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2008 北外考研基础英语试题 1 第一篇(经济学家 2007 年 01 月 25 日)选择题

Climate change The greening of America 气候变化:绿化美国 Jan 25th 2007 From The Economist print edition How America is likely to take over leadership of the fight against climate change; and how it can get it right 美国领导各国共同应对气候变化的可能性有多大?该如何正确应对呢? A COUNTRY with a presidential system tends to get identified with its leader. So, for the rest of the world, America is George Bush's America right now. It is the country that has mismanaged the Iraq war; holds prisoners without trial at Guant 醤 amo Bay; restricts funding for stem-cell research because of fundamentalist religious beliefs; and destroyed the chance of a global climate-change deal based on the Kyoto protocol. 人们往往认为,总统制国家就是其总统的国家。因此,在世界其他国家看来,现在的美国就 是乔治?布什的美国。正是这样一个国家,对伊拉克战事处置失当,把战俘关押在关塔那摩海 湾又不审讯,顾及原教旨主义分子的宗教信仰而限制对干细胞研究的资助;也正是这样一个 国家,拒绝签署《京都议定书》有关的全球气候变化协议。 But to simplify thus is to misunderstand—especially in the case of huge, federal America. One of its great strengths is the diversity of its political, economic and cultural life. While the White House dug its heels in on global warming, much of the rest of the country was moving. That's what forced the president's concession to greens in the state-of-the-union address on January 23rd. His poll ratings sinking under the weight of Iraq, Mr Bush is grasping for popular issues to keep him afloat; and global warming has evidently become such an issue. Albeit in the context of energy security, a now familiar concern of his, Mr Bush spoke for the first time to Congress of “the serious challenge of global climate change” and proposed measures designed, in part, to combat it. 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 2 不过,只见树木,不见森林,对于泱泱联邦大国美国而言尤为 如此。美国的重要特点之一就在于其政治、经济和文化生活的多样性。当白宫在全球气候变 暖问题上始终坚持拒绝有所作为时,该国其他许多人都行动了起来。这也迫使总统在 1 月 23 日的国情咨文中对环保人士作出让步。受伊战所累,布什的民意支持率一路下滑,他也希望 抓住民众关心的问题来提升自己的支持率,而全球气候变暖显然就成了这样一个问题。当下 布什最关心的是能源安全问题,但尽管如此,布什还是以能源安全为依托, (在国情咨文讲话 中)首次对国会提及“全球气候变化带来的严峻挑战” ,并建议制定相应的应对措施。 Hot for the time of year 年度热点 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 4 力措施,按照《京都议定书》的有关要求,通过了强制性限排 的立法,他也因此重拾威信。现在联邦政府一级也开始有所行动,而这才是真正重要的。自 从 11 月中期选举后民主党主政国会以来, 关于对付气候变化问题的提案越来越多。 三名 2008

年总统候选人也都在力促联邦政府拿出举措, 他们是约翰?麦凯恩、 希拉里?克林顿和巴拉克? 奥巴马。 Europe's good, and bad, example 欧洲榜样,择其善者而从之 Unfortunately, Mr Bush's new-found interest in climate change is coupled with, and distorted by, his focus on energy security. Reducing America's petrol consumption by 20% by 2017, a target he announced in the state-of-the-union address, would certainly diminish the country's dependence on Middle Eastern oil, but the way he plans to go about it may not be either efficient or clean. Increasing fuel-economy standards for cars and trucks will go part of the way, but for most of the switch America will have to rely on a greater use of alternative fuels. That means ethanol (inefficient because of heavy subsidies and high tariffs on imports of foreign ethanol) or liquefied coal (filthy because of high carbon emissions). 不幸的是,布什最近对气候变化的关注,是同他对能源安全的关注扯在一起的,人们因此也 怀疑他醉翁之意不在酒。他在国情咨文中宣布要在 2017 年以前将美国的油耗减少 20%。这一 目标无疑会让美国对中东石油的依赖性减低,但是他计划实现这一目标的方式却与提高能效 或者环保无关。虽然这中间涵盖了提高汽车节油标准在内,但大部分还是依赖更多的采用其 他形式的燃料,也就是乙醇或者液态煤。前者由于补贴大、进口关税高因而能效并不高,后 者则由于碳排放量高所以容易造成环境污染。 The measure of Mr Bush's failure to tackle this issue seriously is his continued rejection of the only two clean and efficient solutions to climate change. One is a carbon tax, which this paper has long advocated. The second is a cap-and-trade system of the sort Europe introduced to meet the Kyoto targets. It would limit companies' emissions while allowing them to buy and sell permits to pollute. Either system should, by setting a price on carbon, discourage its emission; and, in doing so, encourage the development and use of cleaner-energy technologies. Just as America's adoption of catalytic converters led eventually to the world's conversion to lead-free petrol, so its drive to clean-energy technologies will ensure that these too spread. 布什并没有认真对待这一问题。之所以这么说,是因为他仍拒绝采用解决气候变化问题仅有 的两种既高效又清洁的方法。一个是征收碳排放税,这也是《经济学人》杂志长期以来所提 倡的。另一个则是欧洲为达到《京都议定书》要求所实行的“配额-贸易”制度。该制度一方 面限制企业排污,同时也允许其买卖排污许可证。该制度通过对碳排放进行定价(实际上就 是要收费) ,因而应当会减少排放,并且可以促进企业开发利用清洁能源技术。正如美国当年 采用催化式排气净化器最终引导了世界应用无铅汽油的潮流一样,美国努力开发的清洁能源 技术也肯定能得到推广。 A tax is unlikely because of America's aversion to that three-letter word. Given that, it should go for a tough cap-and-trade system. In doing so, it can usefully learn from Europe's experience. First, get good data. Europe failed to do so: companies were given too many permits, and emissions have therefore not fallen. Second, auction permits (which are, in effect, money) rather than giving them away free. Europe gave them away, which allowed polluters to make windfall profits. This will be a huge fight; for, if the federal government did what the Europeans did, it would hand out $40 billion-50 billion in permits. Third, set a long time-horizon. Europeans do not know whether carbon emissions will still be constrained after 2012, when Kyoto runs out. Since most clean-energy projects have a payback period of more than five years, the

