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第五单元英美报刊选读


Unit Five

Cable News Network and Telecommunication
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History as it Happens
Linking leaders as never before, CNN 1 has changed the way the world does its business. By William A. Henry


On the night that the bombs began to fall on Baghdad, Gilbert Lavoie, press secretary to Canada?s Prime Minister, Brian Mulroney, telephoned his counterpart Marlin Fitzwater at the White House in Washington. “Marlin said, ?Hi, what are you doing??” Lavoie recalls, and I said, “I?m doing the same thing you are —watching CNN.” So was virtually every other senior official in virtually every government. 2 In that respect, at least, the night of Jan. 16, 1991, was actually rather ordinary. From Rome to Riyadh, London to Lagos, Beijing to Buenos Aires, Cable News Network is on more or less continuously in the suites of a vast array of chiefs of state and foreign ministers. 3 It has become the common frame of reference 4 for the world?s power elite. Boris Yeltsin and Mikhail Gorbachev, George Bush and Saddam Hussein —the headline sparring partners of the year just past — are all alert watchers. 5 What a computer message can accomplish within an office, CNN achieves around the clock, around the globe; it gives everyone the same information, the same basis for discussion, at the same moment. That change in communication has in turn affected jurnalism, intelligence gathering, 6 economics, diplomacy and even, in the minds of some scholars, the very concept of what it is to be a nation. Only a glint of thought to its founder, Ted Turner, a dozen years ago, CNN is now the world?s most widely heeded news organization. 7 British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd insists on staying only at hotels that carry the network. Iraqi ministers Tariq Aziz and Nizar Hamdoon would not so much as lower the volume of the non-stop CNN in the background while granting interviews to John Wallach, foreign affairs editor of the Hearst newspapers Washington bureau —not even, Wallach says, for the Network?s Hollywood Minute. 8 When the name of his country was inadvertently omitted from a news quiz 9 about nations participation in November?s Middle East peace talks, Jordan?s King Hussein was watching and was so irritated that he had palace officials immediately call CNN?s Amman office to complain. Singapore stockbrokers protested their government?s politically inspired ban on

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private satellite dishes, arguing that access to instantaneous war news on CNN was vital for anticipating fluctuations in world financial markets. 10 The terrorists who held Terry Anderson hostage in Lebanon used CNN as the vehicle to release a videotape of his appeal for help. 11 CNN can be seen at the E1 Kabir Hotel in Tripoli, favored by Muammar Gaddafi?s associates. It can also be seen at the Vatican, where Archbishop 12 John Foley, president of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications, 13 rises by 6 a. m. to watch and “know what to pray about.” CNN has become the fourth most respected brand name in the U.S., according to a recent poll of 2 000 people, ranked just behind the Disney parks, Kodak and Mercedes-Benz and ahead of Rolex, Levi?s IBM and AT&T. 14 (ABC, NBC and CBS networks 15 were not offered by the opinion seekers.) As a source of knowledge in turbulent times, CNN may be without peer. 16 “Ted Turner is probably the pre-eminent publisher in America today, maybe in the world,” says Don Hewitt, founding producer of 60 Minutes on CBS. “When there was a disaster, it used to be that people went to church and all held hands. Then television came along, and there was this wonderful feeling tha t while you were watching Walter Cronkite, 17 millions of other Americans were sharing the emotional experience with you. Now the minute anything happens they all run to CNN and think, ?The whole world is sharing this experience with me.?” For most of the Gulf War, CNN was the prime source of news, information and up-to-the-minute political intelligence for the U.S. government. 18 President Bush is known to have said to other world leaders, “I learn more from CNN than I do from the CIA.” That is apparently not a joke. Secretary of State James Baker and Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney turned to CNN to find out what was happening in diplomacy or combat because its speed and accuracy in newsgathering outstripped the work of the National Military Intelligence Center 19 and the CIA. Those agencies remained geared to cycling paperwork up through chains of command at a pace often too slow during a fast -breaking crisis. 20 President Kenndey had six days to ponder what to do before he went public about the Cuban missile crisis. 21 During the Gulf War, White House rarely had six hours to respond and sometimes left it did not have six minutes. In the face of this urgent need to know, whenever CIA Director William Webster received word via intelligence satellite that an Iraqi Scud missile 22 had been launched, he would tell National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft, “Turn on CNN to see where it lands.” Perhaps CNN?s biggest impact has been on diplomacy. There, too, the stately march of paper via protocol has been supplanted by spontaneity and pragmatism. 23 The public press conference has outstripped the private letter. No longer is the performance just for show, while the real deal is done behind closed doors. CNN?s reach makes it a kind of worldwide party line, allowing leaders to conduct a sort of conference call heard not only
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by the principals but also by their constituents across the planet. 24 Says Richard Haass, a National Security Council aide 25 to President Bush : “You end up hearing statements for the first time, not in diplomatic notes 26 , but because you see a Foreign Minister on the TV screen. By television, I really meant CNN. It has turned out to be a very important information source.” When U.S. troops invaded Panama in December 1989, the Soviet Foreign Minist er read its condemnation to a CNN crew before passing it through diplomatic channels. 27 During the buildup to the Gulf War, Turkish President Turgut Ozal was watching a CNN telecast of a press conference and heard a reporter ask Bush if Ozal would cut off an oil pipeline into Iraq. Bush said he was about to ask Ozal that very question. Moments later, when the telephone rang, Ozal was able to tell Bush that he was expecting the call. The final effort at a peaceful settlement of the Gulf War epitomized the t ransition from the old diplomacy to the new. 28 Secretary of State Baker met for six hours with Iraqi Foreign Minister Aziz but could not persuade him to accept a manila envelope 29 containing a private letter from Bush to Saddam Hussein. As the meeting ende d, both sides readied press conferences blaming each other. Aziz let it be known he would wait for Bush to appear, thus having the last word. White House press secretary Marlin Fitzwater quickly telephoned CNN correspondent Charles Bierbauer. Tell your bos ses in Atlanta and your man with Aziz in Geneva, said Fitzwater, that Aziz is going to have to speak first “if we have to wait until Christmas.” Bush won. Says Fitzwater: “The whole thing took about five minutes to settle. CNN was the midwife on both ends.” CNN has also become a kind of global spotlight, forcing despotic governments to do their bloody deeds, if they dare, before a watching world. 30 Sometimes they dare not, especially when CNN can reach even a relatively few citizens within the oppressed la nd and serve as a beacon of freedom. During the failed Soviet coup 31 in August, as key state news organs were being taken over by supporters of coup leaders, Russian President Boris Yeltsin showed himself in public atop a tank to rally a crowd nearby and a far larger one throughout his nation. He knew that CNN might still be seen by about 100 000 Muscovites and thousands of residents in other cities, a tiny percentage of the population but enough to spread word of mouth that the battle for freedom was not lost. The image of a defiant Yeltsin sent the same signal to the rest of the world and heightened pressure on President Bush to denounce the coup. 32 Historians will debate how much impact this televised imagery had on the outcome. But it is noteworthy that a diplomat representing one of the newly independent Baltic republics 33 jubilantly called people at CNN days later and thanked them for helping to give his country its freedom. In all these cases, many of the same gut-wrenching 34 images could be seen on other

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networks. But CNN was apt to carry them first around the world and certainly to air them more frequently and at greater length. Moreover, the very existence of CNN has compelled rivals, inside and outside the U.S., to pursue more international news an d air more of it live. 35 Among the most avid watchers of CNN, although they don?t always like to admit it are other journalists. In almost every major U.S. newsroom and in many elsewhere in the world, the channel is perpetually on and someone is watching or at least glancing over frequently. Once upon a time, newspapers broke the news to the public. Then TV took over that role, and ever since, newspapers have tried to redefine themselves by becoming more analytical. Now, even most TV reporters try to pride themselves on doing a story analytically and in depth; 36 it is a foregone conclusion 37 that CNN will do the story first. At many events it covers, from summits 38 to celebrated trials, 39 CNN itself becomes a major news source. During the Arab-Israeli peace conference in Madrid last November, where access was severely limited, nearly all of the 4,600 journalists had to follow the proceedings on CNN. 40 A common temptation is to skip other reporting and just rehash what shows up on the screen. Sometimes even the most serious reporters are forced to rely on CNN?s better access. As retired U.S. Air Force General Michael Dugan quipped about his work as military analyst for CBS, “What CBS did during the gulf war was watch CNN.” The same might be said of most other broadcast and print news 41 teams. The appeal of CNN has inspired would-be imitators. Japan?s NHK 42 network explored creating a global channel but gave up when it projected the costs at $800 million a year. The British Broadcasting Corp. 43 plunged ahead into the Asian market in a joint venture with Hong Kong?s richest businessman, Li Kashing. 44 Their satellite channel of news and soft features, 45 one of five on the nascent STAR-TV system, 46 is reaching 38 Asian nations that number half the world?s population. But only about half a million households actually own satellites, 47 while an indeterminate number of others get some part of the service through broadcast channels. The programming is already popular in India and other regions formerly a part of the British Empire, and it is scheduled to be offered later in Africa and even on CNN?s home turf 48 in North America; it already competes with CNN on a small scale in Europe. BBC officials say their new entry into the global -village sweepstakes offers more analysis, more authoritative opinion and a broader world view. 49 CNN counters that it too has an international outlook, that its reporting resources are more extensive and that world audiences are keenly interested in the U.S. , in every aspect from politics to popular culture. Another potential competitor is the still-evolving European Broadcasting Union?s 50 news channel taking programs from 10 member nation —albeit 51 without the advantages of a shared style or even a common language.

