system uses a host connected between the engine and the intake manifold. The purpose of the positive crankcase ventilation(PCV) system, is to take the vapors produced in the crankcase during the normal combustion process, and redirect them into the air/fuel intake system to be burned during combustion. 燃烧过程生成多种气体和蒸汽;其中有很多气体是具有腐蚀性 的。有些气体经过活塞环进入到曲轴箱内。如果这些燃烧产物停留

在曲轴箱内,则会 产生各种副作用 (如锈蚀,腐蚀及 生成油泥的组分), 因此,必须将它们 清除出去。用橡胶 软管将PCV系统连接 在发动机和进气歧 管之间。曲轴箱正 压强制通风装置 (PCV)的作用是将 正常燃烧过程中曲 轴箱产生的油气改 道引入可燃混合气 的进气系统中以便 燃烧。

Fig.5-9

PCV Valve

EGR Valve EGR阀
The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve is used to send some of the exhaust gas back into the cylinders to reduce combustion temperature. Nitrous oxides (nasty pollutants) form when the combustion temperature gets above 2,500 degrees F. This happens because at such temperatures, the nitrogen in the air mixes with the oxygen to create nitrous oxides, which the sun hits will turn into smog. The EGR valve tries to prevent this. By recirculating some of the exhaust gas back through the intake manifold to the cylinders, which dilutes the air/fuel mixture so as to lower the combustion chamber temperature. Lowering the combustion temperature lowers the amount of nitrous oxide produced. Consequently, less of it comes out the tail pipe. 废气再循环(EGR)阀将一部分废气引入到气缸内,用于降低燃烧

温度。氮氧化合物(有害污染物)在燃烧温度超过2500华氏度时产生。 在高温时,空气中氮与氧混合后生成氮氧化合物,它遇到太阳照射 后将变成烟雾。EGR阀用于阻止氮氧化合物的产生。通过将部分废气 重新经进气歧管引入到气缸,废气冲稀了可燃混合气,从而降低了 燃烧室的温度。降低燃烧室的温度就降低了氮氧化合物的生成量。 因此,降低了经排气尾管的氮氧化合物排放量。

Evaporative Controls 蒸发控制
Gasoline evaporates quite easily. 20% of all HC emissions from the automobile are from the gas tank. An evaporative control system was developed to eliminate this source of pollution. The function of the fuel evaporative control system is to trap and store evaporative emissions from the gas tank and carburetor. A charcoal canister is used to trap the fuel vapors. 汽油非常容易蒸发。20%的汽车碳氢化合物排放来自油箱蒸发 排放。所以研制出了蒸发控制装置来消除这种污染源。燃油蒸发控 制系统的作用是捕集和存储来自油箱和化油器的蒸发排放。活性炭 罐用于捕集燃油蒸发物。

Air Injection 空气喷射
Since no internal combustion engine is 100% efficient. There will always be some unburned fuel in the exhaust. This increases hydrocarbon emissions. To eliminate this source of emissions an air injection system was created. Combustion requires fuel, oxygen and heat. Without and one of the three, combustion cannot occur. Inside the exhaust manifold there is sufficient heat to support combustion, if we introduce some oxygen, then any unburned fuel will ignite. This combustion will not produce any power, but it will reduce excessive hydrocarbon emissions. Unlike in the combustion chamber, this combustion is uncontrolled, so if the fuel content of the exhaust is excessive, explosions, which sound like popping, will occur. There are times when under normal conditions, such as deceleration, the fuel

content is excessive. Under these conditions we would want to shut off the air injection system. This is accomplished through the use of a diverter valve, which instead of shutting the air pump off, diverts the air away from the exhaust manifold. Since all of this is done after the combustion process is complete. This is one emission control that has no effect on engine performance. The only maintenance that is required is a careful inspection of the air pump drive belt. 由于没有一个内燃机的工作效率是100%,因而在排气中总会存 在未燃的燃油。这导致了碳氢排放的增加。为消除这种类型的碳氢 排放,空气喷射系统应运而生。燃烧需要燃油、氧和热量。三者缺 一,燃烧都不会发生。在排气歧管内有足够的热量引起燃烧,若我 们引入一些氧,则未燃的燃油就能燃烧。这种燃烧不作任何功,但 会降低过多的碳氢排放。和燃烧室内的燃烧不同,排气歧管内燃烧 是不受控制的。所以,如果排气中燃油过多,则燃烧将以爆炸的

