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第一章 冠词 高考对冠词的考查集中在基本用法上,主要既反映在对泛指、特指及固定短语 冠词的考查。抽象名词、物质名词的具体化依然是高考的重点、难点。 一、不定冠词 不定冠词 a,an 与 one 同源,表示微弱的“一”的概念,但并不强调数目,用来表示不确定的 人或事物。 A 用在辅音前,而不是辅音字母前;an 用在元音前,而不是元音字母前。 a university in Asia 1.表示同类中的“任何一个” A cat has nine lives. 2.表示泛指的某人、某物 I know a John Lennon,but not the famous one. 3.表示数量的“一” He has a daughter. 4. 表示单位数量的”每一” I earn 10 dollars an hour. 5.表示相同的” The two birds are of a color. 6. 用于集体名词前 He grows up in a large family. 7. 在某种情况下可用于抽象名词和物质名词前 China has a long history. 二、定冠词的用法 1.表示特定的人或物 2.表示地球、宇宙中独一无二的事物 主要指各种天体及世界上比较有影响的物体。 The sun,the moon,the earth 3.表示地点、方向、时间、方式等 at the corner 在拐角处 1) 在表示季节的名词前常不用冠词。 In spring 在春天 2) 具体某年的某个季节,需用冠词。 In the summer of the year2008 3)用于序数词或形容词的最高级前 the first the second 4)用于形容词前使其名词化 the rich the poor 5)用于复数姓氏前,表示“夫妇”或全家 The Smiths 6)用于乐器名词前 Play the piano 7)用于 by+the+计量单位名词

By the pound 1. 用于复数名词前 复数名词泛指某类人或物时,其前通常用零冠词。 Students should obey the school rules. 学生应该遵守校规。 复数名词若需特指,则要加定冠词。 The students are too lazy. 这些学生太懒。 2. 用于不可数名词前 不可数名词表示泛指时,其前通常用零冠词。如: Bread is made from flour. 面包是用面粉做的。 Wood is a poor conductor of sound. 木头是声音的不良导体。 不可数名词若需特指,则要加定冠词。 He sawed the wood into three pieces. 他把木头锯成三块。 3.用于专有名词前 在通常情况下,专有名词前要用零冠词。如: Mr Smith is our English teaches us English. 史密斯先生教我们英语。 在特殊情况下,若专有名词需要特指,也可加定冠词。如: The Smith you’re looking for no longer lives here. 4. 用于抽象化的可数名词前 有些可数名词抽象化后表示表示的活动,其前通常零冠词。 Jim has gone to bed. 吉姆已上床睡觉了。 She goes to church every Sunday. 她每周星期天都去做礼拜。 这类主要涉及 bed, church, class, college, school, university, work, hospital, prison, market, sea, town 等。另外,这类名词前用不用冠词有时与英美英语的表达习惯有关。如:“住院”在英 国英语中通常说成 in hospital,而在美国英语中则通常说成 in the hospital;类似的还有 go to university (英)上大学 / go to the university (美)上大学;at table (英)在吃饭 / at the table (美) 在吃饭。 5. 用于职务及头衔前 当表示职务及头衔的名词用作表语、补足语及同位语时,其前通常用零冠词。如: Wilson became President of the U. S. A. 威尔逊当了美国总统。 He will be made captain of the football team. 他将被选为足球队队长。 6. 在表示学科、语言、三餐、月份、季节、节假日、星期等名词前,通常用零冠词。 We are all interested in physics. 我们大家都对物理感兴趣。 7. 用于某些固定结构中 go to sea 去当水手 at night 在晚上 at most 至多 at last 最后 on foot 步行 at home 在家 at least 至少 at first 首先 in bed 在床上 face to face 面对面 第二章 代词 高考中对代词的考查主要集中在人称代词(主要是其中的 it)、关系代词、指示代词和不定 代词上。


it 的用法

1.作人称代词 John likes playing Ping pong./ He always does it in the afternoon.(指代上下文提到的事物); /It's time we went home. / How far is it from here to your home ? / It is getting warmer and warmer./ It's very quiet at the moment.(可指时间、天气、环境等) 2.引导词 A.作形式主语,代替由不定式、动名词或从句表示的真正主语。 It's important for us to learn a second language./ It's no use talking to him./ It's known to all that the earth goes round the sun. B.作形式宾语,代替由不定式、动名词或从句表示的真正宾语。 We feel it our duty to help others./ He made it clear that he would leave the city. C.强调结构:It is (was) +被强调部分+that (或 who)… 注意: 在强调结构中, 如被强调部分为时间状语或地点状语, 其后的连接词也绝不能为 when 或 where,而应用 that 。在复习中,一定要注意句式的不同。 It was in Shanghai that I bought the guitar.(that 引起强调句) It was Shanghai where I bought the guitar.(where 引起定从) It was twelve o'clock when we arrived there.(when 引起时间状语从句) It was at twelve o'clock that we arrived there.(that 引起强调句) 3. it,one,that 的区别:作为代词,这三个词的对比使用是高考的热点之一。 —Why don't we take a little break? —Didn't we just have __________? A.it A.they B.that C.one B.it C.one D.this D.which The Parkers bought a new house but _________will need a lot of work before they can move in. one 用以指代同类事物中的任一,that 特指性强,指代可数与不可数词,而 it 指代上文提过 的同一事物。 二、 关系代词 who,whose,whom,which,that,as 1)which 可以引导非限定性定语从句,代表前面整个句子的内容,并且在从句中做主语 2)that 的用法 1)不用 that 的情况 a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。 b) 介词后不能用。 We depend on the land from which we get our food. We depend on the land that/which we get our food from. 2) 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a) 在 there be 句型中,只用 that,不用 which。 b) 在不定代词, anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词 如: 时,只用 that,不用 which。 c) 先行词有 the only, the very 修饰时,只用 that。 d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用 that。. e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。

举例: All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。 3) as 的用法 AS 作关系代词,用来引导定语从句:限制性定语从句和限非制性定语从句 一、AS 引导限制性定语从句 AS 引导限制性定语从句时,通常和 such, the same, as(so)等连用,构成 such...as/such as, the same...as/the same as, as(so)...as 等结构,在从句中可作主语,宾语和表语。 1.such...as/such as 意为“...的那种...,像那样的”,such...as/such as 引导限制性定语从句时, 既可指人,也可指物。 such 用于名词之前时,具有形容词性质; such 单独使用(即后面不接名词) 时,具有代词性质。 Don’t trust such men as praise you to your face.(as 作主语) 不要相信那种当面吹捧你的人。 You should read only such books as you can understand without much difficulty.(as 作宾语) 你应当只读那些你读起来不太难懂的书。 Associate with such as will improve your manners.(as 作主语) 要和能改善你的言行的那种人结交。 2.the same...as/the same as 意为“与...同样的”,和 such 一样,the same 既有形容词作用,又有 代词性质。 We have arrived at the same conclusion as they have.(as 作宾语) 我们已得出和他们同样的结论。 比较:the same...as 和 the same...that 不同,前者是“同那一个相似”,后者是“正是那一个”。 如: This is the same watch as I lost. 这同我丢的那块表一样。 This is the same watch that I lost? 这正是我丢的那块表。 3.as(so)...as 意为“和...一样”,后接由 many, much 等修饰的名词或由形容词修饰的单数名 词,注意其语序为 as(so)+adj.+a+n+as,如: It’s as pleasant a film as I have ever seen. 这是一部和我以往看的同样好的电影。 As many soldiers as marched were killed. 很多游行的战士都被杀了。 注意:such ...as 与 such...that ,so...as 与 so...that 的区别: that 是连词,引出结果状语从句,在 从句部分不作成分;as 是关系代词,引出定语从句,在从句中可作主语,宾语和表语。比较: He is such a nice boy that everyone likes him. He is such a nice boy as everyone likes. It is so difficult a problem that nobody can work it out. It is so difficult a problem as nobody can workout. 二、AS 引导非限制性定语从句 AS 引导非限制性定语从句时,通常指的不是主句中的某一个名词(先行词),而是指整个 主句表达的内容,对主句所作的陈述进行附加说明,意为“这...,如...或正如...”。 这种从句可位于 主句之前,之中或之后。

As we all know, Taiwan belongs to China. Taiwan, as we all know, belongs to China. Taiwan belongs to China, as we all know. 注意下面的习惯用法: as is well discussed 正如已讨论过的 as is often said 正如通常所说 as is often the case 通常就是这样 as has been pointed 正如所指出的那样 as has been said before 如上所述 as often happens 如同经常所发生的那样 as might be expected 正如所料 as is well known to all 众所周知 在多数情况下,从句中的谓语助动词可以省略 as explained before 如前面所解释的 as mentioned above 如前面所提到的 as shown in the figure 如图所示 as seen from the table 从表中可以看出 as already discussed 正如已讨论过的 三、不定代词 一) . some 与 any 的用法 1. some 用于肯定句以及表示建议或期待得到肯定回答的问句。 修饰单数名词时, 意为某个。 如: I have some questions about the assignment. (希望得到肯定答复)。 2. any 用于否定句和疑问句时, 表示一些。 用于肯定句时, 只和单数名词或不可数名词连用, 表示任何。如: The medicine is on sale every where. You can get it at any chemist‘s. 二) . each 与 every 的用法 1. each 强调个体,表示两个或两个以上中的每一个,在句中可充当主语、宾语、定语和同 位语。如: There are trees and flowers at each side of the road. 2. every 强调整体,表示三者或三者以上中的每一个,只能作定语,不能说 every of them , 要说 every one of them . Every student in our class works hard. 三 . no one 与 none 的用法 1. no one 意为没有人,只能指人,不能指物,不可与介词 of 连用,谓语动词用单数形式, 回答 who 引导的问句。如: Who is in the classroom? No one. 2. none 既可指人,也可指物,强调数量,意为一点也不,一个也不;谓语动词既可用单数 也可用复数; 常与 of 连用, 通常指三者以上的人或物中没有一个, 回答 how much 和 how many 引导的问句。如:

They were all tired, but none of them would stop to have a rest. 四 . other, another, others, any other, the other 的用法 1. other 表示泛指, 意为另外的、 其它的。 常与复数名词或不可数名词连用。 如果其前有 the, this, some, any, each, every, no, one 以及形容词性物主代词时,其后就可接单数 名词。如: I have no other place to go. 2. another 常用于指三者或三者以上中的另外一个,泛指单数。可单独使用,也可后接名词。 如果其后接复数名词,则表示又、再、还。如: This cap is too small for me. Show me another (one)。 We need another three assistants in our shop. 3. others :它是 other 的复数形式,表示泛指,意为别的人或物,但不指全部。特指时在其 前加定冠词;前面可加任何限定词以及数量词。如: He has more concern for others than for himself. 4. any other 表示一个之外的其他任何一个,而不是两个之中的另一个。如: China is larger than any other country in Asia. 5. the other :表示两者中的另外一个。可单独使用,也可接单数名词。如: No agreement was reached in the discussion as neither side would give way to the other. 五 . all 与 both 的用法 均表示都, all 表示三者以上的人或物, both 则表示两个人或物。 但 二者都表示肯定意义, 如果与 not 连用时,则表示部分否定。 六 . neither 与 either 的用法 都可用于表示两个人或物。 neither 表否定意义,意为(两者中的每一个)都不;而 either 表肯定意义,意为(两者中的每一个)都。都可单独使用,也可同介词 of 连用。如: Both teams were in hard training; neither willing to lose the game. Do you want tea or coffee? Either. I really don‘t mind. 第三章 形容词和副词 高考对形容词和副词的考查主要集中在对形容词和副词的辨析上, 同时加大对比较级的考查 一、 形容词 1)多个形容词修饰名词的排列顺序 限定词(包括冠词、所有格、人称代词、指示代词、数量词等)+表示观点的词(品质,状态, 即表示好坏美丑等的词)+大小或长短+年龄或新旧+形状或样式+颜色+产地或来源+材料或 种类+用途+名词 a nice long new black British plastic pen 2)形容词作状语,表伴随或结果 He returned,safe but tired. 3)复合形容词的用法 1)形容词 + 名词 + ed 2) 形容词 + 形容词 3)形容词 + 现在分词 4)副词 + 现在分词 5)副词 + 过去分词 kind-hearted 好心的,white-haired 白发的 red-hot 炽热的,dark-blue 深蓝的 good-looking 好看的,easy-going 随和的 hard-working 勤劳的,fast-moving 快速转动的 hard-won 得来不易的,newly-made 新建的

