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高考必考语法精讲精练专题十二:非谓语动词(含解析)


高考必考语法精讲精练

语法专题十二:非谓语动词
非谓语动词是高考必考点, 《2017 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试大纲》附录语法项 目表中对非谓语动词列了三项:动词不定式、动名词和分词(包括现在分词和过去分词) 。 2015 年高考全国卷Ⅰ第 68 题和 70 题(语法填空)分别考查了过去分词 conducted 和现 在分词 living 做后置定语。 2016 年高考全国卷Ⅰ第 66 题和 67 题(语法填空)分别考查了过去分词表示被动和动 名词做宾语。 2017 年高考全国卷Ⅰ第 63 题和 68 题(语法填空)分别考查了动词不定式做宾补和动 名词做宾语。 主语 宾语 表语 定语 状语 补语 非谓语动词包 括动词不定 式、动名词和 √ √ √ √ √ √ 不定式 分词,其中分 词又包括现在 √ √ √ √ 动名词 分词和过去分 词。 √ √ √ √ 分 词 非谓语动 词可以充当除 了谓语之外的其他成分,如下表:

主动 一般式 否定式 完成时 to do not to do to have done to be done not to be done

被动

to have been done

动词不定式 一、动词不定式的形式

进行式

to be doing



二、动词不定式的用法 动词不定式可以充当谓语之外的所有句子成分, 动词不定式可以带宾语或状语构成不定 式短语,没有人称和数的变化,但有时态和语态的变化。 1.作主语 (1)动词不定式作主语,一般表示具体的某次动作,谓语动词用单数形式。例如: ①To see is to believe. ②To master English is of great importance. (2)不定式或不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,构成“It is + adj+for sb.+to do” 结构,或 It is +adj+for sth +to be done。例如: ①It is impossible for him to give up smoking. ②It is not easy to find your way in the mountain. ③It is difficult for the problem to be solved. ④It is impossible for my question to be answered in his absence. 2.作宾语 (1)动词不定式作宾语时,常跟在某些及物动词后面,常见的有:agree,dare,decide, expect,help,hope,learn,manage,offer,pretend,promise,refuse,want, intend, fail, wish, choose 等。例如: ①I mean to go there at once. ②We must learn to tell friends from enemies. (2)不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语,往往把不定式短语放在宾补之后, 而用 it 作形式宾语。 句型为“主语+find (feel, think, believe, consider,etc) +it+形容词/名词+to do sth”。例如: ①I think it necessary to report the thing to the teacher. ②I find it interesting to work with him. (3)动词不定式还可以用作介词 except、but 和 besides 的宾语,如果介词前为动词 do 的 某种形式, 则后面接不带 to 的不定式, 否则带 to。 cannot choose but、 cannot help but 和 cannot but 后的不定式也省略 to。常用句型有: There is nothing to do but+do 例如: There is nothing to do but wait. do nothing but/except+do 例如: We can do nothing but wait. cannot help/choose but+do 例如: We cannot choose but wait. have no choice but to do 例如: We have no choice but to wait.

3.作表语 动词不定式作表语, 常放在系动词之后, 表示将来的动作, 主语常常是表示意向、 打算、 计划的词,如 wish,task,purpose,duty,job 等。例如: ①To teach is to learn. ②My job is to help the patient. 【注意】如果在主语中(通常在主语从句或修饰主语的定语从句中)有实义动词 do 时,作 表语的动词不定式省略 to。例如: All I want to do now (What I want to do now) is fill my stomach. 4.作定语 不定式可以放在名词、代词、序数词、the only 和形容词最高级等后面作定语。常被不 定式修饰的名词有:chance,need,promise,time,opportunity,way 等。不定式常表示将 来的动作。 (1)不定式与被修饰的名词往往构成逻辑上的关系。如果不定式与该句的主语构成逻辑上 的主谓关系,则不定式用主动形式;如果不定式与该句的主语不构成逻辑上的主谓关系,则 不定式用被动形式。例如: ①He is not a man to tell lies. ②There will not be enough space to stand in on the earth. ③--- I will go home tomorrow,do you have anything to be taken to your parents? ---No,thanks. (2) 作定语的不定式与所修饰的名词之间是动宾关系,而且不定式动词又是不及物动词时, 应在该动词上加上一个介词。例如: ①He has a nice pen to write with. ②He is looking for a room to live in. ③It is said that the best way to travel by is on foot. 5.作状语 不定式作状语时,可表示目的、原因、结果或条件。例如: I’m very glad to hear the news. (原因) 不定式作目的状语时,常可构成 in order to, so as to 例如: He got up early so as not to be late. 不定式可以跟在表语的形容词之后作状语。例如: The question is difficult to answer. 有些不定式短语可以做独立成份, 通常放在句首, 有时置于句中或句未, 须用逗号的开, 如: to begin with,to be honest,to tell you the truth 等。例如: To be honest,my English is poor. 不定式作结果状语常用如下句型: Too + 形容词/副词 + to do sth 例如: He is too young to go to school. 形容词/副词 + enough + to do sth 例如: He is old enough to dress himself. enough+名词 +to do sth 例如: I have enough money to buy a car. such +(形容词)名词 +as to do sth 例如: He is such a clever boy as to work out the question quickly. so + 形容词/副词 + as to do sth 例如:

He is so clever a boy as to work out the question quickly. 【注意】不定式作状语,其逻辑主语与句子主语必须一致。 【注意】不定式可以放在 only 后面表示未曾预料的结果。例如: ①He hurried to the railway station,only to find that the train had left. ②I got to his house ,only to be told that he wasn’t in. 6.作补语(宾语补足语和主语补足语) ,有两种情况: (1) 接带 to 的不定式作宾语补足语, 这类动词或动词短语有: ask, tell, invite, force, get, beg, allow, help, wish, want, like, hate, prefer, expect, encourage, advise, persuade, instruct, permit, request, order, warn, cause, urge, call on, depend on, long for, wait for 等,构成 V+sb.+to do 结 构。例如: ①I didn’t mean you to hear it. ②We are longing for the new term to begin. (2)在感官动词(see, hear, feel, listen to , notice, watch, observe 等)和使役动词(let, have,make )后的补足语中,不定式不带 to。但这类句子变成被动语态时,必须带 to。 (注 意:let, have 不用于被动语态)例如: ①I saw him play in the park. →He was seen to play in the park. ②The boss made those men work day and night. →Those men were made to work day and night. 注意:tell、advise 等动词后面可以接“连接代词或连接副词+to do”作宾语补足语。例如: You did not tell me how to pronounce the word. 动名词 主动语态 一般式 完成式 否定式 doing having done not doing not having done 被动语态 being done having been done not being done not having been done

动名词的基本形式是由动词末尾加-ing 形式构成,动名词具有动词和名词的特点:动词 的特点体现在它可以有自己的宾语、状语和补足语,有时态和语态的变化;名词的特点体现 在它可以作主语、宾语、表语和定语。 一、动名词的时态、语态和否定形式 动名词的时态有一般式和完成式; 语态有主动和语态和被动语态; 动名词的否定式是直 接在其前面加上 not。以 do 为例,列表说明如下:

1、动名词的时态。动名词的一般式表示的动作通常是一般性的动作,即不是明确地发生在 过去、现在或将来的动作,或者是与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生的动作;完成式所表示 的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。例如: ①I am interested in playing basketball. ②He didn’t mention having met you at the meeting. 2、动名词的语态。如果句子的主语是该动名词动作的承受者,即句子的主语与动名词构成 逻辑上的动宾关系,则动名词要用被动形式。例如: ①She didn’t mind being left at home.(句子的主语 she 与动词 leave 构成动宾关系, 且动作基本 同时发生。) ②I forgot having been told about it. (句子的主语 I 与动词 tell 构成动宾关系, 且动作已经完成。 ) 二、动名词的语法功能 1.作主语:动名词做主语可以放在句首,有时候也可以用 it 做形式主语,常常构成一些固定 句型,如:It’s a waste of time doing...;It’s no use/good doing...例如: ①Teaching is my full-time job. ②Writing an English composition is not easy. ③It’s a waste of time arguing with him. ④It’s no use taking this kind of medicine. 2.作宾语: (1) 作动词的宾语。 只接动名词作宾语的常见动词有: resist、 mind、 suggest、 delay、 keep、 look forward to、enjoy、include、appreciate、imagine、practice、finish、succeed in、consider、 can’t help、miss 等。例如: ①I have just finished doing my home work. ②I suggested asking his brother for some money. ③He keeps buying expensive maps. 【注意】以下几个动词或短语后面跟动名词作宾语和跟动词不定式作宾语意义不同:mean, remember,stop,forget,regret,try,go on。
? ?to do sth.忘记要做某事 forget? ?doing sth.忘记已经做过某事 ? ? ?to do sth.对即将做的事表示遗憾?未做? regret? ?doing sth.对做过的事表示后悔?已做? ? ?to do sth.尽力去做某事 ? try? ?doing sth.试着做某事 ? ? ?to do sth.继续做另一件事 go on? ?doing sth.继续做原来做的事 ? ? ?to do sth.记着去做某事?未做? remember? ?doing sth.记着做了某事?已做? ? ?to do sth.打算做某事 ? mean? ? ?doing sth. 意味着做某事