式进行,并产生爆裂声。在某些正常工况下,如减速工况,排气中 燃油含量将过多。在这些工况下,我们希望能关闭空气喷射系统。 通过使用转向阀,而不是关闭空气泵,可将空气从排气歧管中引出。 因为所有这些都是在燃烧过程完成后进行的,所以这种排放控制方 法对发动机性能无任何影响。唯一需要的维修是认真检查空气泵驱 动皮带。

NEW

WORDS

AND

EXPRKSSIONS:

PHRASES

Notes on the Text
NOTE 1 The idea is to turn the harmful gases your car manufactures into harmless ones that don’t ruin the environment,or us. 使用排放控制装置的目的是将汽车产生的有害的气体转化为不 破坏环境且无害于人类的气体。 语法:that don,t ruin the environment,or us是定语从句, 对harmless ones进行补充说明。限定性定语从句和它的先行词所指 的意义有着不可分割的联系,缺少了它,先行词便不能明确 表示 其所指对象。 例如:Here is the boy who damaged the vase.这就是打碎 花瓶的男孩。

NOTE 2 Emission controls have reduced carbon monoxide an(i hydrocarbon emissions by about ninety-six percent from precontrol vehicles. 与未装排放控制装置的汽车相比,装有排放控制装置的汽车可 以将一氧化碳和碳氢化合物排放降低96%。 语法:by在这里表示以某事物为标准或单位。 例如:rent the car by day/week/month

NOTE 3 The need to control the emissions from automobiles gave rise to the computerization of the automobile. 对汽车排放控制的需要引起了汽车的计算机控制化。

NOTE 4 It then would send a signal to a microprocessor.which would analyze the reading and operate a fuel mixture or air mixture device to create the proper air/fuel ratio. 该(氧气)传感器将信号传递给微处理机,处理机分析读数并 操作燃油或空气混合装置以便获得正确的空燃比。 语法:which would analyze?非限定性定语从句,用来补充说 明microprocessor。书面语中用逗号隔开,与修饰的先行词关系没 有限定性定语从句紧密。引导词通常是who,whom,whose和which等。 就其意义来说,在句中有时相当于一个并列分句。 例如:They had a fine walk too,which had done his liver good.(=They had a fine walk too,and it had done his liver good.)

NOTE 5 Devices related to the emission control system installed on the automobile are:Tailpipe.Muffler,EGR valve,Catalytic Converter,Air pump,PCV valve,Charcoal Canister. 安装在汽车上与排放系统有关的装置有:排气尾管,消声器, EGR阀,催化转化器,空气泵,PCV阀以及活性碳罐等。 语法:related to the emission control system installed on the automobile前省略了which are,用来补充说明devices,句 子的主干是Devices are:Tailpipe.Muffler?.

NOTE 6 The advantage of a dual exhaust system is that the engine exhausts more freely,thereby lowering the back pressure which is inherent in an exhaust system. 双排气系统的优点是使发动机排气更加通畅,因此降低了单排 气系统中的背压力。 语法:that the engine exhausts more freely是that引导的 从句,作is系动词的表语。 Which is inherent in an exhaust system是定语从句,用来修饰 先行词the back pressure。

NOTE 7 These chemicals cause the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to change into water vapor and carbon dioxide. 这些化学物质将一氧化碳和碳氢化合物转化成水蒸汽和二氧化 碳。

NOTE 8 If left in the crankcase,these substances would cause a11 kinds of bad things f rust.corrosion,and formation of sludge),so they have to be removed. 如果这些燃烧产物留在曲轴箱内,则会产生各种副作用(如锈 蚀、腐蚀及生成油泥的组分),因此,必须将它们清除出去。 语法:if?would虚拟语气,此句是虚拟语气的特殊用法,表示 过去的动作对现在事实的影响。虚拟语气用于非真实条件句中的三 种基本结构是: (1)if+一般过去时?should(would)+动词原形,表示与现在事 实相反; (2)if+过去完成时?should(would)have+过去分词,表示与过 去事实相反; (3)if+一般过去时 were+不定式 should(would)+动词原形,表示与将来事实相反。 should+动词原形

