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自学考试高级英语上下册全套逐句翻译



高级英语上册课文逐句翻译 Lesson One Rock Superstars
关于我们和我们的社会,他们告诉了我们些什么? What Do They Tell Us About Ourselves and Our Society? 摇滚乐是青少年叛逆的音乐。 ——摇滚乐评论家约相?罗克韦尔 Rock is the music of teenage rebellion. --- John Rockwell, rock music critic 知其崇拜何人便可知其人。 ——小说家罗伯特?佩恩?沃伦 By a man‘s heroes ye shall know him. --- Robert Penn Warren, novelist 1972 年 6 月的一天,芝加哥圆形剧场挤满了大汗淋漓、疯狂摇摆的人们。 It was mid-June, 1972, the Chicago Amphitheater was packed, sweltering, rocking. 滚石摇滚乐队的迈克?贾格尔正在台上演唱―午夜漫步人‖。 Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones was singing ―Midnight Rambler.‖ 演唱结束时评论家唐?赫克曼在现场。 Critic Don Heckman was there when the song ended. 他描述道:―贾格尔抓起一个半加仑的水罐沿舞台前沿边跑边把里面的水洒向前几排汗流浃 背的听众。听众们蜂拥般跟随着他跑,急切地希望能沾上几滴洗礼的圣水。 ―Jagger,‖ he said, ―grabs a half-gallon jug of water and runs along the front platform, sprinkling its contents over the first few rows of sweltering listeners. They surge to follow him, eager to be touched by a few baptismal drops‖. 1973 年 12 月下旬的一天,约 1.4 万名歌迷在华盛顿市外的首都中心剧场尖叫着,乱哄哄地 拥向台前。 It was late December, 1973, Some 14,000 screaming fans were crunching up to the front of the stage at Capital Center, outside Washington, D.C. 美国的恐怖歌星艾利丝?库珀的表演正接近尾声。 Alice Cooper, America‘s singing ghoul, was ending his act. 他表演的最后一幕是假装在断头台上结束自己的生命。 He ends it by pretending to end his life – with a guillotine. 他的―头‖落入一个草篮中。 His ―head‖ drops into a straw basket. ―哎呀!‖一个黑衣女孩子惊呼道:―啊!真是了不起,不是吗?‖。 ―Ooh,‖ gasped a girl dressed in black. ―Oh, isn‘t that marvelous?‖ 当时,14 岁的迈克珀力也在场,但他的父母不在那里。 Fourteen-year-old Mick Perlie was there too, but his parents weren‘t. ―他们觉得他恶心,恶心,恶心,‖迈克说,―他们对我说,你怎么受得了那些?‖ ―They think he‘s sick, sick, sick,‖ Mike said. ―They say to me, ?How can you stand that stuff?‘‖ 1974 年 1 月下旬的一天,在纽约州尤宁谷城拿骚体育场内,鲍勃?狄伦和―乐队‖乐队正在为 音乐会上要用的乐器调音。

It was late January, 1974. Inside the Nassau Coliseum in Uniondale, New York, Bob Dylan and The Band were tuning for a concert. 馆外,摇滚歌迷克利斯?辛格在大雨中等待着入场。 Outside, in the pouring rain, fan Chris Singer was waiting to get in. ―这是朝圣,‖克利斯说,―我应该跪着爬进去。‖ ― This is pilgrimage,‖ Chris said, ―I ought to be crawling on my knees.‖ 对于这一切好评及个人崇拜,你怎么看? How do you feel about all this adulation and hero worship? 当米克?贾格尔的崇拜者们把他视为上帝的最高代表或是一个神时,你是赞成还是反对? When Mick Jagger‘s fans look at him as a high priest or a god, are you with them or against them? 你也和克利斯?辛格一样对鲍勃?狄伦怀有几乎是宗教般的崇敬吗? Do you share Chris Singer‘s almost religious reverence for Bob Dylan? 你认为他或狄伦是步入歧途吗? Do you think he – or Dylan – is misguided? 你也认为艾利丝?库珀令人恶心而拒不接受吗? Do you reject Alice Cooper as sick? 难道你会莫名其妙地被这个奇怪的小丑吸引,原因就在于他表达出你最狂热的幻想? Or are you drawn somehow to this strange clown, perhaps because he acts out your wildest fantasies? 这些并不是闲谈。 These aren‘t idle questions. 有些社会学家认为对这些问题的回答可以充分说明你在想些什么以及社会在想些什么—— 也就是说,有关你和社会的态度。 Some sociologists say that your answers to them could explain a lot about what you are thinking and about what your society is thinking – in other words, about where you and your society are. 社会学家欧文?霍洛威茨说:―音乐表现其时代。‖ ―Music expressed its times,‖ says sociologist Irving Horowitz. 霍洛威茨把摇滚乐的舞台视为某种辩论的论坛,一个各种思想交锋的场所。 Horowitz sees the rock music arena as a sort of debating forum, a place where ideas clash and crash. 他把它看作是一个美国社会努力为自己的感情及信仰不断重新进行解释的地方。 He sees it as a place where American society struggles to define and redefine its feelings and beliefs. 他说:―重新解释是一项只有青年人才能执行的任务。只有他们才把创造与夸张、理性与运 动、言语与声音、音乐与政治融为一体。‖ ―The redefinition,‖ Horowitz says, ―is a task uniquely performed by the young. It is they alone who combine invention and exaggeration, reason and motion, word and sound, music and politics.‖ 作曲兼演唱家托德?伦德格伦对这个观点表示赞同。 Todd Rundgren, the composer and singer, agrees. 他说:―摇滚乐与其说是一种音乐力量不如说是一种社会心理的表现。就连埃尔维斯?普雷斯 利也并非是一种伟大的音乐力量,他只不过是体现了 50 年代青少年那种心灰意冷的精神状 态。‖ ―Rock music,‖ he says, ―is really a sociological expression rather than a musical force. Even Elvis

Presley wasn‘t really a great musical force. It‘s just that Elvis managed to embody the frustrated teenage spirit of the 1950s.‖ 毫无疑问,普雷斯利震惊了美国的成人世界。 Of course Presley horrified adult America. 报纸写社论攻击他, 电视网也禁止播他, 但也许埃尔维斯证实了霍洛威茨和伦德格伦的看法。 Newspapers editorialized against him, and TV networks banned him. But Elvis may have proved what Horowitz and Rundgren believe. 当他通过电视上埃德?沙利文的星期日晚间的综艺节目出现在千百万人面前时,就引起了某 种辩论。 When he appeared on the Ed.Sullivan Sunday night variety show in front of millions, a kind of ―debate‖ took place. 多数年纪大的观众眉头紧皱,而大多数年轻观众则报以掌声欢迎。 Most of the older viewers frowned, while most of the younger viewers applauded. 摇滚乐评论家们说,从埃尔维斯到艾利丝,许多歌星帮助我们的社会解说其信仰与态度。 Between Elvis and Alice, rock critics say, a number of rock stars have helped our society define its beliefs and attitudes. 鲍勃?狄伦触动了对现状不满的神经,他唱到民权、核散落物以及孤独。 Bob Dylan touched a nerve of disaffection. He spoke of civil rights, nuclear fallout, and loneliness. 他唱到变革和老一代人的迷茫,他在歌声中唱道:―这儿正发生着什么事,你不知道是什么 事,对吗,琼斯先生?‖ He spoke of change and of the bewilderment of an older generation. ―Something‘s happening here,‖ he sang. ―You don‘t know what it is, do you, Mr.Jones?‖ 其他人也加入了这场辩论。 Others entered the debate. 霍洛威茨说,甲壳虫乐队以幽默的方式,或许还借助麻醉品的力量来倡导和平与虔诚。傲慢 无理、打架斗殴的滚石乐队成员要求革命。杰斐逊飞机乐队的歌曲―我们能够联合‖和―志愿 者‖(有一场革命)则是激进青年的更进一步的两项声明。 The Beatles, Horowitz said, urged peace and piety, with humor and maybe a little help from drugs. The Rolling Stones, arrogant street-fighting men, demanded revolution. The Jefferson Airplane‘s ―We Can Be Together‖ and Volunteers (Got a Revolution)‖ were two further statements of radical youth. 但政治并不是 60 年代强硬派摇滚乐所辩论的惟一主题,始终作为任何音乐永恒组成部分的 情感也是一个重要题目。 But politics wasn‘t the only subject debated in the hard rock of the sixties. Feelings, always a part of any musical statement, were a major subject. 詹妮丝?乔普林用歌声表达自己的悲哀。 Janis Jophin sang of her sadness. 甲壳虫乐队揭示出爱与恨之间的一系列的感情。 The Beatles showed there were a range of emotions between love and hate. 以后又出现了―乐队‖乐队把乡村音乐和西部音乐所表达的较为传统的观念与强硬派摇滚乐 较为激进的―都市‖观念结合在一起。 Then came The Band, mixing the more traditional ideas of country and western music into the more radical ‖city‖ ideas of the hard rock.

霍洛威茨认为这一成分的乡村音乐帮助听众表达了一种―摆脱这一切‖, ―重返过去时光‖的强 烈愿望。 This country element, Horowitz feels, helped its audience express an urge to ―get away from it all,‖ to ―go back to the old day. 当前最能说明霍洛威茨看法的例子之一就是约翰?丹佛, 他最著名的歌曲 《阳光照在我肩上》 、 《高高的落基山》和《乡间小路》把民间摇滚乐的音乐灵魂与力量结合了起来,而歌词则赞 美了―往日美好时光‖的朴素的欢乐。 .‖ One of the best current examples of what Horotwitz is talking about is John Denver. His most notable songs – ―Sunshine on My Shoulders‖, ―Rocky Mountain High‖, and ―Country Road‖ – combine the musical drive and power of folk rock, while the lyrics celebrate the simple joys of ―the good old days.‖ 这样的例子不胜枚举。 The list could go on and on. 这些摇滚乐音乐家们和所有的艺术家一样反映出我们借以认识并形成属于自己的感情与信 念。 Like all artists, these rock musicians mirror feelings and beliefs that help us see and form our own. 我们以什么来回报他们呢?当然是掌声和赞美。 What do we give them in return? Applause and praise, of course. 在 1972 年的一次全国民意测验中, 10%的男高中生和 30%以上的女高中生都说他们最崇拜 的人是超级摇滚歌星。 In one 1972, national opinion poll, more than 10 percent of the high school boys and 20 percent of the girls said their hero was a rock superstar. 此外我们给他们金钱, 商业杂志 《福布斯》 认为, ―当今成为百万富翁的捷径是当摇滚歌星。 ‖ We also give them money. ―The fastest way to become a millionaire these days,‖ says Forbes, a business magazine, ―is to become a rock ?n‘ roll star.‖ 今天的英雄们——至少其中一部分人——告诉我们,他们很喜欢所得到的报偿。 Today‘s heroes – some of them, anyway – tell us they enjoy their rewards. ―我暗自嘲笑这些先生们和女士们,他们从没想到过我们会成为金娃娃。‖演唱这支歌曲的是 ―文化英雄‖艾利丝?库珀。 ―And I laughed to myself at the men and the ladies. Who never conceived of us billion-dollar babies.‖ The particular ―culture hero‖ who sings that is Alice cooper. 可是,仍然存在着一个大问题:为什么他是文化英雄? The big question remains: Why is he a culture hero? 他,或者当今任何其他走红的摇滚歌星能告诉我们些什么有关他们的歌迷的事情? What does he – or any other current rock success – tell us about his fans? 对于我们自己和我们的社会有些什么了解?现在怎样,过去如何,将来又将向何处去? About ourselves and our society? Where it is, where it was, where it‘s heading

Lesson 2: Four Choices for Young People
在毕业前不久,斯坦福大学四年级主席吉姆?宾司给我写了一封信,信中谈及他的一些不安。 Shortly before his graduation, Jim Binns, president of the senior class at Stanford University, wrote me about some of his misgivings. 他写道:―与其他任何一代人相比,我们这一代人在看待成人世界时抱有更大的疑虑……同

时越来越倾向于全盘否定成人世界。‖ ―More than any other generation,‖ he said, ―our generation views the adult world with great skepticism… there is also an increased tendency to reject completely that world.‖ 很明显,他的话代表了许多同龄人的看法。 Apparently he speaks for a lot of his contemporaries. 在过去的几年里,我倾听过许多年轻人的谈话,他们有的还在大学读书,有的已经毕业,他 们对于成人的世界同样感到不安。 During the last few years, I have listened to scores of young people, in college and out, who were just as nervous about the grown world. 大致来说,他们的态度可归纳如下:―这个世界乱糟糟的,到处充满了不平等、贫困和战争。 对此该负责的大概应是那些管理这个世界的成年人吧。 如果他们不能做得比这些更好, 他们 又能拿什么来教育我们呢?这样的教导,我们根本不需要。‖ Roughly, their attitude might be summed up about like this: ―The world is in pretty much of a mess, full of injustice, poverty, and war. The people responsible are, presumably, the adults who have been running thing. If they can‘t do better than that, what have they got to teach our generation? That kind of lesson we can do without.‖ 我觉得这些结论合情合理,至少从他们的角度来看是这样的。 There conclusions strike me as reasonable, at least from their point of view. 对成长中的一代人来说, 相关的问题不是我们的社会是否完美 (我们可以想当然地认为是这 样),而是应该如何去应付它。 The relevant question for the arriving generation is not whether our society is imperfect (we can take that for granted), but how to deal with it. 尽管这个社会严酷而不合情理,但它毕竟是我们惟一拥有的世界。 For all its harshness and irrationality, it is the only world we‘ve got. 因此, 选择一个办法去应付这个社会是刚刚步入成年的年轻人必须作出的第一个决定, 这通 常是他们一生中最重要的决定。 Choosing a strategy to cope with it, then, is the first decision young adults have to make, and usually the most important decision of their lifetime. 根据我的发现,他们的基本选择只有四种: So far as I have been able to discover, there are only four basic alternatives: 1)脱离传统社会 1)Drop Out 这是最古老的方法之一, 任何年龄的人无论在任何地方, 也无论是否使用迷幻剂都可以采用。 This is one of the oldest expedients, and it can be practiced anywhere, at any age, and with or without the use of hallucinogens. 那些认为这个世界残酷、复杂得令人难以忍受的人通常会选择这个办法。 It always has been the strategy of choice for people who find the world too brutal or too complex to be endured. 实质上, 这是一种寄生式的生活方式, 采取此策略的人通过这样或那样的方式寄生于这个他 们蔑视的社会,并且拒绝对这个社会承担责任 By definition, this way of life is parasitic. In one way or another, its practitioners batten on the society which they scorn and in which they refuse to take any responsibility. 我们中的一些人对此很厌恶——认为这种生活方式很不光彩。 Some of us find this distasteful – an undignified kind of life.

但对于那些卑微、懒惰又缺乏自尊的人来说,这也许是可行的最可以忍受的选择了。 But for the poor in spirit, with low levels of both energy and pride, it may be the least intolerable choice available. 2)逃避现实社会 2) Flee 这个策略早在远古就有先例。 This strategy also has ancient antecedents. 自文明诞生以来,就有人企图逃避文明社会,希望寻求一种更为朴素、更富田园风情、更为 宁静的生活。 Ever since civilization began, certain individuals have tried to run away from it in hopes of finding a simpler, more pastoral, and more peaceful life. 与那些脱离传统社会的人不同,这些人不是寄生者。他们愿意自食其力,愿意为社会作出贡 献, 可是他们就是不喜欢这个文明世界的环境。 确地说, 不喜欢这充满丑恶和紧张的大都市。 Unlike the dropouts, they are not parasites. They are willing to support themselves and to contribute something to the general community, but they simply don‘t like the environment of civilization; that is, the city, with all its ugliness and tension. 这种方法的问题在于无法大规模地进行实践。 The trouble with this solution is that it no longer is practical on a large scale. 不幸的是,在我们的地球上,高尚的野蛮人和未被破坏的自然景色已越来越少;除了两极地 区以外已经没有未开发的土地了。 Our planet, unfortunately, is running out of noble savages and unsullied landscaped; except for the polar regions, the frontiers are gone. 少数富有的乡绅还可以逃避现实去过田园生活——但总的说来, 迁移的潮流是向相反的方向 流动。 A few gentleman farmers with plenty of money can still escape to the bucolic life – but in general the stream of migration is flowing the other way. 3)策划革命 Plot a Revolution 在对民主进程单调乏味的运作方式毫无耐心或相信只有武力才能改变基本社会制度的那些 人中,这一策略颇受欢迎。 This strategy is always popular among those who have no patience with the tedious working of the democratic process or who believe that basic institutions can only be changed by force. 它吸引了每一代年轻人中那些更为活跃和更具理想主义的人。 It attracts some of the more active and idealistic young people of every generation. 对他们来说, 这种策略具有浪漫的吸引力, 通常以某位魅力非凡且令人振奋的人物为其象征。 To them it offers a romantic appeal, usually symbolized by some dashing and charismatic figure. 这一策略简单明了并具有更大的吸引力:―既然这个社会已经无可救药,那就让我们砸碎它, 在它的废墟上面建一个更好的社会。‖ It has the even greater appeal of simplicity: ―Since this society is hopelessly bad, let‘s smash it and build something better on the ruins.‖ 我最好的朋友中有些是革命者,他们中的一些人过得相当满足。 Some of my best friends have been revolutionists, and a few of them have led reasonably satisfying lives. 这部分人其实是那些革命并未成功的人, 他们可以继续兴高采烈地策划大屠杀, 直至老态龙

钟。 These are the ones whose revolutions did not come off; they have been able to keep on cheerfully plotting their holocausts right into their senescence. 另外一些人年纪轻轻就死了,死在监狱里或街垒旁。 Others died young, in prison or on the barricades. 但最不幸的是那些革命成功的人。 But the most unfortunate are those whose revolutions have succeeded. 他们极度失望,看到他们推翻的权力机构又被新机构所替代,而新机构依旧是那样冷酷,那 样毫无生机。 They lived in bitter disillusionment, to see the establishment they had overthrown replaced by a new one, just as hard-faced and stuffy. 当然,我并不是说革命一无所成。 I am not, of course, suggesting that revolutions accomplish nothing. 一些革命(美国革命,法国革命)确实将事情变得越来越好。 Some (The American Revolution, the French Revolution) clearly do change things for the better. 我只是想说革命无论成败,那些策划革命的革命者们都注定要失望。 My point is merely that the idealists who make the revolution are bound to be disappointed in either case. 因为胜利的曙光无论如何也不会照耀在他们梦想中的那个摆脱了人类一切卑劣的灿烂的新 世界上。 For at best their victory never dawns on the shining new world they had dreamed of, cleansed of all human meanness. 相反,它照在了一个熟悉的平庸的地方,这个地方仍旧需要食品杂货和污水排放。 Instead it dawns on a familiar, workaday place, still in need of groceries and sewage disposal. 无论贴着什么样的政治标签, 革命后的国家都不是由激进的浪漫主义者来治理, 而是由市场 营销、卫生工程和管理官僚机构的专家来治理。 The revolutionary state, under whatever political label, has to be run-not by violent romantics-but by experts in marketing, sanitary engineering, and the management of bureaucracies. 对一些决心改造社会,但同时又希望能找到一种比武装革命更可行的方法的理想主义者来 说,还有另外一种选择。 For the idealists who are determined to remake society, but who seek a more practical method than armed revolution, there remains one more alternative. 4)循序渐进,逐步改变社会 Try to Change the World Gradually, One Clod at a Time 乍一看,这一途径毫无吸引力。 At first glance, this course is far from inviting. 它缺乏魅力,并且见效很慢。 It lacks glamour. It promises no quick results. 它依靠劝说和民主决策这些令人恼火且不可靠的方法来实现。 It depends on the exasperating and uncertain instruments of persuasion and democratic decision making. 它需要耐心,可我们却总是缺乏耐心。 It demands patience, always in short supply. 它惟一的好处是有时这方法行得通——在这个特定的时间和地点, 它比其他的任何策略都更