6)名词 + 形容词 7)名词 + 现在分词 9)数词 + 名词 + ed 二、

life-long 终生的,world-famous 世界闻名的 peace-loving 爱好和平的,fun-loving 爱开玩笑的 four-storeyed 4 层楼的,three-legged 3 条腿的

8)名词 + 过去分词 snow-covered 白雪覆盖的,hand-made 手工的 10)数词 + 名词(名词用单数) ten-year 10 年的,two-man 两人的 形容词和副词比较级和最高级的用法 一、比较级和最高级的常见结构 1. “the +比较级……, the +比较级“:表示“越……越……” The sooner you see a doctor, the better it is.你越早看医生越好。 2. the +序数词+最高级+单数可数名词:表示“第几大的” This is the third most popular song of Michael Jackson。 这是迈克尔·杰克逊第三受欢迎的歌曲。 二、比较级和最高级的修饰语 1.常见的比较级的修饰语有:much, a little, a great deal, far, by far, even, will, still, a bit, a little, rather, any, (far) larger than This movie is far more interesting than I expected.这部电影比我原想的有意思的多。 2. all the +比较级:愈来愈 I worked all the harder.我工作愈来愈努力了。 3.常见的最高级的修饰语有:序数词,by far, nearly, almost, by no means, not quite, not really 等 He is almost the best player.他基本上是最好的选手。 4. any 修饰比较级只用于疑问句、否定句和条件状语从句 Can you do any better on this job?你这件事情能不能做得更好些? 三、表达倍数的常用结构 1.数词+times+as+形容词原级+as This room is twice as big as that one.这房间的面积是那间的两倍。 2.数词+times+形容词比较级+than This room is twice bigger than that one.这房间的面积是那间的两倍。 3.数词+times+性质名词+of (性质名词主要有:length, size, height, weight, depth 等) This room is twice the size of that one.这房间的面积是那间的两倍。 4. (not)half+as+形容词原级+as This room is half as big as that one.这房间的面积是那间的一半。 四、比较级与冠词的搭配 1.不含 than 的比较级前可加不定冠词修饰,构成“ a/an+比较级+单数可数名词”表示“一个 更……的人/物”。 Why don’t you use a sharper knife?你为什么不用一把更锋利的刀呢? 2.被比较者被明确特指时,比较级前面应该加定冠词“the”修饰。 Which is the younger one, Lily or Lucy? 哪一个年龄小一些,莉莉还是鲁西? 五、比较级和同级比较 1. as +原级+ as : 和……一样 The room is as big as that one.这间房子和那间一样大。 2. as many/much/far/long as +具体数词:到达某种程度

The number of the students in that school reaches as many as 4,000.那所学校的学生数量多达 4ooo 人。 3. as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式: 1) as +形容词+ a/an +单数名词+as He is as kind a person as his father.他和他爸爸一样都是善良的人。 2) as + many/much+不可数名词/可数名词复数+as I can carry as much paper as you can.你能搬多少纸,我也能。 I have as many books as you do.我的书和你的一样多。 六、关于比较级、最高级的几个高频考点 1. most 前若没有 the,就没有比较的意思,只是加强语气,有“很,非常”之意。 This is a most interesting story。 2. 比较级+than any other She is taller than any other girl in her class。 3. …never…+比较级…,not…ever…+比较级… I have never heard a better voice than yours。 4.nothing/nobody…+比较级+than… Nothing is more precious than time。没有比时间更珍贵的。 第四章系动词的用法 1. 最常用连系动词:be(am; is/was; are/were)。 2. 表变化的系动词:get; turn; go; fall; become; grow; come; run。用法注意:在英语中,系动 词一般只有一般现在 时和一般过去时两种时态变化形式, 没有其他时态变化形式。 但表 变化的这类系动词除外,它们有各种时态变化。 E.g.: It is becoming colder and colder. The food has gone bad. 此处还需注意的是 become 和 turn 后接表职业的名词时冠词的有无: E.g.: Two years later, he became a teacher. 但 Two years later, he turned teacher. 另外,go 表变化时一般指事情向消极、不好的方面转化。 3. 所谓“感官动词”:look; sound; taste; smell; feel。一般它们在句子中译成:。。。起来;。。。 上去。此类系动词为高考 高频词。 E.g.: The food tasted good.食物尝起来很香。 其中必须注意到它们本身也用作实义动词,所以在平常的教学和应用中一定多比较、关注 它们的用法。 E.g.: He looked sadly at the picture. / She looked sad after hearing the news. Tom tasted the food and it tasted good. 4. 表状态的系动词:keep; stay; remain;(依然是;保持) E.g.: She remains loyal to her father despite his cruelty towards her. What a lovely day today! I love fine weather and I hope it will stay fine for some more days. Much remains to be done. 5. 表像系动词:seem; appear。汉语意义:看起来像、似乎、好像。这两个动词有一个共同 的特点,即如果要表达时态的变化,需要后接不定时来完成。

E.g.: He seemed to have caught cold./ When Father came in, Tom seemed to be eating something. 另外此处一句型转换也要要求学生牢记 It seemed that he had caught cold. When Father came in, it seemed that Tom was eating something. 6. 终止系动词:prove; turn out。表达“证实、证明、结果为。。。”之意。 E.g.: He proved (to be) right. / The experiment turned out successful. 系动词用法应注意的几个问题 1. 一般地说,系动词无进行时态,无被动语态 如: Your hand feels cold. The soup tastes good. The dinner smells good. 2.系动词的时态与形容词的比较级连用的问题。 某些含有变化意义的动态系动词如 get, become, grow, turn 等的进行时态可与形容词的比较 级连用,表示渐进过程,其意思是“越来越……”。例如: He is growing taller and taller. Our life is getting better and better. Things are getting worse. 3.所有半系动词的被动语态要分情况讨论。 英语中某动词在作系动词用时,无被动语态,而作实义动词用时,才有被动语态,二者不 可混为一谈。例如: 不能说:The apple is tasted good.因为 taste 此时是系动词,“尝起来”之意,指的是苹果的性 质,无被动语态) 但我们可以说:The apple is tasted by me.这苹果被我尝了一下。(taste 此时指“尝一尝”这一 动作,有被动语态) 因此,在平时的英语教学和学习之 ,要有意注意半系动词在具体的语言环境中到底是系动 词用法还是实义动词用法,要注意区分、识别。 4.瞬间动态系动词能否与时间段连用的问题 英语中某些表示瞬间意义的系动词不能与“for+时间段, since+时间点, how long until+时间,by + 时间,so far”等直接连用。例如: ①不能说:He has become a teacher for 2 years. 应改为:He has been a teacher for 2 years. ②不能说:He has turned writer since 3 years ago. 应改为:He has been a write since 3 years ago. 或 It is two years since he turned writer. ③不能说:He got angry until his child came back home. 应改为:He didn’t get angry until his child came back home. 5.系动词能接几种表语(从句) 系动词除了接 adj.\n.\prep.短语,还可接以下几种表语形式: ①能接 as if/as though 表语从句的系动词有:look(看起来),smell(闻起来),sound(听 起来),feel(觉得);appear(显得),seem(似乎)。例如: It looks as if we are going to have snow.看样子天要下雪了。

He looked as if he had just stepped out of my book of fairy tales.他看来好像刚从我的童话故事 中走出来似的。 She seemed as if (though) she couldn’t understand why Laura was there.看来她好像不能理解为 什么劳拉呆在那儿。 It sounds to me as though there’s a tap running somewhere.我好像听到某处水龙头流水的声音。 She felt as if her head were splitting.她仿佛觉得她的头要裂开了。 The river appeared as if enveloped in smog.那条河好像笼罩在烟雾之中。 It seems as if it were spring already.好像已是春天了。 ②可用于“It+系动词+that 从句”结构的有:seem, appear 如: It seemed that he had made some serious mistakes in his work.好像他在工作中犯了严重错误。 It appeared that he was talking to himself.好像他在自言自语。 ③能用不定式作表语的系动词有:be, seem, , look, appear, prove, grow. Her job is to look after the children.她的工作是照料孩子们。 He seems not to look after the children.他好像不是她的父亲。 He looks to be a young girl of twenty.他看起来像是一个 20 岁的年轻姑娘。 He didn’t appear to dislike it.看不出他憎恨此事。 My advice proved to be wrong.我的建议证明是错误的。 ④能与 there 连用的系动词有:be, appear, seem. There appeared to be only one room.那儿好像只有一个房间。 There seems(to be)no need to go.似乎没有必要走 第五章 动词的时态和语态 1、动词时态考查要点简述 (1)一般现在时考点分析 ①表示客观事实或普通真理(不受时态限制) The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. ②表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的动作,多用动作动 词,且常与表频率的时间状语连用。 Ice feels cold. We always care for each other and help each other. ③表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时:see、hear、smell、 taste、feel、notice、agree、believe、like、hate、want、think belong seem 等。如: I know what you mean. Smith owns a car and a house. All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School. ④在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由 if 引导的条件状语从 句中可以用 shall 或 will 表“意愿”,但不表示时态。 If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased.如果你愿意接 受并参加我们的舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。 ⑤少数用于表示起止的动词如 come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、start、begin、pen、close、 end、stop 等常用一般现在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作。当 be 表示根据时间或事先安排,肯定会出现的状态,只用一般现在时。 The shop closes at 11:00 p.m. every day.

Tomorrow is Wednesday. (2)一般过去时的考点分析(考核重点)。 ①一般过去时的基本用法: 表示过去的事情、 动作或状态常与表示过去具体的时间状语连用 (或有上下文语境暗示);用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希望的 事通常用过去式。如: I met her in the street yesterday. ②如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语, 尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生, 但从句中的谓语动 词连用过去式。如: He told me he read an interesting novel last night. ③表示两个紧接着发生的动作, 常由以下词语连接, 用一般过去时。 but, and, when, as soon 如: as, immediately, the moment, the minute。 The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her. ④常用一般过去时的句型: Why didn’t you / I think of that? I didn’t notice it. I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before. I didn’t recognize him. (3)一般将来时考点分析。 ①表示未来的动作或状态常用 will / shall + 动词(常与表示将来的时间状语边用如 tomorrow、next week 等)。 ②表示一种趋向或习惯动作。 We’ll die without air or water. ③表示趋向行为的动词如 come、go、start、begin、leave 等词常用进行时的形式表示将来时。 ④be going to 与 will / shall, be to do, be about to do 用法及区别: be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事, 这种打算往往经过事先考虑, 甚至已做了 某种准备;shall / will do 表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。 be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而 will 则能,表意愿。如: If it is fine, we’ll go fishing.(正确) If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.(错误) be to do sth.表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止,可能性等。 A meeting is to be held at 3:00 o’clock this afternoon. be about to do sth.表示“即可,就要”,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。 Autumn harvest is about to start. (4)现在进行时考点分析。 ①表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作; 表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时; 表近期特定的 安排或计划;go、come 等起止动作可用进行时代替将来时。如: It is raining now. He is teaching English and learning Chinese. I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight. We are leaving on Friday. At six I am bathing the baby.(I start bathing the baby before six.)