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Within the U.S., so far the Big Three networks have struggled to keep up with CNN?s newsgathering. 52 But former anchorman Cronkite is fretful: “What I fear is that in their straitened economic conditions, the networks will find CNN an excuse to shuck some of their own responsibilities. 53 I can conceive that as the situation grows worse, the networks may say, ?The public is being served by CNN. We don?t have to be there.?” That may already be true. For the 1992 U.S. presidential nominating conventions, only CNN has committed to gavel-to-gavel coverage. 54 “CNN has put a tremendous strain on the print press,” says Thoms Winship, editor emeritus of The Boston Globe and a former president of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. 55 “During the past five years, print 56 has been clobbered 57 by television and has generally failed to respond by emphasizing the analytic and investigative stories that TV cannot do so well,” Jim Hoagland, a two -time Pulitzer prizewinner 58 for his international coverage 59 in The Washington Post, 60 says, “The effect of CNN should be to persuade newspapers that the stenographic mode of reporting is obsolete, a real dinosaur. 61 The simple news account of an event that much of our andience has already witnessed is no longer sufficient. We?ve got to shift to a more analytical mode or find the story that TV couldn?t or didn?t cover.” The plight of newspapers in a video age has rarely been more vivid than during the early days of the Gulf War and the Soviet leadership crisis. 62 New columns looked as though they had been put together simply by watching CNN the night before. Analyses were interesting but often nearly 24 hours out of date and no longer relevant. For some social theorists, CNN has become far more than a news medium. It is considered prime evidence for the evolution of McLuhan?s borderless world. 63 As corporations become multinational and free trade transcends tariffs, 64 as Europe develops a single currency and other regions build spheres of economic cooperation, as pop culture and air travel and migration and, yes, television make the world psychologically smaller, these theorists contend that the concept of nationalism recedes. Says Joshua Meyrowitz, professor of communication at the University of New Hampshire: “Many of the things that define national sovereignty are fading. National sovereignty wasn?t based only on power and barbed wire, it was based also on information control. 65 Nations are losing control over informational borders because of CNN.” Not everyone likes CNN or rates its influence so positively. U.S. conservatives have complained for years about its tolerant attitude toward erstwhile communist leaderships and other dictatorships, which they see as a cynical ploy to assist the network in doing business in those countries or as a boost to Turner?s personal ambitions as a world peacemaker. 66 These critics were appalled when Turner himself genially interviewed Fidel Castro. 67 They were outraged when CNN left reporter Peter Arnett in place in Baghdad throughout the Gulf War to convey the Iraqi point of view. Some Business executives also

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perceive ardent environmentalism 68 at CNN as another attitude encouraged, if not imposed, by the ecology-minded 69 Turner. More liberal observers also question CNN?s detachment. The Washington Post columnist 70 Hoagland describes the network as responsible and fair but adds, “It seems to me that they are probably more sensitive to host -government reaction than most journalistic organizations would be because of their approach of trying to be everywhere. 71 And it seems to me that they lean over backward 72 to carry what I think of often as non-news from countries where they clearly want to be in that market.” For example, he cites reports on econmic development from Central Europe that look like video press releases 73 about new factories. Scholars frequently belittle CNN for its unscholarly haste and supposed shallowness. In place of slowly mulled research from experts steeped in their field, CNN delivers raw news. 74 It features live events, bulletins and studios full of talking heads often with scant analysis. 75 CNN came into being just as the Big Three American networks were moving away from their tradition of in-house experts, 76 and the new network set the pace. CNN anchors are apt to be more trained in the mechanics of television than in the nuances of the many subjects they discuss. The reporting ranks number mostly workaday generalists. 77 CNN nonetheless does a good job on business, technology, entertainment and sports and capably covers the White House and U.S. politics. It can show great sensitivity in dealing with racial and multicultural conflict and is attuned to the concerns of women and gays. 78 But its intellectual thinness is evident in the way it covers foreign affairs —with the same tired emphasis on revolutions, wars, famines and disasters found in the traditional half-hour nightly network news show, despite having the airtime 79 to give a more rounded picture. An emphasis on events rather than analysis may, however, be a factor in CNN?s broad appeal, 80 argues G. Cleveland Wilhoit, professor of journalism at Indiana University and associate director of the university-wide Institute for Advanced Study. Says he: “Ideological critics of the media, left and right, agree on one thing that the press is too arrogant, too ready to tell people what to think. 81 By its very structure, CNN is populist. 82 It provides the raw materials of the story and lest the viewers form their own opinions.” The idea that CNN ought to be more analytic and instructive is not universally held among government and business leaders either. 83 Many like the network just as it is. Sir Bernard Ingham used to be the combative, press secretary to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, herself so big a fan of CNN that the network has mad e special arrangements for her to get it at her office. Says Ingham: “I don?t think we want analysis. What we want is reporting of the facts. People can form their own judgments. There are too dam many journalists analyzing the news 84 .

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A great deal of the criticism of CNN from outside the U.S. seems to be rooted in general resentment of U.S. power and influence. 85 The network is often labeled as the latest example of U.S. cultural imperialism. Longtime French TV news correspondent Christine Ockrent calls CNN “a U.S. channel with a global vocation. but which sees the world through an American prism,” 86 She is dismissive 87 of its most widely discussed experiment, the weekly World Report, which airs unedited stories taken from TV channels around the world. Says Ockrent: “Asking Serbian television for its reading of the situation is not providing world news but merely the Serbian version. When CNN?s footage 88 is not homemade in the U.S., it is homemade in some other country. That?s not being international.” Brazil?s Foreign Minister, Francisco Rezek, argues, however, that CNN?s bias is toward values the world ought to emulate. “The network is markedly North American,” he contends. “But while a universal stage, a truly global network , would be better, the American stage is the next best thing. 89 There is no nation that is so varied, that has such a mixture of cultures and beliefs and that represents the two most important lessons of this century —pluralist democracy and open, competitive economies. CNN helps stre ngthen democracy.” CNN officials readily acknowledge that despite having a round -the-clock schedule, the network does not explore most topics deeply. Apart from its frequently lively and sometimes informative talk shows, 90 it remains a headline service with a high percentage of repetition and overlap. One of its two U.S. cable channels, Headline News, offers an endlessly repeating half-hour loop of updated news, sports, economics and entertainment bulletins. 91 The other, the original CNN, mixes news hours with other mass-appeal public-affairs formats, It does not aspire, in any hour of its 24 a day, to the highbrow. Part of the reason CNN has survived its past economic travails is Turner?s go-for-broke nervelessness. 92 Part is having been, as Turner says, in the right place at the right time. Part is the corporate willingness to gamble. When CNN executive Ed (“No Relation”) 93 Turner was interviewed by owner Ted, the trickiest question was “Ed, are you a dreamer?” At nearly any other company, the correct answer would be no. At CNN, it is yes. But perhaps the largest factor in CNN?s prosperity is, paradoxically, sound business management. 94 The network demonstrated to its fat rivals 95 that news could be delivered much more cheaply. CNN?s salaries were lower but its people were hungrier and harder working. It did not get trapped into make-work union rules. 96 It pioneered the practice of cross training, 97 in which employees must learn and perform multiple skills. It reduced the size of camera crews from four to two, a standard that is now emulated throughout the

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industry. The most expensive thing CNN does is the most necessary to its survival: broadcasting live and at length from remote locations. 98 Says London bureau chief David Feingold: “The whole idea of journalism is to be a witness.” The network pioneered the use of costly satellite uplinks —packages of technology that can be disassembled into suitcase-size components weighing less than 45 kg each and capable of being checked as luggage onto an ordinary passenger jet. 99 The trick is not to let the technological capacity dominate the editor?s news judgment, not to do a story simply because one can. Explains Paris bureau chief Peter Humi: “People expect CNN to have live coverage. 100 With today?s technology, live is easier to do, and it?s sexy. 101 Our aim is to get away from being a knee-jerk 102 channel and put in little thought and judgment.” In the style of the eminently quotable and confessional Ted Turner, the free -wheeling and frankly told adventures of CNN have yielded entertaining books. 103 Newly among them is Seven Days That Shook the World, a story of the Soviet coup 104 that hit the stands 105 in December, from CNN?s corporate sibling 106 Turner Publishing, 107 with photos by the Soviet agency Tass and an introduction by Hedrick Smith. Another recent book is the disjointed but richly anecdotal Live from Baghdad, written by Robert Wiener, producer of CNN?s wartime coverage from Iraq. Wiener?s final words are “To broadcast, for the first time in history, live pictures to the entire world of a war in progress from behind enemy lines. Murrow would have loved it!” 108 Indeed, Edward R. Murrow, himself a wartime broadcaster from London rooftops, would have. And so did the whole watching world. The sense of shared e xperience is the vital starting place for building a consensus on every matter of global concern, from nuclear disarmament to environmental cleanup, from hunger to health care. 109 What CNN viewers have seen in the past year is the awakening of a village consciousness, a sense that human beings are all connected and all in it together, wherever on the plane they may be. How else to explain Kenyans who lined up six -deep in front of electronics stores to watch footage of a war they had no soldiers fighting i n? 110 The full potential of the medium that televisionary Ted Turner bet the house on is just beginning to be realized. 111 What we are seeing is not just the globalization of television but also through television the globalization of the globe. Time January 6, 1992

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BACKGROUND
1. A generation ago, social theorist Marshall Mcluhan proclaimed the advent of a “global village”, a sort of borderless world in which communications media would transcend the boundaries of nations. “Ours is a brand-new world of allatonceness,” he wrote. “ ?time? has ceased, ?space? has vanished, we now live in ? a simultaneous happening.” It took another visionary, and the band of dreamers and opportunists he gathered around him, to demonstrate that McLuhan was right. In 1991, one of the most eventful years of this century, the world witnessed the dramatic impact on those events of live television by satellite. The very defination of news was rewritten from something that has happened to something that is happening at the very moment you are hearing of it. A war involving the fiercest air bombardment in history unfolded in real time before the cameras. To a considerable degree, especially in Moscow, momentous things happened precisely because they were being seen as they happened. These shots heard and seen, around the world appeared under the aegis of the first global TV news company, Cable News Network. Contrary to the dictum of former U.S. House Speaker Tip O?Neill that “all politics is local,” CNN demonstrated that politics can be planetary, that ordinary people can take a deep interest in events remote from them in every way and can respond to reportage in global rather than p urely nationalistic terms. Back in CNN?s infancy, when he was dismissed as crackbrained and soon to be bankrupt, Ted Turner sensed the wonders to come. “I am the right man in the right place at the right time” he said, “Not me alone, but all the people who think the world can be brought together by telecommunications.” The years and facts have demontrated how emphatically he was right. For influencing the dynamic of events and turning viewers in 150 countries into instant witness of history, Robert Edward T urner Ⅲis Time?s Man of the year for 1991. 2. Turner?s father Ed Turner became a millionaire in the billboard business after his family lost its cotton farm in the Depression. Turner?s first test as a businessman came when he discovered that his father despondent because of his billboard firm?s mounting debts, had sold its big, newly acquired Atlanta division just before killing himself. The young Turner did everything he could to nullify the contract and win back the business. Turner proved far more adept even than his father at the billboard business. So as the money rolled in, he turned to sailing and broadcasting in pursuit of his father?s elusive benediction. By 1982, when he was 43, he started the cable system via satellite and the pioneering 24 -hour Cable News Network. In 1986 Turner?s acquisition of MGM / UA?s film library for $1.4 billion buried him so deeply in debt that he had to be bailed out by a consortium of cable operators that invested $565.5 million in the company in exchange for minority ownershi p. Turner remained

