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八年级下册人教版最新第八单元知识点及课后练习


八年级下册人教版最新第八单元知识点及课后练习
现在完成时讲解 现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过去某一时刻的,持续到现在的动作 (用行为动词表示)或状态(be 动词表示)常与 for(+时间段),since(+时间点或过去时 的句子)连用. ①for+时间段 Mary has been ill ②since+过去一个时间点(译为:自从……以来)I have lived here since 1998. ③since+ 时间段+ago I have lived here since six years ago. ④since+从句(过去时) I have lived here since I was born. ⑤It is+时段+since+从句(过去时)It’s since I lived here. 瞬间动词(buy,die,join,come,go ,leave,join ……)不能直接与 for since 连用。要改变动 词 buy----have; borrow -----keep; come/arrive/reach/get to-----be in go out----be out ; leave ----be away ; begin-----be on ; finish----be over ; open----be open ; close -----be closed ; die----be dead ★1.have 代替 buy My brother has had(不能用 has bought) this bike for almost four years. ★2、用 keep 或 have 代替 borrow I have kept(不能用 have borrowed) the book for quite a few days. ★3、用 be 替代 become How long has your sister been a teacher? ★4、用 have a cold 代替 catch a cold Tom has had a cold since the day before yesterday. ★5、用 wear 代替 put on b)用“be+形容词” 表示一种状态,表延续性 1、be+married 代 marry 2、be+ill 代 fall (get) ill 3、be+dead 代 die 4、be+asleep 代 fall (get) asleep 5、be+awake 代 wake/wake up 6、be+gone 代 lose,die,sell,leave 7、be+open 代 open 8、be closed 代 close/shut 9、be+missing(gone,lost)代 lose c)用“be+副词” 表示一种状态,表延续性,代终止性动词 1“be+on”代 start,begin 2“be+up”代 get up 3“be+back(to)”代 return to,come back to,go back to 4“be here (there)”代 come(arrive,reach,get) here 或 go (arrive,reach,get) there 等等 d)用“be+介词短语”代终止性动词 1.“be in/at +地点”代替 go to /come to 2.用 be in the army 代替 join the army 3.“be in/at +地点”代替 move to UNIT9 has gone (to),has been (to), has been (in) 的区别 Have/Has gone(to) :去了(现在不在说话现场) Where is your father?He has gone to Shanghai. Have/Has been (to) :去过(已不在去过的地方) My father has been to Shanghai. Have/has been in:呆了多久(还在所呆的地方)

My father has been in Shanghai for two months. /since two months ago. (2) 现在完成时讲解 2 一.基本结构:助动词 have/has+过去分词(done) 二.基本句型: 否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他. 一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他. 简略答语: Yes, 主语 + have/has.(肯定) No, 主语 + haven't/hasn't.(否定) 五.现在完成时的标志 现在完成时的含义之一是过去完成的动作对现在仍有影响,用以下四大标志词可以表达这种 含义: * 以 already, just 和 yet 为标志 He has already got her help. 他已得到她的帮助。 He has just seen the film. 他刚刚看过 这场电影。 He hasn't come back yet. 他还没有回来。 * *以 ever 和 never 为标志 This is the best film I have ever seen. 这是我曾经看过的最好的 一部电影。 He has never been to Beijing. 他从没有到过北京。 以动作发生的次数为标志 He says he has been to the USA three times. 他说他已经去过美国三次了。 * 以 so far (到 目前为止)为标+before He has got to Beijing so far. 到目前为止他已到了北京。 She has passed the examso far. 到目前为止她已经通过了考试。 3 三.用法 现在完成时表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果 I have spent all of my money (so far).(含义是:现在我没有钱花了.) Guo zijun (含义:郭子君现在在这儿) My father to work.(含义是:我爸爸现在不在这儿) 注意: 现在完成时不能单独与过去的时间状语连用, 如 yesterday,last week, three years ago 等; 2)不能与 when 连用 2.现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用 现在完成时练习(一) A)选用 have, has 填空: 1.I _______ told him the news. 2.She ________ come back from school. 3.You ________ won the game. B)按要求改写下列各句: 4.They have bought a computer.(改成否定句) _________________________________________ 5.He has lost his book. (先改成一般疑问句,再作肯定与否定回答) _________________________________________ Both his parents look sad . Maybe they _________what's happened to him . (呼和浩特) A. knew B. have known C. must know D.will know 2、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ? 4

