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现在完成时讲解和练习(有答案)


现在完成时讲解和练习
1. 现在完成时的构成: have\has+过去分词 (过去分词的构成有规则变化和不规则变化) 2. 现在完成时的四个基本句型 肯定句 He has finished the work. 一般疑问句 Has he finished the work? 回答 Yes ,he has. No, he hasn’t. 否定句 He has not finished the work. 特殊疑问句 What has he done? 3.现在完成时的用法: A.表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,强调对现在造成的影想或结果) 。例如: The car has arrived. 车子来了。 (结果:车子已在门口) Someone has broken the window.有人把窗户打破了。 (结果:窗户仍破着) B. 表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态,可以和表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在(包括 “现在” 在内)的一段时间的状语连用,如 for+时间段、since+过去的时间点、疑问词 how long 等。例如: My uncle has worked at this factory for five years. 我叔叔在这个工厂工作已经五年了。 Mr. Black has lived in China since 2002. 自从 2002 年 Mr. Black 一直住在中国。 How long have you been here? 你来这里多久了? 4. 在下列情形下用现在完成时 (1)九词语 ①already 已经 肯定句中或句尾 ⑤just 刚刚 句中 e.g.: I have already found my pen. e.g.:I have just done my work. = I have found my pen already. ⑥before 以前 句尾 ②yet 已经 否定句和疑问句句尾 e.g.:I have never been there before. e.g.:I have not finished the work yet. ⑦so far 到目前为止 Have you bought a computer yet? e.g.:So far he has learnt 200 words. ③ever 曾经 句中 ⑧how long 多久 e.g.: Have you ever seen pandas? e.g.:How long have you lived here? ④never 从不 句中 ⑨how many times 多少次 e.g.:I have never been to Beijing. e.g.:How many times has he been to Beijing? (2)两结构 for two months for +一段时间 Jim has lived here for 2 months. since last year since +过去点时间 Lucy has been in Beijing since 3 years ago. since 3 years ago since 1990 since he came here since +过去时态句子 He has been in China since he came here. (3)三词组 1.have<has>gone to 去了某地 表示“已经去了某地,在去那里的途中或到达那里还没有回来” e.g.:He has gone to Beijing (去了北京) 2.have<has>been to 去过某地 表示“曾去过某地,已经从那里回来了” e.g.:He has been to Beijing. (去过北京) 3.have<has>been in 表示“在某地呆多长时间” ,常与表示一段时间的状语连用,如:since, for, how long e.g.: Mr. Brown has been in Beijing for three days. 布朗先生来北京已经有三天了 4.如果句子里面没有时间状语,汉语意思能够加“已经” ,往往用现在完成时态。 e.g.:Have you lost your library book? 你已经弄丢了从图书馆借的那本书吗? 5.现在完成时态还常常用于下列句型 They have planted many trees in the last few years. 在过去的几年,他们已经种了很多树。 This is the best book I have ever read. 这是我曾经读过的最好的一本书。 It is the first time I have played the computer games. 这是我第一次玩电脑游戏。
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6.在现在完成时中,瞬间动词不能和一段时间状语连用 e.g.:He has bought the book for 3 years.(错) 因 buy 这个一次性动词不能和一段时间 for 3 years 连用, 改正的办法有五种: ① He has bought the book.. (去掉一段时间 for 3 years) ② He bought the book 3 years ago (改为一般过去时,使句子的意思不变) ③ It’s 3 years since he bought the book. = 3 years has passed since he bought the book. (改为固定句型 It is ---since---) ④ He has not bought the book for 3 years.(改为否定句) ⑤ He has had the book for 3 years. (用延续性动词 have 代替 buy) 7. 还有其他瞬间动词也是这种情况,可参照前面的五种办法改正,前四种改法都一样,第五种改法各不 相同,举例如下: ①come/arrive/get to/reach → be here e.g:I have come here for 3 years.(错) 改为:I have been here for 3 years. ②leave/go →be away e.g.:He has left for 3 hours.(错) 改为:He has been away for 3 hours. ③begin/start →be on e.g.:The film has begun for 3 minutes.(错) 改为:The film has been on for 3 minutes. ④open →be open / close → be closed e.g.:The shop has opened for 3 years.(错) 改为:The shop has been open for 3 years. ⑤die →be dead e.g.:His father has died for 3 years.(错) 改为:His father has been dead for 3 years. ⑥finish/end→ be over 例:He has finished the work for 3 days.(错) 改为:The work has been over for 3 days ⑦join 例:I have joined the army for 3 years.(错) 改为:I have been in the army for 3 years. 或 I have been a soldier for 3 years. ⑧buy /catch → have e.g.:I have bought the bike for 3 years.(错) 改为:I have had the bike for 3 years. He has caught a cold for 3 days.(错) 改为:He has had a cold for 3 days. ⑨borrow → keep e.g:I have borrowed the book for 3 years. (错) 改为:I have kept the book for 3 years. 还有其它的归纳如下: leave --- be away borrow --- keep buy --- have die --- be dead begin/start --- be on finish --- be over fall ill ---be ill get up---be up catch a cold --- have a cold put on-- wear come/become/go --- be here fall asleep --- be asleep get to/ arrive/reach --- be (in) get to know --- know join----be a member of ... ( 成 为 ? 的 一 员 ) open ---be open close ---be close break → be broken \ get up → be up marry → be married \ become → be \ lose → be lost \ 8.现在完成时态与一般过去时态的区别 1 一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强 调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。 I saw this film yesterday.(强调动作发生的时间是 yesterday 。 ) I have seen this film.(强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。 ) 2 一般过去时和表示过去的时间状语连用,如:? ago, last week/... In 2008, in the past, just now, the day before yesterday, yesterday ... Then(那 时),that day, one day, once(从前) 一、写出以下常用瞬间动词的相应延续性动词: 1. have arrived at/in sw. got to/reached sw. 4. have become →________________________ come/gone/moved to sw. →have been in sw./at… 5.haveclosed / opened→_____________________ 2. have come/gone back/returned → ____________ 6. have got up →________________________ ; 3. have come/gone out →___________ 7. have died →________________________;