The girl is always talking loud in public. (与 always、often 等频度副词连用,表经常反复的行 动或某种感情色彩) ②下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。 (A)表示心理状态、情感的动作:like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。 (B)表存在的状态的动词:appear, exist, lie, remain, seem belong to, depend on。 (C)表示一时性动作的动词:allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete。(D)表示感 官的动词:see, hear, notice, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。 (5)过去完成时考点分析(考核重点)。 ①常用过去完成时的几种情况: (A)在 by、by the end、by the time、until、before、since 后接表示过去某一时间的短语或 从句以前发生的动作。如:By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. (B)表示曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用 had hoped / planned / meant / intended/ though / wanted / expected 等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示即:hoped / planned … + to have done。 (C)“时间名词 + before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时;“时间名词 + ago”在 句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。如:He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago. (D)表示“一……就”的几个句型:Hardly / No sooner / scarcely had + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / before + 一般过去时。 如: had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No We sooner had we been seated than the bus started. ②在 before 或 after 引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时态代替过去完成时。 After he (had) left the room, the boss came in. We arrived home before it snowed. (6)过去将来时考点分析。 参照一般将来时对比:用 would do、was / were going to do sth.表过去将来;come、go、leave 等过去进行时表过去将来时;was / were to do sth.和 was / were about to do sth.表过去将来。 (7)过去进行时考点分析。 ①过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或某一阶段内发生或频繁发生。 ②某一动作发生时另一动作正在发生, 其中一个在由 when 或 while 引导的时间状语从句中。 (8)现在完成时考点分析。 ①现在完成时除可以和 for、 since 引导的状语连用外, 还可以和下面的介词短语连用: during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks)、in recent years 等。 ②下列句型中常用现在完成时 It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since 从句 This(That / It)is the first(second…)time that + 完成时 This(That / It)is the only … + that + 完成时 This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting … + that 从句 + 完成时 ③在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替一般将来时。如: I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it. If you have done the experiment, you will realize the theory better.

Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. (9)注意几组时态的区别: ①一般过去时与现在完成时:时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用过去时态,不能用完成时 态,如含有 ago、last year、just now、the other day 等。 结果上有差异: 现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果, 动作到现在刚完成或还在继续; 一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去”,和现在毫无关系。 ②过去完成时与一般过去时:过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去”;如出现同一主语连续几个 动作(“连谓”)形式则只用一般过去时即可。 2、被动语态考查要点简述 被动语态的构成方式:be + 过去分词,口语只也有用 get / become + 过去分词表示。被动语 态的基本用法: 不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。 强调或突出动作的承 受者常用被动语态(by 短语有时可以省略)。 (1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。 ①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。 My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday. I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday. ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变);(作补语的)不定式前需加 to。 The boss made him work all day long. He was made to work all day long(by the boss) ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。 The children were taken good care of (by her). Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. ④情态动词和 be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better 等结构变被动语态, 只需将它们后面的动词原形变为 be +过去分词。 ⑤当句子的谓语为 say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report 等时,被动 语态有两种形式:(A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。(B)用 it 作形式主语, 真正的主语在后面用主语在后面用主语从句来表示。如: People say he is a smart boy. It is said that he is a smart boy. He is said to be a smart boy. People know paper was made in China first. It is known that paper was made in China first. Paper was known to be made in China first. 类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that … (2)不能用被动语态的几种情况。 ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于被动语态之中。 ②表示状态的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to 等。 ③表示归属的动词,如 have、own、belong to 等。 ④表示“希望、意图”的动词,如:wish、want、hope、like、love、hate 等。

⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。 ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。 ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有 sell、write、 wash、open、lock 等。 (3)主动形式表被动意义。 ①当 feel、look、smell、taste、sound 等后面接形容词时;当 cut、read、sell、wear、write 等词带状语修饰语时;当动词表示“开始、结束、关、停、转、启动”等意义时。 This kind of cloth washes easily.这种布易洗。 These novels won’t sell well.这些小说不畅销。 My pen writes smoothly.我的钢笔写起来很流畅。 The door won’t lock.门锁不上。 The fish smells good.鱼闻起来香。 ②当 break out、take place、shut off、turn off、work out 等动词表示“发生、关闭、制定”等意 思时。 The plan worked out successfully. The lamps on the wall turn off. ③want, require, need 后面的动名词用主动表示被动含义。 ④be worth doing 用主动形式表示被动含义。 ⑤在“be + 形容词 + to do”中,不定式的逻辑宾语是句子的主语,用主动代被动。 This kind of water isn’t fit to drink. The girl isn’t easy to get along with. 另外:be to blame(受谴责),be to rent(出租)也用主动形式表被动。 (4)被动形式表示主动意义的几种情况。 ①be seated 坐着 He is seated on a bench.(He seats himself on a bench.)坐在凳子上。 ②be hidden 躲藏 He was hidden behind the door. (He hid himself behind the door.)他藏在门后。 ③be lost 迷路 ④be drunk 喝醉 ⑤be dressed 穿着 The girl was dressed in a red short skirt. (5)被动语态与系表结构的区别 被动语态强调动作;系表结构表主语的特点或状态。如: The book was sold by a certain bookstore. (被动语态) The book is well sold. (系表结构 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. Visitors ________not to touch the exhibits. A. will request C.are requesting B.are requested D.request

解析:答案为 B。此题的时态是不难判断的,因为说的是一条规定,所以用一般现在时,而 visitor 与 request 之间是动宾关系,即 request visitors not to touch the exhibits,究竟是谁要求他

们这样做呢?不清楚,也不必知道,因此需要用被动语态。分析 visitors 与 request 之间的关 系是此题的解题关键。 2. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology __________ so rapidly. A. is changing C.will have changed B.has changed D.will change

解析:答案为 A。此题考查现在进行时态的用法。句意为“选择一部移动电话不是一件容易 的事,因为科技发展得十分迅速。”本句的主句一般现在时表达的是目前的情况,而“科技发 展迅速”也是现阶段正存在的一种状态,不是在过去,也不是在将来,因此只能用现在进行 时表达。 3. All the preparations for the task ___________, and we’re ready to start. A. completed C.had been completed B.complete D.have been completed

解析:答案为 D。现在完成时表示过去年做的事对现在的影响。从 and we’re ready to start 句意可知,一切准备工作已经就绪,可以开始工作了。complete 是及物动词,与句子的主语 是被动关系,所以需要用被动语态表达。注意①分清 complete 与主语之间的关系;②结合 语境选择正确时态。 4. My mind wasn’t on what he was saying so I’m afraid I A. was missing B. had missed C. will miss half of it. D. missed

解析:答案为 D。本句考时态和语境。全句意思是;我的心没在他说的话上,所以恐怕他说 的话我有一半没听到。整个事情是过去的事,且是做过的事,所以选一般过去时 D。 5. The discussion A. was coming alive when an interesting topic was brought in. B. had come C. has come D. came

解析:答案为 D。come alive“变得活跃”。照顾时间状语从句时态一致时。 6.—I hear Jane has gone to the Holy Island for her holiday. —Oh, how nice! Do you know when she A. was leaving B. had left C. has left ? D. left

解析:答案为 D。考查动词时态,由现完成时的用法,可知动作发生在过去,故选 D。 第六章 非谓语动词 一、动词不定式 1. 动词不定时的时态和语态 不定时有进行体和完成体,也有被动语态。 主动形式 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进行式 to do to have done to being doing to have been done 被动形式 to be done to have been done

2. 不定式的句法作用 由于动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,所以它在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定 语、状语。 1 ○作主语

To help poor people is our duty。 2 ○作表语 如果要说明动作是谁做的,可以在不定式前加 for 引起的短语,即 for+名词。形式上说是不 定式的主语,即不定式的逻辑主语,以区别于语法上的主语。 It is good for us to take part in physical labor。 某些表示认得品行的形容词(如 kind,good,nice,wrong,careless,wise,foolish,polite, clever,right,unwise,stupid,impolite 等)作表语时,不定式前常可用 of 引起的短语,即 be+形容词+of+名词+不定式。 It is kind of you to repair my bicycle。 3 ○作宾语 I expect to see you tomorrow。 4 ○作定语 I have a lot of work to do 不定式作定语时, 需放在修饰的名词或代词之后, 不定式常和它修饰的词有动宾关系。 因此, 如果这个不定式是不及物的,它后面就应该有必要的介词。 5 ○作宾补 有些动词在宾语之后再带上不定式, 构成不定式的复合结构。 在这种结构中宾语是不定式的 逻辑主语,而不定式充当宾语补足语。在高考中不定式作宾语的基本用法分两种情况: A. 带 to 的不定式在 ask,allow,warn,get,tell,invite,force,beg,wish,等动词后作宾补.例如:ask sb to do sth B. 不带 to 的不定式在主动状态下的感官动词(如 see, hear,watch,notice,等)和使役动词(如 make,let, have 等)后作宾补.例如:I saw her enter the library. 6 ○作状语 A. 表示目的 She uses a computer to write articles. 不定式作目的状语时,常用”so as to/in order to+动词原形”来表示. B.表示结果 What have I said to make you unhappy。 2. 现在分词 现在分词,在句中起到形容词和副词的作用,可以作定语、表语、宾语补足语和状语。 因为现在分词还具有动词的一些特征,它也会有形式上的变化。它的被动,完成及 否定等形式变化如下表: 主动形式 一般式 完成式 1) 作定语 (not)doing (not) having done 现在分词在句中所作成分示例如下: 被动形式 (not) being done (not) having been done

The crying child has a cut on his knee. 正在哭的那个孩子膝盖划伤了。 He is playing with the falling leaves. 他在和落叶玩耍。 The bike being repaired now is mine. 正在修的那辆自行车是我的。 2)作表语 The news is exciting. 这条消息很让人激动。 What he is saying is inspiring. 他的话很振奋人心。 3)作宾语补足语 I caught him cheating. 我抓住他作弊了。 I find the story interesting. 我发现这个故事很有意思。 4)作状语 He sat there, doing nothing. 他坐在那里无所事事。 Arriving at home, he turned on the computer. 他一到家就打开电脑。 Not knowing what to do, he turned to his teacher for help. 因为不知道怎么办,他向老师求助。 Having seen the film before, she decided not to go with his friends. 因为之前看过这部电影,她决定不和朋友一起去了。 Having been told many times, he still couldn’t understand. 跟他讲了好几次,他还是理解不了。 4) 作主语 逻辑主语:当 ing 形式的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致时,要求 ing 形式之前加上物主代词 或名词所有格,这便构成了 ing 形式的复合结构。在口语中,如果 ing 形式的复合结构作宾 语,其中的物主代词常用人称代词宾格,名词所有格常用名词普通格来代替,但在句首作主 语时不能这样代替。 三、过去分词的用法 过去分词的用法 1)过去分词作表语 ) 1. 及物动词的过去分词作表语,与句子主语是被动关系,表示主语的状态,既表示被动, 又表示完成。 (1) The cup is broken. 茶杯破了。 2. 不及物动词的过去分词作表语,与句子主语是主动关系,表示主语的状态,只表示动作 的完成。 (2) He is retired. 他已退休。 3. 有些过去分词作表语时,构成的谓语很接近被动结构。 (3) The city is surrounded on three sides by mountains. 这座城市三面环山。

