当前位置:首页 >> >>

领导干部外事英语800句

领导干部外事英语 800 句

一、接待寒暄 Greetings as a host

1. 你好!欢迎你来中国访问。 How do you do? Welcome to China.

2. 我们是第一次见面。很高兴同你结识。 This is our first meeting. I am glad to meet you.

3. 我们是老朋友了,很高兴这次能接待你。 We are old friends. I am so glad to be your host.

4. 你们长途跋涉可以先到宾馆休息一下。 You had a long flight. Why don't you go to the hotel and have some rest first.

5. 你是第一次来中国访问吗? Is this your first visit to China?

6. 你以前到过中国哪些地方?印象怎样? What places in China have you visited? What is your impression?

7. 我们为你这次访问制定了一个计划。你看看行不行?
1

We have prepared a program for you. I hope you will like it.

8.不知你对这次访问还有什么要求? Is there anythging else that interest you?

9. 我们这里有不少值得一看的地方,你可以尽可能多走一走,看一看。 There is a lot to see around here. I hope you can see as much as possible.

10. 祝你在我们这里过得愉快。 I wish you a pleasant stay here.

11. 谢谢你送我礼物,我很喜欢。我也给你准备了礼物。希望你能喜欢。 Thank you for your gift. I like it very much. This is the gift for you. I hope you will like it.

12. 你对今天的参观印象怎样? How do you find today's visit?

13. 你觉得这里的风景怎样? How do you like the secenery here?

14. 你觉得今晚菜肴怎样?和不和你胃口? How do you like the food this evening?

2

15. 希望你对访问感到满意。 I hope you have enjoyed the visit.

16. 我访问过你们国家,留下了深刻印象。 I have visited you country. It had left me deep impression.

17. 借此机会,我要对访问贵国时受到的热情接待再次表示衷心的感谢。 I wish to take this opportunity to once again express my sincere thanks for your warm reception during my visit to your country.

18. 你就要结束访问了。不知你对这次访问印象如何? You are about to end your visit. How do you find the visit?

19. 感谢你邀请我到贵国访问。我希望不久的将来能到你们国家访问。 Thank for you invitation to visit your country. I hope to visit your country soon.

20. 你的这次来访取得了成功。欢迎你今后有机会再来。 Your visit is very successful. I hope you will come again.

二、出访寒暄 Greetings as a guest

21. 你好!见到你很高兴。 How do you do! I am glad to meet you.
3

22. 我们是老朋友。很高兴同你再次见面。 We are old friends. I am glad to see you again.

23. 对我们上次见面,我至今记忆犹新。 I still remember our last meeting.

24. 感谢你们邀请我们来贵国访问。 Thank you for your invitation.

25. 这是我第一次来贵国访问。我想多了解一些贵国情况。 This is my first visit to your country. I hope to learn as much as possible about your country.

26. 我对贵国情况有所了解,看过关于贵国的书籍和报刊,也接待过到中国访问的客人。 I know something about your country. I read books, newspapers and magazines about it and met visitors from your country in China.

27. 我早就想来贵国访问。这次有机会来,真是很高兴。 I have long wanted to visit your country and I am so glad to come this time.

28. 感谢你来亲自迎接我们。 Thank you for coming to meet us.

4

29. 一踏上贵国的土地,我们就有宾至如归的感觉。 As soon as we arrive in your beautiful country, we feel very much at home.

30. 这里的人民勤劳智慧。 The people here are hardworking and talented.

31. 你们的接待计划很周到,我很满意。 You have made a good programe for my visit. I like it very much.

32. 这几天,我们在这里过得很愉快。 We have enjoyed our visit here in the past few days.

33. 贵国的文化和风俗有自己的鲜明特点。 You have unique culture and customs.

34. 这里风景很美,给我留下深刻印象。 I am impressed by the beautiful scenery here.

35. 你刚才的介绍内容很丰富,让我学到不少知识。 Your briefing is very informative and I have learnt a lot.

36. 感谢你的盛情款待,品尝到贵国的特色菜肴。 Thank you for your warm hospitality and for the opportunity to taste your cuisine.
5

37. 你们的热情接待,让我们深受感动。 We are deeply moved by your warm reception.

38. 你曾经到过中国一些地方,有些什么印象。 You have visited some places in China. What is your impression?

39. 欢迎你方便的时候到中国访问。 You are welcome to visit China at your convenience.

40. 欢迎你有机会再次到中国访问,亲眼看看中国发生的变化。 You are welcome to vist China again to see the changes there.

三、会谈和主持会议 At meetings and conferences

41.欢迎各位请入座。 Welcome everyone. Please be seated.

42. 开始会谈前,请允许我介绍一下,我方参加人员。 Before we start, let me introduce the participants from our side.

43. 我代表苏州市政府和人民对你来访表示热烈欢迎。 On behalf of the government and the people of Suzhou, I wish to express a warm welcome to
6

you.

44. 首先,我要转达王先生对你的诚挚问候。 First of all , I wish to convey to you the warm greetings from Mr. Wang.

45. 现在请你介绍一下,贵方代表团成员。 Would you please introduce the members of your delegation?

46. 很高兴我同李女士再次相见,我对上次相见记忆犹新。 I am glad to meet you again, Miss Li. I still remember our last meeting.

47. 我们上次谈得很愉快,双方达成许多共识。 We had a pleasant talk and reached an agreement on many issues.

48. 这次我希望同贵方进行深入交流。 This time I hope to have an in-depth exchanges of view.