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Chairman, but he was forced to give cable operators seven seats on the 15 -member board and veto power over any decision that would cost the company more than $2 million. That means: to make any major move Ted Turner needs green light fro m titan Malone and the guys from Time Inc. and Warner Communications (now Time Warner). Still his 11 networks —including CNN, Headline News, Cartoon Network and TNT —are among the cable industry?s most successful. 3. For years, Turner was doing his best to imitate his father. He drank and earned early notoriety for showing up at the America?s Cup press conference kneewalking drunk. He was such a determined womanizer that he made clear to his second wife Jane before their marriage in 1964 that he had no intention of becoming monogamous. As a skipper, Turner occasionally struck crew members who made mistakes. He abruptly ended his Playboy magazine interview with Peter Ross Range in 1983 by smashing Range?s tape recorder. Turner has always been an environmentalist. For the past six years, Turner has made a public career of saving the planet. In 1985 he founded the Better World Society, which was meant to educate people about pollution, hunger and the arms race by producing documentaries. In 1986, to promote world peace, he staged the Goodwill Games in Moscow, on which he lost $26 million, and staged them again last year in Seattle, losing an additional $44 million. 4. Turner met J. J. Ebaugh in 1980. She was possibly the first woman he truly loved. Tow years after the marriage the couple split up. By the time he started dating Fonda in early 1990 Turner was so reformed that the first thing he told the actress when he took her out was, “I want you to know I was brought up a male chauvinist.” They got married on December 21. Turner agreed to spend half his time in Los Angeles while Fonda?s son Troy was still in high school there. When Fonda decided she would quit drinking, Turner announced he would too. She has given up making movies for now. He has given up hour -to-hour management of his company. He now eats much of the health -food menu her cook prepares and has lost 4.5 kg. They designed and decorated together the log home they share on Turner?s 52 600 hectare ranch near Bazeman, Montana. He follows her on hikes and bike rides; she follows his hunting and fly-fishing and to baseball games. Turner is also showing signs that he wants to enjoy his family. In 1988, he began organizing regular family vacations; In 1992, he formed the Turner Family Foundation, whose board is composed of Fonda and his five children, all of whom gather twice a year to allocate money to charitable causes. He is openly affectionate with his children and checks in regularly with Fonda?s two kids. 5. When Turner first launched the upstart 24-hour news operation in 1980, under the guidance of its brilliant but volatile president Reese Schonfeld, it had a staff of 300 and a newsroom tucked into the basement of a converted country club. Technical flubs were common : on the very first hour of CNN?s first day, a story about baseball star Reggie

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Jackson was cut short when the transmission from New York suddenly went dead. Today CNN has a staff of more than 1 700, a global reach in excess of 75 million homes and a budget that keeps growing while the three U.S. broadcast networks cut back. Its headquarters are spread over several floors in a hotel-and-shopping complex in Atlanta, formerly called the Omni and dubbed CNN Center. The network has established its credibility, and it makes money : a profit of $134 million in 1990 and most likely more in 1991. Yet the crucial decisions are still made chiefly by three top executives. The veteran of the trio is Ed Turner, a charter member of the CNN staff, who is probably best known (as news stories quoting him invariably point out) for not being related to owner Ted. As executive vice president in charge of newsgathering, Turner is responsible for CNN?s worldwide network of 95 correspondents. He is the soul of CNN, pragmatic, not flashy but fiercely competitive. If Turner is in charge of getting news into the building, Furnad, senior executive producer, is the man responsible for getting it on the air. An 18 -year veteran of ABC News who joined CNN in 1983, Furnad is a feisty field general who ca berate his troops for a technical slipup one minute and praise them warmly the next. “As wild as he is,” says anchor Boddie Battista, “there isn?t anybody I?d rather have in there.” Overseeing the entire network is Johnson, the former publisher of the Los Angeles Times who was installed by Ted Turner as CNN?s third president in August 1990. Much of Johnson?s impact at CNN comes from the contrast he provides to the man he replaced : Burt Reinhardt, a respected, budget-conscious but rather aloof news executive. Johnson, 50, is an affable Georgia native with a file of political contacts, dating from his years as an aide to President Lyndon B. Johnson. He has taken a hands-on approach to CNN in more ways than one. During the Gulf War he brought cookies to bleary-eyed staffers working on the weekend. When ABC signed up Mikhail Gorbachev and Yeltsin for a joint interview after the failed coup, Johnson flew to Moscow and personally negotiated with them to do separate interviews on CNN first. The goal is to find as many uses as possible for the raw material that pours in every day to CNN?s newsroom. The workday officially begins at 8 a. m., with a meeting chaired by Ed Turner to review what stories are expected that day. Producers and writers then repair to circular desks, where they assemble the various hours of programming that make up CNN?s schedule. Unlike the U.S. broadcast network, which gear their activities to two or three shows each day, CNN is on a never-ending deadline. Breaking news is shoved into the air as soon as it arrives. Says Stephen Cassidy, senior international editor : “It?s like working for a boss who?s up 24 hours a day.” Ted Turner takes little part in day-to-day operations (though he approves major budget expenditures and contributes occasional story ideas, many of them relating to his environmental concerns). But his influence can be felt in everything from a prohibition against the word foreign (the preferred word is international, a choice that draws rolling

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eyes from many staffers) to the loyalty and long tenure of a high proportion of CNN employees. CNN also reflects Turner?s belief that TV news can be done far more cheaply than it was at the once profligate broadcast networks. CNN salaries are still lower than those at other American networks, though the disparity is shrinking. (A correspondent joining CNN today typically makes $60 000 to $70 000, while a rookie network reporter earns around $100 000.) And CNN gets more out of its people. Unlike the networks, where correspondents have to fight for airtime, CNN uses practically everything its reporters file. “There?s a constant effort to maximize profit for labor expended,” says Jerusalem bureau chief Charles Hoff. CNN?s president Tom Johnson?s top priority has been to strengthen the network?s overseas channel. Currently, CNN?s International is a mix of domestic CNN, Headline 1 News and 3 2 hours a day of original fare aimed at the audience abroad. Many overseas viewers, though glued to CNN during major events, find its day-to-day programming parochial and its international coverage thin. Viewers in some parts of Asia have been turning instead to the BBC?s new 24-hour news channel. NOTES 1. CNN = Cable News Network 有线新闻电视公司(也译为“有线新闻电视网”, 实际上所

1980 年开办,总部设在亚特兰大。) 2. So was virtually every other senior official in virtually every government. 有 政府的其他高级官员也在收看有线新闻电视公司的节目。 3. From Rome to Riyadh, London to Lagos, Beijing to Buenos Aires, Cable News Network is on more or less continuously in the suites of vast array of chiefs of state and foreig n ministers. 从罗马到利雅德,从伦敦到拉格斯,从北京到布宜诺斯艾利斯,在许多国 a vast array 一大批) 作出判断时所依 家元首和外交部长的办公套间里差不多都在不停地收看有线新闻电视公司播放的节目。 (suite 一组套房; 赖 的信息渠道 5. Boris Yeltsin and Mikhail Gorbachev, George Bush and Saddam Hussein —the headline sparring partners of the year just past —are all alert watchers. 现的互相争斗的对手——都是机警的观众。 6. intelligence gathering 情报搜集 有线新闻电视公司十二年前只不过是特 7. Only a glint of thought to its founder, Ted Turner, a dozen years ago, CNN is now the world?s widely heeded news organization. 德·特纳心中闪过的一丝念头,如今已发展成为世界上受到普遍重视的新闻组织。 鲍里斯· 叶利 钦和米哈依·戈尔巴乔夫,乔治·布什和萨达姆·侯赛因——过去一年里报纸标题上出 4. frame of reference (source of information for making judgement)

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8. Iraqi ministers Tariq Aziz and Nizar Hamdoon would not so much as lower the volume of the non-stop CNN in the background while granting interviews to John Wallach, foreign affairs editor of the Hearst newspapers Washington bureau —not even, Wallach says, for the network?s Hollywood Minute. 伊拉克的部长塔里克·阿齐兹和尼沙尔·汉 杜在接受赫斯特报系华盛顿分部外事编辑约翰·沃利奇的采访时还一边看着有线新 闻电视公司不间断的电视新闻,连音量也不愿降低。沃利奇说,甚至当有线新闻公 司播映“好莱坞一分钟”节目时也是如此。 9. news quiz (电视广播中的)新闻知识问答节目 10. Singapore stockbrokers protested their government?s politically inspired ban on private satellite dishes, arguing that access to instantaneous war news on CNN was vital for anticipating fluctuations in world financial markets. 出 于政治目的而禁止私人使用卫星碟形天线,认为收看有线新闻电视公司迅速播映 的战争新闻对估计世界上金融市场价格波动情况是至关重要的。 11. The terrorists who held Terry Anderson hostage in Lebanon used CNN as the vehicle to release a videotape of his appeal for help. 黎巴嫩绑架泰利·安德森为人质的恐怖 主义分子利用有线新闻电视公司放映安德森求救呼吁的录像带。 (安德森为美联社驻中东地区首席记者, 1984 年 3 月被中东恐怖主义分子在黎巴嫩 绑架为人质,直到 1989 年后才释放,绑架期长达 5 年之久。) (hold?hostage 把?扣为人质) 12. archbishop 大主教(天主教的神职分别为教皇 pope, 红衣主教 cardinal, 大主教 archbishop, 主教 bishop 及神父 father; 基督教的神职人员称为 priest, pastor, preacher, 译作牧师。) 13. Pontifical Council for Social Communications 教皇社会交往会议 14. CNN has become the fourth most respected brand name in the U.S. according to a recent poll of 2 000 people, ranked just behind the Disney?s parks, Kodak and Mecedes-Benz and ahead of Rolex, Levi?s, IBM and AT&T. 根据最近对 2000 人的 一次民意测验,有线新闻电视公司已在美国最受推崇的牌子名单上位居第四,只 排在迪斯尼乐园、柯达、梅赛德斯—奔驰之后,而位列罗莱克斯、利伐斯、国际 商用机器公司和美国电话电报公司之前。 (柯达是美国生产同名照相机和胶卷的公司;梅赛德斯—奔驰是德国的名牌汽车名 称;利伐斯又译为利伐裤、紧士裤,是美国旧金山利伐—斯特劳斯公司生产的牛 仔裤。) 15. ABC, NBC and CES networks 美国三大广播网 美国广播公司 全国广播公司 哥伦比亚广播公司 ABC = American Broadcasting Companies Inc. NBC = National Broadcasting Company CBS = Columbia Broadcasting System 新加坡股票经纪人抗议政府