注意】过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别:过去分词作表语,主要是表示主语的状态,而被 动语态则表示动作。 (1) The cup was broken by my little sister yesterday. 茶杯是昨天我小妹打碎的。 (是被动语态, 表示动作) (2) The library is now closed. 图书馆关门了。(过去分词作表语) 【注意】过去分词表示被动或完成, -ing 形式表示主动或进行。有些动词如 interest, bore, worry, surprise, frighten 等通常用其过去分词形式来修饰人,用 -ing 形式来修饰物。 (3) The book is interesting and I'm interested in it. 这本书很有趣,我对它很感兴趣。 过去分词作定语 作定语用的过去分词相当于形容词,其逻辑主语就是它所修饰的名词。及物动词的过 去分词作定语,既表被动又表完成;不及物动词的过去分词作定语,只表完成。 1. 过去分词用作定语,如果是单个的,常置于其所修饰的名词之前。 We must adapt our thinking to the changed conditions. 我们必须使我们的思想适应改 变了的情况。 2. 过去分词短语用作定语时,一般置于其所修饰的名词之后,其意义相当于一个定语从句, 但较从句简洁,多用于书面语中。 The concert given by their friends was a success.他们朋友举行的音乐会大为成功。 3.过去分词短语有时也可用作非限制性定语,前后常有逗号。 (1)The meeting, attended by over five thousand people, welcomed the great hero. 他们举行了欢 迎英雄的大会,到会的有五千多人。 4. 用来修饰人的过去分词有时可以转移到修饰非人的事物,这种过去分词在形式上虽不直 接修饰人,但它所修饰的事物仍与人直接有关。 (2) The boy looked up with a pleased expression. 男孩带着满意的表情举目而视。 过去分词作状语 1. 过去分词作状语过去分词作状语表示被动的和完成的动作。 (1) Written in a hurry, this article was not so good! 因为写得匆忙,这篇文章不是很 好。 【注意】written 为过去分词作状语,表示这篇文章是被写的,而且已经被写。 值得注 意的是,有些过去分词因来源于系表结构,作状语时不表被动而表主动。这样的过去分词及 短语常见的有: lost (迷路); seated (坐); hidden (躲); stationed (驻扎); lost / absorbed in (沉溺于); born (出身于); dressed in (穿着); tired of (厌烦)。 (2) Lost / Absorbed in deep thought, he didn’t hear the sound.因为沉溺于思考之中, 所以他没听 到那个声音。 2. 过去分词作状语时其逻辑主语为主句的主语,此时应注意人称一致。 (1) Given another hour, I can also work out this problem. 再给我一个小时,我也能解这道题。(given 为过去分词作状语,它的逻辑主语 为主句主语 I ,即 I 被再给一个小时。) (2) Seen from the top of the hill, the city looks more beautiful to us. 从山顶看城市,城市显得更漂亮。(seen 为过去分词作状语,表“被看”,由语 境可知,它的逻辑主语必须是城市,而不是“我们”,因为“我们”应主动看城市。) 【注意】 如果过去分词作状语时, 前面再加逻辑主语, 主句的主语就不再是分词的逻辑主语, 这种带逻辑主语的过去分词结构实际上属于独立主格结构。

(1) The signal given, the bus started. 信号一发出,汽车就开动了。(the signal 是 given 的逻辑主语,因此主句主语 the bus 就不是 given 的逻辑主语。 (2) Her head held high, she went by. 她把头昂得高高地从这儿走了过去。(her head 是 held high 的逻辑主语,因此主句主语 she 就不再是 held high 的逻辑主语。) 3. 过去分词作状语来源于状语从句。 (1) Caught in a heavy rain, he was all wet. caught in a heavy rain.) (2) Grown in rich soil, these seeds can grow fast. 如果种在肥沃的土壤里,这些种子 能长得很快。( grown in rich soil 为过去分词作条件状语,它来源于条件状语从句 If these seeds are grown in rich soil. 【注意】状语从句改成过去分词作状语时有时还可保留连词,构成“连词+过去分词”结构作 状语。 When given a medical examination, you should keep calm. 持镇定。 4. 过去分词作状语的位置。过去分词可放在主句前作句首状语,后面有逗号与主句隔开; 也可放在主句后面,前面有逗号与主句隔开。 He stood there silently, moved to tears. = Moved to tears, he stood there silently. 静静地站在那里,被感动得热泪盈眶。 过去分词作宾语补足语 (一)能够接过去分词作宾补的动词有以下三类: 1. 表示感觉或心理状态的动词。如:see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, feel, notice, think 等。 (1) I heard the song sung in English. 我听到有人用英语唱过这首歌。(过去分词 sung 的动作显然先于谓语动作 heard;) (2) He found his hometown greatly changed. 他发现他的家乡变化很大。(过去分词 changed 的动作显然先于谓语动作 found) 2. 表示“致使”意义的动词。如:have, make, get, keep, leave 等。 (1) I’ll have my hair cut tomorrow. 明天我要理发 【注意】过去分词所表示的动作一定和宾语有逻辑上的动宾关系。 二)使役动词 have 接过去分词作宾补有两种情况。 1. 过去分词所表示的动作由他人完成。 (1) He had his money stolen.他的钱给偷了。(被别人偷去了) 2. 过去分词所表示的动作由句中的主语所经历。如: (2) He had his leg broken.他的腿断了。 “with +宾语+过去分词”结构 “with +宾语+过去分词”结构中, 过去分词用作介词 with 的宾语补足语。 这一结构通 常在句中作时间、方式、条件、原因等状语。例如: The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back. 凶手被带进来了, 他的 双手被绑在背后。(表方式) 过去分词作状语,一是表被动的动作,二是表动作已经完成。通常作如下几种状语: 1. When it is seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful (自己的经历) 他 当你做体格检查时要保 因为淋了一场大雨,所以他全身湿透了。 (caught in a heavy rain 为过去分词短语作原因状语,它来源于原因状语从句 Because he was

Seen from the hill 1. 时间状语, 可在过去分词前加上连词 when, while, until 等 2. Don’t speak until you are spoken to. Until spoken to 2.原因状语 Because the boy was greatly touched by his teacher’s words, he did a lot of things to help his classmates. Greatly touched by the teacher’s words As he was surprised at what happened, Tom didn’t know what to do 英语主动形式表被动意义的几种情况 1.表示被动含义的主动动词? 1)系动词 taste ,sound ,look, smell, feel , shut , open , act 等, Your reason sounds reasonable.?? 2)一些与 can’t 或 won’t, wouldn’t 连用的动词。常用的有: lock The door won’t/ wouldn’t open. ? 3) sell, wash , clean , burn , cook 等, 与 well(很), easily(容易地), perfectly(十分地)等连用 , The book sells well.? 2.表示被动含义的主动结构? 1)动名词 be worth , want ( 需要), need(需要), require(需要) 后所用的动名词,必须用主动结构表示被动意义,例如:? Your hair wants/needs cutting = Your hair needs to be cut 2)不定式? 1.主语+be+形容词+不定式”句型中, 形容词 easy、 difficult、 heavy、 hard、 nice、 bitter、 dangerous、 interesting、 important、 expensive、 comfortable、pleasant、impossible 句中的主语又是不定式的逻辑宾语时,通常用不定式主动形式表示被动意义 ,例如:? That question is difficult to answer.? 2.当不定式所修饰的名词或代词是动词的宾语, 而句子的主语也是不定式的逻辑主语时。:? He bought some magazines to read. ? 3.当不定式所修饰的名词或代词, 是及物动词的直接宾语, 而间接宾语是不定式的逻辑主语 时。 The teacher gave the students some paper to write on . 4.当不定式所修饰的名词或代词,是“there be…. ”结构句中的主语时 ( 此处用主动或被动 式,一般说来无意义上的不同 ) 。 如: There are many problems to work out . ( to be worked out ) 3)特殊结构? ①“be + under +名词”结构:这种结构表示某事“在进行中”。例如:? The building is under construction.? 经常这样用的名词还有 repair(修理), treatment(治疗), question(质问)等。 第七章 情态动词

一、 情态动词的基本用法 情态动词有 can(could),may(might),must(must),have to(had to),shall(should),will(would),need(need),dare(dared),ought to.情态动词无人称和数的变化, 不能独立使用。它与其后面的动词原形构成谓语。情态动词的具体用法如下: 1. must 与 have to 的区别 (1) 强调重点不同:两者都表示“必须”,但 must 侧重于说话者的主观看法,认为有必 要或有义务去做某事;have to 则重于客观需要,含有“不得不”或“被迫”之意。 (2) 时态形式不同: 一般说来, must 只有现在时一种形式(在宾语从句中可以表示过去), 而 have to 则有多种时态形式。 (3) have to 可以有分词、动名词、不定式等形式,而 must 则没有这些形式。如: I regret to have to trouble you again. 我很抱歉不得不再麻烦你一次。 I only saw her in the evening, having to be away all day. 我因整天得外出,所以只 能晚上见到她。 (4) 否定式的含义不同:must 的否定式 mustn’t 意为“不准”“不允许”;而 have to 的 否定式 don’t have to 意为“不必”(= needn’t)。 2. can 与 be able to 的区别 (1) be able to 可用将来时态表示某人将来才具备的能力,而 can 不能用于将来时态。 但若表示现在决定将来是否有能力做某事,可用 can。如: I can finish the article tomorrow. 我可以在明天写完这篇文章。 (2) be able to 的过去式可表示某人过去某种具体的能力(即在某一具体场合做某事的 能力,往往暗示经过努力才具备的能力),但此时不能用 could)。如: He worked very hard and was able to pass his examinations. 他学习很努力,所以考 试及了格。 注:在否定句中 was (were) able to 可用 couldn’t 代替。如: He worked very hard but wasn’t able to [couldn’t] pass his examinations. 他学习很 努力,但考试却未能及格。www.nmet168.com (3) be able to 不仅有多种时态形式(通常不用于进行时或与 be going to 连用),而且 还可以与某些情态动词连用 (通常不与 can 连用),甚至还可以有非谓语形式。如: He has not been able to go to school for a week. 他已有一周不能上学了。 You might be able to persuade him. 你也许能够说服他。 I hope to be able to do the work. 我希望能干得了这项工作。 I regret not being able to help her. 我很遗憾未能帮助她。 3. can’t 与 may not 的用法区别 (1) can’t 有两个意思: 它若表示能力, can’t 意为“不能”; 它若表示推测, can’t 表示“不 可能”。如: I can’t finish it in time. 我不能按时完成。 He can’t be so rich. 他不可能那么富有。 (2) may not 也有两个意思:它若表示许可,may not 表示“不许可”“不可以”;它若表 示推测,may not 表示“可能不”。如: Visitors may not feed the animals. 参观者不得给动物喂食。 He may not be able to help but there’s no harm in asking him. 他可能帮不了忙,但 是求他一下倒也无妨。 二、掌握情态动词的推测用法 温馨提醒:情态动词的推测用法是高考英语情态动词中最重要的考点,根据近年来各省 市的考试情况来看,约有 70%的情态动词考题涉及此考点。 1. can / could 用于表推测的用法