NOTE 9 The purpose of the positive crankcase ventilation(PCV) system,is to take the vapors produced in the crankcase during the normal combustion process.and redirect them into the air/fuel intake system to be burned during combustion. 曲轴箱正压强制通风装置(PCV)的作用是将正常燃烧过程中曲 轴箱产生的油气改道引入可燃混合气的进气系统中以便燃烧。

NOTE 10 The function of the fuel evaporative control system is to trap and store evaporative emissions from the gas tank and carburetor. 燃油蒸发控制系统的作用是捕集和存储来自油箱和化油器的蒸 发排放。

NOTE 11 This is accomplished through the use of a diverter valve.which instead of shutting the air pump off.diverts the air away from the exhaust manifold. 通过使用转向阀,而不是关闭空气泵,可将空气从排气歧管中 引出。 语法:through藉着;以??;经由。 例如:He became rich through hard work. Which instead of shutting the air pump off,diverts the air away from the exhaust manifold是非限定性定语从句,用来补充 说明a diverter valve。

NOTE 12 The only maintenance that is required is a careful inspection of the air pump drive belt. 唯一需要的维修是认真检查空气泵驱动带。 语法:that is required定语从句,修饰先行词maintenance。

Lesson Two ITS and GPS 第二课 智能运输系统和全球定位系统
ITS 智能运输系统 Key Intelligent Transportation Elements ITS系统的主要要素 ITS services ITS服务项目 GPS 全球定位系统 NEW WORDS AND EXPRKSSIONS: PHRASES Notes on the Text

ITS 智能运输系统
ITS or “Intelligent Transportation Systems”is a broad range of diverse technologies. ITS can be applied to our vast transportation infrastructure of highways, streets,and bridges,as well as to a growing number of vehicles,including cars,buses,trucks,and trains. 智能运输系统简称ITS是一种多样化、应用范围广的技术。ITS 可应用在公路、街道、桥梁和数量不断增长的交通工具包括轿车、 公共汽车、货车和火车等这些庞大的运输基础上。

Simply,ITS refers to the integrated application of modem technologies and management strategies in our surface transportation systems.To put it more concretely,ITS includes many different technical equipment:traffic signals that are centrally controlled by computer; electronic toll collection tags that enable drivers to pay without stopping at toll booths;changeable message signs that provide information concerning the next bus or train or about rough traffic conditions ahead;talking navigation systems that provide turn-by-turn directions through satellite techno1ogy for drivers while Fig.5-10 Navignation System en-route.

简单的说,ITS提供了现代技术和管理策略在我们的地面交通系 统中的综合运用。更具体地说,ITS包括许多不同技术的装置:计算 机集中控制的交通信号;可以使驾驶员无需在缴费岗亭前停车的电 子缴费标签;变化信息的信号灯提供有关于下一趟巴士、火车或前 方大致的交通情况;语音导航系统通过卫星技术对在途中的驾驶员 进行逐步方向指导。 ITS enables people and goods to move more safely and efficiently. Intelligent transportation systems provide the tools for skilled transportation professionals to co11ect,analyze,and archive data about the performance of the system.Having this data enhances traffic operators′ ability to respond to incidents,adverse weather or other capacity constricting events. ITS可使人和物流动的更加安全、更加有效。智能运输系统为有 技能的运输业的专业人士提供了工具。这些工具用以收集、分析、 保存关于系统运行的数据。拥有这些数据提高了交通运行者对事故 变化、不利天气或者其他交通流量受限等事件作出反应的能力。

These information and communications technologies can also be used to better manage and improve how transportation providers such as governments,transit agencies and truckers offer services to the public.When applied to our current transportation system,they can help improve safety,reduce congestion,enhance mobility, minimize environmental impacts,save energy,and promote economic productivity. 这些信息和通信技术可以用于更好地管理和改进运输提供者(政 府、运输机构和货车驾驶员)给公众提供的运输服务。将它应用到当 前的运输系统中时,它可以帮助提高安全性、减少交通阻塞、提高 机动性、将对环境的影响减到最少、节省能量以及提高生产率等。