system thus fails to encourage green investment. 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 5 美国人对“税”这个字一向反感,因此征收碳排放税是不可能 的。既然如此,那么美国就只能采取严格的“配额-贸易”制度。为此美国可以借鉴欧洲有益 的经验。首先,要确定适当的配额数量。欧洲就没能做到:配额发放过多,排放量因此并未 减少。其次,对配额进行定价而不是免费发放,企业需要配额就必须花钱购买。欧洲无偿发 放配额,结果却让排污企业赚得盆满钵满。对配额定价将带来巨大收益,而如果联邦政府效 仿欧洲的做法,就等于将配额中所蕴含的 400~500 亿美元拱手送人。第三,要设定一个较长 的有效时间范围。欧洲不清楚 2012 年《京都议定书》到期后是否仍需限制碳排放。既然大多 数清洁能源项目的效益回报期都在 5 年以上,那么“配额-贸易”制度并不能鼓励环保投资。 One of America's most admirable characteristics is its belief that it has a duty of moral leadership. At present, however, it's not doing too well on that score. Global warming could change that. By tackling the issue now it could regain the high moral ground (at the same time as forging ahead in the clean-energy business, which Europe might otherwise dominate). And it looks as though it will; for even if the Toxic Texan continues to evade the issue, his successor will grasp it. 美国最难能可贵的一个特征在于,它坚信自己有责任成为道义领袖。不过就目前来看,在这 一点上它的表现并不好,而全球变暖问题有可能令其有所改变。把眼下这个问题解决好了, 美国就能重新树立自己的道义形象(与此同时,还能在清洁能源业中迎头赶上,避免欧洲占 去先机) 。现在看来似乎在未来它也能做到这一点,因为即便“有毒的得克萨斯人” (暗指布 什是全球最大的污染制造者)继续回避这个问题,他的继任者也会抓住这一机会。

第二篇(双语时代 2005 年 03 期)选择题 Southern Slang

One of the most fascinating regional dialects of English is that which is spoken by the inhabitants of the southern states of the U.S.A. Southern English is very expressive and rich in imagery. It is no wonder that a great number of America's most famous wordsmiths, such as Mark Twain and William Faulkner, hail from the South. If you ever have the chance to hear it you will immediately get the impression that, in the South, conversation is not merely a means to convey information, but an art in itself, to be practiced and enjoyed. In this issue of The Far Side, Lee Spears, a true Southern gentleman, writes about the charming speech of the South.2008 北 外考研基础英语试题 6