(1) 从使用句型上看,can 通常只用于否定句或疑问句,一般不用于肯定句,而 could 可用于肯定句、否定句和疑问句。两者没有时间上的差别,只是 could 比 can 更委婉,更 不确定。如: It can’t [couldn’t] be true. 那不可能是真的。 What can [could] they be doing? 他们会在干什么呢? We could go there this summer. 今年夏天我们可能要去那儿。www.nmet168.com 注:can 有时也用于肯定句中表示推测,主要用于表示理论上的可能性(即从理论上看 是可能的,但实际未必会发生),或表示“有时”之意。如: Even experienced teachers can make mistakes. 即使是有经验的教师也可能出错。 She can be very unpleasant. 她有时很令人讨厌。 (2) 从时间关系看,对现在或将来情况作推测,后接动词原形;对正在进行的情况作推 测,后接 be doing 结构;对过去情况作推测,后接动词完成式。如:www.nmet168.com He could have gone home. 他可能已经回家了。 He can’t [couldn’t] have understood. 他不可能理解了。 Why does he know this? Can [Could] someone have told him about it? 他怎么知道? 会是哪个人告诉他了吗? (3) “could+完成式”除表示对过去的推测外,还有以下重要用法: ① 表示过去没有实现的可能性,常译为“本来可以”。如: I could have lent you the money.Why didn’t you ask me? 我本来可以借这笔钱给你 的。你为什么不向我提出? ② 用来委婉地责备某人过去应该做某事而没有去做,常译为“本来应该”。如: You could have helped him. 你本来应该帮助他的。 ③ 表示“差点儿就要”。如: I could have died laughing. 我差点儿笑死了。 2. may / might 用于表推测的用法 表示推测,两者都可用,只是 might 比 may 语气更不确定,表示的可能性更小。 (1) 在句型使用方面:两者均可用于肯定句和否定句,但用于疑问句时,may 通常不用 于句首, 但可用于疑问句的句中 (如特殊疑问句等) ,而 might 尽管可以用于疑问句的句首, 但不算普通,通常会改用其他句式(如用 could 等)。如: He may [might] know the answer. 他可能知道答案。 He may [might] not believe you. 他可能不会相信你。 And who may [might] she be? 那么她会是哪一位呢? (2) 从时间关系看,对现在或将来情况作推测,后接动词原形;对正在进行的情况作推 测,后接 be doing 结构;对过去情况作推测,后接动词完成式。如:www.nmet168.com He may [might] tell his wife. 他也许会告诉他妻子。 He may [might] be writing a letter. 他可能在写信。 She may [might] have read it in the papers. 她可能在报上已读到过此事。 www.nmet168.com (3)“might+完成式”除表示对过去的推测外,还有以下重要用法: ① 表示过去某事可能发生而实际上却并没发生。如: It was really very dangerous. I might have killed myself. 那真的是太危险了,我差点 没命了。 A lot of men died who might have been saved.很多人本来可以获救的却死了。 ② 表示委婉的批评或责备。如: You might have made greater progress. 你的进步本来可更大一些的。 You might at least have answered my letter. 你至少可以回我一封信嘛。 3. must 表示推测的用法

must 表示很有把握的推测,其意为“一定会”“肯定会”,只用于肯定句,一般不用于否 定句或疑问句。表示对现在或未来的情况作推测,后接动词原形;表示对过去情况的推测, 接动词完成式。如: I must be the happiest woman on earth! 我一定是世界上最幸福的女人了。 No, he must be lying. 不,他一定在撒谎。 He must have mistaken my meaning. 他一定误会了我的意思。 4. should have done 的用法 should have done 只用于谈论过去情况,主要有两个用法:一是用于推测过去已经发生 的情况,二是用于指本该发生而实际上未发生的情况。如: You should have told me so before. 你早就应该告诉我。 He should have arrived by now. 此时他本该到了。 Look at the time! We should have been at the theatre ten minutes ago. 瞧都什么时 候了! 十分钟前我们就该到戏院了。 5. need have done 的用法 need have done 结构主要用于否定句或疑问句,一般不用于肯定句。用于否定句时,表 示本来不必做某事, 但实际上却做了; 用于疑问句时, 用于询问某一过去动作的必要性。 如: You needn’t have hurried. 你当时实在不必那么匆忙。 She needn’t have come in person — a letter would have been enough. 她本不必亲自 来——写封信来就足够了。www.nmet168.com Need you have paid so much? 你当时真须要付那么多钱吗? Need they have sold the farm? 他们那时非得把农场卖掉不可吗? 三、掌握情态动词的做题技巧 温馨提示:以下为你介绍三条做情态动词题的技巧,你若能认真领会,真正掌握,那么 你就不会在情态动词方面丢分了。 1. 充分利用句子语境。综观历年高考英语情态动词的考查情况,有相当一部分考题从 本质上看都是在考查情态动词在具体语境中的运用, 即只要考生能弄清各个被考查情态动词 的意思,就可作出正确选择。如: (1) Helen ______ go on the trip with us, but she isn’t quite sure yet. (2005 安徽卷) A. shall B. must C. may D. canwww.nmet168.com 分析:答案选 C。由于下文说“她还没有把握”,所以前文要用 may 表示没有把握的肯定 推测,即“可能会与我们去旅行”。 (2) —I’ve taken someone else’s green sweater by mistake. —It ______ Harry’s. He always wears green. (2005 广东卷) A. has to be B. will be C. mustn’t be D. could be 分析:答案选 D。后文说“他总是穿绿色衣服”,据此语境可推知,这件衣“可能是”哈利 的,could 表示可能性。 (3) —Do you know where David is? I couldn’t find him anywhere. —Well. He _____have gone far—his coat’s still here. (2005 湖北卷) A. shouldn’t B. mustn’t C. can’t D. wouldn’t 分析:答案选 C。后文说“他的外套还在这里”,据此语境可知“他不可能走远了”,故选 can’t。 (4) He paid for a seat, when he _____ have entered free. (2005 山东卷) A. could B. would C. must D. need 分析:答案选 A。could have done 的意思是“本来可以做某事”。句子语境为“虽然他本 来能够免费入场,但他买了票”。 (5) —Lucy doesn’t mind lending you her dictionary. —She ______. I’ve already borrowed one. (2005 湖南卷)

A. can’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 分析:答案选 C。既然“我已经借了一本”,所以“她就没有必要借给我了”。needn’t 在此 表示“不必”。 2.根据时间确定时态。即要分清情态动词表推测时涉及的是现在情况还是过去情况。原 则上说, 若对现在情况进行推测, 情态动词后接动词原形或进行式; 若对过去情况进行推测, 则后接动词的完成式(这通常是高考的重点);若是对正在发生的情况进行推测,后接动词的 进行式。如:www.nmet168.com (1) —Catherine, I have cleaned the room for you. —Thanks. You _____it. I could manage it myself. (2005 福建卷) A. needn’t do B. needn’t have done C. mustn’t do D. shouldn’t have done 分析:答案选 B。句子的语境是:“我自己能做”,所以“你本不必做的”。选 A 还是 B 呢?根据前面一句中的 have cleaned 可知,动作已经发生,所以此处谈论的是一个过去情 况,故选 needn’t have done。 (2) This cake is very sweet. You ______ a lot of sugar in it. (2005 辽宁卷) A. should put B. could have put C. might put D. must have put 分析:答案选 D。前文说“蛋糕很甜”,下文的语境显然应该是“你一定是在里面放了很 多糖”,故用“must+完成式”表示对过去情况的肯定推测。 (3) —The woman biologist stayed in Africa studying wild animals for 13 years befor e she returned. — Oh, dear! She ______ a lot of difficulties! (2005 江苏卷) A. may go through B. might go through C. ought to have gone through D. must have gone through 分析:答案选 D。由上文的 stayed 可知,此题是对过去情况有把握的肯定推测。句意为 “那个女生物学家呆在非洲研究野生动物 13 年才回来。”“天啊!她一定经历了不少苦难!” 3.注意分清适用句型。即要分清所考查的情态动词是用于肯定句型,还是用于疑问句型 或否定句型,同时还要注意情态动词在某些特殊情况下所使用的特殊句型。如:www.nmet 168.com The World Wide Web is sometimes jokingly called the World Wide Wait because it _____be very slow. (2005 浙江卷) A. should B. must C. will D. can 分析:答案选 D。在通常情况下,情态动词 can 表示推测时,只用于否定句和疑问句, 不用于肯定句,但有一种特殊情况就是它可以用于肯定句中表理论上的推测或表示“有时” 之意,而此题考查的正是 can 表示“有时”的用法。 第八章 虚拟语气 高考中主要考查虚拟语气表示非真实条件句的用法。 引导的表示“如果”含义的状语从 If 句是典型的条件状语从句, 分为真实条件句和非真实条件句两种: 真实条件句表达一个 可能实现的条件;非真实条件句表达一个可能实现或很难实现的条件。 1. 表示现在/过去/将来情况的虚拟条件句 虚拟条件句主要有三种结构: 1) 表示与现在情况相反:主句谓语用“would / could / might +动词原形”,从句谓 语用“动词的一般过去时”(动词 be 的过去式一律用 were)。 If I were you, I would not accept his offer. If I had time, I would certainly go to the cinema with you. 2) 表示与过去情况相反:主句谓语用“would / could / might + have +过去分词”,从 句谓语用过去完成时。

If I had got up a little earlier, I wouldn’t have missed the train. If I had been more careful, I might have passed that exam. 3) 表示与将来情况相反:主句谓语用“would / could / might +动词原形”,从句谓语 用“were +动词不定式”或“should +动词原形”。 If I were to do the job, I would not be able to have enough time to study. If it should rain tomorrow, I would not go out with you. 2. 虚拟条件句连接词 if 的省略 如果虚拟条件句的从句中含有 were, had, should, could 等词时,可以省略连接词 if, 但这时必须把 were, had, should, could 等词移到主语前面,形成倒装。这种句型主要用 于书面形式。 Were I to do the job, I would finish doing it within two weeks. Had it not been for his help, we couldn’t have arrived there on time. Should it rain tomorrow, I would stay at home. 3. wish 后宾语从句中的谓语构成 动词 wish 后的宾语从句表示未实现的或不可能实现的愿望,其宾语从句中的谓语 动词要用虚拟语气,有以下三种构成形式。 1) 表示现在不可能实现的愿望,宾语从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时。(be 的过 去式为 were)。 I wish I had enough money to buy a car. I wish I were as young and energetic as you. 2) 表示过去未能实现的愿望,宾语从句中的谓语动词用过去完成时(had +过去分 词)或“would / could + have +过去分词 ”。 I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake. I wish I could have done it better. 3) 表示将来不可能实现的愿望,宾语从句中的谓语动词用“would / should (could, might) +动词原形”。 I wish I would not get old. I wish I could travel around the world one day. 4. 某些动词后的宾语从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语气 在一些动词后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟语气。这时,谓语动词用动词原 形或 should +动词原形。这类动词一般表示命令,要求,决定,建议,主张等概念,主 要有:advise, ask, command, decide, demand, desire, direct, insist, move, order, propose, recommend, request, require, suggest,等。 The workers demanded that their wages (should) be raised by 10 per cent. The teacher decided that you do the experiment first. 5. 某些名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语气 在一些名词后面的表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟语气。这时,谓语 动词用动词原形或 should +动词原形。这类名词一般表示命令,要求,决定,建议,主