(ABC, NBC 和 CBS 是长期占据美国广播电视中心位置的三大商业电视网, 三家公

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司都兼营无线广播网。NBC 的历史最长,其无线广播网开播于 1926 年;CBS 成 立于 1927 年。这两家公司都在三十年代初期开始进行电视实验广播,1941 年 7 月正式广播。ABC 正式成立于 1953 年,三大广播公司总部设在纽约市,在纽约、 洛 杉 矶 , 芝 加 哥 等 大 城 市 设 有 直 接 经 营 的 电 视 台 、 广 播 电 台 (O&O, owned & operated station)或附属电视台, 广播电台(affiliated station )这三大电视网在以后的二十多年 中始终垄断美国观众市场的 90%以上, 70 年代末期, 从 由于独立电视台大量增加、 有线电视台的发展及家用录像机的普及等原因,其垄断实力开始下降。 美国十大卫星有线电视台是: (1)娱乐和体育电视网(ESP) (2)有线新闻电视(CNN) (3)超级电视台(WTBS) (4)美国电视广播网(USA Network) (5)音乐电视台(MTV) (6)基督教电视台(CBN) (7)尼克洛顿电视台(Nicklodeon 对青少年儿童广播) (8)怀旧电视台(The Nostalgia Channel,播放 30~60 年代电影,喜剧,电视剧 ) (9)生活时代(Life Time) (10)公共事务电视网(C-SPAN,对众议院会议实况和新闻的报道) 16. As a source of knowledge in turbulent times, CNN may be without peer. 电视公司作为动乱时期的消息来源是无与伦比的。 (peer 同等地位的人) 17. Walter Cronkite 沃尔特·克朗凯特(1916 年出生,美国哥伦比亚广播公司著名新 闻评论员,1980 年退休,由丹·拉瑟(Dan Rather?)接替。) 18. For most of the Gulf War, CNN was the prime source of news, information and up -tothe-minute political intelligence for the U.S. government. 在 海湾战争大部分时间内为美国政府提供新闻、消息以及最新最及时的政治情报的 重要渠道。 19. National Military Intelligence Center at a pace often too slow during a fast-breaking crisis. 21. Cuban missile crisis 那些机构仍然墨守层层上报的 办事成规,这样的办事速度在迅速出现危机的时刻常常过于缓慢。 古巴导弹危机(指 1962 年 10 月发生在美国与苏联间的一场 危机。1961 年 4 月 17 日,由美国指挥的一支雇佣军约一、二千人在古巴拉斯维 拉斯省的吉隆滩登陆,4 月 19 日入侵的反革命武装全部被歼。之后,苏联加紧对 古巴进行经济、军事的援助。1962 年 10 月 14 日,美国侦察机发现古巴境内正在 构筑中程和中远程导弹基地。10 月 22 日,肯尼迪在广播中宣布美国要对驶往古 巴的苏联船只进行海空检查,同时又命令武装部队作好战斗准备,一时形势异常 国家军事情报中心 20. Those agencies remained geared to cycling paperwork up through chains of command 有线新闻电视公司是 有线新闻

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紧张。赫鲁晓夫在美国压力下退却,命令所有正向古巴运送武器的苏联船只返航, 并拆除在古巴的导弹基地, 把导弹装箱运回苏联。 肯尼迪在这场斗争中占了上风。 ) 22. Scud missile 背景第 4 条) 23. Perhaps CNN?s biggest impact has been on diplomacy. There too, the s tately march of paper via protocol has been supplanted by spontaneity and pragmatism. 电 视公司的最大影响可能要算外交方面。以前那种通过外交礼节进行的庄严的官方 文件的递送方式已经被自发和务实主义的方式所代替。 24. CNN?s reach makes it a kind of worldwide party line, allowing leaders to conduct a sort of conference call heard not only by the principals but also by their constituents across the planet. 以 利用它来举行电话会议,不但让这个星球上的主要负责人听到,而且让这些负责 人的选民们也听到。 25. National Security Council aide 26. diplomatic note 外交照会 国家安全委员会助理 有线新闻电视公司播发范围广已成为全球性的合用线路。领导人可 有线新闻 飞毛腿导弹(苏联制造,详见第一册,Text B, Unit six, The Gulf war,

27. When U.S. troops invaded Panama in December 1989, the Soviet foreign Minister read its condmnation to a CNN crew before passing it through diplomatic channels. 1989 年 12 月美国军队入侵巴拿马时,苏联外长先向有线新闻电视公司采访组宣读了苏 方对美国的谴责,之后才把它通过外交途径传递给美国。 28. The final effort at a peaceful settlement of the Gulf War epitomized the transition from the old diplomacy to the new. 交 工作已过渡到新型外交。 29. manila envelope 吕宋纸信封(因质地结实常被外交部门采用) 有线新闻电视公司也成 30. CNN has also become a kind of global spotlight, forcing despotic government to do their bloody deeds, if they dare, before a watching world. 只能暴露在世界人民面前。 (spotlight 原意是“聚光灯光束”) 31. coup = coup d?etat 政变(法语) 32. The image of a defiant Yelsin sent the same signal to the rest of the world and heightened pressure on President Bush to denounce the coup. 敢于反抗的叶利钦的 形象向全世界其它地方发出同样的信号,促使布什总统对这次政变采取谴责的行 动。 33. the newly independent Baltic republics 新独立的波罗的海共和国(此处指立陶 宛)(Lithuania)、拉脱维亚(Latvia)以及爱沙尼亚(Estonia)) 了一种全球性的照妖镜,使得那些专制政府若胆敢继续从事一些血腥勾当的话, 和平解决海湾战争的最后努力体现了旧的一套外

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34. gut-wrenching

令人揪心的 而且有线新闻电视

35. Moreover, the very exsistence of CNN has compelled rivals, inside and outside the U.S., to pursue more international news and air more of it live. 多的实况播送。 36. Now, even most TV reporters try to pride themselves on doing a story analytically and in depth. 现在, 甚至大多数电视记者也在努力进行有分析和有深度的新闻报道, 不可避免的结果 首脑会议 著名的审判案件 并以此为荣。 37. forgone conclusion 39. celebrated trials 38. summit = Summit Conference 公司的存在本身迫使它在美国国内外的竞争对手努力抢找国际新闻,并且进行更

40. During the Arab-Israeli peace conference in Madrid last November, where access was severely limited, nearly all of the 4 600 journalists had to follow the proceedings on

CNN. 报道。

去年十一月马德里召开阿拉伯、以色列和平会议时由于对会议采访

有严格的限制,几乎所有 4 600 名记者都不得不注意收看有线新闻电视公司的 41. print news 42. NHK 印刷新闻(指报纸上刊登的新闻报道,区别于电视新闻和广播新闻) (BBC)英国广播公司

日本广播协会 李嘉诚(在香港十大财团中排名第一,控制的公司占香港全部上市公 轻松的专稿 新成立的卫视五星站(目前通过亚洲一号通讯卫星转

43. British Broadcasting Corp. 44. Li Kashing 45. soft feature 司总市值的 13%上以。) 46. nascent STAR-TV system

播 的 频 道 , 包 括 合 家 欢 Star-plus, 凤 凰 卫 视 中 文 台 Chinese, 卫 视 体 育 台 Prime Sports, 卫视音乐台 Channel V,卫视电影台 Star-movie) 47. satellite = satellite (dish-shaped) antenna 48. CNN?s home turf (碟式)卫星天线 有线新闻电视公司的本国地盘

49. BBC officials say their new entry into the global-village sweepstakes offers more analysis, more authoritative opinion and a broader world view. 英国广播公司官员 说,他们新近参加了地球村性的竞争,从而提供了更多的分析,更加权威性的意 见和更加宽广的全球观点。 (地球村最先是由加拿大学者马歇尔·迈克鲁汉(Marshall Mcluhan)提出的。马歇 尔·迈克鲁汉,西方著名传播学专家,曾任多伦多大学教授。 他认为,通讯手段 的发达已使世界缩小为一个村落 (the global village)。现指由计算机、光纤和卫星 组成的信息高速公路将个人、家庭、地区和国家联成一个整体,即地球村。) 50. European Broadcasting Union 欧洲广播联盟 (由欧洲各国广播机构作为会员发起,于 1950 年 2 月 12 日成立,是最大的国际广 播组织。分正式会员、准会员两种(1981 年以前为三种,包括附加正式会员)。正

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式会员为欧洲广播区(欧洲地区和地中海沿岸的亚洲, 非洲国家)和全国性广播机构 或团体。准会员为欧洲广播区以外的广播机构。1983 年 11 月,有正式会员 36 个 (属 31 个国家)。准会员 70 个(属于 47 个国家)。欧广联的成立主要为了保护会员 利 益, 促进有关广播的各种问题的研究、 交流情况, 还管理“欧洲电视节目交换网”, 使用卫星和地面线路交换区域内外的新闻素材和其他节目。) 51. albeit = although newsgathering. 尽管,虽然(古英语) 美国国内三家大电视网迄今一直在为赶上有线新闻电视公司的 52. Within the U.S. , so far the Big Three networks have struggled to keep up with CNN?s 新闻搜集工作而努力。 (三家电视网即指 ABC,NBC 和 CBS) 53. What I fear is that in their straitened economic conditions, the networks will find CNN an excuse to shuck some of their own responsibilities. 我所担心的是这些电视公 司 由于经济困难将把有线新闻电视公司作为借口来推卸自己的责任。 54. gavel-to-gavel coverage 定调子的详细报道 55. “CNN has put a tremenduous strain on the print press,” says Thomas Winship, editor emeritus of The Boston Globe and a former president of the American Society of Newspaper Editors. 56. print = print press 57. clobber 反复打击 普利策奖获得者 58. Pulitzer prizewinner 《波士顿环球报》名誉编辑、美国报纸编辑协会前主席托马 报纸业 斯·温西顿说:“有线新闻电视公司给报纸业增加了巨大的压力。”

(约瑟夫·普利策,1847-1911,美籍匈牙利人,报业主及编辑。去世后留下大笔 财产,以他的名字设立了普利策奖金。这是一种在文学、音乐、新闻界颁发的年 奖。) 59. international coverage (international news report) 60. The Washington Post 《华盛顿邮报》 有线新闻电视公司的作用应当是让报界认 国际新闻报导

61. The effect of CNN should be to persuade newspapers that the stenographtic mode of reporting is obsolete, a real dinosaur. 清速记模式的报导现在已经过时。 (dinosaur 恐龙,文中指已经过时的事物) 62. The plight of newspapers in video age has rarely been more vivid than during the early days of the Gulf War and the Soviet leadership crisis. 战争和苏联领导危机的早期是最清楚不过的了。 63. the evolution of Mcluhan?s borderless world 见注释 49) 64. free trade transcends tariff (transcend 愿意为“超越”) 65. Says Joshus Meyrowitz, professor of communication at the University of New Hampshire: “Many of the things that define national sovereignty are fading. National 自由贸易不受关税的约束 麦克卢汉无边界世界理论的产物(参 电视时代报纸的处境在海湾