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8. have left sw. →________________________ 10. have finished/ended/completed →___________; 9. have fallen asleep/got to sleep →___________ ; 11. have married →____________________; 二、用正确的时间表达词汇填空 Have you done your homework _______________? (for, just, yet) I have _____________ been to Guangdong. (for, never, yet)r He has worked there _____________ he left school. (already, yet. Since, for) She has known Sam ______________ 9 years. (already, yet. Since, for) Have you ____________ ridden a horse? (ever, for, yet) 三、用 for 或 since 填空 1.My family has owned a ship ___________ 1920.2.My family has owned a ship ___________ many years. 3.I have had a cold _________ last Monday. 4.I have had a cold __________ 5 days ago. 5.I have had a cold _________ 5 days. 四、用所给动词的适当形式填空 1. --- I _____________ (see) the film “Chicken Run”. --- Where and when ________ you __________ (see) it? --- Last week. 2. Mary __________ already ____________ (have) her supper. 3. I ____________ (not want) to see the film. I _______________ (see) it with my parents. We _________ (see) it last Sunday. 4. ---_________ Uncle Wang ____________ (mend) the TV yet? ---Yes, he____________. ---When ___________ he ____________ it? --- Yesterday. 5. __________ you _______ (read) today’s newspaper yet? 6. They _________already__________(do) their homework. But they don’t know what__________ (do) next. 7. ---__________ you ___________ (see) the film last night? ---No, I ___________ (see) it for several times. 8. She ____________ (be) ill for three days. 9. My father ____________ (buy) a book for me yesterday. He_________ already ________(pay) fifty yuan for it. 10. She_____________ (not read) this book before. 11. __________ you ever __________ (travel) on a train before? 12. --- ____________ Wei Hua ___________ (come) yet? ---Yes. She__________ (come) already. She ____________ (come) just now. 13. ---How long __________ you __________(learn) English? ---For more than two years. 14. They _______________ (live) in China since they ____________ (move) to China. 15. I___________ already __________ (see) the film. I ____________ (see) it last week. 16. So far I ________________(make) quite a few friends here. 17. How long _____________ the Wangs ____________(stay) here ? For two weeks. 18. They _________________ (not arrive) yet. 19. When I was in primary school, my mother _______________ (drive) me to school everyday. 20. He ______________ (live) here since he ____________ (move) to Hankou. 五、 单项选择 1、Both his parents look sad . Maybe they _________what's happened to him. A. knew B. have known C. must know D.will know 2、He has _______ been to Shanghai, has he ? A. already B.never C.ever D. still 3、Have you met Mr Li ______? A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago 4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year. A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written 5、—Our country ______ a lot so far. —Yes. I hope it will be even ______. A. has changed ;well B. changed ; good C. has changed ;better D. changed ;better
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6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years. A. was ; studying B. will ; study C. has ; studied D. are ; studying 7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl. A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew 8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I_______ it twice. A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see 9、—These farmers have been to the United States. —Really ? When _____ there ? A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone 10、—______ you ___ your homework yet? —Yes . I _____ it a moment ago. A. Did; do; finished B. Have; done; finished C. Have; done; have finished D. will; do; finish 11、 His father ______ the Party since 1978. A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in 12、—Do you know him well ?— Sure. We _________ friends since ten years ago. A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made 13、—How long have you ____ here?—About two months. A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived 14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes. A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. began 15、 It _____ ten years since he left the army. A. is B. has C. will D. was 16、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library. A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been 17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years. A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been 18、The students have cleaned the classroom,_____? A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they 19、_____has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he ____ to China? A. How soon, comes B. How often, got C. How long, came D. How far, arrived 20、 His uncle ____ for more than 9 years. A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university 六、 句型转换。 1、He’s never been late, ____ _ ________?(改成反意疑问句) 2、They have been here since 2000. (对划线部分提问) ______ __________have they been here? 3、The old man _________ last year. He _____ _______for a year. (die) (动词填空) 4、 Miss Gao left an hour ago. (同义句转换) Miss Gao ________ ______ ________ _______ an hour ago. 5、Her mother has been a Party member for three years .(同义句) Her mother _______ the Party three years ________ . 6、 The Green Family moved to France two years ago. =____ two years ___ the Green family moved to France. 7、The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. (把两个句子合并成一个句子) ___________________________________________ 七、汉译英。 1、吉姆已做完作业,他现在有空了。___________________________________________ 2、他昨天收到一封信。___________________________________________ 3、我父亲以前到过长城。___________________________________________ 4、她还没有看过那部新电影。___________________________________________ 5、她去过上海。___________________________________________ 6、他这些天上哪儿去了?___________________________________________