ITS technologies ale varied and include information processing,communications,control and electronics.The challenges lie in the diversity of the technology,which is highly interdisciplinary,ranging from physics to psychology. ITS技术多种多样,包括信息处理技术、通信技术、控制技术和 电子学技术等。这项技术的难点在于应用技术的多样化,高度的跨 学科,所涉及的学科范围从物理学到心理学各个学科。

Key Intelligent Transportation Elements ITS系统的主要要素
·Central traffic signal control ·Freeway management ·Transit & fleet management ·E1ectronic toll collection & fare payment ·Advanced emergency response ·Regional multi-nodal traveler information ·Satellite-based navigation systems ·Driver assistance devices ·中控交通信号; ·高速公路管理; ·运线和车队管理; ·电子缴费卡和付费; ·先进的应急; ·区域的多样性旅客的信息; ·以卫星为基础的导航系统; ·驾驶员辅助装置。

The future of ITS is promising.Yet,ITS itself,is anything but futuristic.Already,real systems.products and services are at work throughout the country. Still, the wide-scale development and deployment of these technologies represent a true revolution in the way we, think about transportation. ITS的发展前景广阔,除了它是属于未来派的外,几乎可以完 成一切事情。现在实际的系统、产品、服务已经在全国范围内使用。 尽管如此,这些技术在交通运输上的更大范围的发展使用也是一场 真实的革命。

The use of ITS in USA,Japan,Europe,and Australia has been greatly accelerated through the revolution of advanced systems.The United Stares has invested enormous number of dollars in ITS.A projected $209 billion will be invested in ITS between now and the year 2011 with a full 80% of that investment coning from the private sector.Traffic control centers now operate in dozens of locations across the U.S.Resembling mission control for NASA,workers in these centers keep an eye on traffic by monitoring dozens of often wall-size video images from cameras connected by miles and miles of high tech cable.From there,these multi-agency centers are able to dispatch emergency vehicles as needed,adjust signal timing to reflect current conditions and relay important information to motorists about those conditions.Measured benefits include air quality improvements,reductions in fuel consumption,

accident mitigation and more efficient use of emergency services.Naturally,traffic control centers′costs vary depending on many factors such as their location and complexity.The Center in Houston was built for $13.5 million.Project costs for the Regional Traffic Management Center in Minneapolis′Twin Cities was $23.5 million off. Indianapolis′Traffic Wise system will cost a total of $25$30 million. 通过先进系统的革命,ITS的应用在美国、日本、欧洲和澳大利 亚已经有了很大的加速。美国在ITS上投入了大量的资金。从现在到 2011年,一项2090亿美元的工程将投资在ITS上,其中80%的投资来 自于私营企业。现在,交通控制中心在跨越美国的许多站点上运行。 类似于NASA(美国航空航天局)控制任务,这些中心的工作人员通过 监控许多个电视墙上的图像来监视交通,而这些图像发自于有高科 技的光缆连接的摄像头。

从这里,这些多功能的中心按需要疏散危急车辆,调整信号时间以 反映当前交通情况并且将重要信息转播给驾驶员。调整的好处包括 空气质量提高,减少燃油消耗,减轻事故和更有效的事故处理。自 然地,控制中心的成本决定于很多因素如他们处所位置和复杂情况。 休斯敦的控制中心花费1350万美元。明尼阿伯利斯双子城的区域交 通管理中心则花费2350万美元。印第安纳波利斯市的交通系统将总 共花费2500万到3000万美元。

ITS services ITS服务项目
Collect and transmit dynamic information on traffic conditions and transit schedules for traveler-s.whether they are at home,in the office or en route.Alerted to hazards and delays,they are able to change their plans to minimize inconvenience. 采集、传送交通条件动态信息,无论是旅行者在家中、在办公 室还是在途中都可以给他们发送进度表。在被ITS警告有危险或交通 阻塞后,旅行者可以就此改变他们的计划,以将不便减至最小的程 度。