张等概念,主要有:advice, idea, instruction, motion, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion,等。 My suggestion is that we (should) send for a doctor immediately. He gave the order that they (should) do the experiment again. 6. 错综时间条件句 条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动作,有时发生的时间是不一致的.如从句是对 过去情况的假设,而主句可能是对现在正在进行情况的假设。 这种句子称为错综时间 条件句. If the weather had been more favourable, the crops would be growing still better. 7. 某些主语从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟语气 某些表示命令,要求,决定,建议,主张以及“重要性”和“紧迫性”等概念的主语从 句中谓语动词要用虚拟语气。这时,谓语动词用动词原形或 should +动词原形。这类主 语从句一般由 “It is (was) + 形容词/过去分词 + that 引导的从句”构成。该结构中,常 用的形容词主要有:advisable, appropriate, desirable, essential, imperative, important, necessary, obligatory, proper, urgent, vital 等;常用的过去分词主要有:arranged, decided, demanded, desired, ordered, proposed, recommended, requested, suggested 等。 It is necessary that you (should) stop smoking so heavily. It is arranged that you (should) enter for this competition. 8. as if / though 引起的从句 当 as if / though 引起的从句所表达的内容完全与实际情况相反或者纯粹是一种假设 时,通常要用虚拟语气。如果从句表示与现在的事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时;如 果从句表示与过去的事实相反,谓语动词用过去完成时;如果从句表示与将来的事实相 反,谓语动词用 would (might, could) + 动词原形; They talked as if they had been friends for years. I remember the whole thing as if it happened yesterday. It looks as if it might rain. Note: 如果 as if / though 引起的从句所表达的内容被看作是事实或者有可能是真实 的,则要用陈述语气。 It seems as if it is going to rain. The meat tastes as if it has already gone bad. 9. lest, for fear that 和 in case 引起的从句 当 lest, for fear that 和 in case 表示“以免,以防,生怕,惟恐”等时,在它们引起的 从句中,谓语动词常用 should + 动词原形。 He ran away lest he should be seen. He’s working hard for fear that he should fall behind. He left early in case he should miss the last train.

10. If only 引出的从句 If only 引出的从句用以表达感叹性的愿望,常译为“要是…就好了”。If only 从句经 常省略结果主句,且主要用在虚拟语气中,即从句的谓语动词用一般过去时表示现在或 将来不可能实现的愿望,或用过去完成时表示过去没有实现的愿望。 If only the rain would stop. If only I’d listened to my parents. Note: if only 引出的句子偶尔也可使用陈述语气,但考生须注意的是,在各类测试 中一般都以用虚拟语气为正确答案。 11. would rather(that)引出的从句 would rather 意为“宁愿”,接从句时常省略关系代词 that。would rather 后的从句要 用虚拟语气,即从句谓语动词用一般过去时表示现在或将来的愿望,用过去完成时表示 与过去事实相反的愿望。 I’d rather you told me the truth. I would rather you came tomorrow than today. I’d rather you hadn’t told me about it. 12. It is (about/high) time (that) 句型 该句型表示“(早)该做…”,其后的定语从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟语气表示。在 测试中从句的谓语动词用一般过去时。 It is time that we went to bed. It is high time that somebody taught you to behave yourself. 13. 表示猜测的几种不同的方法及意义 一些情态动词与动词的完成式连用能够表示对过去情况的猜测或者未实现的可能 性。 1) could have + 过去分词 A. 表示对过去可能发生的事情的推测,意为,“可能做了某事”。 He couldn’t have seen her yesterday. They could have lost their way. B. 表示某事在过去本有可能发生,但事实上并未发生,意为,“本可以做某事”。 We could have started a little earlier. I could have killed her. It was a narrow escape. 2) may (might) have + 过去分词 A. 表示对过去情况的推测,意为,“可能已做某事”。 He may have heard the news. I might have come to a wrong conclusion. B. 表示一种未实现的可能性,即本可以做某事,而实际上并没有做,有时含有抱 怨的口吻。 It was a narrow escape. You might have killed yourself. A lot of men died who might have been saved.

3) must have + 过去分词 表示逻辑上的必然性,即按照某些现象推断过去肯定发生过的某事。 She must have made a big mistake. The city at one time must have been prosperous, for it enjoyed a high level of civilization. 4) needn’t have + 过去分词 表示过去不必做某事,但已经做了,即本可不必做某事。 You needn’t have woken me up. I don’t have to go to work today. He needn’t have watered the flowers, for it is going to rain. 5) should / ought to have + 过去分词 表示过去应该做某事而实际上没有做。 You should / ought to have done what your parents told you. (But you failed to do it.) You should / ought to have been more careful. (But you weren’t.) 6) shouldn’t / oughtn’t to have + 过去分词 表示过去不应该做某事而实际上却做了。 You shouldn’t / oughtn’t to have crossed the road when the lights were red. (But you did.) They shouldn’t / oughtn’t to have left so soon. (But they did.) 7) would have + 过去分词 表示对现在或将来某时之前业已完成的动作的推测。可译为,“可能”、“也许”、“想 必”。 He would have arrived by now. She would have recovered by then. 第九章 定语从句 考点一 、as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句修饰主句 as 和 which 都可以引导非限定性定语从句; 关系代词都可指代前面的整个句子, 都可以 在定语从句中作主语、宾语或表语。其区别是: (1)、as 非限定性定语从句可以放在主句之前,亦可放在主句之后,甚至还可 以分割主句;而 which 从句只位于主句后。 (2)、as 引导此种从句时意思是:正如,像……一样;而此时 which 无具体意义,只 翻译成:这。 请看下面几道题目: 1、They have won their last three matches ,__________I find a bit surprising actually.(2009 年辽宁卷) A. that B. when C. where D. which 选 D。 which 引导的非限定性定语从句,用作 find 的宾语,指代前面整个句子。 2、My friend showed me round the town ,________was kind of him.(2009 年全国 Π 卷) A. which B. that C. where D. it 选 A。 which 作主语,指代前面整个句子.

常见于 as 非限制性定语从句句型有:as is (well) known to, as we all can see, as you all know ,as is often the case(像往常一样)as often happens,(正如经常所发生的)as is said reported/ has been said above(如上所述), as sb pointed out(正如 sb 所指出的) 考点二、whose 引导的定语从句 关系代词 whose 在定语从句中用作名词的定语,指代人(=of whom)或物(=of which).whose+名词引导定语从句时,可换成“the+名词 of whom/which”或“of whom/which+the+名词”。例: 1) Many children, ______parents are away working in big cities, are taken good care of in the village.(2009 年安徽卷) A. their B. whose C. of them D. with whom 选 B。whose 用作 parents 的定语。 2)Look out!Do not get too close the house _______roof is under repair.(2006 福建卷) A. whose B. which C. of which D. that 选 A。关系词做从句的定语。 考点三、介词+关系代词引导的定语从句 “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句常见于正式语体。能做介词宾语的关系代词只用 whom(指人)和 which(指物)有时也用 whose,而不能用 that。请看下面几道题目: 1、Gun control is a subject ______Americans have argued for a long time.(2009 年陕西卷) A. of which B. with which C.about which D.into which 选 C。Which 指代前面的 a subject.根据定语从句中谓语动词 argue 的固定搭配,argue about sth with sb 2、She brought with her three friends, none of ______I had ever met before.(2009 年全国Ⅰ 卷) A. them B. who C. whom D. these 选 C. whom 指代 three friend, 应有介词 of . 所以应选 C. 介词的选择主要取决于上下文,依据下列几点: 1、看介词和定语从句中谓语动词的习惯搭配,如: We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us, _________we gave some bells and glasses.((2006 年湖南卷) A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which 选 B. 根据宾语从句中 give sth to sb. 2、看介词和前面先行词的习惯搭配,如: By nine o’clock , all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, _______appeared a rare rainbow soon.(2008 年福建卷) A. of which B. on which C. from which D. above which 选 D. 指在 Mount Qomolangma 山上出现了美丽的彩虹,在…上面。应选 above which. 3、看介词与定语从句中的形容词的固定搭配。如: Her son,__________she had been devoted, was living abroad. A. whom B. to whom C. in whom D. who 选 B. 根据定语从句 be devoted to sb/sth 考点四、关系副词引导的定语从句

1、关系副词 when where why 在定语从句中分别表示时间、地点及原因。when=介 词 (in/at/on…) +which,指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语, 修饰表时间的先行词。 where =介词(in/at/from)+which,指地点,修饰表示地点的先行词,在定语从句中作地点状 语。why=for which.指原因,修饰名词 reason.在定语从句中作原因状语。请看下面几道 题: 1) Because of the financial crisis, days are gone_______local 5-star hotels charged 6,000yuan for one night.(2009 年江西卷) A. if B. when C. which D.since 选 B. 关系副词 when 引导的定语从句修饰先行词 days.when 在句中作状语。 2)It is helpful to put children in a situation_______they can see themselves differently.(2009 年福建卷) A. that B. when C. which D. where 选 D. 关系副词 where 引导的定语从句修饰先行词 situation,where 在从句中作状语。 注意:特殊的先行词。某些表示时间或者地点,场所的特殊的先行词是高考定语从句考 查的焦点。此外,where 也可用来引导先行词为模糊地点名词的定语从句。如: 例、Occasions are quite rare ________I have the time to spend a day with the kids.A. who B. which C. why. D. when which,故选 when. 2、表时间、地点的名词后关系词的选用 先行词为表时间、地点的名词时,如果关系词在定语从句中作主语或宾语,就要用关系 代词 which/that.根据关系代词在定语从句中的成分来确定关系词;如果关系词在定语从 句中作状语,就要选用关系副词 when/where。如: I will remember the days__________we spent together in summer holiday. 关系词作 spent 的宾语,从句应是 we spent the days together in …故选 that/which。 I will remember the day________I joined the army. 关系词在从句中作状语,I joined the army on the day. 故选 when/on which。 考点五、That 引导定语从句与同位语从句或强调句型的区别:that 引导的定语从句,在 句中作主语(不可省略),作宾语(可省略)或表语(不可省略),且 that 定语从句对 先行词起修饰限制之作用;that 引导同位语从句时只起引导作用,不作句子成分,且从 句是补充说明前面的抽象名词。 1、News came from the school office_______Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University. A. which (2009 年四川卷) B. what C. what D. where 选 D. 在定语从句中关系词作状语,等于 on

选 C。that 引导的同位语从句进一步说明 news 的内容。Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University, that 只起引导词的作用,但不可省略。 第十章 状语从句 一、高考状语从句考查重点 1 从属连词的选择;2 同类状语从句中连词的辨析。 二、从属连词的选用 1. 根据从句与主句的逻辑关系选用从属连词; 2. 根据从属连词的词义。