有可能制止世界上的某些恶行。 About all that can be said for it is that it sometimes works – that in this particular time and place it offers a better chance for remedying some of the world‘s outrages than any other available strategy. 至少历史事实似乎证明了这一点。 So at least the historical evidence seems to suggest. 我大学毕业的时候,我们这一代人也发现世界乱得一团糟。 When I was graduating from college, my generation also found the world in a mess. 几乎所有地方的经济机构都已崩溃,在美国几乎四分之一的人口失业。 The economic machinery had broken down almost everywhere: In this country nearly a quarter of the population was out of work. 一场大战似乎在所难免。 A major was seemed all too likely. 当时作为校报编辑,对这些我曾经猛烈地抗议过,像今天的学生积极分子一样。 As a college newspaper editor at that time, I protested against this just as vehemently as student activists are protesting today. 与此同时, 我们这一代人渐渐发现改造世界有点像在亚平宁山区打仗一样。 你刚刚占领一条 山脉,另一条山脉又在前方隐现。 At the same time, my generation was discovering that reforming the world is a little like fighting a military campaign in the Apennines, as soon as you capture one mountain range, another one looms just ahead. 当 20 世纪 30 年代的大问题刚刚勉强得到控制, 新的问题又出现了——富足社会中出现的崭 新问题,如种族平等,保证城市环境适于居住,应付各种陌生伪装下的战争等等。 As the big problems of the thirties were brought under some kind of rough control, new problems took their place – the unprecedented problems of an, affluent society, of racial justice, of keeping our cities from becoming uninhabitable, of coping with war in unfamiliar guises. 最令人不安的是我们发现了人口爆炸这一问题。 Most disturbing of all was our discovery of the population explosion. 我们突然意识到我们这艘载人小飞船上的乘客数目大约每 40 年翻一倍。 It dawned on us rather suddenly that the number of passengers on the small spaceship we inhabit is doubling about every forty years. 只要地球上的人口持续地按这个可怕的速度增长,其他所有问题都将无法解决。 So long as the earth‘s population keeps growing at this cancerous rate, all of the other problems appear virtually insoluble. 我们的城市会变得越来越拥挤,景色会变得更加杂乱,空气和水也会变得愈发肮脏。 Our cities will continue to become more crowded and noisome. The landscape will get more cluttered, the air and water even dirtier. 所有人的生活质量都会不断恶化。 The quality of life is likely to become steadily worse for everybody. 如果过多的人必须为了争夺日益减少的食物份额和生存空间而争斗的话, 战争的升级看来是 无法避免的。 And warfare on a rising scale seems inevitable if too many bodies have to struggle for ever-dwindling shares of food and living space. 因此吉姆?宾司这代人要承担一项艰巨的任务。

So Jim Binns‘ generation has a formidable job on its hands. 但我认为这并不是无法克服的困难。 But not, I think, an insuperable one. 过去的事实证明, 处理这项艰巨任务完全可采用以前解决困难问外时使用的方法——从实际 效果出发,一点一滴,通过大家不懈的努力来完成。 On the evidence of the past, it can be handled in the same way that hard problems have been coped with before-piecemeal, pragmatically, by the dogged efforts of many pe

Lesson Three The Use of Force
他们是我的新病人,我所知道的只有名字,奥尔逊。 They were new patients to me, all I had was the name, Olson. 请您尽快赶来,我女儿病得很重。 ―Please come down as soon as you can, my daughter is very sick.‖ 当我到达时,孩子的母亲迎接了我,这是一位看上去惊恐不安的妇人,衣着整洁却一脸忧伤 的神色她只是说,这位就是医生吗? When I arrived I was met by the mother, a big startled looking woman, very clean and apologetic who merely said, Is this the doctor? 然后带我进了屋。 And let me in. 在后面,她又说到,请你一定要原谅我们,医生,我们让她呆在厨房里,那儿暖和,这里有 时很潮湿。 In the back, she added. You must excuse us, doctor, we have her in the kitchen where it is warm. It is very damp here sometimes. 在厨房的桌子旁边,这个孩子穿得严严实实的,坐在她父亲的腿上。 The child was fully dressed and sitting on here father‘s lap near the kitchen table. 他父亲试图站起来,但我向他示意不用麻烦,然后我脱下外套开始检查。 He tried to get up, but I motioned for him not to bother, took off my overcoat and started to look things over. 我能够觉察出他们都很紧张,而且用怀疑的眼光上下打量着我。 I could see that they were all very nervous, eyeing me up and down distrustfully. 在这种情形下,他们通常不会提供太多的情况,而是等着我告诉他们病情,这就是为什么他 们会在我身上花 3 美元。 As often, in such cases, they weren‘t telling me more than they had to, it was up to me to tell them; that‘s why they were spending three dollars on me. 这个孩子用她那冷漠而镇定的目光目不转睛地盯着我,脸上没有任何表情。 The child was fairly eating me up with her cold, steady eyes, and no expression on her face whatever. 她纹丝不动, 内心似乎很平静。 这是一个非常惹人喜爱的小东西, 外表长得象小牛一样结实。 She did not move and seemed, inwardly, quiet; an unusually attractive little thing, and as strong as a heifer in appearance. 但是她的脸发红,而且呼吸急促,我知道她在发着高烧。 But her face was flushed, she was breathing rapidly, and I realized that she had a high fever. 她长着一头漂亮浓密的金发,就像刊登在广告插页上和周日报纸图片版上的那些孩子一样。 She had magnificent blonde hair, in profusion. One of those picture children often reproduced in

advertising leaflets and the photogravure sections of the Sunday papers. 她发烧已经 3 天了,她父亲开口说,我们不知道是什么原因。 She‘s had a fever for three days, began the father and we don‘t know what it comes from. 我太太给她吃了一些药,你知道,大家都是这样做的,可这些药根本不管用,而且,附近有 很多人都生了病,所以我们想请您最好给她检查一下,然后告诉我们是怎么一回事。 My wife has given her things, you know, like people do, but it don‘t do no good. And there‘s been a lot of sickness around. So we tho‘t you‘d better look her over and tell us what is the matter. 像医生们经常做的那样,我问了个问题,想以此来猜测一下病症所在。 As doctors often do I took a trial shot at it as a point of departure. Has she had a sore throat? 父母两人一起回答说,没有……没有,她说她的嗓子不疼。 Both parents answered me together, No…No, she says her throat don‘t hurt her. 你嗓子疼吗?母亲又问了一下孩子。 Does your throat hurt you? Added the mother to the child. 女孩的表情没有任何变化,而她的目光却一直没有从我的脸上移开。 But the little girl‘s expression didn‘t change nor did she move her eyes from my face. 你看过她的嗓子了吗? Have you looked? 我想看,孩子的母亲说,但看不见。 I tried to, said the mother but II couldn‘t see. 这个月碰巧她上学的那个学校已经有好几例白喉病。 虽然到目前为止没有人说出这件事, 但 很显然,我们心里都想到了。 As it happens we had been having a number of cases of diphtheria in the school to which this child went during that month and we were all, quite apparently, thinking of that, though no one had as yet spoken of the thing. 好了,我说,我们先看看嗓子吧。 Well, I said, suppose we take a look at the throat first. 我以医生特有的职业方式微笑着,叫着孩子的名字。我说,来吧,玛蒂尔达,张开嘴,让我 看一下你的嗓子。 I smiled in my best professional manner and asking for the child‘s first name I said, come on, Mathilda, open your mouth and let‘s take a look at your throat. 没有任何反应。 Nothing doing. 哦,来吧,我劝道,张大你的嘴,让我看看。看,我说着把两只手伸开,我的手里没有东西, 张大嘴,让我看看。 Aw, come on, I coaxed, just open your mouth wide and let me take a look. Look, I said opening both hands wide, I haven‘t anything in my hands. Just open up and let me see. 他是一个多好的人呀,她的母亲插话道。你看他对你多好呀,来,听话。他不会伤害你的。 Such a nice man, put in the mother. Look how kind he is to you. Come on, do what he tells you to. He won‘t hurt you. 听到这里我狠狠地咬了咬牙,要是他们没用―伤害‖这个词,我也许能做点什么,但是我没有 着急或恼怒,而是慢声细语地说着话,一边再次靠近这个孩子。 As that I ground my teeth in disgust. If only they wouldn‘t use the word ―hurt‖ I might be able to get somewhere. But I did not allow myself to be hurried or disturbed but speaking quietly and slowly I approached the child again.

我刚将椅子拉近一点,突然,她像猫一样双手本能地朝我的两眼抓去,我差一点被她抓到。 As I moved my chair a little nearer suddenly with one catlike movement both her hands clawed instinctively for my eyes and she almost reached them too. 好在她只是打掉了我的眼镜,虽然眼镜没有碎,但已落到了离我几英尺远的厨房地板上。 In fact she knocked my glasses flying and they fell, though unbroken, several feet away from me on the kitchen floor. 父母两人都非常尴尬,充满歉意,你这个坏孩子,母亲一边说,一边抓着她,并摇晃着她的 一只手,你看看你做的事。这么一个好人。 Both the mother and father almost turned themselves inside out in embarrassment and apology. You bad girl, said the mother, taking her and shaking here by one arm. Look what you‘ve done. The nice man… 看在上帝的份上,我打断了她的话,请不要再在她面前说我是一个好人。 For heaven‘s sake, I broke in. Don‘t call me a nice man to her. 我来是看看她的嗓子,也许她患了白喉,而且很可能会死于这种病。 I‘m here to look at her throat on the chance that she might have diphtheria and possibly die of it. 但这一切她都不在乎,看这儿,我对女孩说,我们想看看你的嗓子,你不小了,应该明白我 说的话,你是自己张开嘴呢,还是我们帮你张开? But that‘s nothing to her. Look here, I said to the child, we‘re going to look at your throat. You‘re old enough to understand what I‘m saying. Will you open it now by yourself or shall we have to open it for you? 她仍然一动不动,甚至连表情都没有任何变化。 Not a move. Even her expression hadn‘t changed. 但是她的呼吸却越来越急促。 Her breaths, however, were coming faster and faster. 接着一场战役开始了,我不得不这样做。 Then the battle began. I had to do it. 由于她的自我保护,我必须检查一下她的嗓子。 I had to have a throat culture for her own protection. 可是我首先告诉家长这完全取决于他们。 But first I told the parents that it was entirely up to them. 我说明了其危险性,但同时提出只要他们承担责任我就不会坚持做这次喉咙检查。 I explained the danger but said that I would not insist on a throat examination so long as they would take the responsibility. 如果你不按大夫说的去做,你就要去医院了,母亲严厉地警告她。 If you don‘t do what the doctor says you‘ll have to go to the hospital, the mother admonished her severely. 是吗?我只好暗自笑了笑。毕竟我已经喜欢上了这个野蛮的小东西,但却看不起这对父母。 Oh yeah? I had to smile to myself. After all, I had already fallen in love with the savage brat, the parents were contemptible to me. 在接下来的―战斗‖中他们越来越难堪,被摧垮了,直至精疲力竭。而这个女孩由于恐惧,她 对我的抗拒达到了惊人的地步。 In the ensuing struggle they grew more and more abject, crushed, exhausted while she surely rose to magnificent heights of insane fury of effort bred of her terror of me. 父亲尽了最大的努力,他块头很大,然而事实上他面对着的是他的女儿,由于对她的所作所

为感到愧疚和担心伤到她, 他每次在我几乎就要成功了的关键时刻放开了她, 我真恨不得杀 了他。 The father tried his best, and he was a big man but the fact that she was his daughter, his shame at her behavior and his dread of hurting her made him release her just at the critical times when I had almost achieved success, till I wanted to kill him. 可是,因为又担心她真会患上白喉,尽管他自己就快昏到了,他又告诉我继续,继续,而她 的母亲在我们的身后走来走去,忧愁万分地抖着双手。 But his dread also that she might have diphtheria made him tell me to go on, go on though he himself was almost fainting, while the mother moved back and forth behind us raising and lowering her hands in an agony of apprehension. 把她放在你的大腿上,我命令道,抓住她的两个手腕。 Put her in front of you on your lap, I ordered, and hold both her wrists. 然而他刚一动手,女孩就尖叫了一声。 But as soon as he did the child let out a scream. 别这样,你会弄疼我的. Don‘t, you‘re hurting me. 放开我的手,放手,我告诉你。 Let go of my hands. Let them go I tell you. 接着她发出可怕的歇斯底里的尖叫,住手!住手!你会弄死我的! Then she shrieked terrifyingly, hysterically. Stop it! Stop it! You‘re killing me! 你觉得她受得了吗?医生!她母亲说。 Do you think she can stand it, doctor! Said the mother. 你出去,丈夫对他的妻子说,你想让她死于白喉吗? You get out, said the husband to his wife. Do you want her to die of diphtheria? 来吧,抓住她,我说道。 Come on now, hold her, I said. 接着我用左手掰住女孩的头,并试图将木制的压舌板伸进她的嘴里。 Then I grasped the child‘s head with my left hand and tried to get the wooden tongue depressor between her teeth. 她紧咬着牙绝望地反抗着! She fought, with clenched teeth, desperately! 而此时我也变得狂怒了——对一个孩子。 But now I also had grown furious-at a child. 我试图让自己不要发脾气,但却做不到,我知道怎样去检查她的嗓子。 I tried to hold myself down but I couldn‘t. I know how to expose a throat for inspection. 我尽了最大的努力。当我终于把木制的压舌板伸到最后一排牙齿的后面时,她张开了嘴,然 而只是一瞬间,我还来不及看她又把嘴闭上了,没等我把它取出来,她的臼齿已经紧紧咬住 了压舌板,并把压舌板咬成了碎片。 And I did my best. When finally I got the wooden spatula behind the last teeth and just the point of it into the mouth cavity, she opened up for an instant but before I could see anything she came down again and gripped the wooden blade between her molars. She reduces it to splinters before I could get it out again. 你不害臊吗?妈妈朝她大声训斥道。你在大夫面前这样不觉得害臊吗? Aren‘t you ashamed, the mother yelled at her. Aren‘t you ashamed to act like that in front of the

doctor? 给我拿一把平柄的勺子什么的,我对母亲说。 Get me a smooth-handled spoon of some sort, I told the mother. 我们还要接着做下去。 We‘re going through with this. 孩子的嘴已经流血了。 The child‘s mouth was already bleeding. 她的舌头破了,还在歇斯底里地大叫着。 Her tongue was cut and she was screaming in wild hysterical shrieks. 也许我应该停下来,过一个多小时再回来无疑这样会好一些。 Perhaps I should have desisted and come back in an hour or more. No doubt it would have been better. 但我已经看到至少两个孩子因为这种情况而被疏忽了, 躺在床上死去, 我感到我必须现在进 行诊断,否则就再没有机会了。 But I have seen at least two children lying dead in bed of neglect in such cases, and feeling that I must get a diagnosis now or never I went at it again. 然而最糟糕的是, 我也失去了理智, 我本可以在盛怒之下将女孩的嘴扒开来享受其中的快乐, 向她发起进攻真是一件乐事,我的脸也因此而发热。 But the worst of it was that I too had got beyond reason. I could have torn the child apart in my own fury and enjoyed it. It was a pleasure to attack her, my face was burning with it. 在这种时候,谁都会叮咛自己,无论这个可恶的小鬼做出任何愚蠢的举动,也要违背她的意 愿来保护她。 The damned little brat must be protected against her own idiocy, one says to one‘s self at such times. 这样做也是为了保护其他孩子,同时这也是一种社会需要,事实也确是如此。 Others must be protected against her. It is a social necessity. And all these things are true. 然而由于释放体内能量的欲望而产生的一种盲目的无法控制的狂怒和一种成年人的羞耻感, 使我一直坚持到最后。 But a blind fury, a feeling of adult shame, bred of a longing for muscular release are the operatives. One goes on to the end. 在最后失去理性的―战斗‖中,我控制了女孩的脖子和下巴,我强行将沉重的银勺从她的牙后 面伸到嗓子直到她作呕。 In the final unreasoning assault I overpowered the child‘s neck any jaws. I forced the heavy silver spoon back of her teeth and down her throat till she gagged. 果然,两个扁桃体上有着一层膜状物。她勇敢地反抗就是为了不让我发现她的这个秘密,她 至少隐瞒了 3 天嗓子疼,并对父母撒谎,都是为了逃避这样一个结果。 And there it was – both tonsils covered with membrane. She had fought valiantly to keep me from knowing her secret. She had been hiding that sore throat for three days at least and lying to her parents in order to escape just such an outcome as this. 现在,她真的狂怒了,在这以前她一直处于守势,但是现在她开始进攻了。 Now truly she was furious. She had been on the defensive before but now she attacked, Tried to get off her father‘s lap and fly at me while tears of defeat blinded her eye.

Lesson Four

Die as You Choose

制定关于安乐死的法律已经到了不能再回避的地步。 The need for laws on euthanasia cannot be dodged for much longer. 在世界上某个较小的国家里,安乐死被医疗机构普遍接受,每年都有数千例公开实施。 In one of the world‘s smaller countries, mercy-killing is accepted by the medical establishment and openly practiced a few thousand times each year. 而在某个世界大国, 安乐死虽然经常受到医疗机构的公开谴责, 每年却以数倍于此的次数秘 密实施,且从未公之于众。 In one of the world‘s biggest countries, euthanasia is condemned by the medical establishment, secretly practiced many times more often, and almost never comes to light. 但是,在上述那个国家有医生因为实施安乐死而在监狱里服刑呢? Which of these countries has a mercy-killing doctor now languishing in its jails? 是在小国荷兰。荷兰制定了有关安乐死的法律,能有效地管理它。 It is the small one, Holland, which has rules for euthanasia and so can police it effectively. 那位荷兰的医生违反了他国家的规定。 The Dutch doctor broke his country‘s rules. 有关安乐死的问题在所有国家都存在,决不仅出现在美国这个禁止安乐死的大国。 There is a moral here for all the countries, and not just for the big death-forbidding country, America. 目前美国正再次展开有关安乐死的辩论。 Right now it is going over the arguments about euthanasia once again. 美国医学协会会刊 1 月份发表了一封非同寻常的来信。 一位医生在信中宣称自己按照病人的 意愿,杀死了一位身患癌症的 20 岁女孩。 In January the Journal of the American Medical Association published a bizarre letter, in which an anonymous doctor claimed to have killed a 20-year-old cancer patient at her own request. 这件事引起了一场辩论, 而这场辩论将轰轰烈烈地持续到秋季, 那时加利福尼亚州可能会就 一项使安乐死合法化的法律进行投票表决。 This started a debate that will rumble on into the autumn, when Californians may vote on a proposed law legalizing euthanasia. 这封信可能是为了起到引发争论的效果,内容并不可信。 The letter was probably written for polemical impact. It is scarcely credible. 是作者自己在信中声称他(或她)第一次与那位得了癌症的病人见面,听到病人说出 5 个字 ——―让我去死吧‖——然后就杀了她。 It‘s author claims that he met the cancer patient for the first time, heard five words from her – ―Let‘s get this over with‖ – then killer her. 即使是极端的安乐死支持者也不赞成在这种情况下采取如此做法。 Even the most extreme proponents of euthanasia do not support such an action in those circumstances. 然而,医疗上出现的可怕事件如洪水猛兽一般,并不比安乐死的情况更好。它们无疑会在英 美以及其他国家中继续肆虐,几乎成了令人恐怖的常规。 Yet medical monstrosities that are hardly any better undoubtedly continue, almost as a matter of macabre routine, in America, Britain and many other countries. 一些医生私下透露他们有时会故意杀死病人,这样的情况非常普遍,令人担忧。 It is disturbingly easy to find doctors who will say, in private, that they sometimes kill patients on purpose.

多数医生说他们知道其他医生也有同样的行为, 但是因为即使在病人乞求他们的时候, 医生 也几乎不能与病人公开讨论安乐死, 因此医生往往倾向于仅在要死的人处于垂危昏迷之际而 无法表达是否同意安乐死时,才结束其生命。 Most say that know somebody else who does. But because they can rarely discuss euthanasia openly with patients – even when those patients beg them for it – doctors tend to kill only when the dying are too far gone to consent. 由于自愿要求安乐死受到禁止, 就只能由医生自行作出决定了, 病人会在夜间受到药物注射 而非自愿地离开人世。 Thus, because voluntary euthanasia is taboo, a doctor makes the decision himself – and the patient is killed involuntarily in the night with a syringe. 这是不使安乐死公开的代价。 That is one price of keeping euthanasia secret. 如果所有形式的安乐死都是错误的,那就应该统统列入禁止之列。 If all forms of mercy-killing are wrong, they should remain taboo. 可情况果真如此吗? But are they? 许多人都认为依靠医学技术来延续生命带给人的痛苦是令人悲哀、 可憎可恶的, 完全不顾人 的尊严,因此被动的安乐死——让病人自行死亡——被人们普遍接受。 Because many people accept that it is sad, undignified and gruesome to prolong the throes of death will all the might of medical technology, passive euthanasia – letting patients die – is widely accepted. 美国大多数州都有关于―活遗嘱‖的法规,为医生提供保护。如果医生没有尽力救助曾声明不 想延续生命的病人,不会为此受到起诉。 Most American states have ―living – will‖ legislation that protects doctors from prosecution if they do not try to save someone who has said he does not want life prolonged. 主动的安乐死——杀死病人——却依然争论颇多。 Active euthanasia – killing – remains controversial. 将人杀死与让人死亡之间的界线还能维持多久呢? How long can the distinction between killing and letting die hold out? 正如因未履行某种职责受到处罚一样,人也可能因干了某事而不受责难。 Just as there can be culpable omissions, so too can there be blameless acts. 让我们从道德伦理著作中举例说明。 假定一个人会从某个孩子的死亡中获益, 当这个孩子在 浴缸中撞伤头部而失去知觉时,那个人视而不见,任其溺水身亡。 Suppose – to take an example from the moral philosophy books – that a man stands to gain from the death of a certain child. The child strikes his head in the bath and falls unconscious. The man sits down and watches him drown. 虽然这个人什么都没有做,但他并不能因此开脱罪责。 The fact that the man has performed no action does not excuse him. 同样,再假设为了缩短而不是延长死亡到来的时间,医生终止某种治疗是无可指责的做法, 那么如果这位医生使用足够的镇痛剂致使病人死亡,他就一定大错特错吗? Similarly, suppose that a doctor does no wrong by withholding some treatment in order that death should come sooner rather than later. Is he then necessarily wrong if he administers enough painkillers to kill? 这位医生采取了某种行动,而不是未尽某种职责,这会使他有罪吗?