A. already B.never C.ever D. still 3、Have you met Mr Li ______? A. just B. ago C.before D. a moment ago 4、 A. is writing B.was writing C.wrote D.has written 5、—— A. has changed ; well B. changed ; good C. has changed ; better D. changed ; better A. was ; studying B. will ; study C. has ; studied D. are ; studying —These farmers have been to the United States . —Really ? When _____ there ? A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone 10、— —Yes . I _____ it a moment ago . A. Did ; do ; finished B. Have ; done ; finished C. Have ; done ; have finished D. will ; do ; finish 、 5 C) 单项选择 6.-- -Where have you _____, Kate? ---I've ______ to the bank. A. gone, gone B. been, been C. gone, been D. been, gone 7. Her grandfather ______ for two years. A. died B. has died C. has been dead D. has been died 8. It's six weeks ______ I met you last. A. when B. since C. before D. for 9. Tom and Jack have arrived at West Hill Farm already. A. have got B. have gone to C. have been to D. have reached 现在完成时练习(二) 一、 单项选择。 1、 6、 7、 We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl . A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew 8、 A. will see B. have seen C. saw D.see 9、 11、 His father ______ the Party since 1978 . A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in 12、—Do you know him well ? — Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago . 6 A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made 13、—How long have you ____ here ? —About two months . A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived 14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes . A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. began 15、 It _____ ten years since he left the army . A. is B. has C. will D. was 16、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library .

A.has gone B. went C.will go D. has been 17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years . A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been 18、The students have cleaned the classroom, ? A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they 19、 has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he to China? A. How soon, comes B. How often, got C. How long, came D. How far, arrived 20、 His uncle____for more than 9 years. A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university 二、 句型转换。 1、He has never surfed, ?(改成反意疑问句) 2、对划线部分提问) ____ ____ they been here? 3、The old man _________ last year. He____ for a year. (die) (动词填空) 4、This factory opened twenty years ago.( 同义句转换) This factory ________ for twenty years. 5、Miss Gao left an hour ago. (同义句转换) Miss Gao ________ _______ ________ ________ an hour ago. 6、Her mother has been a Party member for three years .(同义句) Her mother _______ the Party three years ________ . 7、The Green Family moved to France two years ago. (同义句转换) _______ two years ________ the Green family moved to France. 8、The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. ( 把两个句子合并成一个句子) ___________________________________________ 三、 汉译英。 1、 吉姆已做完作业,他现在有空了。 2、 他昨天收到一封信。 3、 我父亲以前到过长城。 4、 她还没有看过那部新电影。 5、 她去过上海。 6、 他这些天上哪儿去了? 参考答案: 一、单项选择。 1、现在完成时主要强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响,或过去发生的动作还未结束, 一直持续到现在或将来,重点在于对现在的影响。这种考查难度较大,往往无时间状语,需要从 上下文分析、推理才行。故上两侧根据上下文分析、推理,正确答案是B。 2、现在完成时常与 already(已经),just(刚刚,正好),ever(曾经),never(从来, 也不;从不),before(以前),yet(仍然)等连用。故 2 应选 B。 3、C

4、现在完成时常与 recently(近来),so far(到目前为止),in the past/“last + 一段时间” 等时间状语连用。 因为上述短语表示的是从现在起往前推算的一段时间, 句中的动作是从过去某 一时间或时刻开始持续到现在的。故 4 应选 D。 5、C 6、现在完成时时常与“for +时间段或 since +过去时间点”连用(含从句,从句过去时)。故 6 应选 C。 7、C 8、现在完成时还与 once(一次),twice(两次),three times(三次),several times (几次)等表示重复次数的词语连用。故 8 应选 B。 9、现在完成时与一般过去时容易混淆,就是因为它们所表示的动作都发生在过去,但二者 又有区别:一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作,说话的侧重 点在于陈述一件过去的事情, 与现在没有关系; 现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在过去的动 作,它不与表示过去的时间状语(如 yesterday , last week , a moment ago 等)连用。故 9 的 正确答案为 B。 10、B 11、现在完成时中,非延续性动词不能与 for 和 since 引导的表示一段时间的状语连用,通 常是用相应的延续性动词来代替。故 11 的正确答案依次为:D。 12、B 13、A 14、C 15、A。 16、“have/has gone to + 地点”表示“某人去了某地(还未回来)”,指主语所指的人不在这 儿。 9 “have/has been in + 地点”表示“在某地呆了多长时间”,常与表示时间的状语连用。 “have/has been to +地点”表示“曾经去过某地(但现在已不在那儿)。”故 16 的正确答案为 A。 17、A 18、D 19、C 20、C 二、句型转换。 1、has he? 2、How long 3、died, has been dead 4、has been open 5、has been away 6、joined;ago 7、It is, since 8、The bus has been here for ten minutes. 三、汉译英。 1、Jim has finished doing his homework already. He is free now. 2、He received a letter yesterday. 3、My father has been to the Great Wall before. 4、She hasn't seen the new film yet. 5、She has been to Shanghai. 6、Where has he been these days?


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