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【创新设计】2015高考英语(北师大版)一轮活页训练(提升版):7.21 Unit 21 Human Biology]


Unit 21 Human Biology

Ⅰ.完形填空 Almost everyone wants to get smarter.We struggle to improve our __1__,intelligence and attention.We drink cup after cup of coffee to help us __2__ the day. __3__,a new study published in Current Directions in Psychological Science warns that there are __4__ to how smart humans can get. Each of our body parts develops in a certain way for a reason.__5__,we are not 3 meters tall __6__ most people's hearts are not strong enough to send __7__ up that high.Scientists say that our thinking ability works in the same way.A baby's brain size is limited by a series of __8__, such as the size of the mother's pelvis(骨盆).If our brains developed to be bigger,there could be more __9__ during childbirth. The study of Jews, who have an average IQ much __10__ than other Europeans, showed they were more __11__ to develop diseases of the __12__ system.This might be because of their increased brainpower. If intelligence cannot be improved,can we at least get better at __13__?Not really,say scientists.They studied __14__ like caffeine(咖啡因)that improve attention.They found the drugs only helped people with serious __15__ problems.For those who did not have trouble paying attention,the drugs could have the __16__ effect.Scientists say that this suggests there is a(n) __17__ limit to how much people can or should concentrate. Our memory is also a “double-edged sword”. People with extremely good memories could __18__ having a difficult life because they cannot __19__ bad things that happen to them. Thomas Hills,one of the authors of the paper,said that __20__ all the problems in trying to get smarter,it's unlikely that there will ever be a“super mind” . 【语篇解读】 每个人都想使自己变得更聪明,你是否也在想方设法改善自己的记忆力 和注意力呢?

1.A.ability

B.character

C.memory

D.emotion

答案 C [几乎每个人都想变得更聪明。 “我们”都想努力提高“我们”的记忆力、 智 力和注意力。] 2.A.go through B.put through C.get through D.carry through 答案 C [我们一杯接着一杯地喝咖啡来度日。] 3.A.Though C.However B Therefore D.Meanwhile

答案 C [文章第 2 段和第 1 段在意思上为转折关系,故选 however。]

4.A.standards C.ranges

B.measures D.limits

答案 D [然而,一项新研究警告说,人类的聪明程度是有限度的。] 5.A.At first C.For example B.In addition D.Above all

答案 C [“我们”的身体器官如何发育是有一定道理的, 就像我们的身高不会达到 3 米一样。for example 用于举例。] 6.A.until B.because C.before D.so that

答案 B [因为大多数人的心脏不够强。] 7.A.blood C.breath B.information D.strength

答案 A [不能够将血液输送到那个高度。] 8.A.factors B reasons C.aspects D.effects

答案 A [婴儿大脑的大小受到一系列因素的限制,例如妈妈骨盆的大小。] 9.A.chances B.deaths C.choices D.lives

答案 B [如果“我们”的大脑发育得更大,在出生时就可能更容易死亡。] 10.A.smarter B.better C.lower D.higher

答案 D [犹太人的平均智商比其他欧洲人高出许多。] 11.A.likely B.possible C.probable D.sure

答案 A [对犹太人的研究显示他们更有可能患神经系统疾病。] 12.A.physical B.bodily C.personal D.nervous

答案 D [见上题解析。] 13.A.exercising C.memorizing B.concentrating D.thinking

答案 B [根据下一行的 attention 可推断此处指“集中(注意力)”。] 14.A.poisons B.drinks C.plants D.drugs

答案 D [后文多次提到 drugs 一词, 由此可知他们研究的是像咖啡因这样的提高注意 力的药物。] 15.A.attention B.family C.health D.living 答案 A [他们发现这些药物只能帮助那些注意力有严重问题的人。]

16.A.same

B.opposite

C.different

D.similar

答案 B [对于那些注意力没有问题的人来说,药物会起相反的作用。] 17.A.lower B.smaller C.upper D.higher

答案 C [科学家们说,这表明人们的注意力也是有上限的。] 18.A.end up B.make up C.start up D come up 答案 A [记忆力也是一把双刃剑。记忆力极好的人最终可能会过着很困扰的生活,

因为他们忘不掉发生在他们身上的伤心事。] 19.A.forget C.perform B.remember D.share

答案 A [见上题解析。] 20.A.supposing C.considering B.concerning D.regarding

答案 C [考虑到以上所有问题,Thomas Hills 说,拥有“超级大脑”是不太可能的。] Ⅱ.阅读理解 体裁 议论文 题材 社会生活 词数 306 难度 ★★★ 建议用时 6 分钟