在英语中,最迷人的区域性方言之一就是美国南方诸州居民所讲的方言了。 南方英语极具表现

力,而且富于联想。 难怪许多最为著名的美国语言大师,如马克.吐温和威廉.福克纳,都来自于 南方。 如果你有机会来聆听这一方言,你立刻就会产生一种印象,即在南方,会话不仅仅是一种 传递信息的手段,它本身还是一种用以展现和享受的艺术。在本期的《The Far Side》中,一 位真正的南方绅士,李.斯皮尔斯,就将迷人的南方话付诸笔端。 Whenever I return to North Carolina, my home state in America's Southeast, more than the familiar rolling grassland hills tells me I'm home: Back there, my ears ①perk up to familiar bits of Southern-style American English, a regional delicacy that has yet to sneak its way into China. "Listen up good now, because I'm fixin' to tell you all about it." I had been looking forward to a nice, big Christmas dinner for some time leading up to my most recent visit home, because I knew I would be "eating high on the hog". This Southernism, which originally meant having the luxury of eating the highest-quality parts of the pig, now simply refers to enjoying good food in large quantities. My mom's delicious baked ham did happen to be on the table as we feasted this Christmas, but the presence of pork is hardly a necessity for eating high on the hog, nor does one have to be in the South to do so. In fact, the phrase often passes through my mind when I sit down to a steaming hot pot or a bowl of Xinjiang-style noodles in Beijing. But for Southerners who enjoy good barbecued pork (and there aren't many who don't), there's a great way to eat high on the hog while eating every part of it: go to "a pig pickin". A pig pickin is not so much a meal as it is an event, where people gather around a whole hog which is slow-roasted in a smoky oven until its tender meat can be picked right off the bones and eaten. There's only one way to describe the taste of juicy barbecue on a summer afternoon: "finger-lickin good!"

Many Southern colloquialisms reflect the agricultural heritage of the region, and so lots of Southern slang calls on images or personalities we associate with animals. After a long, hard day at work, nothing says someone is exhausted quite as vividly as saying he or she is "dog tired", evoking an image of a lazy, long-eared hound dog lazing on a front porch. Or, if someone has a natural intelligence for understanding the ways of the world, we may say that person has "horse sense", like a trusty four-legged friend who always knows which way to go when it comes to a fork in the road. The South's long-standing religious traditions also pepper the speech of locals. When a proper Southerner wants to express that something will happen if all goes well, he might say, "Good Lord willin' and the creek don't rise", which recalls more primitive times when many Southern farmers relied on good weather conditions for their livelihoods. For example, one friend might say to another when arranging a weekend picnic, "Good Lord willin' and the creek don't rise, I'll see you on Sunday." If that weekend brings a thunderstorm, ②raining out the picnic, the two unlucky friends may

curse the weather, calling it "god-awful". Perhaps the two uniquely Southern words that are best known in other parts of the world are "y'all", which is a shortened version of "you all," and the infamous "ain't", which means "is not", "are not" or "am not." While Southerners and non-Southerners will probably never stop arguing over whether or not these officially qualify as English words (they are in the dictionary, if that counts for anything), they are undeniably part of the Southern vocabulary. One of the charms of the way Southerners speak is that they often have ③a multitude of colorful ways to say very simple things. If someone plans to do something very soon, he could say it any number of ways, some of which may bring a smile to the listener's face. Instead of saying "right away", a Southerner might substitute any of the following: "faster than you can skin a cat"; "quicker than you can say 'Jack Robinson'" (don't ask me who Jack is); "right now in a minute"; or "lickety-split". Southern-style English is something that many Americans feel very strongly about. While many natives of the South are proud of the distinction their slang brings to their speech, other English speakers often ④turn their noses up at the earthy, down-home tone of the region's slang. But love it or hate it, the English of the American South is full of personality and like nothing else you'll ever hear. 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 7 每当我返回美国东南部的家乡——北卡罗来纳,并不只是那些熟悉的、 上下起伏的草原丘陵在 向我昭示着,我回家了:在那里,我的听觉调动了起来,倾听着那熟悉的美国南方英语——一种 还没有悄然来到中国的地方精粹。 “听好了,因为我就要给你们大家讲讲了。 ” 在我最近那次回家之前的一段时间里,我一直盼望着吃上一顿美味丰盛的圣诞节晚宴,因为我 知道我会“eat high on the hog(大吃大喝)”的。这个南方语汇,原意是指一种挑食猪身上 最好的部位的奢侈行为,现在则只用来指大量享用美食。 今年圣诞节我们确实在餐桌上吃到了 我妈做的美味烤火腿,但是要“eat high on the hog”未必就一定要有猪肉,而人们想要“eat high on the hog”也未必就要到南方去。其实,当我在北京坐下来享用热气腾腾的火锅或一 碗新疆风味的面条时,这个词组就经常在我的头脑中闪现。 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 8 不过,对于那些喜欢吃美味猪肉烧烤的南方人来说(不爱吃的人并不多),有一个绝好的办法来 “eat high on the hog”而不会错过任何一部分猪肉:去吃 “a pig pickin(烤全猪)”“a pig 。 pickin” 不太像是饮食,倒更像是一种活动,一种人们围坐在一只熏炉旁慢烤全猪,等到鲜嫩猪 肉可以从骨头上剥下来时就开吃的活动。要形容夏日午后烧烤时的油滑口感,方式只有一个: “finger-lickin good!(回味无穷)” 许多南方口语词都反映了该地区的农耕传统,而众多的南方俚语也都呈现出我们可以在动物 身上联想到的形象或性格特点。 在漫长艰辛的一天劳作之后,要形象地表达出某人的疲惫之态, 最好的说法就是,他/她“dog tired(精疲力竭)”了,从而引发出一只慵懒的长耳狗趴在前门 走廊偷懒的遐想。 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 9 又如,如果某人天生聪慧,可以明了沧桑世事,我们就可以说,这个人有 “horse sense(识途感; 基本常识)”,就像一只可以信赖的“四腿伙伴”那样,总是在道路分叉时知道走向何方。