Expand the capacity of our highways by reducing the number of traffic incidents,clearing them more quickly when they occur,rerouting traffic flow around them. 通过减少交通事故数量,快速清理已发生的事故以及改变事故 周围的交通流向等方法来扩大交通干线的交通流量。 Improve the productivity of commercial,transit and public safety fleets by using automated tracking and dispatch systems,weigh-in-motion systems and automated inspection systems. 通过使用自动跟踪和调度系统、动态称重系统和自动监测系统, 可以提高商业生产率、保证运输和公共场所的安全。

Assist drivers in reaching a desired destination with navigational systems enhanced with path finding or route guidance such as GPS.Stored directories that are part of such systems will provide information on nearby businesses and tourist attractions. 通过使用诸如GPS等可以提高道路发现和路线指导的导航系统, 可以帮助驾驶员到达预定的目的地。储存地址录是这种系统的一部 分,用于提供附近商业和旅游景点信息。 These are just a few of the potential products and services which ITS may provide.The complete list is lengthy and grows longer every day. 这只是ITS所提供的潜在产品和服务的一小部分,还有很多功能 这里就不再一一列出,它的新功能几乎每天都会出现。

GPS 全球定位系统
Global Positioning System(GPS)is a satellite-based radio navigation system.GPS permits land,sea,and airborne users to determine their three-dimensional position,velocity,and time 24 hours a day,in all weather, anywhere in the world with a precision and accuracy far better than other radio navigation systems available today or in the foreseeable future.GPS consists of three segments:space,control,and user. 全球定位系统(GPS)是一种以人造卫星为基础的无线电导航系 统。GPS使得陆运、海运和航空运输的用户可以在一天24小时内、任 何天气条件下、世界任何地方确定它们的三维空间位置、行驶速度 和时间。GPS比在当今和可预见的未来中可用的其他无线电导航系统 要更加精确和准确。GPS有三个部分组成:空间部分、控制部分和使 用者。

The space Segment consists of 24 operational satellites in six circular orbits 20,200km above the earth at an inc1ination angle of 55 degrees with a 12-hour period.The satellites are spaced in orbit so that at any time a minimum of 4 satellites will be in view to users anywhere in the world.The satellites continuously broadcast position and time data to users throughout the world.There are currently 27 satellites in orbit,or three spares, which assures the availability of 24 operational satellites. 空间部分由24个运作的人造卫星组成,这些卫星分布在6个圆形 轨道上,距离地球2.02万公里、倾角55°、12个小时运行一周期。 24个卫星分布在6个轨道上,就可使世界上任何地方的使用者在任何 时间最少可被四个卫星覆盖。卫星不断地将位置和时间传送给世界 各地的使用者。目前有27颗人造卫星在轨道上运行,其中3颗是备用 卫星。这3颗是用来确保有24颗人造卫星可以有效地工作。

The Control Segment consists of a master control station with five monitor stations and three control uplink stations located throughout the world.Monitor stations track all GPS satellites in view and collect ranging information from the satellite broadcasts.The monitor stations Send information they collect from each of the satellites back to the master control station,which computes extremely precise satellite orbits. The information is then formatted into updated navigation messages for each satellite.The updated information is transmitted to each satellite via the control up-link stations,which also transmit and receive satellite control and monitoring signals.

控制部分由一个主控站与分布于全世界的五个监测站和三个上 传控制站组成。监测站跟踪检测范围内的所有GPS卫星并收集这些卫 星所发送的定位信息。监测站收集每个卫星上的信息,然后将这些 信息发送到主控站,在主控站里计算出每个卫星的非常准确的飞行 轨道。这些信息又被转成每个卫星所使用的最新导航信息,这些最 新的信息经由上传控制站传送给每个卫星。这些上传控制站同时也 传送和接收卫星控制和监测信号。 The User Segment consists of the receivers,processors, and antennas that allow land,sea,or airborne operators to receive the GPS satellite broadcasts and compute their precise position,velocity and time.The GPS concept of operation is based upon satellite ranging.Users determine their position by measuring their distance from the group of satellites in space.The satellites act as precise reference points.Each GPS satellite transmits an

accurate position and time signal.The user’s receiver measures the time delay for the signal to reach the receiver,which is the direct measure of the apparent range to the satellite.Measurements collected simultaneously from four satellites are processed to solve for the three dimensions of position(1atitude,longitude,and altitude) and time. 使用者部分由接收器、处理器和天线三个部分组成,这三个部 分可使陆、海、空的操作者接收到GPS卫星广播,并计算出他们精确 的位置、速度和时间。GPS的操作观念是建立在人造卫星定位基础上 的。使用者经由测量与卫星群的距离从而确定自身的位置。人造卫 星担当精确参考点的角色。每一个GPS卫星发送一个准确位置和时间 信号。使用者的接收器测量信号到达接收器的延迟时间,也就是直 接测量与卫星的距离。测量结果同时从四个卫星收集,经处理后来 确定三维位置(纬度、经度和高度)和时间。