Does the fact that the doctor performed an action, rather than an omission, condemn him? 许多医生一直在为解除病人临终前的痛苦而奋斗着。 他们认为在病人请求安乐死时, 根本无 法截然区分被动与主动的安乐死。 Many doctors working on the battlefield of terminal suffering think that only squeamishness demands a firm difference between passive and active euthanasia on request. 他们赞成医生杀死病人的理由是: 医生的职责之一就是使病人免遭痛苦, 这是医生所做的全 部事情,而杀死病人则是做到这一点的惟一办法。 Their argument for killing goes like this: one of a doctor‘s duties is to prevent suffering; sometimes that is all there is left for him to do, and killing is the only way to do it. 这个观点并不新颖。当希波克拉底为医生制定信条的时候,曾明确禁止安乐死,而多数其他 希腊医生和思想家都不赞成这一禁令。 There is nothing new in this view. When Hippocrates formulated his oath for doctors, which explicitly rules out active killing, most other Greek doctors and thinkers disagreed with his ban. 前事不忘,后事之师。 Let the past be a guide. 有人认为死亡的时间是上帝安排的, 任何人不得缩短他人的生命, 然而假如一位病人的人生 观使其接受安乐死, 那么人们不禁要问: 为什么其他人还要用不同的宗教观念去干预其死亡 呢? Some people believe that the time of death is appointed by God and that no man should put the clock back on another. Yet if a patient‘s philosophical views embrace euthanasia, it is not clear why the religious objections of others should intrude on his death. 另一个令人担忧问题是, 有关安乐死的法律体系允许医生在规定的情况下按照垂死病人的请 求实施安乐死,就可能为杀人首开先例,从而危害社会。 Another worry is that a legal framework for euthanasia, permitting a doctor to comply with a dying man‘s request in a prescribed set of circumstances, might pose dangers for society by setting a precedent for killing. 这个问题取决于社会。 That depends on the society. 尽管有不同意见,荷兰对建立这样的法律体系已经准备就绪。 Holland, arguably, is ready for it. 当年就是荷兰医生英勇无比地顶住了压力, 拒绝参与使安乐死声名狼藉的纳粹用人体进行医 学实验的暴行,这恐怕不是巧合。 It is probably no coincidence that it was Dutch doctors who most heroically resisted pressure to join in the Nazi medical atrocities that have given euthanasia its worst name. 这些医生对个人自由坚定不移的尊重使他们没有杀害渴望活下去的健康人。 今天正是同样的 精神又使他们去帮助不愿活下去的垂危病人。 The same tenacious respect for individual liberty that stopped them killing healthy people, who did not want to die, now lets them help dying people who do. 与之相反,西德在未来相当长的时间里都无法使任何形式的安乐死合法化。 West Germany, by contrast, will not be able to legalize any form of euthanasia for a long time to come. 由于历史的阴影反对安乐死的力量异常强大, 在那些近年来自由意志的传统未受任何干扰的 国家里,为自愿安乐死制定有限的规定并不会使人们产生太多的恐惧。 Opposition is too fierce, because of the shadow of the past. Countries with an uninterrupted recent

libertarian tradition have less to fear from setting some limited rules for voluntary euthanasia. 拒绝讨论这个问题会使情况更加糟糕。 By refusing to discuss it, they usher in something worse

Lesson Five I'd Rather Be Black than Female
我是第一位当选国会议员的黑人妇女,这使我不同凡响。 Being the first black woman elected to Congress has made me some kind of phenomenon. 国会中还有九位黑人议员和十位妇女议员,但我是第一位同时克服两个不利因素的人。 There are nine other blacks in Congress; there are ten other women. I was the first to overcome both handicaps at once. 在这两种不利因素中,是个女人比是黑人更糟。 Of the two handicaps, being black is much less of a drawback than being female. 如果我说做黑人比做妇女更糟糕,也许没有人会对我的说法提出质疑。 If I said that being black is a greater handicap than being a woman, probably no one would question me. 为什么呢?因为―众所周知‖,美国存在着对黑人的歧视。 Why? Because ―we all know‖ there is prejudice against black people in America. 说美国存在着对妇女的歧视对于几乎所有男人——还有大多数女人来说——却是不可思议 的。 That there is prejudice against women is an idea that still strikes nearly all men – and, I am afraid, most women – as bizarre. 许多年以来,多数人看不到社会存在着对黑人的歧视。 Prejudice against blacks was invisible to most white Americans for many years. 当黑人终于通过静坐示威、联合抵制和自由乘车游行的方式以示抗议,来提及这个问题时, 他们觉得简直难以置信。 When blacks finally started to ―mention‖ it, with sit-ins, boycotts, and freedom rides, Americans were incredulous. ―谁,我们?‖他们委屈地问道。 ―Who, us?‖ they asked in injured tones. ―我们歧视黑人?‖对美国白人来说,这是漫长而痛苦的再教育的开始。 ―We‘re prejudiced?‖ It was the start of a long, painful reeducation for white America. 他们, 包括那些自认为是自由主义者的白人——还需要许多年才能发现并消除他们实际上都 持有的种族主义态度。 It will take years for whites – including those who think of themselves as liberals – to discover and eliminate the racist attitudes they all actually have. 消除对妇女的歧视的困难有多大?我确信这将会是一场更持久的斗争。 How much harder will it be to eliminate the prejudice against women? I am sure it will be a longer struggle. 部分问题在于比起黑人来美国妇女被洗脑的程度更深,且更满足于她们次等公民的角色。 Part of the problem is that women in America are much more brainwashed and content with their roles as second – class citizens than blacks ever were. 我来解释一下。 Let me explain. 二十多年来我一直积极参与政治活动。

I have been active in politics for more than twenty years. 除了最后的那六年, 其余那些年干活的是我, 我干的是所有无聊琐碎但对竞选胜负至关重要 的工作——可得到好处的却是男人,这几乎就是政界妇女一直以来的命运。 For all but the last six, I have done the work – all the tedious details that make the difference between victory and defeat on election day – while men reaped the rewards, which is almost invariably the lot of women in politics. 在美国政界,大部分的工作仍然是由妇女来做——大约 300 万志愿者。 It is still women – about three million volunteers – who do most of this work in the American political world. 她们中任何人所能期待的最好结果是有幸当选为区或县的副主席, 这是一个隔离却平等的职 位,是给那些多年来一直忠实从事装信封和组织牌局工作的妇女的奖赏。 The best any of them can hope for is the honor of being district or county vice-chairman, a kind of separate-but-equal position with which a woman is rewarded for years of faithful envelope stuffing and card-party organizing. 在这种职位上, 她可以享受公费出差去参加州或全国性的会议或代表大会, 在这些场合她的 作用就是和她单位的男主席投一样的票。 I n such a job, she gets a number of free trips to state and sometimes national meetings and conventions, where her role is supposed to be to vote the way her male chairman votes. 1963 年,当我企图摆脱这一角色代表布鲁克林的贝德富锡—斯图维桑特参加竞选纽约州众 议院的席位时,遇到了极大的阻力。 When I tried to break out of that role in 1963 and run for the New York State Assembly seat from Brooklyn‘s Bedford-Stuyvesant, the resistance was bitter. 从竞选一开始,我就要面对他们毫不掩饰的对女性的敌意。 From the start of that campaign, I faced undisguised hostility because of my sex. 但是在四年以后,当我竞选国会议员时,性别问题才成了一个主要争端。 But it was four years later, when I ran for Congress, that the question of my sex became a major issue. 我所在党派的党员召开秘密会议讨论如何阻止我参加竞选。 Among members of my own party, closed meetings were held to discuss ways of stopping me. 我的对手,著名的人权运动领袖詹姆士?法默竭力把自己塑造成一个具有男子汉气概的黑人 形象;他坐着带有扩音器的卡车在附近地区巡回,车上满载着留着非洲发式、穿颜色花哨的 宽袍和蓄胡子的年轻人。 My opponent, the famous civil-rights leader James Farmer, tried to project a black, masculine image; he toured the neighborhood with sound trucks filled with young men wearing Afro haircuts, dashikis, and beards. 电视台记者对我不屑一顾, 他们忽略了一个非常重要的数据, 而对此我和我的竞选经纪人韦 斯利?麦克唐纳?霍尔德却很清楚。 While the television crews ignored me, they were not aware of a very important statistic, which both I and my campaign manager, Wesley MacD. Holder, knew. 在我这个区内,登记参加投票选举的人中男女的比例是 1∶ 2.5。而且那些妇女是有组织的 ——是教师家长协会、教会社团、牌局俱乐部以及其他社会服务性团体的成员。我去找她们 寻求帮助。 n my district there are 2.5 women for every man registered to vote. And those women are organized – in PTAs, church societies, card clubs, and other social and service groups I went to

them and asked their help. 法默先生到现在仍然不知道他是如何被击败的。 Mr. Farmer still doesn‘t quite know what hit him. 当一位聪明的年轻女大学生开始找工作时,为什么第一个问题总是―你会打字吗?‖ When a bright young woman graduate starts looking for a job, why is the first question always: ―Can you type?‖ 在这个问题背后是一整部妇女受歧视的历史。 A history of prejudice lies behind that question. 为什么被看成是秘书而不是管理者?为什么被看成是图书管理员和教师而不是律师? Why are women thought of as secretaries, not administrators?Librarians and teachers, but not doctors and lawyers? 因为她们被认为是不一样的,低人一等的。 Because they are thought of as different and inferior. 快乐的家庭主妇和心满意足的黑鬼都是由歧视产生的典型人物。 The happy homemaker and the contented darky are both stereotypes produced by prejudice. 妇女甚至还没有达到黑人所达到的象征性的平等水平。 Women have not even reached the level of tokenism that blacks are reaching. 最高法院中没有妇女,只有两名妇女曾担任内阁的职位,但现在一个也没有。 No women sit on the Supreme Court. Only two have held Cabinet rank, and none do at present. 只有两位妇女担任大使。 Only two women hold ambassadorial rank. 妇女主要从事工资低、伺候人、没有前途的工作。即使她们获得较好的职位,他们的工资也 总是比同样工作的男人低。 But women predominate in the lower-paying, menial, unrewarding, dead-end jobs, and when they do reach better positions, they are invariably paid less than a man for the same job. 这不是歧视又是什么? If that is not prejudice, what would you call it? 几年前,我与一位政治领袖谈论有关一个有前途的青年妇女做候选人的事。 A few years ago, I was talking with a political leader about a promising young woman as a candidate. ―为什么要花费时间和精力去树立这个女孩的威信?‖他问道,―你很清楚她只会在我们打算 让她竞选市长时退出竞选去而生孩子。‖ ―Why invest time and effort to build the girl up?‖ he asked me. ―You know she‘ll only drop out of the game to have a couple of kids just about the time we‘re ready to run her for mayor.‖ 对于我,许多人说了类似的话。 Plenty of people have said similar things about me. 每次当我试图向上迈一步时, 许多人劝我回去教书, 说那才是妇女的职业, 把政治留给男人。 Plenty of others have advised me, every time, I tried to take another upward step, that I should go back to teaching, a woman‘s vocation and leave politics to the men. 我热爱教书,只要我确信这个国家再也不需要女人作贡献时,我就会去教书。 I love teaching, and I am ready to go back to it as soon as I am convinced that this country no longer needs a women‘s contribution. 当在这个富足的国家里,当没有孩子饿着肚子上床睡觉时,我可能会回去教书。 When there are no children going to bed hungry in this rich nation, I may be ready to go back to

teaching. 当每一个孩子都能上好学校时,我也许会回去教书。 When there is a good school for every child, I may be ready. 当我们不再将钱财耗费在武器装备上来杀人时, 当我们不再容忍对少数民族的歧视时, 当惩 治住房和雇佣不公行为的法律得以实施而不是被束之高阁时, 那么我在政治上也就再没什么 可做的了 When we do not spend our wealth on hardware to murder people, when we no longer tolerate prejudice against minorities, and when the laws against unfair housing and unfair employment practices are enforced instead of evaded, then there may be nothing more for me to do in politics. 但是在那以前——我们都知道那不是今年或是明年——我们需要的是更多的妇女投身于政 治,因为妇女可以作出特殊的贡献。 But until that happens – and we all know it will not be this year or next – what we need is more women in politics, because we have a very special contribution to make. 我希望自己成功的例子能使其他的妇女愿意参与政治活动——不仅仅是装信封, 而是竞选政 府职位。 I hope that the example of my success will convince other women to get into politics – and not just to stuff envelopes, but to run for office. 妇女能将同情、宽容、远见、忍耐和毅力带到政府中——这是我们与生俱有的品质或是在男 人的压制下不得不培养出来的品质。 It is women who can bring empathy, tolerance, insight, patience, and persistence to government – the qualities we naturally have or have had to develop because of our suppression by men. 一个国家的妇女通过她们在生活中的行为来塑造这个国家的道德、宗教和政治。 The women of a nation mold its morals, its religion, and its politics by the lives they live. 目前, 我们国家在政治上也许比其他任何方面更需要妇女的理想主义和决心。 At present, our country needs women‘s idealism and determination, perhaps more in politics than anywhere else

Lesson Six A Good Chance
我到鸭溪时,喜鹊没在家,我和他的妻子阿米莉亚谈了谈。 When I got to Crow Creek, Magpie was not home. I talked to his wife Amelia. ―我要找喜鹊,‖我说,―我给他带来了好消息。‖我指指提着的箱子,―我带来了他的诗歌和 一封加利福尼亚大学的录取通知书,他们想让他来参加为印第安人举办的艺术课。‖ ―I need to find Magpie,‖ I said. ―I‘ve really got some good news for him.‖ I pointed to the briefcase I was carrying. ―I have his poems and a letter of acceptance from a University in California where they want him to come and participate in the Fine Arts Program they have started for Indians.‖ ―你知道他还在假释期间吗?‖ ―Do you know that he was on parole?‖ ―这个,不,不大清楚。‖我犹豫着说,―我一直没有和他联系,但我听说他遇到了些麻烦。‖ ―Well, no, not exactly,‖ I said hesitantly, ―I haven‘t kept in touch with him but I heard that he was in some kind of trouble. 她对我笑笑说:―他已经离开很久了。你知道,他在这儿不安全。他的假释官随时都在监视 他,所以他还是不到这儿来为好,而且我们已经分开一段时间了,我听说他在城里的什么地 方。‖

She smiled to me and said, ―He‘s gone a lot. It‘s not safe around here for him, you know. His parole officer really watches him all the time and so sometimes it is just better for him not to come here. Besides, we haven‘t been together for a while. I hear he‘s in town somewhere.‖ ―你是指他在钱柏林?‖ ―Do you mean in Chamberlain?‖ ―对。我和他姐姐住在这儿,她说前一段时间她在那儿见过他。不过喜鹊不会去加利福尼亚 的。即使你见到他并和他谈此事,他现在也决不会离开这儿。‖ ―Yes, I live here with his sister and she said that she saw him there, quite a while ago. But Magpie would not go to California. He would never leave here now even if you saw him and talked to him about it.‖ ―可他以前去过,‖我说,―他去过西雅图大学。‖ ―But he did before,‖ I said, ―He went to the University of Seattle.‖ ―是的,但……但是,那是以前,‖她说,似乎不想再谈这个话题。 ―Yeah, but…well, that was before,‖ she said, as though to finish the matter. ―你难道不希望他去吗?‖我问道。 ―Don‘t you want him to go?‖ I asked. ―哦,这不是我说了算的。我们现在已经分开了。我只是告诉你,你一定会失望的。像你这 样的人希望他需要那些,可他已经不再需要了。‖她很快答道,语气非常肯定。 Quickly, she responded, ―Oh, it‘s not up to me to say. He is gone from me now. I‘m just telling you that you are in for a disappointment. He no longer needs the things that people like you want him to need,‖ she said positively. 当她意识到我不喜欢她用―像你这样的人‖的字眼时, 她停了一下, 然后把手放在我的胳膊上, ―听着,‖她说,―喜鹊现在终于快乐了。他情绪很好,英俊倜傥,自由自在而又意志坚强。 他和兄弟们一起坐在皮鼓前唱歌,他现在一切都很好。以前,每当发表那些反政府和反对美 国印第安人事务委员会的言论时,他总会越发气愤,充满怨恨。我曾为他担忧,但现在我不 再担心了。你为什么不让他独自呆着呢?‖ When she saw that I didn‘t like her reference to ―people like you‖, she stopped for a moment and then put her hand on my arm. ―Listen,‖ she said, ―Magpie is happy now, finally. He is in good spirits, handsome and free and strong. He sits at the drum and sings with his brothers: he‘s okay now. When he was saying all those things against the government and against the council, he became more and more ugly and embittered and I used to be afraid for him. But I‘m not now. 我和赛利娜坐在一家咖啡馆里。 I was sitting at the caféwith Salina. 她突然说道:―我不知道喜鹊在哪儿,我已经 4 天没见到他了。‖ Abruptly she said, ―I don‘t know where Mapie is. I haven‘t seen him in four days.‖ ―我把他的诗也带来了。‖我说,―他有机会进入加利福尼亚的艺术学院,但是我必须和他谈 一谈,还要让他填一下这些表格。我相信他一定会感兴趣的。‖ ―I‘ve got his poems here with me,‖ I said. ―He has a good change of going to a Fine Arts school in California, but I have to talk with him and get him to fill out some papers. I know that he is interested.‖ ―不,他不会的,‖她打断了我,―他根本就不再做这些没用的、愚蠢的梦了。‖ ―No, he isn‘t,‖ she broke in. ―He doesn‘t have those worthless, shitty dreams anymore.‖ ―别这样说,赛利娜,这对他真的是个好机会。‖ ―Don‘t say that, Salina. This is a good chance for him.‖

―好了,你爱怎么想就怎么想吧,可最近你跟他谈过吗?你知道他如今怎么样吗?‖ ―Well, you can think what you want, but have you talked to him lately? Do you know him as he is now?‖ ―我知道他情况很好,我也知道他有这个天分。‖ ―I know he is good. I know he has such talent.‖ ―他是一个印第安人,这次他回到这里是要住下来。‖ ―He is Indian, and he‘s back here to stay this time.‖ ―你和我一起开车去钱柏林,好吗?‖我问道。 ―Would you drive into Chamberlain with me?‖ I asked. 她一言不发。 She said nothing. ―如果他是你所说的那种印第安人,不管那是什么意思,如果他这次回来是要住下来,如果 他自己亲口对我说出来,我就打消这个念头。但是,赛利娜,‖我极力说服道,―我一定要跟 他谈谈,问问他想要做什么。你知道我的意思,不是吗?‖ ―If he is Indian as you say, whatever that means, and if he is back here to stay this time and if he tells me that himself, I‘ll let it go. But Salina,‖ I urged, ―I must talk to him and ask him what he wants to do. You see that, don‘t you?‖ ―是的, 我知道了,‖ 她 终于说道, ―他有权知道这一切, 但你会明白。‖ ―Yes,‖ she said finally. ―He has a right to know about this, but you‘ll see…‖ 我们离开时,她的高跟鞋在咖啡屋前的人行道上发出清脆的响声,当她又谈及喜鹊时,变得 焦虑不安。 Her heels clicked on the sidewalk in front of the caféas we left, and she became agitated as she talked. ―他在卡司特抗议时,因为法院被烧,惹了麻烦,被判入狱 1 年。他现在还在假释期间,他 的假释期还有 5 年,可他们连任何对他不利的证据都没有找到。5 年呀!你能相信吗?现在 连谋杀罪的人都没有判这样重。‖ ―After all that trouble he got into during that protest at Custer when the courthouse was burned, he was in jail for a year. He‘s still on parole and he will be on parole for another five years – and they didn‘t even prove anything against him! Five years! Can you believe that? People these days can commit murder and not get that kind of a sentence.‖ 我们驱车行使在钱柏林的大街上, 埃尔吉正站在银行附近的拐角处, 我和赛利娜都心照不宣, 这个喜鹊的好朋友肯定知道他在哪儿。 Elgie was standing on the corner near the Bank as we drove down the main street of Chamberlain, and both Salina and I knew without speaking that this man, this good friend of Magpie‘s, would know of his whereabouts. 我们停了车,埃尔吉走了过来,舒服地靠坐在车的后排座位上。 We parked the car, Elgie came over and settled himself in the back seat of the car. 车慢慢地驶到了我们停车的街角处, 假释官目不转睛地盯着我们 3 人, 而我们却假装没看见。 A police car moved slowly to the corner where we were parked and the patrolmen looked at the three of us intently and we pretended not to notice. 巡逻车在空荡荡的街道上慢慢前行。我小心谨慎地转向埃尔吉。 The patrol car inched down the empty street and I turned cautiously toward Elgie. 我还没来得及开口,赛利娜说,―她给喜鹊拿了些表格。他有可能进入加利福尼亚的一所作 家学院读书。‖