南方由来已久的宗教传统同样也在当地人的语言中有所体现。当一个真正的南方人想表达一 切顺利就会出现某种结果时,他可能会说,“Good Lord willin' and the creek don't rise(苍 天有意,人愿不违)”,从而再现了南方农民靠天吃饭的那个更久远年代。举例来说,在约定一 次周末野炊时,一个朋友可能会对另一个人说, “Good Lord willin' and the creek don't rise, I'll see you on Sunday.(苍天有意,人愿不违,我礼拜天去找你)” 。如果那个周末出现了雷 暴,野炊因下雨而取消,这两个倒霉的朋友可能就会大骂天气,说它是“god-awful(可恶至 极)” 。 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 10 也许,在世界的其它地方,最为人熟知的两个为南方特有词汇就是“y'all”和名声不佳的 “ain't”了,而前者是“you all”的缩写形式,后者则表示“is not”“are not”或“am not” 、 的意思。 虽然,就这些词汇是否可以作为正式英语使用的问题上(字典里就有这些词,如果这能 说明些问题的话),南方人和南方以外的人可能永远不会停止争论,但毋庸质疑,它们就是南方 话的组成部分。 南方人讲话方式的魅力之一就是,他们经常使用大量有趣的方式来表达极其简单的事情。 如果 某人打算很快就去做某事,他可能会用多种方式来表达,其中有些方式可以使听话人忍俊不禁 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 11 南方人可以使用以下各种方式来替代 “right away(马上)” 的说法: faster than you can skin “ a cat(比你剥猫皮还要快)”“quicker than you can say 'Jack Robinson'(比你念“Jack 、 Robinson”还要快)”(我也不知道 Jack 是谁)、 “right now in a minute(这就过去)”,或 “lickety-split(很快)” 。 许多美国人对南方英语的反应是非常强烈的。虽然许多南方人对他们的俚语为其言语增添了 特色而感到自豪,但其他英语使用者却经常会对该地区俚语的粗俗声调嗤之以鼻。爱也好,恨 也罢,美国南方英语就是充满了个性,与你所听过的任何东西都不相同。 1. 在正文的第一段结尾,作者说了一句话, Listen up good now, because I'm fixin' to tell “ you all about it.”其中就体现了美国南方英语的特定用法——“Listen up good now”和 “be fixin' to” 。第一个词组相当于汉语中的“听好了”,而第二个词组则相当于“准备好 做某事” 。 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 12 2. eat high on the hog 在原文中,作者对这个词组的来历进行了介绍,即它原指“人们在吃 猪肉时,只是挑好吃的部分吃”,而后来就通指“大量地享用美食” 。其意相当于“大吃大喝” 。 3. a pig pickin 这个词组就相当于我们现在常说的“烤全猪” 。 4. finger-lickin good! 这个词组非常形象——在吃完后仍旧不能忘记美食的味道,还要把 手指舔一舔,回味一下,食物的美味一下子就被描绘出来了。其意相当于“回味无穷” 。 5. dog tired 狗累了以后的那种倦怠感最明显不过了,所以就以这个词组来表达“精疲力竭” 之意,非常形象。 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 13 6. horse sense 马拥有认路的天性,所以就以马的这种识途感来形容某些人的睿智聪颖,说明 他们了解世事变迁。 7. Good Lord willin' and the creek don't rise. 一个和宗教有渊源的词组。在宗教中,