三、分类:状语从句按其作用可分为九类。 1.时间状语从句 常见的从属连词有:(注意其汉语意义) when, while, as, before, after, since, until (till) once as soon as, the moment, the minute, immediately, directly, each/every time, the first time, the last time, next time, by the time, whenever 等。例如: Every/Each time I was in trouble, he would come to my help. I thought her nice and honest the first time I met her. 注意: (1)when, while, as 的区别: 1)when 引导从句时,主从句的动作有先有后,也可以同时进行,从句的动作可以是持续 性的,也可以是短暂的。如: When I got to the airport, the plane had already taken off. (主先从后) (短暂性) When I lived there, I used to go to the seaside on Sundays. (同时) (持续性) When the movie ended, the people went back. (从先主后) 2)while 侧重主从句动作的对比,且从句的动词必须是持续性的。如: While we were chatting she was looking at the time table on the wall. 3)as 引导从句时侧重主从句动作同时或几乎同时进行,从句的动作可以是持续性的,也 可以是短暂的。如: Sometimes I watch TV as I am having breakfast. 4)when 和 while 还可以是并列连词,意思分别是“就在这时”,“然而”。如: I was having a rest on the sofa when the telephone rang. They were surprised that a child should work out the problem while they couldn’t . 注:并列连词 when 常用与以下句型中: ①…was/were doing…when…(正在做…突然) ②…was/were about to do…when…(刚要做…突然) ③…was/were on the point of doing…when…(刚要做…突然) ④…had just done…when….(刚一…就) ⑤Hardly/Scarcely had…done…when…(刚一…就) (2)before 引导从句时,词义非常灵活,注意下列句子中的 before 的词义: 1.Before I could get in a word, the tailor had measured me.(还没来得及…就) 2.We hadn’t run a mile before he felt tired.(还没…就) 3.We had sailed 4 days before we saw land.(…才…) 4.Please write it down before you forget it.(趁还…没就) (3)till (until) 和 not…till (until) 1) till (until):主句谓语动词必须是持续性的,意思是“到…为止“如: He remained there till/until she arrived. 2) not…till (until)…: 主句谓语动词必须是短暂性的,意思是“直到…才”如: She won’t go to bed till/until he returns home. 3) not…until 还有强调式和倒装式: 强调句:It is not until he returns home that she will go to bed. 倒装句:Not until he returns home will she go to bed. (4)几个极易混淆的时间状语从句: 1) It was +时间点+when…(当的时候时间是) It was 5 am when we arrived at the village. 2) It was/will be+时间段+before…(没过…就/过了…才)

It was/will be two weeks before we met/meet again. 3) It is /has been +时间段+since…(自从…以来有…) It is/has been 3 years since we last met. 突破点:一看 be 动词的时态,二看时间段还是时间点。 注意:在“It is /has been +时间段+since…”句型中,从句的动词必须是短暂性的,如 果是延续性的动词,时间要从从句的动作结束时算起。如: It is 3 years since I smoked.( 我戒烟有三年了) 2.条件状语从句 常见的从属连词有: if, unless, as/so long as , as/so far as, on condition that , in case(万一) , the more…, the more…等。如: As/So far as I can see ( am concerned), it will be impossible for them to finish the task. The more books you read, the happier you will feel.(前面为从句) 3.原因状语从句 常见的从属连词有: because, since, now that , as 等。 注意 because, since, as 的区别: 1)why 的语气最强,它引导的从句比主句更重要,从句的位置可前可后;例外回答 why 的问句必须使用 because。如: -Why were you absent from the meeting yesterday?-Because I was ill. 2)since 和 now that 意思是“既然”,语气仅次于 because,从句的位置一般在前。如: Since everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting. 3)as 的语气比 since 更弱,意思是“由于”, 从句的位置可前可后。如: As you didn’t turn up at yesterday’s get-together, we missed you very much. 4)*for 也有“因为”之意,但 for 是并列连词常用来来补充说明原因或用来表示推断的 依据,前面常带逗号。如: It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 4.让步状语从句 常见的从属连词有: though, although, as, even if / though, no matter wh-, wh-ever, whether…or…等。如: However late/No matter how late he is, his family will wait for him to have dinner together. Child as he is, he knows a lot. (as 引导的让步状语从句必须倒装) Whether it is fine or not, I will go boating. 5.地点状语从句 常见的从属连词有: *where, wherever 等。如: Put the book where it is. 6.比较状语从句 常见的从属连词有: *as…as, *not so (as)…as, *than 等。 注意:(1)在表达倍数时,可用三种句型: 1)A…+倍数+比较级+than B 如: This building is twice taller than that one. 2)A…+倍数+as 原级 as+B 如: This building is three times as tall as that one. 3)A…+倍数+the size(height, weight, length etc.) +of B 如: This building is three times the size of that one. (2) 三种句型变式: 1)倍数+more+名词+than

2)*倍数+as many/much +名词+as Americans eat more than twice as many vegetables per person today as they did in 1910. It is reported that the United States uses twice as much energy as the whole of Europe. 7.方式状语从句 常见的从属连词有: as , as if / though 等. 注意:as if / though 引导的从句常用虚拟语气,表示非真实情况. He talks about the moon as if he had been there.(从句动作先发生) She treated the boy as if he were/was her own child.(主从句动作同时发生) 8.目的状语从句 常见的从属连词有: so that, that, in order that,in case (以免), for fear that 等。 如:Most students go to college (so) that they can be engineers, teachers or chemists. 注意:从句中的情态动词 can, could, may, might 等提示为目的状语从句. 9.结果状语从句 常见的从属连词有: so…that, such…that , so that 等。如: He earned so little money that he couldn’t support his family. It is such fine weather that we all want to go to the park. Tom studied very hard so that he passed the exam. 三、用法灵活的 as, when, while 引导的状语从句 1. as 可以引导时间、原因、让步、比较和方式等 5 种状语从句。 2. when 可以引导时间、条件和原因等 3 种状语从句。 How can we explain it to you when(=if) you won't listen. It was foolish of you to take a taxi when you could easily walk there in 5 minutes 3. while 可以引导时间、让步、条件和原因等 4 种状语从句。 While(=Though) I like the color of the hat, I don’t like its shape. While(=As long as) there is life there is hope. --I’m going to the post office. –While(=Since) you are there, can you get me some stamps? 四、状语从句的省略 当时间、条件、让步、方式和比较状语从句的主语与主句一致或为 it 或 there 且谓 语动词含 be 动词时,从句中的主语和谓语可以一起省去。例如: Don’t speak until spoken to.( 省略了 you are) I have no money. If any, I will lend you some. ( 省略了 there is) Though cold, he still wore a shirt. ( 省略了 it was) Some flowers shut up at night as if to sleep. ( 省略了 they were) 五、状语从句与定语从句的转换 1)Make marks where you have questions.(地点状语从句) →Make marks at the places where you have questions.(定语从句) 2)It is such an advanced theory that few people understand it.(结果状语从句) →It is such an advanced theory as few people understand.(定语从句) 第十一 第十一章 名词性从句 一、引导名词性从句的连接词 分类 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:

连词(5 个):that(无意义,不可省,不充当任何成分) whether, if(均表示“是否”表明从句内容的不确定性) as if ,as though(均表示“好像”,“似乎”) 以上在从句中均不充当任何成分 连接代词(9 个):what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, whichever 连接副词(7 个):when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however 不可省略的连词: 1. 介词后的连词 2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。 That she was chosen made us very happy. We heard the news that our team had won. 比较 whether 与 if 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,只可用 whether: 1. whether 引导主语从句并在句首 2. 引导表语从句 3. whether 从句作介词宾语 4. 从句后有"or not" 5. 引导同位语从句 Whether he will come is not clear. 大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it 充当形式主语。 It is not important who will go. It is still unknown which team will win the match. 二. 主语从句 作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。主语从句通常由从属连词 that,whether,if 和连接 代词 what,who,which,whatever,whoever 以及连接副词 how,when,where,why 等词引导。that 在句中无词义,只起连接作用;连接代词和连接副词在句中既保留自己 的疑问含义、又起连接作用,在从句中充当从句的成分。例如: What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。 Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。 It is known to us how he became a writer. 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。 Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪 里举行,还没有宣布。 有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用形式主语 it 代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首, 而把主语从句置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下: (1) It + be + 名词 + that 从句 (2)It + be + 形容词 + that 从句 (3)It + be + 动词的过去分词 + that 从句 (4)It + 不及物动词 + that 从句 另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词 要用虚拟语气“(should) +do”,常用的句型有: It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that …

It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that… 三、宾语从句 名词从句用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。 引导宾语从句的关联词与引导主语从句表语 从句的关联词大致一样,在句中可以作谓语动词或介词及非谓语动词的宾语。 1. 由连接词 that 引导的宾语从句 由连接词 that 引导宾语从句时,that 在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文 体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的 that 不可省。例如: He has told me that he will go to Shanghai tomorrow. 他已经告诉我他明天要去上海。 We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。 注意:在 demand、order、suggest、decide、insist, desire, request, command, doubt 等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+ 动词原 形”。例如: I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。 The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令员命令部队马上出 发。 2. 用 who,whom, which, whose, what, when, where, why, how, whoever, whatever, whichever 等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句, 应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。 例如: I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。 She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。 She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情 的支持。 3. 用 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句,其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒,仍保持陈 述句语序。 此外, whether 与 if 在作“是否”的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用 whether, 不用 if: a. 引导主语从句并在句首时;b. 引导表语从句时;c . 引导从句作介词宾语时;d. 从句后有“or not”时;e. 后接动词不定式时。例如: Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个有 趣的问题。 The question is whether she should have a low opinion of the test? 现在的问题是她是 否应该有一个低意见的测试? Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 一切要看我们是否有足够的 钱。 I wonder whether he will come or not. 我想知道他来还是不来。 Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? 你能否告诉我是去还是留? 4. 注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句子情况, 而使用 不同时态。例如: I know (that) he studies English every day. (从句用一般现在时) I know (that) he studied English last term. (从句用一般过去时) I know (that) he will study English next year. (从句用一般将来时)

I know (that) he has studied English since 1998. (从句用现在完成时) 当主句动词是过去时态(could, would 除外),从句则要用相应的过去时态,如一 般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时等;当从句表示的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现 象,则从句仍用现在时态。例如: The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America. 5. think, believe, imagine, suppose 等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中,要把上述主 句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。例如: We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。 I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。 四、表语从句 在句中作表语的从句叫表语从句。 引导表语从句的关联词与引导主语从句的关联词 大致一样,表语从句位于连系动词后,有时用 as if 引导。其基本结构为:主语 + 系动 词 + that 从句。例如: The fact is that we have lost the game. 事实是我们已经输了这场比赛。 That’s just what I want. 这正是我想要的。 This is where our problem lies. 这就是我们的问题所在。 That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。 It looks as if it is going to rain. 看上去天要下雨了。 需要注意的,当主语是 reason 时,表语从句要用 that 引导而不是 because。例如: The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning. 【注意】whether 可引导表语从句,但与之同义的 if 却通常不用于引导表语从句。 五、同位语从句 同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。 同位语从句通常由 that 引导, 可用于同 位语从句的名词有 advice、demand、doubt、fact、hope、idea、information、message、 news、order、problem、promise、question、request、suggestion、truth、wish、word 等。 例如: The news that we won the game is exciting. 我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。 I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 同位语从句和定语从句的区别: that 作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省 略; that 引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般 不能省略。 试比较下面两个例句: I had no idea that you were here.(that 引导同位语从句,不能省略) Have you got the idea(that)this book gives you of life in ancient Greece?(that 引导 定语从句,作宾语,可以省略) 六、名词性 that-从句 (1)由从属连词 that 引导的从句叫做名词性 that-从句。That 只起连接主句和从句 的作用,在从句中不担任任何成分,本身也没有词义。名词性 that-从句在句中能充当 主 语、宾语、表语、同位语和形容词宾语,例如: 主语:That she is still alive is her luck. 她还活着全靠运气。

宾语: John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 伦敦去。 表语:The fact is that he has not been seen recently.