to do sth.停下来去做某事 stop doing sth.停止做某事 例如: ①Please stop talking. ②Let’s stop to have a rest. ③I regret telling him the secret. ④I regret to tell you that you have missed the exam. (2) 作介词的宾语, 常用于固定短语和句型中。 如: be/get used to,devote...to...,look forward to,pay attention to,get down to,think of,be proud of,prevent...from...,keep...from....,be engaged in,feel like 以及 have some/no/any difficulty(trouble) in, have fun(pleasure) in, have a good(hard) time,there is no need/use/good/harm/hurry(in)等。例如: ①We are thinking of making a new plan for the next term. ②There is no need arguing with him. 3.作表语:动名词作表语时,句子的主语常常是表示无生命的名词或 what 引导的名词性从 句。作表语的动名词与主语通常是对等关系,表示主语的内容,主语与表语可互换位置。例 如: ①My job is teaching. = Teaching is my job. ②Her full-time job is laying eggs. =Laying eggs is her full-time job. ③What I hate most is being laughed at. 4.作定语:动名词作定语表示性质或用途。 a washing machine = a machine for washing a swimming pool = a pool for swimming 分词(现在分词和过去分词) 过去分词只有一种形式,即 done,没有其他变化形式,而现在分词有时态和语态的变 化。如下表所示(以 do 为例) 。 分词的语法功能: 及 主 一般式 完成式 物 动 动 被 词 动 不及物动词 主 doing having done 动

doing having done

being done having been done

1. 作定语:现在分词作定语,可以表示名词的用途,也可以表示主动意义或正在进行的动作 或当时的状态, 此时现在分词在意义上相当于一个定语从句。 过去分词作定语表示被动或完 成。 一般而言, 单个的分词作定语要放在被修饰词之前, 分词短语作定语放在被修饰词之后。 例如: a developing country = a country which is developing a sleeping boy= a boy who is sleeping ①The man standing at the window is our teacher.

② Polluted air and water are harmful to people's health. ③The building built last year was a hospital. ④The meeting being held now is very important. 【注意】如果两个动词有先后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而用定语从句,即现在分词的完 成主动式 having done 以及完成被动式 having been done 不能作定语。如,我们不能说: I have heard of the accident having happened yesterday.而是用定语从句代替: I have heard of the accident that happened yesterday. 再如,我们不能说: I didn’t find my wallet having been stolen.而用定语从句: I didn’t find my wallet which had been stolen. 2. 作状语:现在分词作状语。表时间、原因、条件、结果、伴随(方式)等。 特点:1.分词短语作状语,其逻辑主语须与句子的主语一致. 2. 表示时间关系的分词短语有时 可由连词 while 或 when 引导。3.如果主语不一致,要采用独立主格结构。 现在分词的一般式 doing 和完成主动式 having done 作状语时,与句子的主语构成逻辑上的 主谓关系。doing 表示的动作和句子的谓语动词所表示的动作基本同时发生或现在分词的动 作正在发生;having done 则表示其动作先于句子的谓语动词的动作发生。例如: ①Hearing the bell,the students entered the classroom.(时间) ②Hearing the cry for help, he rushed out.(时间) ③While reading the book, he nodded from time to time.(时间) ④Having finished his work,he went home.(时间) ⑤Seeing from the hill, you can get the whole town.(条件) ⑥Not having received an answer,he decided to write another letter.(原因) ⑦The students ran out of the classroom, talking and laughing .(伴随) ⑧Football is played all around the world, making it the most popular sport.(结果) 过去分词 done 和现在分词的完成被动式 having been done 作状语时, 与句子的主语构成 逻辑上的动宾关系。而且表示的动作在句子的谓语动词之前就已经发生。例如: ①Given(=Having been given)a wrong number,I couldn’t contact him over the phone.(原因) ②Having been warned many times,they became more and more careful in doing the job.(时间) ③Seen from the hill, the whole town is beautiful.(条件) ④Not satisfied with the result, we decided to do the experiment again.(原因) ⑤He entered the room,followed by his girlfriend .(伴随) ⑥If allowed, he would eat all the food in the house.(条件) 【注意】分词作状语时,如果分词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致,则通常在它前面加上它 的主语构成独立主格结构,即“n. + -ed/-ing”。 (非谓语动词及其短语前面带有逻辑主语,逻 辑主语的代词又是主格,故常称为“独立主格”。 )例如: ①Her work finished(=After her work had been finished), she sat down for a cup of tea. ②There being no taxis(=Because there was no taxis), we had to walk. ③Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing tomorrow. ④An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=Because an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. ⑤He was lying on the grass,his hands crossed under his head(=and his hands were crossed under his head) 有时也用"with(without)+名词(或代词宾格)+分词"的结构表示伴随状况的独立主格结构。例 如:

He fell asleep with the lamp burning. 补充:其他形式的独立主格结构(n. +不定式; n. +介词短语; n. +形容词; n. +副词)例如: ①He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help. ②The boy goes to the classroom,book in hand. ③So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off. ④The meeting over, they all went home. 3. 作宾补: 现在分词做宾补的两大特征: 一是宾语与现在分词之间与主语之间有主谓关系; 二是现 在分词所表示的动作正在进行。 能跟现在分词作宾语补足语的常见动词有: make、 let、 have、 look at、see、watch、hear、listen to、notice、feel。 (三让、三看、两听、注意感觉) 。例如: ①I heard the girl singing in the classroom. ②I saw a long queue outside the bank waiting for it to open. ③The baby watched his dad shaving his face with interest. ④We saw the teacher making the experiment . 过去分词做宾补的两大特征: 一是及物动词的过去分词做宾补与宾语有动宾关系; 二是 不及物动词的过去分词做宾补与宾语有主谓关系, 多用来表示动作已经完成。 能借过去分词 做宾补的常见动词有:have,make,see,hear,find,leave,want 等。例如: ①I've never heard the song sung in English. ②I saw the horse tied to a tree. ③People found the thief escaped. 4.作表语:分词放在系动词后面作表语。现在分词作表语指物,过去分词作表语指人。例如: ①The movie is inspiring. ②He is inspired by the movie. ③The story he told us was very interesting. ④He is interested in English. 高考英语短文改错及语法填空分析与训练· 非谓语动词 考点规律分析:短文改错对非谓语动词的考查主要涉及不定式符号 to 的有无,介词后该使 用动词的什么形式(用动名词),并列结构中几个非谓语动词是否一致,动词用作主语时用何 种形式(可用动名词或不定式,但不能用动词原形)等。语法填空主要涉及非谓语动词的形式 选择。 非谓语动词单句改错之真题训练: 1. David and I wanted go off to find help but Bill insisted on staying near the car. 2. …rather than go into the forest and getting lost. 3.David pointed to a path which he thought would probably leading to a village. 4. I went back to get David and helped him to stood up. 5.Charles and Linda Mason do all of these things as well as climbed building. 6.Modern people know more about health, have better food, and to live in clearer surroundings. 7.The World Health Organization and other organizations are working improve health all over the world. 8.…you pay the cost of send a postcard, the librarian will write to you. 9....and let you to know when the book you want has returned. 10. I want to thank you again for have me in your home for the summer holidays. 11. I had always wanted return to the village after moving away.