上帝是无所不能的,所以,他高兴还好,若是不高兴的话,就会兴风作浪,水漫河堤了。因此,这 句话暗含的意思就是,一切要看老天脸色行事。 8. god-awful 上帝是最强大的,而“awful”的程度竟然达到了上帝强大的程度,可见其指的 不是一般的“糟糕,可恶”了。所以,它的意思相当于“可恶至极” 。 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 14 9. "y'all"和"ain't" 这两个词现在很常见,尤其是在英语歌词当中,以及某些英文网页上。 但它们的词源却是来自美国南方。 前者是 “you all” 的缩写形式,后者则表示 “is not” 、 “are not”或“am not”的意思。 10. 说到 “马上” 、 “立刻” 的英语表达法,我们能想到最多的也就不过是 “right away” “at 和 once”等。但美国南方人却创造出了“faster than you can skin a cat”“quicker than you 、 can say 'Jack Robinson'”“right now in a minute”和“lickety-split”等非常幽默的 、 表达方式,尤其是第二个表达方式,因为至于为什么要说“比你念‘Jack Robinson’还要快”, 而不说“比念 Mike 或其它什么名字还要快”,可能连他们自己都不知道,但是却约定俗成,就 那么表达了。 第三篇(纽约时报 2005 年 03 月 20 日)判断正误

OP-ED COLUMNIST X-Celling Over Men By MAUREEN DOWD Published: March 20, 2005 Men are always telling me not to generalize about them.

But a startling new study shows that science is backing me up here.

Research published last week in the journal Nature reveals that women are genetically more complex than scientists ever imagined, while men remain the simple creatures they appear.

"Alas," said one of the authors of the study, the Duke University genome expert

Huntington Willard, "genetically speaking, if you've met one man, you've met them all. We are, I hate to say it, predictable. You can't say that about women. Men and women are farther apart than we ever knew. It's not Mars or Venus. It's Mars or Venus, Pluto, Jupiter and who knows what other planets." 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 15 Women are not only more different from men than we knew. Women are more different from each other than we knew - creatures of "infinite variety," as Shakespeare wrote.

"We poor men only have 45 chromosomes to do our work with because our 46th is the pathetic Y that has only a few genes which operate below the waist and above the knees," Dr. Willard observed. "In contrast, we now know that women have the full 46 chromosomes that they're getting work from and the 46th is a second X that is working at levels greater than we knew."

Dr. Willard and his co-author, Laura Carrel, a molecular biologist at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, think that their discovery may help explain why the behavior and traits of men and women are so different; they may be hard-wired in the brain, in addition to being hormonal or cultural.

So is Lawrence Summers right after all? "Only time will tell," Dr. Willard laughs.

The researchers learned that a whopping 15 percent - 200 to 300 - of the genes on the second X chromosome in women, thought to be submissive and inert, lolling about on an evolutionary Victorian fainting couch, are active, giving women a significant increase in gene expression over men.

As the Times science reporter Nicholas Wade, who is writing a book about human evolution and genetics, explained it to me: "Women are mosaics, one could even say chimeras, in the sense that they are made up of two different kinds of cell. Whereas men are pure and uncomplicated, being made of just a single kind of cell throughout."

This means men's generalizations about women are correct, too. Women are inscrutable, changeable, crafty, idiosyncratic, a different species.

"Women's chromosomes have more complexity, which men view as unpredictability," said David Page, a molecular biologist and expert on sex evolution at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Mass.

Known as Mr. Y, Dr. P calls himself "the defender of the rotting Y chromosome." He's referring to studies showing that the Y chromosome has been shedding genes willy-nilly for millions of years and is now a fraction of the size of its partner, the X chromosome. "The Y married up," he notes. "The X married down."

Size matters, so some experts have suggested that in 10 million years or even much sooner - 100,000 years - men could disappear, taking Maxim magazine, March Madness and cold pizza in the morning with them.

Dr. Page drolly conjures up a picture of the Y chromosome as "a slovenly beast," sitting in his favorite armchair, surrounded by the litter of old fast food takeout boxes.

"The Y wants to maintain himself but doesn't know how," he said. "He's falling apart, like the guy who can't manage to get a doctor's appointment or can't clean up the house or apartment unless his wife does it.

"I prefer to think of the Y as persevering and noble, not as the Rodney Dangerfield of the human genome."

Dr. Page says the Y - a refuge throughout evolution for any gene that is good for males and/or bad for females - has become "a mirror, a metaphor, a blank slate on which you can write anything you want to think about males." It has inspired cartoon gene maps that show the belching gene, the inability-to-remember-birthdays-and-anniversaries gene, the fascination-with-spiders-and-reptiles gene, the selective-hearing-loss-"Huh" gene, the inability-to-express-affection-on-the-phone gene.