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sovereignty wasn?t based only on power and barbed wire; it was based also on information control.” 新罕布什尔大学传播学教授乔舒亚·梅罗维兹说:“许多 规定国家主权定义的内容正在消失,国家主权过去不仅建立在权力和铁丝网划界 的基础上,而且还建立在信息控制的基础上。 66. U.S. conservatives have complained for years about its tolerant attitude toward erstwhile communist leaderships and other dictatorships, which they see as a cynical ploy to assist the network in doing business in those countries or as a boost to Turner?s personal ambitions as a world peacemaker. 多年来美国保守分子一直不 满意有线新闻电视公司对前共产党政权领导人和其他专政政权的容忍态度,他们 认为这种态度是一种心术不正的手法,目的是帮助这家电视公司在那些国家里开 展业务或实现特纳要想成为世界和平缔造者的个人野心。 67. Fidel Castro 69. ecology-minded 菲德尔·卡斯特罗(古巴国务委员会主席) 环境保护主义 有生态环境意识的,关心生态的 《华盛顿邮报》专栏作家 68. environmentalism

(minded 常用以构成复合词,表示:有?心的,有?思想的;关心?的;重视?的) 70. The Washington Post columnist

71. It seems to me that they are probably more sensitive to host -government reaction than most journalistic organizations would be because of their approach of trying to be every-where. 因 为竭尽全力做到到处有有线新闻电视公司记者是他们的原则。 72. lean over backward 73. press release video press release raw news. 视 公司提供未经加工的原始新闻。 75. It features live events, bulletins and studios full of talking heads, often with scant analysis. 其报道特点是进行事件的实况转播、播发新闻简报,并在电视播映室 对人物作现场采访。对这些内容往往不作什么分析。 (talking head 接受电视采访者) 76. tradition of in-house experts 在室内编辑新闻稿件的专家的传统 新闻报道的队伍中大多 77. The reporting ranks number mostly workaday generalists. 数是一些从事实际工作的通才。 (number 做动词用,意思是“有”。) 78. It can show great sensitivity in dealing with racial and multicultural conflict and is attuned to the concerns of women and gays. 它(有线新闻电视网)在报导种族以及 不同于依靠专家在工作中陷于慢条斯理地研究问题的做法,有线新闻电 (为避免一种倾向而)走向另一极端 录像新闻稿 新闻稿 在我看来,他们对东道国政府的反应比多数新闻机构更为敏感,

74. In place of solwly mulled research from experts steeped in their field, CNN delivers

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多元文化冲突能够表现出很强的敏感性,也适应于报导妇女和同性恋者所关心的 事情。 79. airtime appeal. 因素。 81. Ideological critics of the media, left and right, agree on one thing —that the press is too arrogant, too ready to tell people what to think. 82. Populist 传播界的意识形态评论家, 无论左 派右派,有一点是共识的,即新闻界过于狂妄,好为人师。 (美国)人民党的(美国人民党是 1892 年美国南部和西部的农民建立的, 主张土地改革和减税,十九世纪末曾支持美国民主党的 William Jennigns Bryan 竞 选总统,1912 年解散);平民主义的(常 populist) 83. The idea that CNN ought to be more analytic and instructive is not universally held among government and business leaders either. 政府首脑及企业界要员也并不广 有太多该死的记者老在 泛认为有线新闻电视公司更应注重其节目内容的分析性和指导性。 84. There are too damn many journalists analyzing the news. 分 析新闻 85. A great deal of the criticism of CNN from outside the U.S. seems to be rooted in general resentment of U.S. power and influence. 来自国外对有线新闻电视公司的大量批 评似乎基于人们普遍对美国势力和影响的强烈不满。 86. Longtime French TV news correspondent Christine Ockrent calls CNN “a U.S. channel with a blobal vocation, but which sees the world through an American prism.” 命的美国频道,但这个频道观察世界带有美国人的偏见。” 87. dismissive 88. footage stage is the next best thing. 90. talk shows 然而,能有一个全球性质的播映台,也就是一个真正的全 (音译为:脱口秀) 它的两个 球电视网络,当然最好不过,不然的话,还是以美国台为最佳。 电视台的名人采访节目 91. One of its two U.S. cable channels, Headline News, offers an endlessly repeating half hour loop of updated news, sports economics and entertainment bulletins. 美 国有线频道之一的“标题新闻”提供最新的新闻、体育、经济和娱乐等简况,每半小时 一次,永不停止。 92. Part of the reason (why) CNN has survived its past economic travails is Turner?s go for-broke nervelessness. 有 线新闻电视公司能够度过过去的经济难关的部分原 看不起人的 一连串镜头 长期 担任法国电视新闻记者的克里斯汀·奥克朗称有线新闻电视公司为“具有全球使 广播时间 然而,强调事实胜于分析或许是有线电视新闻公司广泛吸引 观众的一个 80. An emphasis on events rather than analysis may, however, be a factor in CNN?s broad

89. But while a universal stage, a truly global network, would be better, the American

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因 是特纳具有办事全力以赴和镇定自如的优点。 93. No Relation 姓) 94. sound business management 95. fat rival 实力雄厚对手 为提供就业机会而安排工作的工会条例 多项技能的训练 96. make-work union rules 97. cross training broadcasting live and at length from remote locations. 功 所最需要的:远距离实况直播和详细报道。 99. The network pioneered the use of costly satellite uplinks—packages of technology that can be disassembled into suitcase-size components weighing less than 45 kg each and capable of being checked as luggage onto an ordinary passenger jet. 先 使用费用昂贵的卫星线路技术装备 — 可以拆卸成手提箱大小部件的成套技术设 备,每件不超过 45 公斤和能够作为普通喷气客机行李托运。 100. People expect CNN to have live coverage. 播送的新闻报道节目。 101. With today?s technology, live is easier to do, and it?s sex y. 送做起来容易,收看时很过瘾。 (sexy 有吸引力的,激动人心的) 102. knee-jerk 机械式反应的 有线新闻电 103. In the style of the eminently quotable and confessional Ted Turner, the free -wheeling and frankly told adventures of CNN have yielded entertaining books. 视 公司随心所欲和直率叙述的冒险事迹已被编写成娱乐书出版,这应归功于特 德·特纳的说话坦诚和允许别人引用其话的优良工作作风。 104. Soviet coup 105. hit the stand 106. sibling 苏联政变(指 1991 年 8 月 19 日成立“国家紧急状态委员会”和不 上市(指图书报纸等“在书摊上出售”) 特纳出版公司(有线新闻电视广播公司的姐妹公司) 到三天以失败告终的事件) 兄弟/姐妹 当今的技术使实况播 人们期望有线新闻电视公司提供实况 这个电视网率 有线新闻电视公司耗资最多的正是其成 井井有条的管理 无亲戚关系(文中的 Ed Turner 与 CNN 老板 Ted turner 的父亲同名同

98. The most expensive thing CNN does is the most necessary to its survival :

107. Turner Publishing

108. Wienner?s final words are “To broadcast, for the first time in history, live pictures to the entire world of a war in progress from behind enemy lines. Murrow would have loved it!” 维纳的最后结论是:“这是有史以来首次从敌军后方向全世界播出 正在进行的战争实况的镜头。默罗如果还活着,也会赞赏的!” (Murrow = Edward Murrow 爱德华·默罗,1908~1965,美著名电台和电视新闻

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评论员,曾任美国新闻署署长。) 109. The sense of shared experience is the vital starting place for building a consensus on every matter of global concern, from unclear disarmament to environmental cleanup, from hunger to health care. 点。 110. How else to explain Kenyans who lined up six-deep in front of electronics stores to watch footage of a war they had no soldiers fighting in? 不然如何解释肯尼亚人在 电子产品商店门前排着队,里三层外三层地观看没有肯尼亚士兵参加的战争镜头呢? 111. The full potential of the medium that televisionary Ted Turner bet the house on is just beginning to be realized. 胸怀大志的电视企业家特德·特纳准备倾家荡产所从 事的电视传播业的巨大潜力现在刚开始被人们所理解。 (visionary 原意是 “理想主义者” “好幻想的人” televisionary = television visionary ; ; 可译为“胸怀大志的电视企业家”。) 共同享有的责任感是使全世界在每件令人关注的问 题上,诸如从核裁军到环境净化、从饥荒到卫生保健等,达成一致意见的重要起

QUESTIONS
1. How do the authors prove that CNN became a major news source during the Gulf War? Give some examples. 2. How do the authors prove that CNN became a major news source for the chiefs of state and foreign ministers? Find out the names of those who have been mentioned in the article as the world?s power elite. 3. Why do the authors, in this article, mention the Disney parks, Kodak, and Mercedez Benz, Rolex, Levi?s, IBM and AT& T? 4. What are the examples do the authors use to prove that CNN ha s the biggest impact on diplomacy? 5. In the article, the authors write that “CNN has also become a kind of global spotlight, forcing government to do their bloody deeds before a watching world.” Do you agree with the authors? Why? 6. What are the attitudes of other journalists? 7. What is the situations for the Big Three networks? 8. According to the authors, who are the other possible competitors with CNN? How are they getting on? 9. What did social theorist Marshall Mcluhan proclaim a generati on ago? 10. How much do you know about Ted Turner? 11. What are the main factors in CNN?s prosperity? 12. In what way has CNN put a tremendous strain on the print press? 13. What are the problems with the print press? 14. What do some of the sociel theorists think about CNN? 15. What are the positive views on CNN? What are the negative views?