Before I could speak, Salina said, ―She is got some papers for Magpie. He has a chance to go to a writer‘s school in California.‖ 总是不太想让别人清楚地了解他的想法的埃尔吉说道, ―是吗?‖可赛利娜却不想让他就这么 不置可否。―埃尔吉,‖她嘲弄道,―埃尔吉,你知道他是不会去的!‖ Always tentative about letting you know what he was really thinking, Elgie said, ―Yeah?‖ But Salina wouldn‘t let him get away so noncommittally, ―Elgie,‖ she scoffed. ―You know he wouldn‘t go!‖ ―是呀,你知道,‖埃尔吉开口说,―卡司特那件事发生以后,我和喜鹊曾经想要躲藏起来, 最后我们到了奥古斯塔娜大学的校园。那儿有我们的几个朋友。他开始谈论自由,而这些是 我永远都不会忘记的。在那以后当他被捕入狱时,自由便成为了他的主要话题。自由。他渴 望自由,可是,老兄,他们总盯着你的时候,你不可能有自由。哦,那个怪物,就是他的那 个假释官,是一只卑鄙的看门狗。‖ ―Well, you know,‖ Elgie began, ―one time when Magpie and me were hiding out after that Custer thing, we ended up on to Augustana College Campus. We got some friends there. And he started talking about freedom and I never forget that, and then after he went wants to be free and you can‘t be that, man, when they‘re watching you all the time. Man, that freak that‘s his parole officer is some mean watch-dog.‖ ―你觉得他会拿到奖学金吗?‖我满怀希望地说。 ―You think he might go for the scholarship?‖ I asked, hopefully. ―我不知道。也许吧。‖ ―I don‘t know. Maybe.‖ ―他在哪儿?‖我问道。 ―Where is he?‖ I asked. 沉默了很长一会儿后,埃尔吉终于开口了:―我想你来得太好了,因为喜鹊需要从这没完没 了的监视和检查中解脱出来。事实上,他一直谈道:―如果我和白人交往,那么我将没有自 由;那里没有印第安人的自由。你现在应该和他谈谈。他变了。他赞成同白人完全分离或隔 离。‖ There was a long silence. Then Elgie said at last, ―I think it‘s good that you‘ve come, because Magpie needs some relief from this constant surveillance, constant checking up. In fact, that‘s what he always talks about. ?If I have to associate with the whites, then I‘m not free: there is no liberty in that for Indians.‘ You should talk to him now. He‘s changed. He‘s for complete separation, segregation, total isolation from the whites.‖ ―这是不是有点太过分了?太不实际了?‖我问道。 ―Isn‘t that a bit too radical? Too unrealistic?‖ I asked. ―我不知道。我真的不知道。‖ ―I don‘t know. Damn if I know.‖ ―好了,‖赛利娜说,―你觉得他在加利福尼亚的那所大学里会怎样?可这是他学习和写作的 一个好机会。我觉得他会从中找到一种愉快的感觉。‖ ―Yeah,‖ said Salina, ―Just what do you think it would be like for him at that university in California?‖ ―But it‘s a chance for him to study, to write. He can find a kind of satisfying isolation in that, I think.‖ 过了一会儿,埃尔吉说道:―不错,我认为你是对的‖。 After a few moments, Elgie said, ―Yeah, I think you are right.‖ 然后他又从后排座位上抬起身来说道:―我要过桥了,再过大约 3 个街区就到了。在我快要

下桥的地方的左边有一座白色的老式二层小楼。喜鹊的哥哥刚从内布拉斯加州教养院出来, 现在跟他的妻子就住在那儿,喜鹊也在。‖ ‖ Soon he got out of the back seat and said, ―I‘m going to walk over the bridge . It‘s about three blocks down there. There is an old, whit two-story house on the left side just before you cross the bridge. Magpie‘s brother just got out of the Nebraska State Reformatory and he is staying there with his old lady, and that‘s where Magpie is.‖ 现在终于能够和他谈谈,并让他自己作出决定了。 At last! Now I could really talk to him and let him make this decision for himself. ―呵!还有些问题,‖埃尔吉说,―喜鹊本不应该在那儿,你知道,因为这是他的假释条件的 一部分,那就是他要离开朋友、亲戚和以前的囚犯,差不多是所有的人。可上帝呀,这是他 的哥哥呀。等到日落前你们再来。把车停在加油站那儿,只要从那儿绕过那条街走到房子的 后门进去,你就可以跟喜鹊谈所有这一切了。‖ ―There are things about this though,‖ Elgie said. ―Magpie shouldn‘t have been there, see, because it‘s a part of the condition of his parole that he stays away from friends and relatives and ex-convicts and just about everybody. But Jesus, this is his brother. Wait until just before sundown and then come over. Park your car at the service station just around the block from there and walk to the back entrance of the house and then you can talk to Magpie about all this.‖ 赛利娜跟我讲述着喜鹊在背井离乡数月后返回鸭溪的情形及他的亲戚是怎样到他姐姐家欢 迎他返乡的。―他们来听他和兄弟唱歌,他们围坐在椅子上,欢笑着和他一起歌唱。‖ Salina was talking, telling me about Magpie‘s return to Crow Creek after months in exile and how his relatives went to his sister‘s house and welcomed him home. ―They came to hear him sing with his brothers, and they sat in chairs around the room and laughed and sang wit him.‖ 我们到达时,院子里停着几辆车。赛利娜压低声音说,―她们可能正在聚会。‖ Several cars were parked in the yard of the old house as we approached, and Salina, keeping her voice low, said, ―Maybe they are having a party.‖ 然而,四周的寂静使我忐忑不安。当我们走进敞着的后门时,看到人们都站在厨房里,我小 心翼翼地问道,―出什么事了? But the silence which hung about the place filled me with apprehension, and when we walked in the back door which hung open, we saw people standing in the kitchen. I asked carefully, ―What‘s wrong?‖ 没有人答话,只有埃尔吉走了过来。他那充血的眼睛里充满悲伤和痛苦。 Nobody spoke but Elgie came over, his bloodshot eyes filled with sorrow and misery. 他在我们面前站了一会儿,然后示意我们到起居室去。 He stood in front of us for a moment and then gestured us to go into the living room. 屋子里静静地,坐满了人。终于,埃尔吉轻轻地说道,―他们枪杀了他。‖ The room was filled with people sitting in silence, and finally Elgie said, quietly, ―They shot him.‖ ―他们说他违反了假释条件把他抓走了,关进监狱后就枪杀了他。‖ ―They picked him up for breaking the conditions of his parole and they put him in jail and … they shot him.‖ ―可是为什么?‖我大喊道,―怎么会发生这样的事?‖ ―But why?‖ I cried. ―How could this have happened?‖ ―他们说他们认为他要反抗,而且他们害怕他。‖ ―They said they thought he was resisting and that they were afraid of him.‖ ―害怕?‖我怀疑地问,―但……但是,他有武器吗?‖

―Afraid?‖ I asked, incredulously. ―But…but…was he armed?‖ ―没有‖,埃尔吉说着坐了下来。他的胳膊撑在膝盖上,头低着。 ―No,‖ Elgie said, seated now, his arm on his knees, his head down. ―No, he wasn‘t armed.‖ 我把喜鹊的诗紧紧握在手里,两手的拇指交替在平滑的纸夹上狠狠地摁着。 I held the poems tightly in my hands pressing my thumbs, first one and then the other, against the smoothness of the cardboard folder.

Lesson Seven Miss Brill
尽管阳光明媚——蓝天涂上了金色, 巨大的光点犹如泼洒在公共花园里的白葡萄酒——布里 尔小姐很高兴自己还是决定戴上了狐皮围巾。 Although it was so brilliantly fine – the blue sky powdered with gold and the great spots of light like white wine splashed over the Jardins Publiques – Miss Brill was glad that she had decided on her fur. 空气中一丝风也没有,但当你张开嘴时,却有那么一丝丝凉意。那感觉犹如你要吸一小口冰 水时从杯子里冒出的凉气那样。不时有一片落叶从无人知晓的地方飘来,从天空飘来。 The air was motionless, but when you opened your mouth there was just a faint chill, like a chill from a glass of iced water before you sip, and now and again a leaf came drifting – from nowhere, from the sky. 布里尔小姐抬起手来摸着狐皮围巾。 Miss Brill put up her hand and touched her fur. 可爱的小东西!再次触摸到它感觉真好。 Dear little thing! I t was nice to feel it again. 下午她把它从盒子里拿了出来,抖掉防蛀粉,好好地刷了一遍,把没有光泽的小眼睛擦得又 恢复了生气。 She had taken it out of its box that afternoon, shaken out the moth-powder, given it a good brush, and rubbed the life back into the dim little eyes. ―我怎么了?‖忧伤的小眼睛问道。 ―What has been happening to me?‖ said the sad little eyes. 哈,看到它们从红鸭绒垫上再次亮闪闪地盯着她,实在是令人高兴,但是用某种黑色合成物 做的鼻子很不结实了,一定是不知怎么被撞了一下。 Oh, how sweet it was to see them snap at her again from the red eiderdown! …But the nose, which was of some black composition, wasn‘t at all firm. It must have had a knock, somehow. 没关系,到时候,到绝对必要的时候用黑色的火漆擦一擦小淘气! Never mind – a little dab of black sealing-wax when the time came – when it was absolutely necessary. … Little rogue! 是的,她的确觉得它是个小淘气。 Yes, she really felt like that about it. 这个小淘气就在她左耳边咬住自己的尾巴。 Little rogue biting its tail just by her left ear. 她本可以取下它来放在膝上抚弄一下, 她感到手和胳膊略微有些刺痛, 她想可能是由于走了 路的缘故。 She could have taken it off and laid it on her lap and stroked it. She felt a tingling in her hands and arms. But that came from walking, she supposed. 当她呼吸时, 似乎有一种轻柔忧郁的东西——不, 不是忧郁——是某种温柔的东西在她的胸

中移动。 And when she breathed, something light and sad – no, not sad, exactly – something gentle seemed to move in her bosom. 今天下午出来的人很多,比上星期日多多了,而且乐队演奏得也好像更加响亮、欢快。 There were a number of people out this afternoon. far more than last Sunday. And the band sounded louder and gayer. 那是因为演出季节开始了。 That was because the Season had begun. 尽管乐队每逢星期日都演奏,但不是演出季节时总是不太一样。 For although the band played all the year round on Sundays, out of seaon it was never the same. 就好像一个人只演奏给家里人听那样,没有陌生人在场,演得怎样都没关系。 It was like someone playing with only the family to listen; it didn‘t care how it played if there weren‘t any strangers present. 指挥不也穿了一件新上衣吗?她肯定那是新的。 Wasn‘t the conductor wearing a new coat, too? She was sure it was new. 他像一只正要鸣叫的公鸡那样一只脚蹭着地, 摆动着双臂。 坐在绿色圆亭里的乐队成员们鼓 起两腮,眼睛盯着乐谱。 He scraped with his foot and flapped his arms like a rooster about to crow, and the bandsmen sitting in the green rotunda blew out their cheeks and glared at the music. 这时传来―长笛般‖柔和清亮的一小段音乐——十分悦耳——一长串活泼的急降。 Now there came a little ―flutey‖ bit – very pretty! – a litter chain of bright drops. 她知道这一段一定会重复出现的。是的,重复了,她抬起头来笑了。 She was sure it would be repeated. It was; she lifted her head and smiled. 只有两个人和她一起坐在她的―专座‖上,一位是穿着丝绒上衣相貌出众的老头,双手握着一 根巨大的雕花手杖;还有一个身材高大的老太太,笔直地坐着,绣花围裙上放着一卷织着的 毛活。 Only two people shared her ―special‖ seat: a fine old man in a velvet coat, his hands clasped over a huge carved walking-stick, and a big old woman, sitting upright, with a roll of knitting on her embroidered apron. 他们都不说话,令人非常失望,因为布里尔小姐总是期待着别人的谈话,她觉得自己能够十 分老练、 不动声色地听别人的谈话, 十分在行地利用别人在她周围谈话的时机短暂地介入别 人的生活。 They did not speak. This was disappointing, for Miss Brill always looked forward to conversation. She had become really quite expert, she thought, at listening as though she didn‘t listen, at sitting in other people‘s lives just a minute while they talked round her. 她斜眼看了看这对老人,他们也许很快就会走的。 She glanced, sideways, at the old couple. Perhaps they would go soon. 上星期日也不如平时那么有趣。 Last Sunday, too, hadn‘t been as interesting as usual. 那天有一个英国人和他的妻子, 男人戴了顶非常难看的巴拿马草帽, 女人穿了双带扣长筒靴。 An Englishman and his wife, he wearing a dreadful Panama hat and she button boots. 所有的时间里她都在说她如何应该戴眼镜,她知道自己需要眼镜,可买眼镜也不行,也许会 打碎,总是戴不住。而男人是那么耐心,他什么建议都提了,金丝镜框,那种镜腿弯曲紧扣 耳朵的镜框,眼镜鼻架侧面安上小垫。不行,什么也无法使她满意。―它总是会从鼻子上滑

下来的!‖布里尔小姐真想抓住她好好地摇她几下。 And she‘s gone on the whole time about how she ought to wear spectacles; she knew she needed them; But that it was no good getting any; they‘d be sure to break and they‘d never keep on. And he‘d been so patient. He‘d suggested everything – gold rims, the kind that curved round your ears, little pads inside the bridge. No, nothing would please her. ―They‘ll always be sliding down my nose!‖ Miss Brill had wanted to shake her. 那两个老人坐在座位上,仍像雕像一样一声不响。 The old people sat on the bench, still as statues. 没关系,总有许多人可看。 Never mind, there was always the crowd to watch. 在花圃前和乐队所在的圆亭前,成双成对或三五成群的人们来回漫步,时而停下来交谈、打 招呼,或从一个把花盘捆在栏杆上的老乞丐手里买上一把花。 To and fro, in front of the flower-beds and the band rotunda, the couples and groups paraded, stopped to talk, to greet, to buy a handful of flowers from the old beggar who had his tray fixed to the railings. 孩子们在他们中间奔跑着,打闹着,大声笑着,男孩子们下巴底下戴着大个的白色丝绸蝴蝶 领结,女孩子们打扮得就像法国玩具娃娃,穿着丝绸带花边的衣服。 Little children ran among them, swooping and laughing; little boys with big white silk bows under their chins; little girls, little French dolls, dressed up in velvet and lace. 有时一个刚刚学步的小家伙突然从树下摇摇晃晃地走出来, 在空地上停下, 睁大眼睛张望着, 突然―扑通‖一下坐在地上, 直到他娇小的母亲高抬着脚步像只小母鸡一样一边责备着一边冲 过去把他救起。 And sometimes a tiny staggered came suddenly rocking into the open from under the trees, stopped, stared, as suddenly sat down "flop," until its small high-stepping mother, like a young hen, and rushed scolding to its rescue. 另外一些人坐在长凳上或是绿色的椅子上,但一个又一个星期日,几乎总是同样的一些人, 而且布里尔小姐常常注意到他们几乎所有的人身上都有一些奇怪之处。 Other people sat on the benches and green chairs, but they were nearly always the same, Sunday after Sunday, and —Miss Brill had often noticed—there was some-thing funny about nearly all of them. 他们古怪、沉默,几乎都很老。看他们睁大眼睛的样子,好像是刚从黑暗的小屋子里出来, 甚至——甚至是刚从小橱柜里出来。 They were odd, silent, nearly all old, and from the way they stared they looked as though they'd just come from dark little rooms or even—-even cupboards! 在圆形大厅后面是垂着黄叶的细长的树木, 穿过树叶可见一线大海, 在那之外便是漂浮着金 色纹脉白云的蓝天。 Behind the rotunda the slender trees with yellow leaves down drooping, and through them just a line of sea, and beyond the blue sky gold-veined clouds. Tum-tum-tum tiddle-um! Tiddle-um! Turn tiddley-um turn ta! Blew the band. 两个穿红色衣服的年轻姑娘从附近走过, 两个穿蓝色军装的年轻土兵同她们相遇。 他们高声 笑着分成两对挽臂而去。 Two young girls in red came by and two young soldiers in blue met them, and they laughed and paired and went off arm in arm. 两个戴着可笑草帽的农妇神情庄重地牵着漂亮的暗灰色的毛驴走了过去。

Two peasant women with funny straw hats passed, gravely, leading beautiful smoke-colored donkey. 一个冷冰冰的,面色苍白的修女匆匆走过。 A cold, pale nun hurried by. 一个美貌的女人向这边走来,将一束紫罗兰掉在地上,一个小男孩追上去把花递还给她,她 接过去后又扔掉了,仿佛花被放了毒似的。 A beautiful woman came along and dropped her bunch of violets, and a little boy ran after to hand them to her, and she took them and threw them away as if they'd been poisoned. 天哪,布里尔小姐真不知道该不该称赞这种行为。 Dear me! Miss Brill didn't know whether to admire that or not! 现在一个戴貂皮无沿帽的女人和一个穿灰衣服的先生正好在她面前相遇了。 And now an ermine toque and a gentleman in grey met just in front of her. 他身材高大、神态拘谨、举止庄重,而她戴的貂皮无沿帽是在她的头发是黄色时买的。 He was tall, stiff, dignified, and she was wearing the ermine toque she'd bought when her hair was yellow. 而现在她的一切,头发,脸,甚至眼睛都和这顶破旧的貂皮帽一样颜色苍白了。她抬起来轻 抹嘴唇的那只戴着洗过手套的手是只发黄的爪子。 Now everything, her hair, her face, even her eyes, was the same color as the shabby ermine, and her hand, in its cleaned glove, lifted to dab her lips, was a tiny yellowish paw. 哈!她见到他真是太高兴了——太愉快了! Oh, she was so pleased to see him —delighted! 她觉得他们是定好下午会面的。 She rather thought they were going to meet that afternoon. 她描述她到了什么地方——这儿、那儿、海边,到处都去了。 She described where she'd been— everywhere, here, there, along by the sea. 天气是这样可爱——难道他不同意吗?也许他不愿意吧? The day was so charming—didn't he agree? And wouldn't he, perhaps? 但他摇了摇头,点上一支香烟,徐徐地把一大口烟喷在了她的脸上,在她仍在谈笑风生时, 把火柴轻轻向外一弹,继续走开去。 … But he shook his head, lighted a cigarette, slowly breathed a great deep puff into her face and, even while she was still talking and laughing, flicked the match away and walked on. 只有貂皮无沿帽独自呆在那里,她笑得更加明快了。 The ermine toque was alone; she smiled more brightly than ever. 就连乐队也似乎知道她的感觉而演奏得更轻柔了, 乐队轻柔地演奏着, 鼓点声一遍又一遍地 敲出:―畜生!畜生!‖ But even the band seemed to know what she was feeling and played more softly, played tenderly, and the drum beat "The Brute! The Brute!" over and over. 她要做些什么呢?现在会发生什么事? What would she do? What was going to happen now? 然而就在布里尔小姐想着这些的时候, 貂皮无沿帽转过身去, 好像看见了就在那边有另一个 更好的人似地扬起手,嗒嗒地走了。 But as Miss Brill wondered, the ermine toque turned, raised her hand as though she'd seen someone else, much nicer, just over there, and pattered away . 乐队又一次改变节奏,演奏得比任何时候都更快,更欢,坐在布里尔小姐凳子上的老人站起

身来走了。 乐队又一次改变节奏,演奏得比任何时候都更快,更欢,坐在布里尔小姐凳子上的老人站起 身来走了。这个连鬓胡子很长的老头真滑稽,和着音乐的节拍蹒跚地走着,差点被四个并排 走着的姑娘给撞倒。 And the band changed again and played more quickly, more gaily than ever, and the old couple on Miss Brill‘s seat got up and marched away, and such a funny old man with long whiskers hobbled along in time to the music and was nearly knocked over by four girls walking abreast. 啊,这一切是多么的迷人!多么令她欣喜! Oh, how fascinating it was! How she enjoyed it! 她是多么喜欢坐在这里,看着这一切! How she loved sitting here, watching it all! 就像是一出戏,完全就像是一出戏。 It was like a play. It was exactly like a play. 谁能相信背后的天空不是画出来的? Who could believe the sky at the back wasn‘t painted? 但是直到一只棕色的小狗神色庄重地迈着小步走过来, 然后又慢慢迈着小步走过去, 就像一 只―演戏‖的小狗,一只被轻度麻醉的小狗那样,直到这时布里尔小姐才发现这一切如此令人 激动。 But it wasn‘t till a little brown dog trotted on solemnly and then slowly trotted off, like a little ―theatre‖ dog, a little dog that had been drugged, that Miss Brill discovered what it was that made it so exciting. 他们全都在舞台上。他们不仅仅是观众,不仅仅在一边观看,他们也在演戏。 They were all on the stage. They weren‘t only the audience, not only looking on; they were acting. 就连她自己也是其中的一个角色,每个星期天都来。 Even she had a part and came every Sunday. 毫无疑问,如果她没有来,就会引起别人的注意,她毕竟是整个演出的一部分。 No doubt somebody would have noticed if she hadn't been there; she was part of the performance, after all. 奇怪,她过去从未这样想过。 How strange she‘d never thought of it like that before! 但是这也解释了她为什么每一个星期都要这样特意在同一时间离家——是为了不误演出 ——而且这也解释了为什么她在给来向她学习英语的学生讲她如何度过每个星期日下午时 会有这样古怪的羞怯的感觉。 And yet it explained why she made such a point of starting from home at just the same time each week —so as not to be late for the performance—and it also explained why she had quite a queer shy feeling at telling her English pupils how she spent her Sunday afternoons. 真是难怪!布里尔小姐几乎笑出声来。 No wonder! Miss Brill nearly laughed out loud. 她是在舞台上。 她想起了那个生病的老人, 她每周有四个下午趁他在花园里躺着时给他读报 纸。 She was on the stage. She thought of the old invalid gentleman to whom she read the newspaper four afternoons a week while he slept in the garden. 她已经完全习惯了在棉布枕头上的那个虚弱的脑袋, 那深深凹陷的眼睛, 张着的嘴巴和高高 的皱缩的鼻子。