The discovery about women's superior gene expression may answer the age-old question about why men have trouble expressing themselves: because their genes do. 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 16 第四篇(新东方英语 2005 年 10 期)排序题 <与试题文章不符,疑选节不同,共 8 句,选项 多一句>

Two Truths to Live By By Alexander M. Schindler (美国犹太人联合会主席辛德勒) The art of living is to know when to hold fast and when to let go. For life is a paradox: it enjoins us to cling to its many gifts even while it ordains their eventual relinquishment. The rabbits of old put it this way: "A man comes to this world with his first clenched, but when he dies, his hand is open." Surely we ought to hold fast to life. for it is wondrous, and full of a beauty that breaks through every pore of God's own earth. We know that this is so, but all too often we recognize this truth only in our backward glance when we remember what it was and then suddenly realize that it is no more. We remember a beauty that faded, a love that waned. But we remember with far greater pain that we did not see that beaty when it flowered, that we failed to respond with love when it was tendered. A recent experience re-taught me this truth. I was hospitalized following a severe heart attack that had been in intensive care for several days. It was not a pleasant place. One morning, I had to have some additional tests. The required machines were located in a building at the opposite end of the hospital, so I had to be wheeled across the courtyard on a gurney. As we emerged from our unit, the sunlight hit me. That's all there was to my experience. Just the light of the sun, and yet how beautiful it was - how warming, how sparkling, how brilliant! I looked to see whether anyone else relished the sun's golden glow, but everyone was hurrying to and fro, most with eyes fixed on the ground. Then I remembered how often I, too, had been indifferent to the grandeur of each day, too preoccupied with petty and sometimes even mean concerns to respond to the splendor of it all. The insight gleaned from that experience is really as commonplace as was the experience itself: life's gifts are precious-but we are too headless of them Here then is the first pile of life's paradoxical demands on us: Never too busy for the wonder and the awe of life. Be reverent before each dawning day. Embrace each hour. Seize each golden minute. Hold fast to life... but not so fast that you cannot let go. This is the second side of life's coin, the opposite pole of its paradox: we must accept our losses, and learn how to let go. This is not an easy lesson to learn, especially when we are young and think that world is ours to command, that whatever we desire with the full force of or passionate being can, may, will, be ours. But then life moves along to confront us with realities, and slowly but surly this second truth dawns upon us. At every stage of life we sustain losses- and grow in the process. We begin our independent lives only when we emerge from the womb and lose its protective shelter. We enter a progression of schools, then we leave our mothers and fathers and our childhood homes. We get married and have children and then have to let them go. We face the gradual or not so gradual waning of our own strength. And ultimately, as

the parable of the open and closed hand suggests, we must confront the inevitability of our own demise, losing ourselves, as it were, all that we were or dreamed to be. But why should we be reconciled to life's contradictory demands? Why fashion things of beauty when beauty is evanescent? Why give our heart in love when those we love will ultimately betorn from our grasp? In order to resolve this paradox, we must seek a wider perspective, viewing our lives as through windows that open on eternity. Once we do that, we realize that though our lives are infinite, our deeds on earth weave a timeless pattern. Life is never just being. It is a becoming, a relentless flowing on. Our parents live on through us, and we will live on through our children. The institutions we build endure, and we will endure through them. The beauty we fashion cannot be dimmed by death. Our flesh may perish, our hands will wither, but that which they create in beauty and goodness and truth lives on for all time to come. Don't spend and waste your lives accumulating objects that will only turn to dust and ashes. Pursue not so much the material as the ideal, for ideals alone invest life with meaning and are of enduring worth. Add love to a house and you have a home. Add righteousness to a city and you have a community. Add truth to a pile of red brick and you have a school. Add religion to the humblest of edifices and you have a sanctuary. Add justice to the far-flung round of human endeavor and you have civilization. Put them all together, exalt them above their present imperfections, add to them the vision of humankind redeemed, forever free of need and strife and you have a future lighted with the radiant colors of hope 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 17 人生的艺术就是要懂得适时地收与放.而人生其实就是这样的一个矛盾:尽管到头来注定一 切都不能长久,它还是令我们依恋于它所赋予的各种恩赐。正如前辈们所言:人出生时双拳 紧握而来,过世时却是松手而去。 我们当然要抓紧这神奇而美妙的生命,它的美孕育在我们这片神圣土地的每个角落。我们其 实都懂得这个道理, 可是我们却常常在回顾往昔时才突然觉醒意识到其中之美, 可为时已晚, 一切都时过境迁。 我们深深铭记的是褪色的美,消逝的爱。但是这种记忆中却饱含了苦涩,我们痛惜没有在美 丽绽放的时候注意到它,没有在爱情到来的时候给出回应。 最近自己的一个经历又令我悟出了这其中的道理。我因为严重的心脏病发作而住进了加护病 房。那地方可不是好呆的。 一天上午时分,我要接受几项辅助检查。因为检查的器械在医院对面的一幢建筑中,所以我 就要穿过庭院,躺在轮床上被推到那里。 就在从病房出来的一瞬,迎面的阳光一下子洒在我的身上。我所感受的就只有这阳光,它是 如此美丽,如此温暖,如此璀璨和辉煌! 我看看周围是否有人也沉醉在这金色的阳光中,而事实是大家都来去匆匆,大都目不斜视, 双眼只顾盯着地面。继而我就想到我平常也太过于沉湎于日常的琐碎俗物中,而对身边的美 景漠然甚至视而不见。 从这次的经历中我所洞悉的实际就像这个经历本身一样并无什么奇特之处:生活的恩赐是珍 贵的——只有我们对此留心甚少。