12.It was very kind of them to meet me at the railway station and drove me to their home. 13.I look forward to hear from you soon. 14. Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also gives us a sense of fair play and team spirit. 15. I was often a little tired after a day’s work and watch TV demands very little effort. 16.I’d like very much come but I have an examination on Monday morning. 17. I’ll spend the whole weekend reading and prepare for it. 18. But then there is always more mysteries look into. 19.After learn the basics of the subject, nothing else seemed very practical to me. 20. My parents love me dearly of course and will do all they can make sure that I get a good education. 21.He did not want share things with other people. 22.That is, a game of tennis making him very busy. 23. As we climbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories. 24. But his parents think go to college is more important than playing sports. 25. …children may not develop the habit of read and the ability to enjoy themselves. 26.…to make children to want things that they don’t really need. 27. Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper as I was learning to express myself in simple English. 28. Shake her head, she said,“It isn’t a good time to do that, dear.” 29.It’s like going to a huge library without have to walk around to find your books. 30. I am thinking of making a trip to London, and visit the British Museum and some parks. 31. I have some records giving to me as birthday gifts. 32. I dream of standing on the platform in the classroom and give lessons to lovely boys and girls. 非谓语动词单句改错之模拟训练: 1. In those days we were forced work twelve hours a day. 2. It’s very difficult for a foreigner learn Chinese. 3. It was silly of you believe what he said. 4. He was made wash the boss’s car once a day. 5. I’ll let you to know as soon as I hear from her. 6. I waved to her but failed attract her attention. 7. I have already seen the film twice. I don’t want see it any more. 8. What I want know is when all this happened. 9. It was clear that he wanted be alone. 10.Most children are interested in listen to stories. 11.Walk quickly is difficult for an old man. 12. Be careful in cross the street. 13. The film is very interesting. It is worth see twice. 14.Find work is very difficult these days. 15. Most of us students enjoy ask questions in English. 16. Look, some of my classmates are practising speak English.

17. Teach a child to sing and dance is very interesting. 18. Learn to speak English is more difficult than to write it. 19. My friend Jim is very good at making things and repair things. 20. He decided to go to the south, find a good job and living there. 21. It was very kind of you to buy us so much fruit and seeing us at the station. 22. Excuse me, would you to tell me the way to the zoo? 非谓语动词单句改错之提升训练: 1. A lot of money has been spent to buy the book. 2. You will have to pay the cost of send a postcard. 3. What he did was puzzled. 4. I will spend a week reading and prepare for the examination. 5. Charles and Linda do all of these things as well as climbed buildings. 6. Yesterday I had my bad tooth pulling out. 7. I heard her singing a song which moved me to tears. 8. I made a terrible mistake. I regretted not to taking your advice. 9. When we reached the top of the mountain, we stopped to having a rest before we went down the mountain. 10. There’ll be a good film tonight, remember to seeing it on time! 11. The game was over, she went home. 12. When speaking, you must make yourself hear. 13. She pretended not to seeing me when I came in. 14. Abraham Lincoln was considered to being one of the greatest of all American presidents. 15. Following by the officers, the general inspected the army. 16. There’s something wrong with my car, and it needs repaired. 17. Don’t burn the falling leaves on the ground. 18. Losing in thought, he almost ran into a car in front of him. 19. I enjoy listen to the classic music. 20. Judge by what he wears, he is a farmer. 学习札记: _______________________________________________________ 非谓语动词单句改错之真题训练: 1.wanted 后加 to,因为 want 后要接不定式 2. getting 改 get,因为 get 与其前的 go 并列 3. leading 改为 lead,因为其前有助动词 would 4.stood 改为 stand,因为 to stand up 在此为不定式结构 5.climbed 改为 climb / climbing,若将 as well as 视为连词,则将 climbed 改为 climb,因 为它与其前的 do 并列;若将 as well as 视为介词,则 climbing,因为介词后动词用动名词 6.去掉 live 前的 to,因为 live 与其前的 know, have 并列 7. improve 前加 to,to improve…为表目的的不定式短语 8.send 改为 sending,因为介词后接动名词作宾语 9.去掉 know 前的 to,因为其前有动词 let 10.have 改为 having,因为介词后接动名词作宾语