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16. Comment on the statement: “It provides the raw materials of the story and lets the viewers form their own opinions”. on CNN? 17. What does a great deal of criticism of CNN from outside the U.S. seem to be rooted in ? 18. According to Brazil?s Foreign Ministor, Francisco Rezek, what are the two most important lessons the U.S. represents? frequently belittle CNN? Do you agree with him? Why do scholars 19. Why have U.S. conservatives been against CNN for years? What sort of opinion does the statement reflect

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Text

B

Wiring the World
With plain old telephone service on the way out, get ready for a telecom revolution and one of the great business battles of the ’90s. 1
Among the ranks of 19 th-century inventors, few boasted a more fertile mind 2 than Alexander Graham Bell. 3 Yet even the inventor of the telephone would be flabbergasted were he to stop by the Paris offices of Le Point, French newsweekly. 4 As deadline approaches, a photo editor sits down to select pictures for the next edition. Her presses a few keys on his personal computer. The PC dials into France Telecom?s Numeris Network. 5 Within seconds, color images materialize 6 on the computer?s screen direct from photo agencies 7 across the city, allowing the editor to make his choices without budging from his office chair. Traditional voice calls still account for 90 percent of what telephone lines are used for—POTS, for Plain Old Telephone Service, in industry jargon. 8 But that is yesterday?s telecom business. The other, fast-growing parts of the business, such as value-added networks (VANS) 9 like numeris and wireless phones, are revolutionizing the global industry. As commercial telephony embarks on its second century of service, telecommunications is being redefined by the convergence of two forces: the advent of digital technology and the unleashing of global competition caused by the dismantling of national local and long-distance telephone monopolies. 10 That is allowing telephony, computing and a host of other industries to merge. The world?s 580 million phone subscribers 11 can only guess what the result will look like. Some of the possibilities are already emerging. At the office, far -flung employees video conference while simultaneously working on, say, financial or legal documents on their PCs. 12 Or surgeons consult with a colleague around the corner or around the world while both look at the same 3-D X-rays 13 on screen. Apple Computer?s 14 production engineers in its California, Ireland and Singapore plants do that with blueprints and product specs. 15 At home, imagine combining any or all of your television, cable descrambler, personal computer, camcorder, radio and phone handset into a bl ack box that plugs into the telephone outlet—and then ordering a private showing of “Gone with the Wind” on your TV or balancing your bank account or sending electronic mail while chatting with your best friend on the phone. 16 Exclusive grip: 17 In some cases, phone companies have already surrendered their

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exclusive grip on their market to other industries. Apple?s telecom network linking its manufacturing plants never touches a conventional telephone company; it uses a private network provided by a computer-service company, Electronic Data Systems (EDS). 18 Telephone companies, cable TV firms, broadcasting networks, Hollywood studios, media groups, software companies, telecom-equipment makers, data processors and consumer-electronics giants are all scrambling for position in the $300 billion business about which only two things are certain. 19 It will be global and it will be brutal battleground that will for a while destroy companies, baffle consumers and confront governments with complex new regulatory issues. 20 The technological key is digitization. Audio, video, data and the human voice — anything that can be translated into a digital signal of 1?s and 0?s —can be handled over an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) line simultaneously. 21 Previously each required its own “highway.” At the same time a host of other new technologies are rapidly merging. Fiber-optic cable offer broader capacity. Wireless transmission offers flexibility. Better data compression increases speed and network capacity. 22 Increasingly sophisticated software is able to direct the flow of data traffic and to connect previously isolated technologies at either end of the line. 23 But it?s not just technology behind this revolution. Competition is crucial too. For decades the world map of telecommunications was a checkerboard 24 of monopolies, either public or private. As long as telephone services consisted of little more than connecting place to place with a length of wire, these monopolies were thought of as “natural.” Typically, ownership of telephone service was retained by governments themselves, as extensions of their postal and telegraph services (PTT?s). 25 The profit on telephones provided subsidies for other parts of government. At the same time state -run telegraph and telephone agencies provided
26 27

captive

customers

for

“national

champion”

telecom-equipment makers. private company, AT&T,

Even in America, though the phone network was run by a

it was a monopoly.

In 1982 U.S. Judge Harold Greens began the erosion of America?s pri vate sector monopoly by ordering the separation of AT&T?s long-distance and local services and equipment manufacturing, heralding the era of competition in long -distance telecommunication, though not of local service. For reasons of ideology and efficiency , that idea was copied elsewhere, and regulators busied themselves with the questions of how many competitors to license and the rules governing competing carriers. 28 But in a world of dizzying technological change, the regulators inevitably lag behind. In America, long-distance companies are using local fiber-optic lines to sidestep their exclusion from local telephone service, 29 and local telephone companies are buying overseas cable-TV networks to learn how to deliver telephone, television and other info rmation services over

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a cable line, something that they are—for now—severely restricted from doing at home. To exploit this new world and to compete against rivals who already have worldwide operations, telecom companies large and small are restructuring t hemselves along global lines. AT&T chairman Robert Allen recently predicted that half of the firm?s revenues would come from non-U.S. operations by the end of the decade. Like all the world?s giant telecom companies, AT&T sees a two-tiered international market 30 developing; providing private VANS and network management for companies with international operations; and installing modern public networks, especially in the parts of the world where telecom services are now rudimentary and must be modernized to d evelop domestic business and attract foreign investors. “From now until the year 2001, there will be more new lines installed in Asia and Latin America than in the industrialized nations,” says Louis -Jacques Companyo, corporate director for international affairs at Alcatel, 31 the world?s largest telecom equipment manufacturer, which depends upon its home French market for only 25 percent of its business. In the former East bloc, 32 rebuilding the dilapidated public network is a top priority. “We cannot make up for the deficiencies of 45 years in a year or two, 33 ” says Krzysztof Kilian, Poland?s minister of communications. Nonetheless, “telecommunications might be one of the first areas where we?ll reach European standards.” Nowhere is the demand for modern communications as great as in furiously industrializing China. 34 While cellular phones 35 are common among the smart set 36 in Beijing or Guangzhou (despite a $4 600 hookup charge) 37 , on average there?s only 1.6 phone lines for every 100 people. For the 3 000 residents of Gougezhuang, three hours? train ride from Beijing, that means sharing a single phone at the railroad depot. Beijing?s Posts and Telecommunications Ministry has committed itself to a program to increase the number of telephones by 600 percent—to 120 million—by the year 2000, a goal that means adding more than 12 million lines every year until then (the United States adds 5 million lines annually). That?s only the beginning. The ministry has also embarked on laying 32 000 kilometers of fiber-optic cable, building 19 satellite earth stations and installing digital microwave linkups covering another 15 000 kilometers 38 . Beijing plans to spend as much as $5.2 billion this year alone on upgrading the system. Sheer cost: The sheer cost and complexity of serving the new global arena is forcing even the largest players to seek out partners. 39 “No one can do it alone anymore,” says Ian Craig, president and chief executive of Canadian-owned Northern Telecom Europe. Germany?s Deutsche Bundespost Telecom 40 and France Telecom have formed Eunetcom to provide sophisticated services and network management to pan -European corporations. British Telecom is now reported to be seeking a linkup with EDS to provide global service to companies without the costs and inconvenience of having to switch in and out of local networks. 41

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Outside the United States most local networks have long been government monopolies. That is changing. From Britain to New Zealand, governments are hanging up on state ownership and handing over the phones to private enterprises. 42 Nowhere has the change been as sweeping as in Latin America. 43 Since 1990 the PTT?s of Argentina, Mexico, Chile and Venezuela have been privatized, and Colombia and Brazil are planning to take the jump. In Buenos Aires all that?s left of the old PTT is the logo 44 on phone booths. The new owners aren?t even native but European: Spain?s one -third state-owned Telefonic de Espana and the fully state-owned France Telecom. 45 Since taking over, they have poured nearly $700 million into rebuilding Argentina?s networks. Though traffic in Buenos Aires is worse than ever as phone company crews rip up the streets to lay fiber-optic cable, most Argentines don?t mind the inconvenience. “It?s a nuisance, but at least they?re doing something,” says Jose Riboletti, a businessman peering into a crater 46 on Paraguay Street. “Our phones have been bad for too long.” Yet a private monopoly is little better than a state monoploy, 47 though it might be more efficient (Telefonica Argentina has cut its work force by 25%). Telefonos de Mexico is still the leading source of complaints to Mexico?s National Institute for Consumer Protection, 48 “I called to complain about one of my lines that has been out of service for a month, and I had to wait 15 minutes just to get through,” fumes Jose Ohana, a Mexico City store owner. Local monopolies have been tolerated for the sake of convenience because the practicalities of conventional phone technology made it inevitable that, as the number of subscribers in a city grew, only one operator would control a local network. 49 Even as other segments of the telecom network became competitive — long-distance, data transmission—the local loop remained closed to new entrants. 50 Final barries: That final barrier is being breached. Coming advances in wireless-phone technology spell the demise of the local phone monopoly. 51 Late last year AT&T stunned the U.S. telecom industry with its announcement that it planned to buy one third of McCaw Cellular Communications, America?s largest cellular phone company, for $3.8 billion. Though McCaw has never been profitable, AT&T is playing the long game. 52 The present family of cellular phones has served primarily to complement the conventional wire network—giving busy executives a way to stay in touch, however expensively, while shuttling from home to office. But the next generation will rewrite the book on telephone usage by transforming the telephone from an instrument of site -to-site communication into one for connecting anywhere to anyone. Digital wireless phones will provide much greater channel capacity, allowing as many as 20 phones to share the same frequency that one analog cellular phone now occupies, thus lowering costs. 53 AT&T sees digital cellular as a way to connect its customers directly to its long-distance lies over its own wireless

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network. AT&T?s incentive to bypass the local phone companies derives from the bottom lone: 54 it must pay local phone companies about 50 percent of its revenues in so -called “access charges” 55 to complete its long-distance calls over their local loops. 56 Losing that revenue would be a disaster for the Baby Bells, 57 the regional local phone companies created by the AT&T breakup. These are already losing corporate clients in high -density areas like Manhattan to independent fiber-optic networks, which connect a firm?s phones directly to its long-distance carriers. Don?t assume, though, that wires into your home are about to become obsolete. To the contrary, they are about to become busier than ever, According to one scenario, 58 the most popular forms of mass communication—telephone, TV, perhaps even radio—will swap the means by which they are delivered to consumers. Traditional broadcast media such as radio and television will transmit by wire; basic telephony will be beamed 59 over the air. Phone companies are frantically devising new ways to send more and more data down the existing lines. Digital transmission protocol such as ISDN can pack 1.5 million bits of information per second (compared with 65,000 bits for regular phones) over a copper wire, enough to handle digitized video signals, voice and electronic mail at the same time. 60 Presently limited to corporate clients, ISDN service is already widespread in Europe and Japan. The next-generation broadband 61 ISDN will boast an even higher transmission rate thanks to capacious fiber-optic lines, letting telephone customers gain access to mainframe computers, 62 watch high-resolution 63 movies and talk to friends on videophones. The local wires will be turned from a one-laneroad 64 into a 21 st century superhighway conveying nearly limitless amounts of information. The spade work has begun. 65 In February, U.S. West, a Baby Bell, said it would rewire its 13.2 million customers across 14 states with fiber-optic cable. The cost will be immense: U.S. West estimates the project will consume $13 billion and 26 years. That may be too long. More than 50 percent of American homes are already linked to a broadband network.: the coaxial lines 66 of the $22 billion cable-television industry. The rivalry between the two industries has been intensifying for years, but improvements in technology—and the continuing blurring of their respective markets—is forcing them into a duel whose outcome will determine which industry will dominate information delivery. 67 Fresh turf: 68 The phone companies are vulnerable to cable attack. 69 There?s no technical reason why telephone calls can?t be sent over the same coaxial lines now used to deliver cable television. “The battlelines are pretty clear right now,” says Fred Salerno, vice chairman of Baby Bell NYNEX Corp. “Our market share will shrink, but we must make sure it doesn?t shrink too much. We must look for expansion outside our turf.” In