那么人生给予我们的第一个矛盾的真理就是:不要太过于忙碌而错过了人生的美好和庄严。 虔诚地迎接每个黎明的到来。把握每个小时,抓住宝贵的每分每秒。 紧紧地把握人生,但是又不能抓得过死,松不开手。这正是人生的另外一面,也就是矛盾的 另外一面:我们要接受失去的一切,懂得如何放手。 这个其实并不是容易做到的,尤其当我们尚年轻时,自以为世界在我们的掌控之中,而不论 什么,只要是心想就会事成,而且一定能事成!但是现实往往事与愿违,然后渐渐地这第二 条真理必然显现在我们面前。 在人生的每个阶段我们都会承受失去——也因而成长起来。当我们出生时失去母体的保护, 从那一刻我们开始了独立的生命。而后我们上学了,一级一级地升上去,离开了父母和儿时 的家庭。我们结婚生子然后又只能看着他们离去。我们遭遇父母及爱人的离逝。我们也要面 临自己逐渐或者突然的衰老。而最终,就像握手和松手的比喻那样,我们必须面对自己不可 避免的死亡。就这样我们失去了一切,其中包括我们自己人生已经所有的以及尚未实现的。 但是我们为什么要服从于这种人生中矛盾的要求呢?为什么明知美是短暂的还要去创造美 好?为何明知自己所爱的人会最终离我们而去却还要全心全意去爱? 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 18 要解开这个矛盾我们就必须把眼光放开, 像透过可以通向永恒的窗户那样来审视我们的生活。 一旦这样做,我们就会知道我们的生命虽然有限,可我们在地球上的作为却在造就永恒。 人生不仅仅是静止的一生而已。它是在不断变幻的,是一股不屈不挠的奔流。我们的父母通 过我们得到生命的延续,然后我们通过我们的子女得到生命的延续。而我们也随之长存,我 们所崇尚的美不会因为我们的死亡就失去颜色。我们的身体会腐朽,我们的双手会枯萎,但 是我们所创造的美、善和真是永存而不朽的。 不要浪费你的生命去聚敛财物,他们只会变为尘埃,化为虚无。追求理想而不是物质的东西, 因为只有理想赋予生命意义,也只有理想才会有恒久的价值。 房子有了爱便成为了家。城市有了道义就成为社会。红砖有了真理就成了学堂。陋室有了宗 教就成了圣殿。人类全方面的努力有了正义就成为了文明。把这一切全放在一处,完善他们, 使之精益求精。而这一切有了在人类获得救赎后那永远无欲无求的远景,便成就了一个充满 希望的绚烂未来。

————本文是美国犹太人联合会主席辛德勒于 1987 年 5 月在南卡罗来纳大学毕业典礼上致 辞的节选。要做到无欲无求的境界对于我们而言还太遥远,但适时地收与放,却是我们的生 活的真理,抚慰那些在城市欲望中挣扎的生命。 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 19 第五篇(海外英语 2006 年 04 期)汉英句子翻译 (5 句 每句 8 分 共 40 分)

Developing self-confidence

Confidence is a feeling- an inner fire and an outer radiance, a basic satisfaction with what one is plus a reaching out to become more. Confidence is not something a few people are born with and others are not.,for it is an acquired characteristic.

Confidence is the personal possession of no one;the person who has it learns it and goes on learning. The most gifted individual on earth has to construct confidence in his gifts from the basis of faith and experience,like anybody else. The tools will differ from one person to the next,but the essential task is the same. Confidence and pose are available to us all according to our abilities and needs - not somebody else's-provided we utilize our gifts and expand them.

One of the most rewarding aspects of confidence is that it sits gracefully on every age and level of life - on children, men, women, the famous, the obscure, rich, poor, artist, executive, teen-ager, the very old. And you can take it with you into old age. There is nothing more inspiring than and old person who maintains his good will,humor,and faith in himself,in others, in the future. Conversely, the root cause of old people's despair is a feeling of not being wanted, of nothing to contribute,no more to conquer and become.