11.return 前加 to,因为 want 后要接不定式 12. drove 改为 drive,因为 drive 与其前的 to meet 并列,此处的 drive 为省略 to 的不定 式 13. hear 改为 hearing,因为其前的 to 是介词 14. 第一个 play 改为 playing,因为动词原形不能用作主语 15. watch 改为 watching,因为动词原形不能用作主语 16. come 前加 to,因为 would like 后接不定式 17.prepare 改为 preparing,因为它与其前的 reading 并列,与其前所用的动词 spend 有关 18.look 前加 to,此处为不定式作后置定语 19.learn 改为 learning,因为介词后接动名词作宾语 20.make 前加 to,因为 to make… 在此用作目的状语,注意句型 do all one can to do sth 21.want 后加 to,因为 want 后要接不定式 22. making 改为 made,因为缺谓语,不能用非谓语形式,根据上下文用一般过去时 23.visiting 改为 visited,因为它与其前的 fed 和其后的 told 并列 24.go 改为 going,因为动词原形不能用作主语 25.read 改为 reading,因为介词后要接动名词 26.去掉 want 前的 to,因为 want…在此用作使役动词 make 的宾语补足语 27.talk 改为 talking,因为动词 enjoy 后要接动名词作宾语 28.Shake 改为 Shaking,现在分词表伴随 29.have 改为 having,介词后用动名词作宾语 30.visit 改为 visiting,因 visit 与 making 并列,作介词 of 的宾语 31.giving 改为 given,“把某物给某人”是 give sth to sb;句中 records 与 give 是被动关系, 故用过去分词 32. give 改为 giving,因它与 standing 并列,作 dream of 的宾语 非谓语动词单句改错之模拟训练: 1. work 前加 to,此句为 force sb to do sth 的被动形式。 2. learn 前加 to,此句用的是 it’s difficult for sb to do sth 句型。 3. believe 前加 to,此句用的是 it’s silly of sb to do sth 句型。 4.wash 前加 to, make sb do sth 中的 do 不能带 to, 但若 make 用于被动语态, 则其后的 do 要带 to。 5. 去掉 to,因为 let 后用作宾语补足语的不定式不能带 to。 6. attract 前加 to,fail to do sth 意为“未能做某事”。 7.see 前加 to,want(想要)后接动词要用不定式。 8. know 前加 to,want(想要)后接动词要用不定式。 9.be 前加 to,want(想要)后接动词要用不定式。 10. listen 改为 listening,介词后接动名词作宾语。 11. Walk 改为 Walking, 用作主语要用动名词, 不用动词原形。 注意不能将 walk 视为名词, 因为其后有副词修饰语 quickly。 12. cross 改为 crossing,介词后接动名词作宾语。 13. see 改为 seeing,worth 后接动词要用动名词形式。 14. Find 改为 Finding,用作主语要用动名词,不用动词原形。 15. ask 改为 asking,enjoy 后接动词作宾语要用动名词形式。 16. speak 改为 speaking,practise 后接动词作宾语要用动名词形式。 17. Teach 改为 Teaching,用作主语要用动名词,不用动词原形。

18. Learn 改为 Learning,用作主语要用动名词,不用动词原形。 19. repair 改为 repairing,因它与 making 并列,一起用作介词 at 的宾语。 20. living 改为 live,因它与其前的 go to…, find… 并列。 21. seeing 改为 see,因它与 to buy 并列,see 为省略 to 的不定式。 22. 去掉 tell 前的 to,因 would you… 后应接动词原形,不接不定式。 非谓语动词单句改错之提升训练: 1. to buy 改为 buying。 2. send 改为 sending。介词 of 后要求用动名词作宾语。 3. puzzled 改为 puzzling。puzzling 表示“令人疑惑不解的”意思。 4. prepare 改为 preparing。preparing 和前面的 reading 是并列结构。 5. climbed 改为 climbing。as well as 是介词短语,后面接动名词或名词。 6. pulling 改为 pulled。have the tooth pulled out 表示“请人拔牙”的意思。 7. singing 改为 sing。从后面可以看出来,“我”听完了整首歌曲,强调动作的全过程,用不定 式作宾补。 8. 去掉 to,用动名词表示对已发生过的事情的后悔。 9. having 改为 have。stop 的目的是 have a rest。 10. seeing 改为 see。还未看电影。 11. was 改为 being。独立主格结构。 12. hear 改为 heard。make oneself heard 意为“使别人听到自己的话”。 13. seeing 改为 see。pretend 后面要求接不定式作宾语。 14. being 改为 be。consider 后用不定式作宾补。 15. following 改为 followed。过去分词表被动。 16. repaired 改为 repairing。动名词主动形式,表被动意义。 17. falling 改为 fallen。过去分词作定语,强调动作的完成。 18. losing 改为 lost。be lost in thought 表示“陷入深思”。 19. listen 改为 listening。enjoy 后面用动名词作宾语。 20. Judge 改为 Judging。Judging by…为一固定说法。


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