She had got quite used to the frail head on the cotton pillow, the hollowed eyes, the open mouth and the high pinched nose. 如果他死去,很可能她许多个星期都不会注意到,也不会在乎。 If he'd been dead she mightn't have noticed for weeks; she wouldn't have minded. 但是他突然知道了给他读报纸的是个女演员!―一个女演员!‖衰老的头抬了起来,昏花的眼 中闪动着两个光点。 But suddenly he knew he was having the paper read to him by an actress! "An actress!" The old head lifted; two points of light quivered in the old eyes. ―女演员——是你吗?‖布里尔小姐于是抚平报纸, 仿佛这是她的台词, 并且温柔地说道: ―是 的,我当演员已经很久了。‖ "An actress—ar e ye?" And Miss Brill smoothed the newspaper as though it were the manuscript of her part and said gently: "Yes, I have been an actress for a long time." 乐队刚才一直在休息,现在又重新开始演奏了。 The band had been having a rest. Now they started again. 他们演奏的乐曲热烈、明快,然而透着一丝凉意——一种难以言状的东西。是什么呢?—— 不是悲哀——不,不是悲哀——是一种使你想唱歌的气氛。 And what they played was warm, sunny, yet there was just a faint chill — a something, what was it? —not sadness— no , not sadness—a something that made you want to sing. 曲调升华,升华,阳光灿烂,布里尔小姐感到再过一会儿他们所有的人,剧团全体人员都会 唱起来。 The tune lifted, lifted, the light shone; and it seemed to Miss Brill that in another moment all of them, all the whole company, would begin singing. 那些年轻的人, 那些在一起活动的笑着的人会先开始歌唱, 然后坚定勇敢的男声会加入进来, 然后她也加入,还有长凳上坐着的其他人——他们会以伴唱的形式加入进来——声音很低, 几乎没有起伏, 非常动听——感人……布里尔小姐眼中充满泪水, 微笑着看着剧团的全体人 员。 The young ones, the laughing ones who were moving together, they would begin, and the men's voices, very resolute and brave, would join them. And then she too, she too, and the others on the benches—they would come in with a kind of accompaniment—something low, that scarcely rose or fell, something so beautiful—moving … and Miss Brill's eyes filled with tears and she looked smiling at all the other members of the company. 是的,我们明白,我们明白,她想到——虽然她并不知道他们明白什么。 Yes we understand, we understand, she thought—though what they understood she didn't know. 这个时候一对青年男女走过来坐在刚才那对老夫妻坐的地方。 Just at that moment a boy and a girl came and sat down where the old couple had been. 他们衣着鲜亮,正在恋爱。 They were beautifully dressed; they were in love. 当然男女主人公刚刚从他父亲的游艇上下来。 The hero and heroine, of course, just arrived from his father's yacht. 布里尔小姐仍然在无声地唱着歌,仍带着颤抖的微笑,她准备好听他们的谈话。 And still soundlessly singing, still with that trembling smile, Miss Brill prepared to listen. ―不行,现在不行,‖姑娘说道,―别在这里,我不能。‖ "No, not now," said the girl. "Not here, I can't." ―可是为什么?是因为坐在那一头的那个愚蠢的老家伙吗?‖小伙子问。

"But why? Because of that stupid old thing at the end there?" asked the boy. ―她为什么要到这里来——谁需要她?她为什么不把她那副愚蠢的尊容留在家里?‖ "Why does she come here at all —who wants her? Why doesn't she keep her silly old mug at home?" ―她的那条皮围巾太滑稽了。‖姑娘哈哈地笑着说,―和一条炸鲤鱼完全一样。‖ "It's her fu-fur which is so funny," giggled the girl. "It's exactly like a fried whiting." ―嘿,滚你的吧!‖小伙子生气地低语道。接着又说:―告诉我,小心肝——‖ "Ah, be off with you!" said the boy in an angry whisper. Then: "Tell me, ma petite chere —" ―不,别在这里,‖姑娘说道,―先别这样。‖ "No, not here, ―said the girl. "Not yet." 在回家的路上她总是要在面包店买上一块蜂蜜蛋糕。这是她星期日的特殊享受。 On her way home she usually bought a slice of honey-cake at the baker's. It was her Sunday treat. 有时候买的蛋糕里有粒杏仁,有时候没有。有没有大不一样。 Sometimes there was an almond in her slice, sometimes not. It made a great difference. 如果有杏仁,就像是带回家一个小小的礼物——一份惊喜——一个本来很可能没有的东西。 If there was an almond it was like carrying home a tiny present —a surprise—something that might very well not have been there. 在有杏仁的那些星期日,她总是匆匆赶回家,精神抖擞地划火柴点火烧水。 She hurried on the almond Sundays and .struck the match for the kettle in quite a dashing 但是今天她径直从面包店门前走过, 爬上楼梯走进那个昏暗的小屋——她的像小柜橱一般的 小屋——坐在红鸭绒垫上。 But today she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into the little dark room —her room like a cupboard—and sat down on the red eiderdown. 她坐了很久。 She sat there for a long time. 装狐皮围巾的那只盒子放在床上。 The box that the fur came out of was on the bed. 她迅速解下围巾,看也不看,很快地把它放进了盒子。 She unclasped the necklet quickly; quickly, without looking, laid it inside. 但当她盖上盒盖时,她觉得听见了哭声。 But when she put the lid on she thought she heard something crying

第八课 人生的一课
快一年了,大部分时间我都泡在家里、店铺、学校和教堂里,就像一块旧饼干,又脏又难以 下咽。 For nearly a year, I sopped around the house, the Store, the school and the church, like an old biscuit, dirty and inedible. 这时我遇到或者说认识了抛给我第一根救生索的那位夫人。 Then I met, or rather got to know, the lady who threw me first lifeline. 波萨?弗劳尔斯夫人是斯坦普司黑人区中的出类拔萃的人物。 Mrs. Bertha Flowers was the aristocrat of Black Stamps. 她动作优雅,即使在最冷的天气里也不缩手缩脚,而在阿肯色州的夏日里,她似乎又有属于 自己的微风环绕在她的身旁,给她带来凉爽。

She had the grace of control to appear warm in the coldest weather, and one the Arkansas summer days it seemed she had a private breeze which swirled around, cooling her. 她的皮肤深黑迷人,如果被挂住就会像李子皮一样剥落,但没有人敢离她近点,碰皱她的衣 服,更不要说挂住她的皮肤了。 Her skin was a rich black that would have peeled like a plum if snagged, but then no one would have thought of getting close enough to Mrs. Flowers to ruffle her dress, let alone snag her skin. 她不太喜欢亲近,另外她还带着手套。 She didn't encourage familiarity. She wore gloves too. 她是我所知道的为数不多的有气质的女士之一,并且是我做人的楷模,影响了我一生。 She was one of the few gentlewomen I have ever known, and has remained throughout my life the measure of what a human being can be. 我被她深深地吸引,因为她像是我从没有亲身遇到过的那些人。 She appealed to me because she was like people I had never met personally. 她就像英国小说中的女人,走在沼泽地里(不管是什么地方),一群忠实的狗奔跑在她们的 身旁,并与她们保持一定的距离以示尊敬。 Like women in English novels who walked the moors (whatever they were) with their loyal dogs racing at a respectful distance. 她就像坐在炉火熊熊的壁炉前的女人,不时从装满蛋糕和松脆饼的银盘中取东西喝。 Like the women who sat in front of roaring fireplaces, drinking tea incessantly from silver trays full of scones and crumpets. 她就像走在―石南丛生的荒野‖中,读着用摩洛哥山羊皮装订的书的那些女人,而且有用连字 符隔开的两个姓。 Women who walked over the "heath‖ and read morocco-bound books and had two last names divided by a hyphen. 可以肯定地说,是她本人使我为自己是个黑人而感到骄傲。 It would be safe to say that she made me proud to be Negro, just by being herself. 那个在我的记忆中如甜奶般鲜活的夏日的午后,她来我们的店里买东西。 One summer afternoon, sweet-milk fresh in my memory, she stopped at the Store to buy provisions. 换了另外一个同她身体情况和年龄相当的黑人妇女就会一只手把纸袋拎回家去,但奶奶却 说,―弗劳尔斯大姐,让贝利帮你把东西送回家去。‖ Another Negro woman of her health and age would have been expected to carry the paper sacks home in one hand, but Momma said, "Sister Flowers, I'll send Bai-ley up to your house with these things." ―谢谢您,汉德森夫人。但我想让玛格丽特帮我送回去。‖ "Thank you, Mrs. Henderson. I'd prefer Marguerite, though." 她说我名字时,我的名字也变得动听起来。 My name was beautiful when she said it. ―反正我一直想跟她谈一谈。 ‖她们互相对视了一下, 其间的意思只有她们这些同龄人才明白。 "I've been mean-ins to talk to her, anyway." They gave each other agegroup looks. 在石头路旁有一条小路,弗劳尔斯夫人在前面摆动着胳膊,在碎石路上小心地走着。 There was a little path beside the rocky road, and Mrs. Flowers walked in front swinging her arms and picking her way over the stones. 她没有回头,对我说,―听说你在学校里功课很好,玛格丽特,但那都是笔头作业。老师说

他们很难让你在课堂上发言。‖ She said, without turning her head, to me, "I hear you‘re doing very good school work, Marguerite, but that it's all written. The teachers report that they have trouble getting you to talk in class. 我们走过左边三角形的农场, 路变宽了, 可以允许我们并排走在一起。 但我畏缩地走在后面, 想着那些没有问出口也无法回答的问题。 We passed the triangular farm on our left and the path widened to allow us to walk together. I hung back in the separate unasked and unanswerable questions. ―过来和我一起走,玛格丽特。‖我无法拒绝,尽管我很想。 "Come and walk along with me, Marguerite." I couldn't have refused even if I wanted to. 她把我的名字叫得如此动听。或者更确切地说,她把每个词都说得这样清晰,我相信就是一 个不懂英语的外国人也能听懂她的话。 She pronounced my name so nicely. Or more correctly, she spoke each word with such clarity that I was certain a foreigner who didn't understand English could have understood her. ―现在没有人要强迫你说话——恐怕也没人能做到这一点。但是你记住,语言是人类进行沟 通的方式,是语言将人类同低等动物区分开来。‖ ―Now no one is going to make you talk —possibly no one can. But bear in mind, language is man's way of communicating with his fellow man and it is language alone which separates him from the lower animals.‖ 这对我来说是一个全新的观点,我需要些时间认真考虑一下。 That was a totally new idea to me, and I would need time to think about it. ―你奶奶说你读了很多书,一有机会就读。这很好,但还不够好,言语的含义不仅是写在纸 上的那点。它需要人的声音赋予它深层含义的细微差别。‖ "Your grandmother says you read a lot. Every chance you get. That's good, but not good enough. Words mean more than what is set down on paper. It takes the human voice to infuse them with the shades of deeper meaning. " 我记住了有关声音赋予言语更多内涵的话。这些话听起来是那么正确,那么富有诗意。 I memorized the part about the human voice infusing words. It seemed so valid and poetic. 她说她要给我一些书,要我不仅阅读这些书,还要大声朗读。 She said she was going to give me some books and that I not only must read them, I must read them aloud. 她建议我用尽可能丰富的语调去读每一句话。 She suggested that i try to make a sentence sound in as many different ways as possible. ―如果你草草读完这些书就还给我的话,我不接受任何理由。‖ "I'll accept no excuse if you return a book to me that has been badly handled." 我想像不出如果我真的没有认真读弗劳尔斯夫人的某一本书, 将会受到怎样的惩罚。 让我去 死恐怕是太仁慈太干脆了。 My imagination boggled at the punishment I would deserve if in fact I did abuse a book of Mrs. Flowers'. Death would be too kind and brief. 房子里的气味让我有点吃惊。 The odors in the house surprised me. 不知什么缘故,我从来没有将弗劳尔斯夫人与食物、吃饭或是平常人的琐事联系起来。 Somehow I had never connected Mrs. Flowers with food or eating or any other common experience of common people. 那里一定也有户外厕所,但我一点也记不起来了。

There must have been an outhouse, too, but my mind never recorded it. 她打开门,香草的芬芳迎面扑来。 The sweet scent of vanilla had met us as she opened the door. ―今天早上我做了些茶点。你瞧,我早打算好要请你来吃点心、柠檬水,这样我们就可以聊 一会了。柠檬水正放在冰盒子里呢。‖ "I made tea cookies this morning. You see, I had planned to invite you for cookies and lemonade so we could have this little chat. The lemonade is in the icebox." 这意味着弗劳尔斯夫人平时也买冰, 而镇上大多数人家只是在星期六下午才买冰, 放在木头 做的冰淇凌冷藏机内,整个夏天也不过只买几次。 It followed that Mrs. Flowers would have ice on an ordinary day, when most families in our town bought ice late on Saturdays only a few times during the summer to be used in the wooden ice-cream freezers. ―坐吧,玛格丽特,坐到那边桌子旁。‖ "Have a seat, Marguerite. Over there by the table." 她端着一个用茶布盖着的盘。 She carried a platter covered with a tea towel. 尽管她事先说过她已经好久没有做点心了, 我还是相信就像她的其他任何东西一样, 点心也 会十分精美可口。 Although she warned that she hadn't tried her hand at baking sweets for some time, I was certain that like everything else about her the cookies would be perfect. 我吃点心的时候,她开始给我讲我们后来称之为―我生活中的一课‖的第一部分。 As I ate she began the first of what we later called "my lesson in living." 她告诉我不能宽容无知,但可以理解文盲。 She said that must always be intolerant of ignorance but understanding of illiteracy. 她认为有些人虽然没有上过学,但却比大学教授更有知识,甚至更聪明。 That some people, unable to go to school, were more educated and even more intelligent than college professors. 她还鼓励我认真倾听被乡下人称为常识的一些俗语。 她说这些朴实谚语是一代代人集体智慧 的结晶。 She encouraged me to listen carefully to what country people called mother wit. That in those homely sayings was couched the collective wisdom of generations 我吃完点心后,她把桌子打扫干净,从书架上拿了一本又厚又小的书。 When I finished the cookies she brushed off the table and brought a thick, small book from the bookcase. 我读过《双城记》,认为这本书符合我心目中浪漫主义小说的标准。 I had read A Tale of Two Cities and found it up to my standards as a romantic novel. 她翻开第一页,于是我平生第一次听到了诗朗诵。 She opened the first page and I heard poetry for the first time in my life. ―这是最辉煌的时代也是最糟糕的时代……‖她的声音圆润,随着言语的起伏而抑扬顿挫,就 像在唱歌一样。 "It was the best of times and the worst of times. . ." Her voice slid in and curved down through and over the words. She was nearly singing. 我想看一下她读的是否真的和我过去看的一样? I wanted to look at the pages. Were they the same that I had read?

还是像赞美诗一样,书页上满是音符? Or were there notes, music, lined on the pages, as in a hymn book? 她的声音开始慢慢低沉下来。 Her sounds began cascading gently. 我听过很多次布道,因此我知道她的朗诵就要结束了,但我还没有真正听见或听懂一个词。 I knew from listening to a thousand preachers that she was nearing the end of her reading, and I hadn't really heard, heard to understand, a single word. ―你觉得怎么样?‖ "How do you like that?" 我这才意识到她在期待我的回答。 It occurred to me that she expected a response. 我的舌间还留有香草的余味,她的朗诵对我来说很奇妙。 The sweet vanilla flavor was still on my tongue and her reading was a wonder in my ears. 我得说点什么了。 I had to speak. 我说:―是的,夫人。‖我至少得说这些,我也只能说这些。 I said, "Yea, ma'am." It was the least I could do, but it was the most also. ―还有一件事。你把这本诗集拿去,背下其中的一首。下次你再来看我时,我希望你背诵给 我听。‖ 'There s one more thing. Take this book of poems and memorize one for me. Next time you pay me a visit, I want you to recite.‖ 在经历了成年后的复杂生活后, 我多次试图弄清楚为什么当年她送给我的礼物一下子就让我 陶醉了。 I have tried often to search behind the sophistication of years for the enchantment I so easily found in those gifts. 书中的内容已经忘却,但余韵仍存。 The essence escapes but its aura remains. 被准许,不,是被邀请进入一群陌生人的私人生活中,与他们共同分享喜悦和恐惧,这使我 读贝奥武夫时就犹如喝一杯蜜酒,读奥立佛?特威斯特时,犹如饮一杯热奶茶,忘记了那犹 如南方苦艾酒般的痛苦经历。 To be allowed, no, invited, into the private lives of strangers, and to share their joys and fears, was a chance to exchange the Southern bitter wormwood for a cup of mead with Be-owulf or a hot cup of tea and milk with Oliver Twist. 当我大声地说―这比我做过的任何一件事都好得多‖时,我眼中涌出了爱的泪水,那是为了自 己的忘我 When I said aloud, "It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done…" tears of love filled my eyes at my selflessness. 在我第一次去她家回来,我跑下山去冲到马路上(路上很少有车经过),快到店铺时我还居 然没忘了停下来。 On that first day, I ran down the hill and into the road (few cars ever came along it) and had the good sense to stop running before I reached the Store. 有人喜欢我,这是多么的不同啊。 was liked, and what a difference it made. 有人尊敬我, 并不是因为我是汉德森夫人的外孙女或是贝利的妹妹, 而是因为我是玛格丽特?

约翰逊。 I was respected not as Mrs. Henderson's grandchild or Bailey's sister but for just being Marguerite Johnson. 孩提时的逻辑永远不需要证实(所有的结论都是绝对的)。 Childhood's logic never asks to be proved (all conclusions are absolute). 我从来没有想过为什么弗劳尔斯夫人会选中我来表示关怀, 也从来没想过也许是奶奶曾请求 她开导我一下。 1 didn't question why Mrs. Flowers had singled me out for attention, nor did it occur to me that Momma might have asked her to give me a little talking to. 我只关心她曾给我做点心吃,还给我读她最喜欢的书。这些足以证明她喜欢我 All I cared about was that she had made tea cookies for me and read to me from her favorite book. It was enough to prove that she liked me. 奶奶和贝利在店铺里等我。 Momma and Bailey were waiting inside the Store. 他问:―她给了你什么?‖他已经看到那些书了,但我把装着他那份点心的纸袋放在怀里,用 诗集挡住。 He said. "My, what did she give you?" He had seen the books, but I held the paper sack with his cookies in my arms shielded by the poems. 奶奶说:―小姐,我知道你的举止像位女士。 Momma said, "Sister, I know you acted like a little lady. That do my heart good to see settled people take to you all. 我已经尽最大努力了,上帝知道,但这些天……‖她的声音低下来,―快去把衣服换了。‖ I'm trying my best, the Lord knows, but these days…" Her voice trailed off. "Go on in and change your dress.‖

Lesson Nine The Trouble with Television
电视的毛病 The Trouble with Television 要摆脱电视的影响是困难的。 It is difficult to escape the influence of television. 假如统计的平均数字适用于你的话, 那么你到 20 岁的时候就至少看过 2 万个小时的电视了, 从那以后每生活 10 年就会增加 1 万小时。 If you fit the statistical averages, by the age of 20 you will have been exposed to at least 20,000 hours of television. You can add 10,000 hours for each decade you have lived after the age of 20. 笔起看电视,美国人只有在工作和睡眠上花时间更多。 The only things Americans do more than watch television are work and sleep. 稍微计算一下,使用这些时间的一部分能够做些什么。 Calculate for a moment what could be done with even a part of those hours. 听说一个大学生仅用 5000 小时就可以获得学士学位。 Five thousand hours, I am told, are what a typical college undergraduate spends working on a bachelor's degree. 在 1 万个小时内你能学成一个天文学家或工程师,流利掌握几门外语。 In 10,000 hours you could have learned enough to become an astronomer or engineer. You could have learned several languages fluently.