Most people have more to work with than they realize. One noted physicist calls this unused excellencies and finding and releasing this potential in ourselves is one of the major challenges of modern life. The great danger is not that we shall overreach our capacities but that we shall undervalue and under-employ them,thus blighting our great possibilities.

The goal of life is not a problemless existence,which would be unbearably dull, but a way to handle problems creatively. That word "problem" may sound a little prickly,but it only means a question pur forth for solution,and actually life consists of a series of problems- and-solutions,each different from the last.

Confidence is delight - delight in living,in being who you are, in what you do,in growing,in the endless and sometimes exasperating adventure of what it means to be human. The teacher who delights in teaching has no time for bogging down in a swamp of doubt that he or she is doing it "right", and they are well aware that they can become a better teacher tomorrow,but only by doing their best today and enjoying today. So, too,the mother who delights in being a mother does not worry over much about whether she fits the rules. She is not the mother, after all, of something material but of a living child.

Rules can often be a guide to successful living,but they are not a substitute for living. Rules never quite keep up with reality, because rules come from experience, not the other way around. Life happens, and it is infinitely inventive. It will always outrun and outmaneuver any perpetual becoming. when life turns your wisest plans or best rules upside down, throw out the plans and bend with the circumstance. You will find powers you did not suspect and possibilities undreamed of.

Confidence is not always winning, not always victory. Indeed,it is that very quality in humanity which refuses to stay defeated, a kind of stubborn cheerfullness. Remember there are two things you can do with mistake: you can run away and you can grow. 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 20 自信是一种感觉----- 一种来自内心的火焰和外在的灿烂,使人们可以获得更多基本的满足 感。自信不是某些人天生就有而另一些人没有,它是后天培养起来的性格。 自信不是任何人的私有财产;人们通过学习获得自信并且坚持继续学习。这个世界上最聪明

的人也要像其他人一样,在信念和经历的基础上来培养自信。一个人和另一个人用的工具可 能不同,但是核心的任务是一样的。倘若运用我们的才智并使之不断增长,依靠我们自己的 而不是别人的能力和需求,我们就可以做到自信和沉着冷静。 自信最令人满意的方面之一是它不分年龄和生活水准不懈地跟随我们每个人------小孩,男 人,女人,名人,平凡人,富人,穷人,艺术家,行政人员,青少年,老人。你还可以把自 信带入老年。再没有比一个老人能够保持对自己,对别人和未来怀有美好意愿,心情,信念 更能鼓舞人心的了。相反,老人绝望的根本原因是不被需要,无所贡献,无所征服和无所成 就的感觉。 大多数人都比他们意识到的更大有可为一位著名的物理学家把它称之为未被利用的优点,找 到并且释放我们身上的这些潜能是当代生活中重要的挑战之一。最多的危险不是我们高估我 们的能力,而是我们会低估并且不能充分利用这些能力,这会破坏我们的潜能。 生活的目标不是无忧无虑,那样会无聊得无法忍受,而应该是创造性地解决问题。 “问题”这 个词可能听起来有点让人生气,但是它只意味着一个被提出的等待解决的问题,事实上生活 就是由一系列的问题-解决问题构成的,每个问题都与上一个不同。

自信是喜悦,生活的喜悦,是自我的快乐,做事的快乐,成长的快乐,体验人类种种坎坷历 程的快乐。以教学为快乐的老师,没有时间怀疑他(她)做得是否对,通过今天的努力工作 并感到满意,他们很清楚明天会做得更好。母亲也如此,她们也不会过多地担心她是否适合 这个角色。她照顾的毕竟不是无生命的物质,而是一个活生生的孩子。 规则是通往成功生活的向导,但不是生活的替代品。规则不是十分符合现实,因为规则来自 经验,而不是经验来自规则。生活的真谛远胜于发明创造。生活总会超越那些束缚它的一板 一眼的制度,因为生活总在变化。当生活把你最聪明的计划或最好的准则推翻时,扔掉那些 计划,适应环境,你会到到意想不到的力量,以及你做梦也没想到的可能性。 自信并不是总能胜利,总能打赢。实际上,它是人类不甘于失败的品质,一种绝不退让的快 活。记住对于错误你可以采取两种态度:你可以逃避,也可以从中成长。 2008 北外考研基础英语试题 21

第六篇 枯叶蝴蝶 徐迟 刘士聪翻译(此篇见纸质出版物) 汉英全文翻译(50 分)

《散文佳作 108 篇(汉英.英汉对照)》

乔萍 翟淑蓉 宋洪玮

2002 年 7 月第 2 版