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February Southwestern Bell became the first U.S. phone company to purchase a cable system in the United States, spending $650 million to acquire two systems in suburban Washington, D.C., linking a total 225 000 homes in the backyard of Bell Atlantic. The Baby Bells have been learning this new business in Britain, one of the few nations to have deregulated its entire phone network. There, U.S. West, NYNEX and Southwestern Bell, among others, are stringing coaxial cable and buying existing franchises as fast as they can and offering Britons the choice of receiving TV and phone service over the same wire. Already 100 000 homes have been lured by lower prices to jump from British Telecom. “We?re doing to BT what other people will be doing to us very soon,” says NYNEX?s Salerno. Customers subscribing to co mpeting systems can still communicate with each other, thanks to trunk lines 70 connecting the cable companies with BT?s switching equipment. 71 Such multiple networks are the wave of the future, if a regulator?s nightmare. “Previously you had one network and one service. Now you have many networks and many services,” says David Cleevely, managing director of Analysis Ltd., a cambridge, England-based industry think tank. 72 Consumer groups worry, though, that notions of providing universal phone service and charging uniform local rates, will get lost in the competition. 73 Technological advances have come too fast for most government regulators to keep pace. “I don?t believe anybody understands the implications,” says Jonathan Rickford, BT?s director of government relations. While the European Community has liberalized rules for some telecom services such as value-added data networks, the progress on Pan-European deregulation of basic telephony has been slow. And though in Britain the average home bill has fallen by an average of 1.5 percent a year since BT was privatized in 1984, the continued domination of the market by state monopolies has allowed rates for most corporate telecom customers to remain artificially high (a big reason companies have migrated to private networks). But greater competition on the public networks is inevitable. Some analysts say the remaining PTT?s will be forced to cut their government apron strings 74 by the end of the decade. “Telecoms are coming out of the public -sector closet,” says John Clarke, an analyst for Daiwa Institute of Research in London. Those, such as the French government, who do not share the view, believe one reason for maintaining state-owned telecom companies is that it is only the state that can bear the enormous investment in wiring the world. AT&T vice chairman Randall Tobias estimates that global spending on new telecom equipment “will consume as much as $70 billion a year since Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone,” he notes. But the business will be commensurately large. In Europe alone, telecom revenue is expected to more than double—to $297 billion—by the year 2000. By then the business will generate 4.5 percent of the EC?s gross domestic product, surpassing the auto industry in both financial size an d

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importance. Who will pay for it all? Third World countries can receive soft loans from multinational development agencies like the World Bank to fund their modernization. 75 In the rich economies of North America and Europe, consumers will foot the bill. 76 They will have to hope that the new world of telecommunications will be like computing, where leaps in technology and fierce competition have driven down prices. But computer makers have also gone bust by the score as that competition crucifies profit margins. 77 That is a worrying precedent for consumers, producers and their employees and governments alike. Still, they have no choice but to be swept along in the revolution. The old order is on the verge of collapse. Mark Frankel with Carol Hall in London, Theodore Stanger in Paris, Brook Larmer in Buenos Aires, Karl Huus in Beijing and bureau reports Newsweek April 5, 1993

BACKGROUND
1. In September 1993 the United States announced that it would invest $400~500 billion to construct an information superhighway. It will take 20 ye ars to complete. In December 1993 Vice President A1 Gore reaffirmed the administration?s intention of constructing the superhighway. The official name for this gigantic project is the “National Information Infrastructure.” The information superhighway is b ased on today?s telephone and cable TV networks. It is also based on today?s interactive network, which was first built in 1969 and now has 9 000 networks in 102 countries and serves more than 10 million people. The information superhighway uses digital fiber -optic technology. One such cable can transmit as many picture signals as done by today?s 5 000 TV channels at the same time. It can also transmit as many voice signals as done by today?s 500 000 telephone lines at the same time. The importance of the information superhighway can never be overstated. In November 1993 Bell Co. announced that it would invest $16 billion in the construction of a high-speed fiber-optic transmission system in the coming 7 years, to provide better voice, data and video transmission services. Before that Telecom Corp. and Time-Warren Co. has announced that they would invest $2~5 billion to improve their communications systems. These two companies have so far controled one third of the 60 million cable TV and telephone subscribers. 2. The word multi-media was created in 1991. It is a new kind of media blending

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computer, TV, video-game and other communiction technologies. The multi-media can turn a plain TV set into an interactive, two-way medium, using digital and fiber-optic technologies. By the beginning of the 21 st century American homes are expected to give up TVs, PCs, VCRs, fax machines, telephones, videogame machines and CD -players. All these machines will be replaced by or turned into one multi-media information system using a coaxial fiber-optic cable. On this system, people can talk with friends on a videophone; they can do their shopping and make the payment without leaving home; they can consult a doctor or specialist without going to a hospital or clinic; they can monitor their investment if they are interested in stock market quotations; they can even work at home without going to their office if they are white-collar workers. 3. China has launched a Gold Bridge project, planning to build up the nation?s new information network, using fiber-optic, satellite, microwave, program-controlled and radio mobile technologies. China aims to use more than $7 billion in overseas capital by the year 2000 for the construction of posts and telecommunications facilities. China will be the world?s largest telecommunications market in the 21 st century. So far nearly all the world?s leaders in the sector have established ties with China, and many medium-sized and small enterprises are preparing to enter. Foreign investment is encouraged in all areas except the direct management of telecommunications businesses and management through buying stock. The production of telecommunications equipment is fully open to foreigners, who can open joint or solely-funded enterprises in the country. So far all the country?s new telecommunications equipment production lines are the result of Sino-foreign coorperation, such as the Sino-Belgium Switch Co. in Shanghai, the Tianjin-NEC Co. and the Beijing Siemens Co. 4. The Internet is a global network of networks enabling computers of all kinds to directly and transparently communicate and share services throughout much of the world. Because the Internet is an enormously valuable, enabling capability for so many people and organizations, it also constitutes shared global resource of information, knowledge, and means of collaboration among countless diverse communities. Starting at the top, each country typically has one or more backbone public internets which are connected to each other though a variety of global arrangements. At the regional and local levels, there are tens of thousands of organizations of every conceivable kind that have built their own enterprise internets and connected them to national backbones. Most of the networks are operated by organizations that either provide Internet access to internal staff or specialize in providing widespread public access to end-users. The Internet technology and networks were originally developed by the research arm of the U.S. Department of Defense to provide robust interconnection of its information resources and researchers. During the 1980s, the technology and networks were adopted by other government agencies and countries, as well as the private business sectors.

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5. During the past years, many countries, especially developed countries, adjusted their science strategies to prepare for what is being called the Age of Intelligence. This successor of the Information Age is characterized by the use of high technology, especially that designed to liberate humans from mental work. Today?s information highways, which already crisscross the world, will become the infrastructure needed for tomorrow?s more advanced methods for information transmission. Breakthroughs in the development of artificial intelligence will lead to progress is information processing. Developed countries, each eager to be the first to enter this brave new Age of Intelligence, have attached unprecedented importance to science and technology, and adopted policies to fulfil the aim. While the policies adopted by these nations differ in some respects, they have much in common. First, all these countries view the information highway and biological technology as top priorities for the coming age. The second point is that all the countries are making major efforts to educate and train high-quality scientists and technicians. Third, the various governments have shifted the focus of research and development from defence programmes to economic construction and improved their macrocontrol over the development of science and technology. Fourth, developed countries have ref ormed their research and development systems to ensure balanced development of various fields of science and technology. Finally, the developed nations emphasize the importance of cooperation in such fields as high-tech research and environmental protection. In fact, in some countries, funds used in international science co-operation account for 10 per cent of total research and development budgets. Undoubtedly, too, competition for a leading role in the coming Age of Intellingence will be fierce at the higher level in the years to come among the nations which already have an edge in the field of science and technology.

NOTES TO TEXT B
1. With plain old telephone service on the way out, get ready for a telecom revolution and one of the great business battles of the 90s. (telecom = telecommunication) 2. fertile mind 有丰富创造力的头脑 亚历山大·格雷厄姆·贝尔(1847~1922,苏格兰裔美国 3. Alexander Graham Bell 由于普通旧式电话逐渐退出服务,为 一场电信革命和 90 代商业大战之一作好准备吧。

人,1876 年发明电话,1877 年建立贝尔电话公司。) 4. Yet even the inventor of the telephone would be flabbergasted we re he to stop by the Paris offices of Le Point, French newsweekly. 然而就连这位电话的发明人,如果他 还活着并到法国新闻周刊《观点》的巴黎办公室看看的话,也会感到大吃一惊。

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(were he to stop by? = if he were to stop by ?) 5. The PC dials into France Telecom?s Numeris network. 信公司的数字通讯网络。 6. materialize 7. photo agency 突然出现(原指鬼魂的突然显形) 图片社 传统的话音电话仍 这台个人计算机进入法国电

8. Traditional voice calls still account for 90 percent of what telephone lines are used for —POTS, for Plain Old Telephone Service, in industry jargon. 9. value-added networks(VANS) 10. As commercial telephony telecommunications is being redefined by the convergence of two forces: the advent of digital technology and the unleashing of global competition caused by the dismantling of national local and long-distance telephone monopolies. 当商业性电话业进入其第二个世纪的服 务时,电信的意义正被两种会聚的力量重新界定:数字式技术的出现以及由于全 国的市内电话和长途电话垄断之解体而引起的全球性竞争。 (Convergence 11. phone subscriber 会聚,集合) 电话用户 在办公室里,相隔遥远的工作人员 增值网络 embarks on its second century of service, 然占用电话线路的 90%。 以电话业行话来说, 这些线路是为 “普通旧式电话服务的” 。

12. At the office, far-flung employees video conference while simultaneously working on, say, financial or legal documents on their PCs. 13. 3-D X-rays 三维 X 射线 (美)苹果计算机公司 规格;说明书 在使用个人用计算机,比如撰写财政或法律文件的同时还可参加电视会议。 (D = Dimensional) 14. Apple Computer 15. specs = specifications