如果你感兴趣的话, 你可能读希腊原文的荷马史诗或俄文版的陀思妥耶夫斯基的作品; 如果 对此不感兴趣,那你可以徒步周游世界,撰写一本游记。 If it appealed to you, you could be reading Homer in the original Greek or Dostoyevsky in Russian. If it didn't, you could have walked around the world and written a book about it. 电视的毛病在于它分散了人们的注意力。 The trouble with television is that it discourages concentration. 生活中几乎一切有趣的、能给人以满足的事都需要一定的建设性的、持之以恒的努力。 Almost anything interesting and rewarding in life requires some constructive, consistently applied effort. 即使是我们中间那些最迟钝、 最没有天才的人也能做出一些事来, 而这些事使那些从来不在 任何事情上专心致志的人感到像是奇迹一般。 The dullest, the least gifted of us can achieve things that seem miraculous to those who never concentrate on anything. 但电视鼓励我们不做出任何努力,它向我们兜售即时的满足,它给我们提供娱乐,使我们只 想娱乐,让时间在毫无痛苦中消磨掉。 But Television encourages us to apply no effort. It sells us instant gratification. It diverts us only to divert, to make the time pass without pain. 电视节目的多样化成了一种麻醉剂而不是促进思考的因素。 Television's variety becomes a narcotic , nor a stimulus. 它那系列的、多变的画面引着我们跟着它走。 Its serial, kaleidoscopic exposures force us to follow its lead. 观众无休无止地跟着导游游览:参观博物馆 30 分钟,看大教堂 30 分钟,喝饮料 30 分钟, 然后上车去下一个参观点, 只是电视的特点是时间分配以分秒计算, 而所选择的内容却多为 车祸和人们的互相残杀。 The viewer is on a perpetual guided tour: 30 minutes at the museum, 30 at the cathedral, 30 for a drink, then back on the bus to the next attraction —-except on television., typically, the spans allotted arc on the order of minutes or seconds, and the chosen delights are more often car crashes and people killing one another. 总之许多电视节目取代了人类最可贵的一种才能, 即主动集中自己的注意力, 而不是被动地 奉送注意力。 In short, a lot of television usurps one of the most precious of all human gifts, the ability to focus your attention yourself, rather than just passively surrender it. 吸引并抓住人们的注意力是大多数电视节目安排的主要目的, 它加强了电视是有利可图的广 告的载体的作用。 Capturing your attention —and holding it—is the prime motive of most television programming and enhances its role as a profitable advertising vehicle. 节目安排使人生活在无休止的恐惧之中, 唯恐抓不住人们的注意力——不管是什么人的注意 力都担心。 Programmers live in constant fear of losing anyone's attention—anyone's. 避免造成这一局面的最有把握的办法就是使一切节目都保持简短, 不要使任何人的注意力过 于集中而受到损害,而要通过多样化、新奇性、动作和行动不断地提供刺激。 The surest way to avoid doing so is to keep everything brief, not to strain the attention of anyone but instead to provide constant stimulation through variety, novelty, action and movement. 很简单,电视的运作原则就是迎合观众的注意力跨度短这一特点。

Quite simply, television operates on the appeal to the short attention span. 这只是最简单的解决办法,但它逐渐被看作是电视这一宣传媒体特定的,内在固有的性质, 是必须履行的职责, 似乎是司令萨尔诺夫或另一个令人敬畏的电视创始人给我们传下了刻有 铭文的石碑,命令电视上出现的一切节目均不得使观众需要片刻以上的注意力。 It is simply the easiest way out. But it has come to be regarded as a given, as inherent in the medium itself; as an imperative, as though General Sarnoff, or one of the other august pioneers of video, had bequeathed to us tablets of stone commanding that nothing in television shall ever require more than a few moments' Concentration. 要是运用得恰当,这倒也无可厚非。 In its place that is fine. 如此出色地把使人忘却现实的娱乐作为大规模推销工具加以包装, 谁又能反对这样一种宣传 媒介呢? Who can quarrel with a medium that so brilliantly packages escapist entertainment as a mass-marketing tool? 但是我看到了它的价值现已充斥于这个国家及其生活之中。 But I see its values now pervading this nation and its life. 认为快速思维和快餐食品一样影响着生活节奏很快、 性情急躁的公众, 这已成了时髦的看法。 It has become fashionable to think that, like fast food, fast ideas are the way to get to a fast-moving, impatient public. 在新闻方面,我认为这种做法不能进行很好的交流。 In the case of news, this practice, in my view, results in inefficient communication. 我怀疑电视每晚的新闻节目真正能够被人吸收和理解的有多少。 I question how much of television's nightly news effort is really absorbable and understandable. 其中许多被形象地描述为―机关枪不连贯地点射‖。 Much of it is what has been aptly described as "machine-gunning with scraps." 我认为这种技术是与连贯性作对的。 I think the technique fights coherence. 我认为它最终会使事情变得枯燥乏味、 无足轻重 (除非伴以恐怖的画面) 因为任何一件事, , 如果你对它几乎一无所知,那么它差不多总会是枯燥乏味、使人觉得无足轻重的。 I think it tends to make things ultimately boring and dismissible (unless they are accompanied by horrifying pictures) because almost anything is boring and dismissible if you know almost nothing about it. 我认为,电视迎合观众注意力跨度短的做法不仅会造成交流不畅,而且还会降低文化水平。 I believe that TV's appeal to the short attention span is not only inefficient communication but decivilizing as well. 想一想电视要达到的那些极不慎重的原则吧:必须避免复杂性,用视觉刺激来代替思考,语 言的精确早已是不合时宜的要求。 Consider the casual assumptions that television tends to cultivate: that complexity must be avoided, that visual stimulation is a substitute for thought, that verbal precision is an anachronism. 它可能已过时,但我所受的教育告诉我思想就是语言,是按准确的语法规则组织起来的。 It may be old-fashioned, but I was taught that thought is words, arranged in grammatically precise 在美国存在着读写能力的危机。 There is a crisis of literacy in this country. 据一项研究估计,约有 3000 万美国成年人是―功能性文盲‖。他们的读写能力无法回答招聘

广告,或读懂药瓶上的说明。 One study estimates that some 30 million adult Americans are "functionally illiterate" and cannot read or write well enough to answer the want ad or understand the instructions on a medicine bottle. 能读写可能算不上是一项不可剥夺的人权, 但是我们学识渊博的开国元勋们并不感到它是不 合理的或者甚至是达不到的。 Literacy may not be an inalienable human right, but it is one that the highly literate Founding Fathers might not have found unreasonable or even unattainable. 从统计数字上看,我们的国家不仅未达到人人能读写的程度,而且离这一目标越来越远。 We are not only not attaining it as a nation, statistically speaking, but we are falling further and further short of attaining it. 尽管我不会天真到认为电视是造成这一情况的原因, 但我却相信它起了一定的作用, 是有影 响的。 And, white I would not be so simplistic as to suggest that television is the cause, 1 believe it contributes and is an influence. 美国的一切:社会结构、家庭组织形式、经济、在世界上的地位,都变得更为复杂,而不是 相反。 Everything about this nation —the structure of the society, its forms of family organization, its economy, its place in the world— has become more complex, not less. 然而其占主导地位的传播媒介, 全国联系的主要方式, 却在人类存在的问题上推销简单的解 决方式,而这些问题通常是没有简单的解决方式的。 Yet its dominating communications instrument, its principal form of national linkage, is one that sells neat resolutions to human problems that usually have no neat resolutions. 在我的心目中,那 30 秒钟一个的商业广告:一位家庭主妇因选对了牙膏而感到幸福的那小 小的戏剧性场面就是这一切的象征。 电视已使这极其成功的艺术形式成为我们文化不可缺少 的一个部分了。 It is all symbolized in my mind by the hugely successful art form that television has made central to the culture, the 30-second commercial: the tiny drama of the earnest housewife who finds happiness in choosing the right toothpaste. 在人类历史上, 几时曾有这样多的人共同把自己这样多的业余时间奉送给一件玩具, 一项大 众娱乐? When before in human history has so much humanity collectively surrendered so much of its leisure to one toy, one mass diversion? 几时曾有一个国家使自己整个地置于商品推销媒介的摆布之下? When before has virtually an entire nation surrendered itself whole-sale to a medium for selling? 几年前,耶鲁大学的法学教授小查尔斯?L?布莱克写道:―……被喂食本身并不是件琐碎小 事。‖ Some years ago Yale University law professor Charles L. Black. Jr., wrote: "... forced feeding on trivial fare is not itself a trivial matter-" 我认为我们这个社会正在强行被喂食。 I think this society is being forced-fed with trivial fare, 我担心这一做法对我们的思维习惯, 对我们的语言、 我们努力的极限度及对复杂情况的兴趣 等方面所造成的影响,这一点我们还只是极模糊地意识到。 and I fear that the effects on our habits of mind, our language, our tolerance for effort, and our

appetite for complexity are only dimly perceived. 就算我的看法不对,用怀疑和批判的眼光来分析这个问题,来考虑如何抵制它,也不会有任 何害处。 If I am wrong, we will have done no harm to look at the issue skeptically and critically, to consider how we should be resisting it. I hope you will join with me in doing so

Lesson Ten

The Tenth Man

就在第二天下午 3 点(闹钟上的时间),一个军官走进了牢房。这是他们几星期以来见到的 第一位军官。 他非常年轻, 甚至小胡子的形状也显示出他不够老练, 左边的胡子剃得重了点。 It was at three the next afternoon (alarm clock time) that an officer entered the cell; the first officer they had seen for weeks – and this one was very young, with inexperience even in the shape of his mustache which he had shaved too much on the left side. 他就像一个初次登台领奖的小学生一样窘迫不安, 他说起话来粗鲁无礼, 似乎要显示一种他 并不具备的力量。 He was as embarrassed as a schoolboy making his first entry on a stage at a prize-giving, and he spoke abruptly so as to give the impression of a strength he did not possess. 他说道:―昨天夜间城里发生了几起谋杀,一名军事长官的副手、一位中士和一个骑自行车 的女孩被杀。‖他又说道:―我们不在乎女孩的死。法国男人杀死法国女人不关我们的事。‖ He said, "There were murders last night in the town. The aide-de-camp of the military governor, a sergeant and a girl on a bicycle." He added, "We don't complain about the girl. Frenchmen have our permission to kill Frenchwomen." 很明显他事先仔细斟酌了他的讲话,但他的嘲弄做过了头,他的表演也很业余。 He had obviously thought up his speech carefully beforehand, but the irony was overdone and the delivery that of an amateur actor: 整个场面就像手势字谜游戏那样矫饰做作。 the whole scene was as unreal as a charade. 他接着说道:―你们知道自己为什么来这里,你们在这里好吃好喝,过着舒适的日子,而我 们的人却在工作和战斗。不过现在你们必须付出代价了。不要怪我们,要怪你们自己的杀人 凶手。我的命令是集中营里每十个人要有一个被枪决。你们有多少人?‖―报数。‖他厉声喝 道人们闷闷不乐地照办了。―28,29,30。‖人们知道不用数他也知道人数,这不过是他玩的 把戏中不可省略的一句台词。。 He said, "You know what you are here for, living comfortably, on fine rations, while our men work and fight. Well, now you've got to pay the hotel bill. Don't blame us. Blame your own murderers. My orders are that one man in every ten shall be shot in this camp. How many of you are there?" He shouted sharply, "Number off," and sullenly they obeyed, "... twenty-eight, twenty-nine, thirty." They knew he knew without counting. This was just a line in his charade he couldn't sacrifice. 他说道:―那么,你们的名额是三个,我们并不关心是哪三个人。你们可以自己选择。死刑 于明天早上 7 点执行。‖ He said, "Your allotment then is three. We are quite indifferent as to which three. You can choose for yourselves. The funeral rites will begin at seven tomorrow morning.‖ 他玩的把戏结束了,人们可以听到他的脚步响亮地敲击着沥青路渐渐远去。 The charade was over: they could hear his feet striking sharply on the asphalt going away. 查维尔忽然很想知道他打的手势是什么字。 要他们猜的是不是―夜间‖, ―姑娘‖, ―旁边‖或―30‖。

不,不是。谜底肯定是―人质‖。 Chavel wondered for a moment what syllable had been acted —"night,""girl,""aside," or perhaps "thirty," but it was of course the whole word—"hostage. " 牢房里很长时间没人说话。后来一个叫克拉夫的阿尔萨斯人开口道:―好了,我们有人自愿 吗?‖ The silence went on a long time, and then a man called Krogh, an Alsatian, said, "Well, do we have to volunteer?" ―废话。‖一个职员说道。他是一个上了年纪的戴着夹鼻眼镜的老头。他接着说道:―没人会 自愿,我们必须抽签。除非有人认为应按年龄决定——最老的先死。‖ "Rubbish," said one of the clerks, a thin elderly man in pince-nez, "nobody will volunteer. We must draw lots." He added, "Un-less it is thought that we should go by ages —the oldest first. " ―不,不行。‖另一个人说道,―那不公平。‖ "No, no," one of the others said, "that would be unjust. " ―这是自然规律。‖ "It's the way of nature." ―那算什么自然规律。‖又一个人说道,―我有个女儿,5 岁时就死了。‖ "Not even the way of nature," another said. "1 had a child who died when she was five..." ―我们必须抽签。‖市长坚定地说。 "We must draw lots," the mayor said firmly. ―只有这样才公正。‖他坐在那里,双手依然紧贴在肚子上,遮挡着他的怀表,但是整个牢房 里都能听见怀表清脆的滴答声。 "It is the only fair thing.‖ He sat with his hands still pressed over his stomach, hiding his watch, but all through the cell you could hear its blunt tick lock tick. 他接着又说道:―由未婚者抽签,已婚者除外,他们有责任。‖ He added, "On the unmarried. The married should not be included. They have responsibilities… ―哈,哈!‖皮埃尔说道,―我们明白了。为什么已婚者就应逃脱?他们的事儿已经做完了。 当然,你结婚了吧?‖ ―Ha, ha,‖ Pierre said, ―we see through that. Why should the married get off? Their work‘s finished. You, of course, are married?‖ ―我的妻子不在了。‖市长说,―我现在是未婚,你呢?‖ ―I have lost my wife,‖ the mayor said, ―I am not married now. And you…‖ ―结了。‖皮埃尔答道。 ―Married,‖ Pierre said. 市长开始解下怀表。 发现皮埃尔处境安全, 他似乎更坚信作为怀表的主人自己必定是下一个 牺牲者。 The mayor began to undo his watch; the discovery that his rival was safe seemed to confirm his belief that as the owner of time he was bound to be the next victim. 他环顾了每一个人,然后选择了查维尔。也许是因为只有他穿着西服背心适合戴表链。他说 道:―查维尔先生,我想让你替我拿着怀表,万一……‖ He looked from face to face and chose Chavel, perhaps because he was the only man with a waistcoat fit to take the chain. He said, ―Monsieur Chavel, I want you to hold this watch for me in case…‖ ―你最好找别人吧!‖查维尔说,―我还没结婚呢。‖ ―you‘d better choose someone else,‖ Chavel said. ―I am not married.‖

那个老职员又开口了,―我结婚了,我有权说话。 The elderly clerk spoke again. He said, "I'm married. I've got the right to speak. 我们正把一切引向歧途。 这不是我们最后一次抽签。 如果这儿有一个特权阶层——那些最终 将活着的人,大家想想,牢房里会是什么样子。你们其他人很快就会痛恨我们。你们害怕, 而我们将不再担心。‖ We are going the wrong way about all this. Everyone must draw lots. This isn't the last draw we shall have, and picture to yourselves what it will be like in this cell if we have a privileged class —the ones who are left to the end. The rest of you will soon begin to hate us. We shall be left out of your fear. . . " ―他说得对。‖皮埃尔说。 "He's right," Pierre said. 市长重新握紧了怀表,说道:―就照你们的主意办。要是能够这样征税的话……‖他做了个绝 望的手势。 The mayor refastened his watch. "Have it your own way," he said. "But if the taxes were levied like this…" He gave a gesture of despair. ―我们如何抽签?‖克拉夫问道。 "How do we draw?" Krogh asked. 查维尔答道:―最快的办法就是从一只鞋里抽出画有记号的纸条。‖ Chavel said, "The quickest way would be to draw marked papers out of a shoe. . ." 克拉夫轻蔑地说:―那么快干吗?对于我们当中几个人来说这可是最后一次赌博了。我们蛮 可以享受一番。我提议赌抛硬币。‖ Krogh said contemptuously, "Why the quickest way? This is the last gamble some of us will have. We may as well enjoy it. I say a coin.‖ ―这不好。‖那个职员说,―抛硬币不是一个公平、合理的办法。‖ ―It won‘t work,‖ the clerk said. ―You can‘t get a even chance with a coin.‖ ―惟一的办法就是抽签。‖市长说道。 "The only way is to draw," the mayor said. 职员开始为抽签做准备,为此他牺牲了一封家信。 The clerk prepared the draw, sacrificing for it one of his letters from home. 他很快地看了一遍信,然后把它撕成 30 张小纸条。 He read it rapidly for the last time, and then tore it into thirty pieces. 他用铅笔在其中三张上画上十字,然后把每张纸条都叠上。 On three pieces he made a cross in pencil, and then folded each piece. 他接着说:―克拉夫的鞋最大。‖大家把纸条放在地下搅乱,然后装进了鞋子里。 "Krogh's got the biggest shoe," he said. They shuffled the pieces on the floor and then dropped them into the shoe. ―我们按姓氏的字母顺序抽签。‖市长说。 "We'll draw in alphabetical order," the mayor said. ―从 Z 开始抽。‖查维尔说道。他的安全感开始动摇了。他急切想喝点什么,用手指从嘴唇上 撕下一小块干皮。 "Z first," Chavel said. His feeling of security was shaken. He wanted a drink badly. He picked at a dry piece of skin on his lip. ―就按你说的办。‖卡车司机说道,―有人排在维尔森前面吗?我先抽。‖ "As you wish," the lorry driver said. "Anybody beat Voisin? Here goes.

他用手在鞋子里小心地掏,就像是要掏到他心里想要的那张。 ―He thrust his hand into the shoe and made careful excavations as though he had one particular scrap of paper in mind. 他抽出一张,打开,怔怔地看着,然后说了声:―完了。‖他坐下来,摸出一支香烟放到嘴里, 却忘了点火。 He drew one out, opened it, and gazed at it with astonishment. He said, "This is it.‖ He sat down and felt for a cigarette, but when he got it between his lips he forgot to light it. 查维尔心中充满了巨大而又令他感到羞耻的快乐。 Chavel was filled with a huge and shameful joy. 看来自己得救了。剩下二十九个人抽签,而只有两张带有记号的纸条。 It seemed to him that already he was saved —twenty - nine men to draw and only two marked papers left. 抽中死签的可能性突然变得对他有利,从 10 比 1 变成了 14 比 1。经营蔬菜水果的商人也抽 了一张,然后漫不经心、毫无表情地示意自己平安无事。 The chances had suddenly grown in his favor from ten to one to—fourteen to one: the greengrocer had drawn a slip and indicated carelessly and without pleasure that he was safe. 的确, 从抽第一张签时人们就忌讳任何喜形于色的表现, 一个人不能以任何宽慰的举动去嘲 弄注定要死的人。 Indeed from the first draw any mark of pleasure was taboo: one couldn't mock the condemned man by any sign of relief. 查维尔胸中有一种隐隐约约的不安——还不是恐惧,像是一种压抑感。 Again a dull disquiet —ii couldn't yet be described as a fear—exended its empire over Chavel's chest. 当第六个人抽到空白纸条时, 他发现自己在打哈欠; 当第十个人——就是大家称作雅维耶的 那个人抽完签后, 他的心中又充满了某中怨愤的情绪。 现在抽中死签的机会同开始时一样了。 It was like a constriction: he found himself yawning as the sixth man drew a blank slip, and a sense of grievance nagged at his mind when the tenth man bad drawn—it was the one they called Janvier—and the chances were once again the same as when the draw started. 有的人抽出他们手指碰到的第一张纸条;有的人似乎怀疑命运企图将某一张纸条强加于他 们,所以他们刚刚从鞋里抽出一张,就又扔回去,再另换一张。 Some men drew the first slip which touched their fingers; others seemed to suspect tha t fate was trying to force on them a particular slip and when they bad drawn one a little way from the shoe would let it drop again and choose another. 时间过得很慢,令人难以置信。那个叫做维尔森的人靠墙坐着,嘴里叼着仍未点燃的香烟, 对一切都不再在意。 Time passed with incredible slowness, and the man called Voisin sat against the wall with the unlighted cigarette in his mouth paying them no attention at all. 就在生存的机会逐渐变小, 抽中死签的可能性达到八分之一时, 一个叫做勒诺特的上年纪的 职员抽中了第二张死签。 The chances had narrowed to one in eight when the elderly clerk —his name was Lenotre—drew the second slip. 他清了清喉咙, 戴上夹鼻眼镜, 好像要确认自己没有看错。 ―喂, 维尔森先生, 我能加入吗?‖ 他带着淡淡的微笑说道。 He cleared his throat and put on his pince-nez as though he had to make sure he was not mistaken.