GPS receiver collect signals from satellites in view. They display the user’s position,velocity,and time,as needed for their marine,terrestrial,or aeronautical applications.Some display additional data such as distance and bearing. GPS接收器从被覆盖的卫星处收集信号。在海运、陆运和航空运 输的应用中,GPS接收器显示出用户的位置、行驶速度和时间。有时 还显示一些附加的数据诸如距离和方向等。 GPS is used to support land,sea,and airborne navigation,surveying,geophysical exploration,mapping and geodesy,vehicle location systems,farming,transportation systems,and a wide variety of other additional applications. GPS可以应用于陆地运输、航海运输和航空运输的导航,测量, 地球物理学探测,地球测绘,大地测量学,车辆定位系统,农业, 交通运输系统,以及多种其他的领域。

NEW WORDS AND EXPRKSSIONS:

NEW WORDS AND EXPRKSSIONS:

PHRASES

Notes on the Text
NOTE 1 ITS technologies are varied and include information processing,communications,control and electronics. ITS技术多种多样,包括信息处理技术、通信技术、信息控制技 术和电子学技术等。

NOTE 2 GPS permits land,sea,and airborne users to determine their three-dimensional position,velocity,and time 24 hours a day,in all weather,anywhere in the world with a precision and accuracy far better than other radio navigation systems available today or in the foreseeable future. GPS使得陆运、海运和航空运输的用户可以在一天24小时内、任 何天气条件下、世界任何地方确定他们的三维空间位置、行驶速度 和时间。GPS比在当今和可预见的未来中可用的其他无线电导航系统 要更加精确和准确。

NOTE 3 There are currently 27 satellites in orbit,or three spares,which assures the availability of 24 operational satellites. 目前有27颗人造卫星在轨道上运行,其中3颗是备用卫星。这3 颗是用来确保有24颗人造卫星可以有效地工作。

NOTE 4 The monitor stations send information they collect from each of the satellites back t to the master control station, which computes extremely precise satellite orbits. 监测站收集每个卫星上的信息,然后将这些信息发送到主控制 站。在主控制站里计算出每个卫星的非常精确的飞行轨道。

NOTE 5 GPS is used to support land,sea,and airborne navigation,surveying,geophysical exploration.mapping and geodesy,vehicle location systems,farming,transportation systems,and a wide variety of other additional applications. GPS可以应用于陆地运输、航海运输和航空运输的导航,测量, 地球物理学探测,地球测绘,大地测量学,车辆定位系统,农业, 交通运输系统,以及其他不同的领域。

Appendix 附录
一、常用汽车英文缩略语

二、量和单位英中文对照

一、常用汽车英文缩略语
汽车维 修人员接修 进口电控轿 车,查阅相 应资料时不 可避免地要 涉及到大量 的英文缩写, 为便于维修 人员查阅维 修资料,特 选辑了常用 的汽车名词 英文缩写列 出。

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

一 、 常 用 汽 车 英 文 缩 略 语

二、量和单位英中文对照
维修人员在对进口汽车进行维修保养工作时,经常会遇到以英 文形式表达的公制和英制单位,给不懂英文的维修人员带来很多不 便。在此我们将常用的公制和英制单位以中英文对照形式列出,希 望能给维修人员提供一些帮助。 (一)长度单位 (二)质量单位 (三)转矩单位 (四)容积单位 (五)压强单位 (六)温度单位

(一)长度单位

(二)质量单位

(三)转矩单位

(四)容积单位

(五)压强单位

(六)温度单位

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[3] 王怡民.汽车商贸英语[M].北京:人民交通出版社,2004
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