16. At home, imagine combining any or all of your television, cable descrambler, personal computer, camcorder, radio and phone handset into a black box that plugs into the telephone outlet —and then ordering a private showing of “Gone with the Wind” on your TV or balancing your bank account or sending electronic mail while chatting with your best friend on the phone. 在家庭里,设想把任何一个或全部的电视、有线反 扰频器、个人用计算机、摄录放影机、收音机和电话收送话器联成一个自动控制 电子元件。这个元件可以插入电话输出线。然后你就可以在电话上与你的好友闲 聊的时候同时下达指示让电视机专为你放一场“飘”的影片,或者同时结平银行 帐目,或者同时发送电话邮件。(black box 可整体装拆的自动控制电子元件) 17. exclusive grip 独家控制 18. Apple?s telecom network linking its manufacturing plants never touches a conventional telephone company; it uses a private network provided by a computerservice company, Electronic Data Systems (EDS). 系 的电信网络从不通过传统的电话公司;它用的是一家电子计算机服务公司,即电 苹果计算机公司与其制造厂联

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子数据系统公司的私营网络。 19. Telephone comanies, cable TV firms, broadcasting networks, Hollywood studios, media groups, software companies, telecom-equipment makers, data processors and consumer-electronics giants are all scrambling for position in the $300 billion business about which only two things are certain. 电话公司、 有线电视公司、 广播网络公司、 好莱坞制片厂、传播媒介集团、软件公司、电信设备制造公司、数据处理公司和 电子消费品大公司纷纷在 3 千亿美元的生意上争夺一席之地。这笔大生意有两个 明显的特点。 20. complex new regulatory issues 新而复杂的管理问题 21. The technological key is digitization. Audio, video, data and the human voice — anything that can be translated into a digital signal of 1?s and 0?s —can be handled over and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) line simultaneously. 字信号的内容 — 均可同时在综合服务数字网络线路上得到处理。 22. Better data compression increases speed and network capacity. 进 增加了传播速度和网络的容量。 23. Increasingly sophisticated software is able to direct the flow of data traffic and to connect previously isolated technologies at either end of the line. 件 能够引导数据通信量的流动,并且把线路两端原先为孤立的技术联成一体。 24. checkerboard 棋盘(文中比喻战场) 邮电局 25. postal and telegraph services (PTT?s) customers for “national champion” telecom-equipment makers. 同时国营电报电话局为“全国 美国电话电报公司(亦称美 最有名气”的电信设备制造商提供俯首听话的客户。 27. AT&T = American Telephone and Telegraph Company 国电信公司,总公司设在纽约市。它初建于 1888 年,1890 年接受贝尔电话公司 全部资产,成为贝尔系统的母公司。到 1983 年,它拥有美国全国各地 22 家电话 电报公司,还掌握着一个巨大的工业子公司 — 西方电气公司和一个著名的电子 研究机构 — 贝尔实验所。1984 年 1 月,美国政府迫使 AT&T 宣布在今后几年内 将进行以“白领阶层”为主体的大裁员。后来 AT&T 与贝尔实验室的主体分道扬 镳。) 28. carrier 信息传递公司 在美国,长途电话公司正在使用地区光纤 29. In America, long-distance companies are using local fiber-optic lines to sidestep their exclusion from local telephone service. 线路以越过不能参与市内电话服务的规定。 越来越高级的软 数字压缩技术的改 技术上的 关键是数字化。音频、视频、数据和话音 — 任何可转变成“1”和“0”的数

26. At the same time state-run telegraph and telephone agencies provided captive

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30. two-tiered international market 31. Alcatel 32. former East bloc

双轨国际市场

阿尔卡泰尔(法国大公司,制造电信设备) 前东方集团(指由共产党掌握政权的前苏联和东欧国家) 我们无法用 1、

33. We cannot make up for the deficiencies of 45 years in a year or two. 2 年时间就弥补过去 45 年的欠帐。

34. Nowhere is the demand for modern communications as great as infuriously industrializing China. 35. cellular phone 36. smart set 时髦人士 工业化进行得热火朝天的中国对现代通讯设备需求最大。 蜂窝式移动电话,大哥大

37. hookup charge 接线费 38. The ministry has also embarked on laying 32 000 kilometers of fiber -optic cable, building 19 satellite earth stations and installing digital microwave linkups covering another 15 000 kilometers. 邮电部还着手铺设 32 000 公里的光纤电缆,建造 19 座卫星地面接收站,安装覆盖 15 000 公里距离的数字微波连接装置。 39. The sheer cost and complexity of serving the new global arena is forcing even the largest players to seek out partners. 和 对付这场全球化竞争的复杂性而言, 即使最强大的竞争者也不得不寻求合作伙伴。 40. Deutsche Bundespost Telecom 德意志联邦邮政电信局 41. British Telecom is now reported to be seeking a linkup with EDS to provide global service to companies without the costs and inconvenience of h aving to switch in and out of local networks. 联 网业务的途径以便为公司客户提供全球性服务,从而免去为进入或退出市内网络 所支付的费用和不便。 42. From Britain to New Zealand, governments are hanging up on state ownership and handing over the phones to private enterprises. 止国营制而把电话交给私营企业经营。 (hang up 中止) 43. Nowhere has the change been as sweeping as in Latin America. 为 彻底。 (nowhere 放在句道,句子中的助动词 has 提到主语 change 之前,这是一种强调结 构。) 44. logo = logotype 标识 电话业务的新主甚 45. The new owners aren?t even native but European: Spain?s one-third state-owned telefonic de Espana and the fully state-owned France Telecom. 至 不是当地人而是欧洲人:三分之一归国有的西班牙电话公司和全部国营的法国电 信公司。 拉丁美洲的变化最 从英国到新西兰,各国政府正在中 据报道,英国电信公司正在寻求与电子数据系统公司建立 单就为这新的全球竞争领域提供服务的费用

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46. crater 国

弹坑,坑(文中指大街上铺设电缆而挖出的坑沟) 然而私人垄断并不比

47. Yet a private monopoly is little better than a state monopoly, 家垄断好到哪里去。

48. Telefonos de Mexico is still the leading sources of complaints to Mexico?s National Institute for Consumer Protection. 墨西哥电话公司仍然是人们向墨西哥全国消费 者(利益)保护协会投诉的主要批评对象。 49. Local monopolies have been tolerated for the sake of convenience because the practicalities of conventional phone technology made it inevitable that, as the number of subscribers in a city grew, only one operator would control a local network. 便 利的缘故,市内电话垄断被人们所容忍,因为传统电话技术的实用性所造成的不 可避免的结果是:随着城市中电话用户数量的增多,也往往只由一家电话公司控 制一个市内电话网络。 50. Even as other segments of the telecom network became competitive —long-distance, data transmission —the local loop remained closed to new entrants. 不向新的经营参与者开放。 51. Coming advances in wireless-phone technology spell the demise of the local phone monopoly. 无线电话技术的进一步发展意味着市内电话垄断的结束。 美国电话电报公司在作长期的打算。 52. AT&T is playing the long game. 尽管电信网络 的其他部分,如长途电话和数据传递已成为有竞争性的业务,市内电话线路仍然 出于

53. Digital wireless phones will provide much greater channel capacity, allowing as many as 20 phones to share the same frequency that one analog cellular phone now occupies, thus lowering costs. 用。 54. bottom line 额) 55. access charge 56. local loop 57. Baby Bells 58. scenario 59. beam 进入费,使用费 小贝尔公司(指从 AT&T 分出去的市区电话公司) 设想(原指电影剧本或剧情说明) 市内回路 末行数字(企业年终结算损益表中的末行数字,代表损益数字或利润 数字式无线电话将使信道容量大大增加。一部模拟移动电话 现在所占用的频率却可容许二十部(数字式无线)电话的同时使用,从而降低了费

发射,发出(无线电信号,广播节目等)

60. Digital transmission protocol such as ISDN can pack 1.5 million bits of information per second (compared with 65 000 bits for regular phones) over a copper wire, enough to handle digitized video signals, voice and electronic mail at the same time. 诸如像 综合服务数据网络这样的数字传送规定使一条铜线的信息传送容量达到每秒 150 万比特(相比之下普通电话只能有 6 万 5 千比特的容量), 足以同时处理数字化的视 频信号,话音和电子邮件。 (bit 比特,是二进制的信息单位。)

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61. broadband

宽频带 计算机主机 高清晰度,高显像度 单道线路 艰难的准备工作已经开始。 共轴线路,同轴线路;同轴电缆

62. mainframe computer 63. high-resolution 64. one-lane road 66. coaxial line

65. The spade work has begun.

67. The rivalry between the two industries has been intensifying for years, but improvements in technology —and the continuing blurring of their respective markets —is forcing them into a duel whose outcome will determine which industry will dominate information delivery. 数年来这两种行业的较量一直在加剧。然而技 术上的改进,加上这两种不同市场间界线的日益模糊,正在迫使它们进入一场决 斗,其结果将决定哪个行业将控制信息传递。 68. fresh turf 冲击。 70. trunk line 72. think tank 中继线路 交换设备 智囊班子,智囊团 然而,消费者团体担 71. switching equipment 新的业务范围,新的地盘 电话公司经不起有线电视业的 69. The phone companies are vulnerable to cable attack.

73. Consumer groups worry, though, that notions of providing universal phone service and charging uniform local rates, will get lost in the competition. 心, 那种提供全球电话服务并以统一的市标准收费的概念将会在竞争中消失。 74. government apron string 受政府的控制 第三世界国家可以从世界银行这 75. Third World countries can receive soft loans from multinational development agencies like the World Bank to fund their modernization. 76. foot the bill 付帐 然而竞争限制了利润幅度的事实使许多电脑制造公司倒闭。 样的多国开发机构得到软贷款为本国的现代化集资。 77. But computer makers have also gone bust by the score as that competition crucifies profit margins. (crucify 原意“压抑,克制”;by the score = by scores 许多)

QUESTIONS
1. What is the information superhighway? 2. What do you know about Alexander Graham Bell? 3. What are the features of today?s telephone service? 4. What are the two forces allowing telephony, computing and a host of other industries to merge? 5. What are some of the possibilities of global communication services? Say what you

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know about them and point out those that already have been realised or in use. 6. According to the author, why are big telecommunications companies, cable TV firms, broadcasting networks, etc. all scrambling for position in the $300 billion business? 7. What are the key factors behind the telecom revolution? What is the technological key? 8. What do you know about AT&T? Why does the author mention it in this article? 9. What is China planning to do? Are foreign companies interested in China?s telecom market? Why? 10. What is the situation of the telecom services in the U.S.? How about Europe? And Latin America?

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