"Ah, Monsieur Voisin," he said with a thin undecided smile, "May I join you?" 令人难以琢磨的机会再次以绝对对查维尔有利的优势朝他走来, 抽中死签的可能性只有十五 分之一,可他这次却没有丝毫欣慰,他被普通百姓所具有的勇气所震撼,他想让这一切尽快 结束,就像一副扑克玩得太久了,他只希望有人离开牌桌,结束牌局。 This time Chavel felt no joy even though the elusive odds were back again overwhelmingly in his favor at fifteen to one; he was daunted by the courage of common men. He wanted the whole thing to be over as quickly as possible: like a game of cards which has gone on too long, he only wanted someone to make a move and break up the table. 勒诺特在维尔森身边靠墙坐下,他翻过纸条,背面是信中的一点内容,―是你妻子的?‖维尔 森问道。―是我女儿的。‖勒诺特答道,―请原谅。‖他起身走到自己的铺盖处,抽出一本便笺, 回到维尔森身边开始写起来。他不慌不忙,认认真真地写下一串纤细而清晰的字迹。 . Lenotre, sitting down against the wall next to Voisin, turned the slip over: on the back was a scrap of writing. Your-wife?" Voisin said. "My daughter," Lenotre said. "Excuse me." He went over to his roll of bedding and drew out a writing pad. Then he sat down next to Voisin and began to write, carefully, without hurry, a thin legible hand. 这时中死签的概率又回到了 10 比 1。 The odds were back to ten to one. 从那时起,对查维尔来说,抽中死签的可能性似乎以一种不可避免的可怕趋势发生着变化。 From that point the odds seemed to move toward Chavel with a dreadful inevitability: 9 比 1,8 比 1,抽中死签的可能性好像指向了他。 nine to one, eight to one; they were like a pointing finger. 剩下的人抽得越来越快,越来越随便。 The men who were left drew more quickly and more carelessly: 在查维尔看来,他们似乎都知道了某种秘密,知道他会抽到死签。 they seemed to Chavel to have some inner information —to know that he was the one. 轮到他抽签时,只剩下了 3 张纸,留给他的机会这么少,在他看来真是不公平。 When his time came to draw there were only three slips left , and it appeared to Chavel a monstrous injustice that there were so few choices left for him. 他从鞋中抽出一张,接着又认定这是同伴的意志强加给他的,一定有十字。于是他把它放回 去,另抽了一张。 He drew one out of the shoe and then feeling certain that this one had been willed on him by his companions and contained the penciled cross he threw it back and snatched another. ―律师,你偷看了。‖剩下的两个人中有一个大声说道,但另一个让他安静下来。 "You looked, lawyer," one of the two men exclaimed, but the other quieted him. ―他没有偷看,他抽到的是有记号的。‖ "He didn't look. He's got the marked one now." ―不,不。‖查维尔把纸条扔到地上,开始大叫:―我从来就没有同意,你们不能让我替别人 去死。‖ "No," Chavel said, "no." He threw the slip upon the ground and cried, "I never consented to the draw. You can't make me die for the rest of you. . . " 大家惊讶地看着他,但并没有敌意。 They watched him with astonishment but without enmity.

他是一个出身高贵的人。 人们没有用自己的标准去衡量他, 因为他属于一个别人难以理解的 阶层。人们甚至没有把他的行为与胆怯联系起来。 He was a gentleman. They didn't judge him by their own standards: he belonged to an unaccountable class and they didn't at first even attach the idea of cowardice to his actions. ―听我说,‖查维尔一边哀求,一边举起那张纸条。大家既惊奇又好奇地看着他。―谁接受这 张纸条,我就给他 10 万法郎。‖ "Listen," Chavel implored them. He held out the slip of paper and they all watched him with compassionate curiosity. "I'll give a hundred thousand francs to anyone who'll take this." 他快速移动着小步地从一个人面前走到另一个人面前, 朝每一个人展示那张小纸条, 好像是 拍卖会上的服务员。 He took little rapid steps from one man to another, showing each man the bit of paper as if he were an attendant at an auction. ―10 万法郎。‖他恳求道。人们感到震惊,同样又感到一丝怜悯:他是他们之中惟一的有钱 人,这是与众不同之处。 "A hundred thousand francs," he implored, and they watched him with a kind of shocked pity: he was the only rich man among them and this was a unique situation. 人们无法去比较, 只能认定这就是他那个阶层的特点, 这犹如一个在异国港口下船就餐的旅 游者能从一个碰巧与他同桌的狡猾商人身上总结出该国的国民性格。 They had no means of comparison and assumed that this was a characteristic of his class, just as a traveler stepping off the liner at a foreign port for luncheon sums up a nation's character forever in the wily businessman who happens to share the table with him.

Lesson Eleven

On Getting off to Sleep

人真是充满矛盾啊! 毫无疑问,幽默是惟一帮助我们摆脱矛盾的办法,要是没有它,我们就 会死于烦恼。 What a bundle of contradictions is a man! Surety, humour is the saving grace of us, for without it we should die of vexation. 在我看来,没有什么比睡眠更能说明事物间的矛盾。 With me, nothing illustrates the contrariness of things better than the matter of sleep. 比如, 我打算写一篇文章, 面前放好了笔、 墨和几张白纸, 准保没写几个字我就会困得要命, 无论当时是几点都会那样。 If, for example, my intention is to write an essay, and 1 have before me ink and pens and several sheets of virgin paper, you may depend upon it that before I have gone very far I feel an overpowering desire for sleep, no matter what time of the day it is. 我瞪着那似乎在谴责我的白纸,直到眼前一片模糊,声音也难以辨清,只有靠意志力才能勉 强坚持。 I stare at the reproachfully blank paper until sights and sounds become dim and confused, and it is only by an effort of will that I can continue at all. 即使这时,我也会迷迷糊糊地像在做梦一样继续坚持工作。 Even then, I proceed half-heartedly, in a kind of dream. 但是当深夜躺在床上,我什么事都能干,只有睡觉无法做到。 But let me be between the sheets at a late hour, and I can do any-thing but sleep. 随着时钟一遍一遍的报时,我可以完成大量的文章。 Between chime and chime of the clock I can write essays by the score.

极有吸引力的主题和崇高的思想纷纷出现在脑海,随之而来的还有恰如其分的意象和措辞。 Fascinating subjects and noble ideas come pell-mell, each with its appropriate imagery and expression. 除了笔、墨和纸,什么也不能阻止我写出半打不朽的杰作。 Nothing stands between me and half-a-dozen imperishable masterpieces but pens, ink, and paper. 如果,我们的思想和主观意象对于来世的人来说真的就像我们的书本和图片一样是有形的、 摸得着的,那么我在来世会比在今生获得更高的声誉。 If it be true that our thoughts and mental images are perfectly tangible things, like our books and pictures, to the inhabitants of the next world, then I am making for myself a better reputation there than I am in this place. 只要我躺在床上有一两个小时睡不着觉,我就能令自己满意地解决人类一切的疑虑。 Give me a restless hour or two in bed and I can solve, to my own satisfaction, all the doubts of humanity. 如果我有兴致的话,我可以谱写出宏伟的交响乐,描绘出壮丽的画卷。 When I am in the humour I can compose grand symphonies, and paint magnificent pictures. 我就是莎士比亚、贝多芬和米开朗基罗。但这一切仍无法令我满意,因为我还是无法入睡。 I am, at once, Shakespeare, Beethoven, and Michael Angelo; yet it gives me no satisfaction; for the one thing I cannot do is to go to sleep. 一旦到了上床睡觉时间, 五个摄取知识的港口就要关闭的时候, 我认识的大多数人似乎都能 很容易就忘却了他们在尘世的作用,很快进入梦乡,而我却不能。 Once in bed, when it is time to close the five ports of knowledge, most folks I know seem to find no difficulty in plunging their earthly parts into oblivion. 对我来说,睡眼就像一个忸怩羞怯的情妇,喜欢反复无常地挑逗男人,让男人不停地向她求 爱——―惟恐让男人得的太容易而显得自己身价太低。‖ It is not so with me, to whom sleep is a coy mistress, much given to a teasing inconsistency and for ever demanding to be wooed —"lest too light winning make the prize light". 我曾诧异地读过一些大肆吹捧那些好战的超人、世界和平的巨大威胁者,诸如克伦威尔、拿 破仑之类的文章,文章里说他们―钢铁般的意志‖使他们一躺下就能熟睡,并在某一特定时间 醒来,精神抖擞。 I used to read, with wonder, those sycophantic stories of the warlike supermen, the great troublers of the world's peace, Cromwell, Napoleon, and the like, who, thanks to their "iron wills", could lie down and plunge themselves immediately into deep sleep, to wake up, refreshed, at a given time. 这些故事给了我很大的震动,我决心像他们那样做。于是上床后,我就紧咬牙关,在黑暗中 尽可能显得意志坚定,命令睡眠立刻到来。 Taking these fables to heart, I would resolve to do likewise, and, going to bed, would clench my teeth, look as determined as possible in the darkness, and command the immediate presence of sleep. 但是,天哪 !高度集中的精力让我比任何时候都清醒,我不得不在折磨人的失眠中捱过几 个钟头。 But alas! The very act of concentration seemed to make me more wakeful than ever, and I would pass hours in tormenting sleeplessness. 我忽略了拥有―钢铁般意志‖的必要性, 我自己的意志力中很少或干脆没有这种特殊的金属性 质。 I had overlooked the necessity of having an "iron will", my own powers of will having little or

none of this peculiar metallic quality. 但是同这些具有钢铁般意志的人生活在一起会是多么不舒服啊! But how uncomfortable it must have been living with these ironwilled folks! 谁愿意劝告他们,与他们争辩呢? Who would want to remonstrate and argue with them? 那还不如用大铁锤打铁砧。 It would be worse than beating an anvil with a sledge hammer. 我承认我一直怀疑那些夸耀自己一上床就能睡着的人——那些―头一沾枕头就睡着‖的家伙 们。 I must confess that I always suspect the men who boast that they unvaryingly fall asleep as soon as they get into bed — those "as soon as my head touches the pillow" fellows. 我觉得这种习惯中有某种不近人情的、冷酷的、麻木的东西。 To me, there is something inhuman, something callous and almost bovine, in the practice. 我对这种人对较高级事物的鉴赏力表示怀疑。 I suspect their taste in higher matters. 抛开钢铁般意志不谈, 那种把他清醒时的感觉及思想随同衣服抛在一边, 并完全无视那些有 时会从十年前隐藏的记忆中跳出来回忆和幻想的人,一定缺乏人类的同情心和造诣深度。 Iron wills apart, there must be a lack of human sympathy or depth in a man who can thus throw off, with his clothes, his waking feelings and thoughts, and ignore completely those memories and fancies which ...will sometimes leap, From hiding-places ten years deep. 与这种人同住一室会使人对人性丧失信心, 因为即使是最重要的一天, 同这种人也无法沟通 交流,也没有什么午夜的密谈,更没有一同商议一天的痛苦和快乐究竟有多少。 To share a bedroom with one of these fellows is to lose one's faith in human nature, for, even after the most eventful day, there is no comparing notes with them, no midnight confidence, no casting up the balance of the day's pleasure and pain. 他们很快就进入了愚蠢的熟睡中,留下你一人在心里折腾,而且他们还都鼾声如雷,十分讨 厌。 They sink, at once, into stupid, heavy slumber, leaving you to your own mental devices. And they all snore abominably! 人工催眠的方法多不胜举,惟一的相同之处就是都不管用。 The artificial ways of inducing sleep are legion, and are only alike in their ineffectuality 在《拉文格罗》(或者是《吉卜赛男人》)一书中有一个无可救药的人,患有失眠症,他发 现华尔华斯的一卷诗集是惟一有效的催眠剂,但那只不过是伯罗的恶作剧而已。 In Lavengro (or is it Romany Rye?) there is an impossible character, a victim of insomnia, who finds that a volume of Wordsworth's poems is the only sure soporific; but that was Borrow s malice. 那个有名的数跳过篱笆墙台阶的山羊的老办法对我从来都不起作用。 The famous old plan of counting sheep jumping over a stile has never served my turn. 我在想像中牧羊, 一直想到它们不知怎地都变成了白熊和蓝猪。 我倒想看看哪个有理智的人 能在赶着一群天蓝色的猪的时候进入梦乡。 I have herded imaginary sheep until they insisted on turning themselves into white bears or blue pigs, and I defy any reasonable man to fall asleep while mustering a herd of cerulean swine.

前不久,我和一位老朋友谈到这个问题,她给了我一个治失眠的特别好用的方子,就是她想 像自己一遍一遍地重复一些琐碎事,直到她对生活的单调感到厌烦而进入梦乡。 Discussing the question, some times ago, with an old friend, she gave me her never-failing remedy for sleeplessness, which was to imagine herself performing some trivial action over and over again, until, her mind becoming disgusted with the monotony of life, sleep drew the curtain. 她最喜欢的方法就是想像墙上的一幅画没有挂正,然后着手将它摆正。 Her favourite device was to imagine a picture not hanging quite plumb upon the wall, and then to proceed to straighten it. 我尝试了这种方法——尽管把画挂正并不是我的习惯——但毫无效果。 This I tried —though putting pictures straight is no habit of mine—but it was of no avail. 我可以毫不困难地想像出墙上有一幅画, 也可以很熟练地移动几下, 但这么一来我想到了一 般的画,然后我又想到了我和朋友 T 君一块参加的画展,他说了什么,我又说了什么,接 着我又想到了 T 君最近过得如何,他的儿子是否还在上学。 I imagined the picture on the wall without difficulty, and gave it a few deft touches, but this set me thinking of pictures in general, and then I remembered an art exhibition I had attended with my friend T. and what he said, and what I said, and I wondered how T. was faring these days, and whether his son was still at school. 如此继续下去, 直到我发现自己沉浸在奶酪、 招魂术和落基山脉的遐想之中——但仍没有睡 意! And so it went on, until I found myself meditating on cheese, or spiritualism, or the Rocky Mountains—but no sleep! 然后又想像到在《解放的普罗米修斯》中描述的那个地狱边缘的某个地方,那个充满了人类 梦想和愉快想像的模糊地带,有着阴沉可怕的幽灵,一幅画歪挂在鬼影般的墙上。 Somewhere in that limbo which Earth describes in Prometheus Unbound, that vague region filled with Dreams and the light imaginings of men, is the dreary phantom of an unstraightened picture upon a ghostly wall. 就让它呆在那里吧,因为我再也用不着它了。 And there it shall stay, for I have no further use for it. 但我对能找到某种加速睡眠的方法没有完全放弃希望, 还看到了一线希望。 重读兰姆的书信 集时(这不是第一次,但愿也不是最后一次),在他写给骚塞的便条中,我看到了下面这段 话:―在我办公室里有一位 H 先生,他从早到晚不停地写啊说啊,但总也超不出肉体和物质 现实那一套!当我晚上睡不着时,我就想像着和 H 先生就一假设的题目进行对话,在幻想 中一直和他无聊地扯下去,直到我大笑或是睡着为止,我发现这方法很灵验……‖。 But I have not yet given up all hope of finding some way of hastening the approach of sleep. Even yet there is a glimmer, for re-reading (not for the first, and, please Heaven! not the last time) Lamb's letters, I came upon the following, in a note to Southey; "But there is a man in my office, a Mr. H., who proses it away from morning lo night, and never gets beyond corporal and material verities! . . . 这方法可能行得通,我们都认识一些 H 先生式的人,他们的谈话毫无想像力,又缺乏智慧, 听了就像服了鸦片一样。 今天晚上我将不再进行诸如数跳篱笆的山羊和摆正挂歪了的画之类 的毫无价值的想像,而去召唤一个极度无聊、乏味的家伙来对话。 When I can't sleep o'nights, I imagine a dialogue with Mr. H. , upon a given subject, and go prosing on in fancy with him, nil I either laugh or fall asleep. I have literally found it answer. . . ―There is promise in this, and we all have our Mr. H. whose talk, bare of anything like fancy and

wit, acts upon us like a dose of lau-danum . This very night I will dismiss such trivial phantasies as jumping sheep and crooked pictures, and evoke the phantom of a crushing, stupendous Bore.

Lesson 12: Why I Write
从很小的时候,大概五、六岁,我知道长大以后将成为一个作家。 From a very early age, perhaps the age of five or six, I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer. 从 15 到 24 岁的这段时间里,我试图打消这个念头,可总觉得这样做是在戕害我的天性,认 为我迟早会坐下来伏案著书。 Between the ages of about seventeen and twenty-four I tried to adandon this idea, but I did so with the consciousness that I was outraging my true nature and that sooner or later I should have to settle down and write books. 三个孩子中,我是老二。老大和老三与我相隔五岁。8 岁以前,我很少见到我爸爸。由于这 个以及其他一些缘故,我的性格有些孤僻。我的举止言谈逐渐变得很不讨人喜欢,这使我在 上学期间几乎没有什么朋友。 I was the middle child of three, but there was a gap of five years on either side, and I barely saw my father before I was eight- For this and other reasons I was somewhat lonely, and I soon developed disagreeable mannerisms which made me unpopular throughout my schooldays. 我像一般孤僻的孩子一样,喜欢凭空编造各种故事,和想像的人谈话。我觉得,从一开始, 我的文学志向就与一种孤独寂寞、 被人冷落的感觉联系在一起。 我知道我有驾驭语言的才能 和直面令人不快的现实的能力。 这一切似乎造就了一个私人的天地, 在此天地中我能挽回我 在日常生活中的不得意。 I had the lonely child's habit of making up stories and holding conversations with imaginary persons, and I think from the very start my literary ambitions were mixed up with the feeling of being isolated and undervalued. 我知道我有驾驭语言的才能和直面令人不快的现实的能力。 这一切似乎造就了一个私人的天 地,在此天地中我能挽回我在日常生活中的不得意。 I knew that I had a facility with words and a power of facing unpleasant facts, and I felt that this created a sort of private world in which I could get my own back for my failure 还是一个小孩子的时候, 我就总爱把自己想像成惊险传奇中的主人公, 例如罗宾汉。 但不久, 我的故事不再是粗糙简单的自我欣赏了。它开始趋向描写我的行动和我所见所闻的人和事。 . . As a very small child I used to imagine that I was, say, Robin Hood, and picture myself as the hero of thrilling adventures, but quite soon my "story" ceased to be narcissistic in a crude way and became more and more a mere description of what I was doing and the things I saw. 一连几分钟,我脑子里常会有类似这样的描述:―他推开门,走进屋,一缕黄昏的阳光,透 过薄纱窗帘,斜照在桌上。桌上有一个火柴盒,半开着,在墨水瓶旁边,他右手插在兜里, 朝窗户走去。街心处一只龟甲猫正在追逐着一片败叶。‖等等,等等。 For minutes at a time this kind of thing would be running through my head: "He pushed the door open and entered the room. A yellow beam of sunlight, filtering through the muslin curtains, slanted on to the table, where a matchbox, half open, lay beside the inkpot. With his right hand in his pocket he moved across to the window. Down in the street a tortoiseshell cat was chasing a dead leaf," etc., etc. 我在差不多 25 岁真正从事文学创作之前,一直保持着这种描述习惯。虽然我必须搜寻,而 且也的确在寻觅恰如其分的字眼。可这种描述似乎是不由自主的,是迫于一种外界的压力。