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参考答案: 一、 1. have been in sw./at…相应的介词 2. have been back 3. have been out 4. have been 5. have been closed/open 6. have been up 7. have been dead 8. have been away from sw. 9. have been asleep 10. have been over 11. have been married 二、 1. yet 2. never 3. since 4. for 5. ever 三、 1. since 2. for 3. Since 4. Since 5. For 四、 1. Have seen, Did see 2. Has had 3. Don’t want, have seen, saw 4. Has mended, has. did mend 5. Have read 6. Have done ,to do 7. Did see ,have seen 8. Has been 9. Bought ,has paid 10. Hasn’t read 11. Have travelled 12. Has come ,has come, came 13. Has lived ,moved 14. Have lived, moved 15. have seen,saw 16. have made 17. Have stayed 18. Haven’t arrived 19. Drove 20. Have learned
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五、单项选择。 1、现在完成时主要强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响,或过去发生的动作还未结束,一直持续到 现在或将来,重点在于对现在的影响。这种考查难度较大,往往无时间状语,需要从上下文分析、推理才 行。故上两侧根据上下文分析、推理,正确答案是 B. 2、现在完成时常与 already(已经) ,just(刚刚,正好) ,ever(曾经) ,never(从来,也不;从不) ,before (以前) ,yet(仍然)等连用。故 2 应选 B. 3、C 4、现在完成时常与 recently(近来) ,so far(到目前为止) ,in the past/“last + 一段时间”等时间状 语连用。因为上述短语表示的是从现在起往前推算的一段时间,句中的动作是从过去某一时间或时刻开始 持续到现在的。故 4 应选 D. 5、C 6、现在完成时时常与“for +时间段或 since +过去时间点”连用(含从句,从句过去时) 。故 6 应选 C. 7、C 8、现在完成时还与 once(一次) ,twice(两次) ,three times(三次) ,several times(几次)等表示重 复次数的词语连用。故 8 应选 B. 9、现在完成时与一般过去时容易混淆,就是因为它们所表示的动作都发生在过去,但二者又有区别: 一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作,说话的侧重点在于陈述一件过去 的事情,与现在没有关系;现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在过去的动作,它不与表示过去的时间状 语(如 yesterday , last week , a moment ago 等)连用。故 9 的正确答案为 B. 10、B 11、现在完成时中,非延续性动词不能与 for 和 since 引导的表示一段时间的状语连用,通常是用相应 的延续性动词来代替。故 11 的正确答案依次为:D. 12、B 13、A 14、C 15、A.

16 、 “ have/has gone to + 地点”表示“某人去了某地(还未回来) ” ,指主语所指的人不在这儿。 “ have/has been in + 地 点 ” 表 示 “ 在 某 地 呆 了 多 长 时 间 ” ,常与表示时间的状语连用。 “have/has been to +地点”表示“曾经去过某地(但现在已不在那儿) 。 ”故 16 的正确答案为 A. 17、A 18、D 19、C 20、C

六、句型转换。 1、has he? 4、has been away 6、It is, since 2、How long 5、joined;ago 7、The bus has been here for ten minutes. 3、died, has been dead

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七、汉译英。 1、Jim has finished doing his homework already. He is free now. 2、He received a letter yesterday. 3、My father has been to the Great Wall before. 4、She hasn't seen the new film yet. 5、She has been to Shanghai. 6、Where has he been these days?

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