Grown-ups are often surprised by how well they remember something they learned as children but have never practiced ever since.A man who has not had a chance to go swimming for years can still swim as well as ever when he gets back in the water.He can get on a bicycle after many years and still ride away.He can play catch and hit a ball as well as his son.A mother who has not thought about the words for years can teach her daughter the poem that begins“Twinkle, twinkle,little star”or remember the story of Cinderella or Goldilocks and the Three Bears. One explanation is the law of overlearning,which can be stated as follows:Once we have learned something,additional learning trials increase the length of time we will remember it. In childhood we usually continue to practice such skills as swimming,bicycle riding,and playing baseball long after we have learned them.We continue to listen to and remind ourselves of words such as “ Twinkle , twinkle , little star ” and childhood tales such as Cinderella and Goldilocks.We not only learn but over learn. The multiplication tables(乘法口诀表)are an exception to the general rule that we forget rather quickly the things that we learn in school,because they are another of the things we overlearn in childhood. The law of overlearning explains why cramming(突击学习)for an examination,though it may result in a passing grade,is not a satisfactory way to learn a college course.By cramming,a student may learn the subject well enough to get by on the examination,but he is likely soon to forget almost everything he learned.A little overlearning, on the other hand, is really necessary for

one's future development. 【语篇解读】 有些东西我们学过之后就永生难忘,而有些东西则恰恰相反。文章解释 了原因,称这是过度学习和突击学习两种不同学习方法所导致的结果。 1.What is the main idea of Paragraph 1? A.People remember well what they learned in childhood. B.Children have a better memory than grown-ups. C.Poem reading is a good way to learn words. D.Stories for children are easy to remember. 答案 A [主旨大意题。根据文章的首句 “Grown-ups are often surprised by how well they remember something they learned as children but have never practiced ever since”可知选 A 项。] 2.The author explains the law of overlearning by ________. A.presenting research findings B.setting down general rules C.making a comparison D.using examples 答案 D [推断题。结合文章内容可以看出作者通过举例子的方法来证明自己的观点, 故答案为 D 项。] 3.According to the author,being able to use multiplication tables is ________. A.a result of overlearning B.a special case of cramming C.a skill to deal with math problems D.a basic step towards advanced studies 答案 A [细节题。根据第 4 段最后一句话中的“...because they are another of the things we overlearn in childhood”可知答案为 A 项。] 4.What is the author's opinion on cramming? A.It leads to failure in college exams. B.It's helpful only in a limited way. C.It's possible to result in poor memory. D.It increases students' learning interest. 答案 B [推断题。由最后一段中的“By cramming,a student may learn the subject well enough to get by on the examination,but he is likely soon to forget almost everything he learned”

可以看出作者认为突击学习的作用极其有限,往往只是为了应付考试。] Ⅲ.书面表达 你校校门口在上学和放学时间经常出现交通拥堵的现象, 这给全校师生和路人带来极大 的不便。为了确保学校门口正常的交通秩序,你校英文报向学生征集解决交通拥堵的良策。 假设你是高三学生李华,请你用英语就此事给校报编辑写一封信,信中应包括以下内容: 1.写信的目的; 2.分析学校门口拥堵的原因; 3.提出 2~3 点建议。 注意:词数 100 左右(开头和结尾已经给出,但不计入总词数)。 Dear Editor, I am Li Hua,a student from Grade 3.I am writing to discuss the traffic problem near our school gate. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ I do hope there will be fewer traffic jams near our school gate. Yours, Li Hua 【参考范文】 Dear__Editor, I__am__Li__Hua , a__student__from__Grade__3.I__am__writing__to__discuss__the__traffic__problem__near__ou r__school__gate. With so many parents coming to pick up their children,traffic jams are frequent near the school gate,which has caused a lot of inconvenience to us. In order to avoid traffic jams,I strongly recommend some effective measures be taken.First, we should encourage students to ride a bicycle or walk to school instead of taking a car, which not only avoids traffic jams,but also builds up students' health.It is also a good idea to allow junior students to leave school 10 minutes earlier than others,which will surely make the street less crowded.Besides,cars should not be allowed to park in front of the school gate. I__do__hope__there__will__be__fewer__traffic__jams__near__our__school__gate. Yours, Li__Hua


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