This habit continued till I was about twenty-five, right through my non-literary years. Although I had to search, and did search, for the right words, I seemed to be making this descriptive effort almost against my will, under a kind of compulsion from outside. 我在不同时期崇仰风格各异的作家。我想,从这些―故事‖一定能看出这些作家的文笔风格的 痕迹。但是我记得,这些描述又总是一样地细致入微,纤毫毕现。 The "story" must, I suppose, have reflected the styles of the various writers I admired at different ages, but so far as I remember it always had the same meticulous descriptive quality. 16 岁那年,我突然发现词语本身即词的音响和词的连缀就能给人以愉悦。《失乐园》中有 这样一段诗行: 他负载着困难和辛劳 挺进着:负着困难辛劳的他—— When I was about sixteen I suddenly discovered the joy of mere words, i, e. the sounds and associations of words. The lines from Paradise Lost — "So hee with difficulty and labour hard Moved on: with difficulty and labour hee," 现在看来这并没有什么了不得,可当时却使我心灵震颤。而用 hee 的拼写代替 he,更增加 了愉悦。 which do not now seem to me so very wonderful, sent shivers down my backbone; and the spelling "hee" for "he" was an added pleasure. 至于写景物的必要,我那时已深有领悟。如果说当时我有志著书的话,我会写什么样的书是 显而易见的。 As for the need to describe things, I knew all about it already. So it is clear what kind of books I wanted to write, in so far as I could be said to want to write books at that time. 我想写大部头的自然主义小说,以悲剧结局,充满细致的描写和惊人的比喻,而且不乏文才 斐然的段落,字词的使用部分要求其音响效果。 I wanted to write enormous naturalistic novels with unhappy endings, full of detailed descriptions and arresting similes, and also full of purple passages in which words were used partly for the sake of their sound. 事实上,我的第一部小说,《缅甸岁月》就属于这一类书,那是我早已构思但 30 岁时才写 成的作品。 And in fact my first completed novel, Burmese Days, which I wrote when I was thirty but projected much earlier, is rather that kind of book. 我介绍这些背景情况是因为我认为要判定一个作家的写作动机, 就得对其早年的经历有所了 解。 I give all this background information because I do not think one can assess a writer's motives without knowing something of his early development. 作家的题材总是由他所处的时代决定的, 至少在我们这个动荡不安的时代是如此。 但他在提 笔著文之前,总会养成一种在后来的创作中永远不能彻底磨灭的情感倾向 His subject matter will be determined by the age he lives in —at least this is true in tumultuous, revolutionary ages like our own—but before he ever begins to write he will have acquired an emotional attitude from which he will never completely escape. 毫无疑问,作家有责任控制自己的禀性,使之不至于沉溺于那种幼稚的阶段,或陷于违反常 理的心境中。但如果他从早年的熏染和志趣中脱胎换骨,他就会虐杀自己的写作热情。 It is his job, no doubt, to discipline his temperament and avoid getting stuck at some immature

stage, or in some perverse mood: but if he escapes from his early influences altogether, he will have killed his impulse to write. 除去以写作为谋生之计不谈,我认为写作有四种动机,至少小说和散文写作是如此。 Putting aside the need to earn a living, I think there are four great motives for writing, at any rate for writing prose. 这四种动机或多或少地存在于每个作家身上, 在某一个作家身上, 它们会因时代的不同和生 活环境的不同而变化。它们是: They exist in different degrees in every writer, and in any one writer the proportions will vary from time to time, according to the atmosphere in which he is living. They are: 一、纯粹的自我主义。想显示自己的聪明;想成为人们的议论中心;想身后留名;想报复那 些小时候压制、指责过自己的成年人等等。不承认这是动机,是一种强烈的动机,完全是自 欺欺人。 (1) Sheer egoism. Desire to seem clever, to be talked about, to be remembered after death, to get your own back on grown-ups who snubbed you in childhood, etc. , etc. It is humbug to pretend that this is not a motive, and a strong one. . . 二、对美的狂热。能感觉身外世界的美,或者词语及其妙语连珠的美。对一个读音作用于另 一个读音的音响效果,对充实缜密的行文或一篇小说的结构,感到乐趣无穷,赏心悦目。有 心与人们分享一种认为有价值、不应忽略的经历。 (2) Aesthetic enthusiasm. Perception of beauty in the external world, or, on the other hand, in words and their right arrangement. Pleasure in the impact of one sound on another, in the firmness of good prose or the rhythm of a good story. Desire to share an experience which one feels is valuable and ought not to be missed… 三、 历史感。 有志按事物的原貌来观察理解事物; 有心寻找确凿的事实, 收集储存以飨后人。 (3) Historical impulse. Desire to see things, as they are, to find out true facts and store them up for the use of posterity. 四、政治上的目的。这里指的是最广泛意义的政治:有志推动世界向某个方向前进;改造人 们的观念,劝勉人们追求某种理想社会。就像美感因素一样,没有一本书能真正消除政治倾 向。那种认为艺术与政治不相干的论点本身就是一种政治态度。 (4) Political purpose —using the word "political" in the widest possible sense. Desire to push the world in a certain direction, to ater other people's idea of the kind of society that they should strive after. Once again, no book is genuinely free from political bias. The opinion that art should have nothing to do with politics is itself a political attitude. 可以看出,这些不同的动机会互相抵触,会因人因时发生变化。 It can be seen how these various impulses must war against one another, and how they must fluctuate from person to person and from time to time. 由于我的天性——―天性‖这里指刚成年时的状态,在我身上前三种动机远远超过第四种。 By nature —taking your "nature" to be the state you have attained when you are first adult—I am a person in whom the first three motives would outweigh the fourth. 在和平年代,我或许会写些词藻华美或专写事物写景的书,几乎意识不到我政治上的取舍。 In a peaceful age! might have written ornate or merely descriptive books, and might have remained almost unaware of my political loyalties. 可结果我却不得不成了一个写小册子的作家。 As it is I have been forced into becoming a sort of pamphleteer. 最初,我在一个很不合适的职业中度过了 5 年,那是在缅甸的印度帝国警察署。随后,我经

历了贫困,体会到穷困窘迫是何滋味。这使我对权势的本能的嫉妒变得更强烈,我开始意识 到劳动阶级的存在, 缅甸的职业使我对帝国主义的本质有所了解, 但这一切并不足以赋予我 明确的政治倾向。 First I spent five years in an unsuitable profession (the Indian Imperial Police, in Burma), and then I underwent poverty and the sense of failure. This increased my natural hatred of authority and made me for the firs t time fully aware of the existence of the working classes, and the job in Burma had given me some understanding of the nature of imperialism; but these experiences were not enough to give me an accurate political orientation. 接着希特勒出现了,西班牙战争爆发了,各种事件频频发生。 Then came Hitler, the Spanish Civil War, etc. 到 1935 年底,我仍没有能决定何去何从。西班牙内战以及 1936 至 1937 年之间的其他事件 扭转了这种状况,从此我认准了我的立场。 By the end of 1935 I had still failed to reach a firm decision. The Spanish war and other events in 1936 - 1937 turned the scale and thereafter I know where I stood. 1936 年以来,我的严肃作品中的每一行都是为间接或直接地反对极权主义,拥护我所理解 的民主社会主义而写的。 Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it. 认为在我们这样的年代,作家可以回避这种题材,在我看来是无稽之谈。 It seems to me nonsense, in a period like our own, to think that one can avoid writing of such subjects. 每个人都以这样那样的方式写这个题材。 Everyone writes of them in one guise or another. 这其实就是站在哪一边,取什么态度的问题。 It is simply a question of which side one takes and what approach one follows. 一个人越是意识到自己的政治态度, 他越是有可能按政治行事而又不牺牲自己在美感和心智 方面的追求。 And the more one is conscious of one's political bias, the more chance one has of acting politically without sacrificing one's aesthetic and intellectual integrity. 在过去的十年中,我最大的愿望是把政治色彩的写作变成艺术创造。 What I have most wanted to do throughout the past ten years is to make political writing into an art. 我的出发点总是一种党派意识,一种对非正义的敏感。 My starting point is always a feeling of partisanship, a sense of injustice. 我坐下来写书时,不会自语道:―现在我要创造一个艺术作品了。‖ When I sit down to write a book I do not say to myself, "I am going to produce a work of art. " 写作是为了揭发某种谎言,为了让人们重视某些事实。我的初衷总是向读者披露心声,赢得 听众。 I write it because there is some lie that I want to expose, some fact to which I want to draw attention, and my initial concern is to get a hearing. 然而,写作必须同时又是一种美感经验。否则,我就无法完成著书的工作,甚至连一篇长篇 的报刊文章都写不成。 But I could not do the work of writing a book, or even a long magazine article, if it were not also an aesthetic experience.

任何一位有心细读我的作品的读者都会发现, 即使作品是直截了当的宣传鼓励, 也包含着许 多职业政客视为节外生枝的点缀。 Anyone who cares to examine my work will see that even when it is downright propaganda it contains much that a full-time politician would consider irrelevant. 我不能,也不愿意完全放弃我在童年时养成的世界观。 I am not able, and I do not want, completely to abandon the world-view that I acquired in childhood. 只要我还活着,我仍会继续讲究文笔风格,热爱大地的山川胜景,对琐细的物品和无用的传 闻感到欣悦。 So long as I remain alive and well I shall continue to feel strongly about prose style, to love the surface of the earth, and to take a pleasure in solid objects and scraps of useless information. 要抑制我这方面的本能是无济于事的。 我的任务是把个人根深蒂固的好恶与时代强加于我们 大家的政治活动协调起来。 It is no use trying to suppress that side of myself. The job is to reconcile my ingrained likes and dislikes with the essentially public, non-individual activities that this age forces on all of us. 这并不容易。这会产生构思及语言的问题。而真实性也以新的方式出现了疑问。 It is not easy. It raises problems of construction and of language, and it raises in a new way the problem of truthfulness. . . 这个问题以各种各样的形态出现。 In one form or another this problem comes up again. 语言则是个更微妙的问题,得花费很大的工夫讨论。 The problem of language is subtler and would take too long to discuss. 这里我只能说,近几年来,我竭力减少生动形象的描写,尽量写得更谨严简练。 I will only say that of late years I have tried to write less picturesquely and more exactly. 我发现一位作家一旦使某种文笔风格臻于完善,他也就已经超越了这种风格。 In any case I find that by the time you have perfected any style of writing, you have always outgrown it. 《动物庄园》一书便是我在有意识有计划地把政治目的和艺术追求结合为一体的尝试。 Animal Farm was the first book in which I tried, with full consciousness of what I was doing, to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole. 我已经 7 年没写小说了,但我希望不久能写一部。 I have not written a novel for seven years, but I hope to write another fairly soon. 这部小说注定会成败笔, 每次完成的作品都觉得处处是败笔, 但我清楚地知道我要写什么样 的书。 It is bound to be a failure, every book is a failure, but I do know with some clarity what kind of book I want to write. 写作是一场可怕的劳心伤神的斗争,犹如一场恶病长时间发作。 …Writing a book is a horrible, exhausting struggle, like a long bout of some painful illness. 要不是被一种既不可抗拒又不可理喻的鬼怪驱使,没人愿意从事写作。 One would never undertake such a thing if one were not driven on by some demon whom one can neither resist nor understand. 这种魔怪不外乎是婴儿嚎啕以引起人注意的本能。 For all one knows that demon is simply the same instinct that makes a baby squall for attention. 但话又说回来,作家若不能努力隐去自己的个性,他便写不出什么值得一读的东西。

And yet it is also true that one can write nothing readable unless one constantly struggles to efface one's own personality. 好文章是一块透亮的窗玻璃。 Good prose is like a window pane. 我不能肯定地说我的哪一种动机最强,但我知道哪一个目标我必须遵循。 I cannot say with certainty which of my motives are the strongest, but I know which of them deserve to be followed. 回顾我的创作,我发现,什么时候缺乏政治目的,什么时候我就会写出毫无生气的书,就会 坠入华而不实的篇章,写出毫无意义的句子,卖弄矫饰的形容词和堆砌一大堆空话废话。 And looking back through my work, I see that it is invariably where I lacked a political purpose that I wrote lifeless books and was betrayed into purple passages, sentences without meaning, decorative adjectives and humbug generally

Lesson Thirteen

Work

究竟工作是幸福还是痛苦的源泉,这可能是一个难以回答的问题。 Whether work should be placed among the causes of happiness or among the causes of unhappiness may perhaps be regarded as a doubtful question. 毫无疑问有许多工作是非常令人厌烦的,而且过多的工作总是十分痛苦的事。 There is certainly much work which is exceedingly irksome, and an excess of work is always very painful. 然而我认为,只要不过量,对多数人来说即使是最枯燥的工作也比终日无所事事要好些。 I think, however, that, provided work is not excessive in amount, even the dullest work is to most people less painful than idleness. 工作给人的愉快的程度多种多样, 从仅仅是消烦解闷到产生巨大的快乐, 这会随工作的性质 和工作者的能力而异。 There are in work all grades, from mere relief of tedium up to the profoundest delights, according to the nature of the work and the abilities of the worker. 大多数人不得不从事的工作本身大都无乐趣可言,但即使是这样的工作也有一些很大的好 处。 Most of the work that most people have to do is not in itself interesting, but even such work has certain great advantages. 首先,工作可将一天的许多时间占满,人们不必再费神来决定应干些什么,大多数人在可以 自由地按自己的愿望打发时间时,常常会不知所措,想不起有什么令人愉快的事值得去做。 To begin with, it fills a good many hours of the day without the need of deciding what one shall do. Most people, when they are left free to fill their own time according to their own choice, are at a loss to think of anything sufficiently pleasant to be worth doing. 而他们的决定又总是受到干扰,觉得干别的什么事也许会更令人愉快。 And whatever they decide on, they are troubled by the feeling that something else would have been pleasanter. 能够有意义地利用闲暇时间是文明发展到最高阶段的结果,而目前很少有人能达到这一层 次。 To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilization, and at present very few people have reached this level. 何况作出选择本身就是件令人厌烦的事。

Moreover the exercise of choice is in itself tiresome. 除了那些具有非凡主动性的人,其他的人肯定有人乐于被告诉一天中的每时每刻该做什么, 当然命令他们做的事不能太令人厌烦。 Except to people with unusual initiative it is positively agreeable to be told what to do at each hour of the day, provided the orders are not too unpleasant. 多数无所事事的阔佬免遭从事单调乏味工作之苦,但代价是莫名其妙的无聊。 Most of the idle rich suffer unspeakable boredom as the price of their freedom from drudgery. 有时他们去非洲猎取巨兽或环绕世界飞行来解闷, 但这类刺激的数量有限, 尤其到了中年以 后更是如此。 At times they may find relief by hunting big game in Africa, or by flying round the world, but the number of such sensations is limited, especially after youth is past. 因此较为明智的阔佬们工作起来几乎像穷人一样卖力, 而有钱的女人则大多忙于她们自以为 具有震撼世界般重要性的无数琐事。 Accordingly the more intelligent rich men work nearly as hard as if they were poor, while rich women for the most part keep themselves busy with innumerable trifles of whose earthshaking importance they are firmly persuaded. 因此人们愿意工作,首先因为工作可防止产生无聊感。比起终日无所事事而造成的无聊来, 人们在干着虽必要但缺乏兴趣的工作时所感到的枯燥无聊就不值一提了。 Work therefore is desirable, first and foremost, as a preventive of boredom, for the boredom that a man feels when he is doing necessary though uninteresting work is as nothing in comparison with the boredom that he feels when he has nothing to do with his days. 与工作的这一好处相关的还有一个好处, 那就是假日到来会令人感到更加美妙。 只要一个人 的工作不至于累得他体力不支, 那么他就会从他的闲暇时间里得到无所事事的人绝对得不到 的极大乐趣。 With this advantage of work another is associated, namely that it makes holidays much more delicious when they come. Provided a man does not have to work so hard as to impair his vigor, he is likely to find far more zest in his free time than an idle man could possibly find. 多数有报酬的工作和某些没有报酬的工作还有第二个好处, 那就是它们提供了成功的机会和 实现抱负的可能。 The second advantage of most paid work and of some unpaid work is that it gives chances of success and opportunities for ambition. 在多数工作中,收入的多少是衡量成功与否的标准,当我们这个资本主义社会继续存在时, 这是不可避免的。 In most work success is measured by income and while our capitalistic society continues, this is inevitable. 只有在工作最好的情况下收入才不再被用作当然的衡量标准。 It is only where the best work is concerned that this measure ceases to be the natural one to apply. 人们想增加收入当然是出自钱多了可以获得更多的舒适享受这一愿望, 但同样也出自想获得 成功的愿望。 The desire that men feel to increase their income is quite as much a desire for success as for the extra comforts that a higher income can procure. 无论工作多么枯燥单调, 如果它是能够使人逐渐成名的手段, 无论是在世界上出名还是就在 自己的圈子里出名,那么这工作就不再难以忍受了。 However dull work may be, it becomes bearable if it is a means of building up a reputation,

whether in the world at large or only in one's own circle. 归根结底, 幸福的最重要的因素之一是有始终如一的目的。 而对多数人来说这样的目的主要 来自他们的工作。 Continuity of purpose is one of the most essential ingredients of happiness in the long run, and for most men this comes chiefly through their work. 在这一点上, 终日从事家务的妇女便远不如男子幸运, 也没有走出家庭参加工作的妇女幸运。 In this respect those women whose lives are occupied with housework are much less fortunate than men, or than women who work outside the home. 家庭妇女没有工资, 无法改善自己的状况, 她所干的一切在她的丈夫看来都是理所当然的 (她 的丈夫对此几乎是熟视无睹),丈夫欣赏的不是她干的家务活,而是她的其他品质。 The domesticated wife does not receive wages, has no means of bettering herself, is taken for granted by her husband (who sees practically nothing of what she does), and is valued by him not for her housework but for quite other qualities. 当然对那些有足够的钱可以把住宅和花园搞得十分漂亮而成为邻居们的羡慕对象的女人来 说,情况就不一样,但这样的女人相对来说数量较少,对于大多数妇女,家务带给她们的满 足远不如其他工作带给男子或职业妇女的满足。 Of course this does not apply to those women who are sufficiently well-to-do to make beautiful houses and beautiful gardens and become the envy of their neighbors; but such women are comparatively few, and for the great majority housework cannot bring as much satisfaction as work of other kinds brings to men and to professional women. 多数工作都能使人满意地消磨掉时间, 而且给人们实现抱负提供某种令人满意的途径, 虽然 这途径不起眼。 一般说来这种满足足以使一个即使工作枯燥无味的人也比无事可做的人感到 快乐。但如果从事的是有趣的工作,就能给人带来比仅仅是解闷高级得多的满足。 The satisfaction of killing time and of affording some outlet, however modest, for ambition, belongs to most work, and is sufficient to make even a man whose work is dull happier on the average than a man who has no work at all. But when work is interesting, it is capable of giving satisfaction of a far higher order than mere relief from tedium. 有兴趣的工作可以按其包含乐趣的大小顺序排列, 我先谈小有乐趣的工作, 最后谈那些值得 伟大人物投入全部精力的工作。 The kinds of work in which there is some interest may be arranged in a hierarchy. I shall begin with those which are only mildly interesting and end with those that are worthy to absorb the whole energies of a great man. 两个使工作有趣的主要因素,一是需要运用技巧,二是有建设性。 Two chief elements make work interesting: first, the exercise of skill, and second, construction. 凡是掌握了不同寻常的技巧的人都喜欢运用这种技巧, 直至他感到太平常或他再也不能提高 时为止。 Every man who has acquired some unusual skill enjoys exercising it until it has become a matter of course, or until he can no longer improve himself. 这种想要自我表现的动机从幼儿时代就开始了:一个能倒立的男孩总是不想用脚站立。 This motive to activity begins in early childhood: a boy who can stand on his head becomes reluctant to stand on his feet. 许多工作同靠技艺取胜的游戏一样给人以快乐。 A great deal of work gives the same pleasure that is to be derived from games of skill. 律师或政治家的工作一定更愉快而且包含着许多和打桥牌同样的快乐。

The work of a lawyer or a politician must contain in a more delectable form a great deal of the same pleasure that is to be derived from playing bridge. 当然这里不仅运用了技巧,而且还在智力较量上胜过了一个本领高超的对手。 Here of course there is not only the exercise of skill but the outwitting of a skilled opponent. 即使在不存在竞争因素的情况下,表演高难的绝技也是件令人惬意的事情。 Even where this competitive element is absent, however, the performance of difficult feats is agreeable. 能驾驶飞机进行特技飞行的人会从中获得极大的快乐,以至为此甘愿冒生命危险。 A man who can do stunts in an aero--plane finds the pleasure so great that for the sake of it he is willing to risk his life. 我想像尽管一个能干的外科医生工作时处在令人痛苦的气氛中, 他还是能从精湛的手术中得 到满足。 I imagine that an able surgeon, in spite of the painful circumstances in which his work is done, derives satisfaction from the exquisite precision of his operations. 从大量层次较低的工作中也能得到同样的,只是在程度上没有那么强烈的快乐。 The same kind of pleasure, though in a less intense form, is to be derived from a great deal of work of a humbler kind. 只要工作中需要的技巧不是一成不变的, 或存在着不断提高的余地, 那么一切需要熟练技巧 的工作都会是令人愉快的。 All skilled work can be pleasurable, provided the skill required is either variable or capable of indefinite improvement. 但如不具备上述两个条件,在人们掌握的技巧达到顶峰以后,这种工作便不再有兴趣了。 If these conditions are absent, it will cease to be interesting when a man has acquired his maximum skill. 一个从事 3 英里长跑的运动员到了不能再打破自己纪录的年龄以后, 就不会再从这个职业中 获得乐趣。 A man who runs three-mile races will cease to find pleasure in this occupation when he passes the age at which he can beat his own previous record. 幸而有相当数量的工作随新的情况出现而需要新的技巧, 人们可以不断提高自己的技巧, 至 少可以一直继续到中年以后。 Fortunately there is a very considerable amount of work in which new circumstances call for new skill and a man can go on improving, at any rate until he has reached middle age. 从事某些技巧性工作的人,比如从政的人,似乎在 60 岁到 70 岁之间才达到颠峰状态,原因 是在这些职业中,丰富的阅历至关重要。 In some kinds of skilled work, such as politics, for example, it seems that men are at their best between sixty and seventy, the reason being that in such occupations a wide experience of other men is essential. 因此有成就的政治家在 70 岁时往往会比其他同龄人幸福。 For this reason successful politicians are apt to be happier at the age of seventy than any other men of equal age. 在

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