同位语:The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office. 近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不安。 形容词宾语:I am glad that you are satisfied with your job. 你对工作满意我感到很高兴。 2)That-从句作主语通常用 it 作先行词,而将 that-从句置于句末,例如: It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 失败。 It's a pity that you should have to leave. a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句 It is necessary that… It is important that… It is obvious that… It is believed that… 有必要…… 重要的是…… 很明显…… 人们相信…… 众所周知…… 已决定…… 你非走不可真是件憾事。 用 it 作形式主语的 that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系: 很清楚,整个计划注定要

b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句 It is known to all that… It has been decided that… c. It + be +名词+ that-从句 It is common knowledge that… ……是常识 It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是…… It is a fact that… 事实是…… d. It +不及物动词+ that-从句 It appears that… 似乎…… It happens that… 碰巧…… It occurred to me that… 七、名词性 wh-从句 1)由 wh-词引导的名词从句叫做名词性 wh-从句。Wh-词包括 who, whom,. whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever 等连接代词和 where, when, how, why 等连接 副词。Wh-从句的语法功能除了和 that-从句一样外,还可充当介词宾语、宾语补语和间 接宾语等,例如: 主语: How the book will sell depends on its author. 间接宾语:The club will give whoever wins a prize. 俱乐部将给得胜者设奖。 表语: My question is who will take over president of the Foundation. 将接任该基金会主席职位。 宾语补足语:She will name him whatever she wants to. 她高兴给他起什么名字就取 什么名字。 同位语: I have no idea when he will return. 我的问题是谁 书销售如何取决于作者本人。 在自己家里可以随心所欲。 直接宾语: one's own home one can do what one likes. In 我突然想起……

我不知道他什么时候回来。 形容词宾语: not sure why she refused their invitation. I'm 绝他们的邀请。 介词宾语: That depends on where we shall go. 那取决于我们去哪儿。 2)Wh-从句作主语也常用先行词 it 做形式主语,而将 wh-从句置于句末,例如: It is not yet decided who will do that job. 还没决定谁做这项工作。 It remains unknown when they are going to get married. 八、if, whether 引导的名词从句 1)yes-no 型疑问从句 从属连词 if, whether 引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问转化而来的, 因此 也分别被称为 yes-no 型疑问句从句和选择型疑问从句,其功能和 wh-从句的功能相同, 例如: 主语:Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved. 这一计划是否可行还有待证 实。 宾语: us know whether / if you can finish the article before Friday. Let 你是否能在星期五以前把文章写完。 表语: point is whether we should lend him the money. The 钱给他。 同位语: They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy. 他是否值得信赖。 形容词宾语:She's doubtful whether we shall be able to come. 前来。 介词宾语: I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness. 他是否能度过疾病的危险期。 2)选择性疑问从句 选择性疑问从句由关联词 if/whether…or 或 whether…or not 构成,例如: Please tell me whether / if they are Swedish or Danish. 请告诉我他们是瑞典人还是丹 麦人。 I don't care whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。 if 和 whether 的区别: 1、 在动词不定式之前只能用 whether 。如: 例 8 I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。 2、 在 whether …… or not 的固定搭配中。如: 例 9 .I want to know whether it’s good news or not . 我想知道是否是好消息。 3 、在介词后,只能用 whether。如: 例 10 His father is worried about whether he lose his work . 他的父亲担心是否会失去 工作。 4、宾语从句放在句首表示强调时,只能用 whether 。如: Whether this is true or not, I really don’t know. 这是否真的,我真的不知道。 我担心 她怀疑我们是否能够 他们调查 问题在于我们是否应该借 请让我们知道 他们何时结婚依然不明。 我尚不能肯定她为什么拒

(例 11 Whether they can finish the work on time is still a problem . 他们是否能准时 完成这项工作还是个问题。--此例为主语从句,有误,感谢指出) 5、用 if 会引起歧义时,只用 whether。如: 例 12 Could you tell me if you know the answer ? 这句话有两种意思:“你能告诉我是否知道答案吗?”或“如果你知道答案,请告诉 我,好吗?”。如用 whether 可避免歧义. 编辑本段 九、否定转移 1) 将 think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine 等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转 移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。 I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。 我相信他不回来。 I don' t believe he will come.

注意:若谓语动词为 hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。 I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。 2) 将 seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。 It doesn't seem that they know where to go. 看来他们不知道往哪去。 It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow. 看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。 3) 有时将动名词,介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓语动词的否定。 I don't remember having ever seen such a man. 我记得从未见过这样一个人。 (not 否定动名词短语 having…) It's not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street. 在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。 (anyone 作主语,从句中的谓语动词不能用否定形式。) 4) 有时状语或状语从句中否定可以转移到谓语动词前。 The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. (否定状语) 蚂蚁不只是为自己采食。 He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. (否定 because 状 语) 他并不因亚里斯多德说过如何如何,就轻信此事。 She had not been married many weeks when that man's younger brother saw her and was struck by her beauty. (否定状语 many weeks) 她结婚还不到几个星期,这个人的 弟弟就看见她了,并对她的美貌着了迷。

十、高考热点透视 1. ___ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. (NMET 1995) A. There B. This C. That D. It 答案 D。当名词从句在句中作主语时,为避免句子头重脚轻,常用 it 作形式主语置 于句首,而将真正的主语从句放在句尾。此时 it 只起先行引导作用,本身无实义。此 句也可以改写为:That English is being accepted as an international language is a fact.

2.A computer can only do ____ you have instructed it to do.(NMET2001) A.how B.after C.what D.when 答案 C。从句子结构可知,句子的空白处应该填引导宾语从句的连词,做主句谓语 动词 do 的宾语,同时该连接词还是从句中的 do 的宾语,因此,此处的连接词应该用 what。 3. He asked ____ for a violin.(MET1992) A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid 答案:D。宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句,句子语序要用陈述语序。 4. What the doctors really doubt is ____ my mother will recover from the serious disease soon.(上海 2001 年春季招生) A. when B. how C. whether D. why 答案 C。这是一个表语从句。根据 doubt 一词可知,所怀疑的应是是否能治好病, 所以要填 whether。这句话的意思是“医生真的怀疑我妈妈是否能很快从重病中恢复过 来。” 5.It is generally considered unwise to give a child _____he or she wants. (NMET1997) A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever 答案 B。根据句意“一般认为孩子要什么就给什么是不好的。”可以看出后面的从句 应是一个宾语从句,而从句中 wants 缺少宾语,A. however 和 D. whenever 是不能作宾 语的;排除 A 和 D,whichever 表示“无论哪一个,无论哪些”,应表示一定范围内的人 或物,此处没有涉及事物的范围,所以应选 B.whatever,表示“无论什么”。 6. ______leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. (MET1988) A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D. Who 答案 C。本题句子的意思是:无论谁最后离开房间一定要把灯关掉。本题考查连接 代词 whoever 引导的名词性从句,连接代词 whoever 可以引导名词性从句,并在从句中 作主语,相当于 any person who 或 The person who, 意为“一切……的人”。而 anyone 和 the person 均非连词,不能引导从句,况 who leaves the room last 意为“某个最后离开房 间的人”,与题意不符,如果要选 A. Anyone 或 B. The person,都必须在它们后面再加 上引导定语从句的关系代词 who。如果要选 D. Who 就体现不出“无论谁”的含义了。 7. Sarah hopes to become a friend of ______shares her interests. (Shanghai1995) A. anyone B. whomever C. whoever D. no matter who 答案为 C。本题句子的意思是:Sarah 希望跟自己有共同爱好的人交朋友。疑问词 +ever 引导的名词性从句与 no matter+疑问词引导的从句的区别是:前者既可以引导名 词性从句也可以引导让步状语从句;后者只能引导让步状语从句。首先排除 A 和 D, 从句中需要的是主语,所以 whomever 也不行。 8. ---- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. ---- Is that ______ you had a few days off ? ( NMET1999) A. why B. what C. when D. where 答案 A。根据语境,甲说上周驱车去珠海观看航模展览。乙据此来询问甲这是否是 请几天假的原因,故答案是 A。答案 B,C, D 均与该题语境不符。根据上句提供的语境, 下句应该问“那就是你为什么离开几天的原因吗?” 9. I still remember ______ this used to be a quiet village. ( NMET1993)

A. when B. how C. where D. what 答案 A。根据从句中缺少的句子成分是状语,排除 D.what,而答案 C, D 均与题 意不符,所以应选 A.when。used to be 表示一种过去存在的状态,本句的意思是“我仍 然记得这里在什么时候是个宁静的地方。” 10.I read about it in some book or other,does it matter ____ it was?(2001 春季招 生) A.where B.what C.how D.which 答案 D。这是一个主语从句。主语从句中缺少表语。从上句的意思分析,应是哪本 书,所以要填 which,这句话的意思是“我在某本书中读到过有关这方面的内容,是哪 一本书重要吗?”。 11. Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C when D. as (2001 年上海) 答案 B。该题考查 that 引导的同位语从句。同位语从句通常由 that 引导,接在 fact, news, promise, possibility, information, doubt, message 名词后,用来解释或说明名词的内 容。 12. —I think it is going to be a big problem. —Yes, it could be. —I wonder ______ we can do about it. (北京 2002 春季) A、if B、how C、what D、that 答案 C。本题考察名词性从句的连接词的用法。wonder 后面应跟宾语从句,而从 句中的谓语动词 do 是及物动词,可见从句缺少一个代替宾语的成分,我们可以用排除 法排除不作成分的 if 和 that, 再排除引导方式状语的 how, 答案是 C, 句子的意思是“我 们能就此做些什么”。 十一、专项考点练习 1. ________that they found an unusual plant in the forest. A. It is said B. They are said C. It said D. It says 答案 A:句型 It is said that+主语从句。类似的还有 It is believed that……etc 2. _____ caused the accident is still a complete mystery. A. What B. That C. How D. Where 答案 A: 观察此从句中缺少主语, 而能在主语从句中即充当主语成分又引导的就只 有 what 了 3. It worried Mary a lot _____ she would pass the college entrance examination. A. whether B. if C. that D. how 4. Shanghai has taken on a new look. It isn’t like _____ it used to be . A .what B. how C. that D. which 5. ____ is no possibility ______ Bob will win the first prize in the match. A. There, that B. It, that C. There, whether D. It, whether 6. Little Tommy was reluctant to tell the schoolmaster ____ he had done the day before. A .that B. how C .what D. where 7. The old man smiled when he saw how pretty _____ up to be during the past few years.

A. had his daughter grown B. would his daughter grow C. his daughter would grow D. his daughter had grown 8. Have you seen Mary lately? My boss wants to know _______. A. how she is getting along B. how is she getting along C. what she is getting along D. what is she getting along 9. ____surprised me most was _____such a little girl of seven could play the violin so well. A. That; what B. What; that C. That; that D. What; what 10. These wild flowers are so special I would do ______ I can to save them. A. whatever B. which C. that D. whichever 11. _____ helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising. A. Who B. Anyone C. Whoever D. The person 12. Eat _____ you like and leave the others for _____ comes in late. A. any; who B. every; whoever C. whichever; whoever D. either; whoever 13. ____ she couldn’t understand was _____ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. A. What; why B. That; why C. What; because D. Why; that 14. It was ____ he said ___ disappointed me. A. What; that B. That; that C. What; what D. That;what 15. It was ordered that all the soldiers _______to the front. A. should send B. must be sent C. should be sent D. must go 16. The true value of life is not in ______, but _______. A. which we get; what give we B. what we get; what we give C. which do we get; what do we give D. how we get; that we give 17. We are all for your proposal that the discussion _______. A. be put off B. was put off C. should put off D. is to be put off 18. Go and get your coat.It's ____ you left it. A. where B. there C. here where D. where there 19. Sarah hopes to become a friend of ______ shares her interests. A. anyone B. whomever C. whoever D. no matter who 20. You can’t imagine ______ when they received these nice Christmas presents. A. how they were excited B. how excited they were C. how excited were they D. they were how excited Keys: 1---5 A A A A A 6---10 C D A B A 11----15 C C A A C 16---20 B A A C B

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