49. 你们是远道而来的客人,请先谈。 You are our guests coming afar. Would you like to speak first?

50. 刚才,贵方发表了很好的看法,我方都赞成。 You have made some good points. We fully agree.

7

51. 现在我着重谈一下几点意见。 Now I would like to make the following points.

52. 我们的会谈很愉快,取得了一系列成果。 We've had a good and productive talk.

53. 希望我们今后有机会继续进行交流。 I hope we will have the opportunity to continue our discussion.

54. 我代表会议主办方,欢迎大家与会。 One behalf of the organizer of the conference, I wish to extend a warm welcome to you all.

55. 这次会议是由...发起的。 This conference is initiated by...

56. 会议的主题是... The theme of the conference is...

57. 会议的日程如下... The programe of the conference is as follows:

58. 出席会议的有: Present at today's conference are...
8

59. 下面我们进行第一项议程: Now let's take up the firt item on the agenda.

60. 会议结束前,我要向全体与会者表示感谢。 Before we conclude, I wish to thank all the participants.

四、. 双边关系 Bilateral Relations

61.我方同意对方对双方合作所做的评价。 We share your assessment of our cooperation.

62.斯密斯先生对双方合作发表了很好的看法,我都赞成。 Mr. Smith had made some very good points about our cooperation. I fully agree with him.

63. 我们对加强双方交流合作持积极态度。 We are willing to strengthen our exchanges and cooperation.

64. 我们愿意在平等互利的基础上推进双方在各领域的合作。 We are ready to enhance exchanges and cooperation with you in various field based on equality and mutal benefit.

65. 两国人民友好往来,源远流长。
9

The friendly exchanges between our two peoples has a long history.

66. 建交以来,两国关系得到长足发展。 Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, much progress has been made in our bilateral ties.

67. 两国关系不断发展,给两国人民带来实实在在的利益,也为世界的和平与发展做出了 贡献。 The continous growth of our relations has brought real benefits to our two peoples and contribute to world peace and development.

68. 中方高度重视发展两国关系。 China values our relations.

69. 当前两国关系发展正面临新的机遇。 Our bilateral relations now face new opportunities of growth.

70. 我们应该把握机遇共同把两国关系提升到新的水平。 We should seize the opportunity and work together and lift our relations to a new level.

71. 我们应该保持两国高层和各级别密切交往,不断增强政治互信。 We should maintain close exchanges at the top and other levels further enhance political mutual trust.
10

72. 两国因为历史文化,社会制度和发展水平不同,对一些问题存在不同看法,关键是要 相互尊重,平等协商。 Our two countries are different in history, culture, social systems and level of development. Therefore we may disagree on some issues. What is important is to respect each other and talk to each other as equals.

73. 我们应该加强经贸往来,不断拓宽合作领域。 We should strengthen business ties and open up new areas of cooperation.

74. 两国相互了解和友谊是两国关系发展的根基。 Mutual understanding and friendship between the two peoples is the foundation of our relations.

75. 两国友好根本上是两国人民友好。 Friendship between the two peoples is the foundation of good relations between our two countries.

76. 我们应该加强两国人文领域交流,不断夯实两国关系的社会基础。 We should enhance cultural and people to people exhanges and strengthen public support for our realtions.

77. 我们应该两国地方合作。
11

We should step up cooperation at the local level.

78. 我们应该加强两国在国际事务中的协调和配合。 We need to enhance coordination and cooperation in the internation affairs.

79. 我们应该总结和利用两国友好合作的经验,更好造福两国人民。 We should sum up and take full advange of the experence with gained friendly cooperation so as to bring more benefits to our two peoples.

80. 我相信我们再次达成的新的共识,将进一步推动双方合作。 I am convinced that what we have agreed on this time will give a fresh boost to our cooperation.

五、中国概况 Overview of China

81. 中华人民共和国,简称中国,是世界文明古国之一。 The People's Republic of China is known as China for short. China is one of the oldest civilizations in the world.

82. 中国国土面积约 960 万平方公里。 China has a land area of around 9.6 million square kilometers.

83. 中国陆地面积居世界第三位,约占世界陆地总面积的 15 分之 1.
12

China has the third largest land area in the world, which accounts for one fifteenth of the world total.

84. 中国人口超过 13 亿,是世界上人口最多的国家。 China has over 1.3 billion people. It is the most populous country in the world.

85. 2010 年中国经济总量居世界第二位。但人均国内生产总值,刚刚达到 4000 美元,是 世界上最大的发展中国家。 China became the second largest economy in 2010. But the per capita GDP just reached 4,000 US dollars. China is largest developing country in the world.

86. 中国是一个多民族国家,有 56 个民族,通用语是汉语。 China is a multi-ethnic country with fifty-six ethnic groups. Chinese is the commonly used language.

87. 中国由 34 个省级行政单位组成,包括 23 个省,5 个自治区,4 个直辖市和 2 个特别 行政区。 China has 34 administrative regions at the pronvincial level, including 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities directly under the central government and 2 special administrative regions.

88. 中国大陆海岸线长约 1.8 万公里。 China has a coastline of about 18,000 kilometers.
13

89. 中国地势西高东低。 China is generally high in altitude in the west and becomes lower in the east.

90. 青藏高原海拔平均超过 4000 米,被称为世界屋脊。 The Qinghai-tibet platetou in on the average 4,000 meter above sea level. It is known as the roof of the world.

91. 珠穆朗玛峰海拔 8844.43 米,是世界最高峰。 Mount Qumolangma is 8844.43 meters above sea level. It is the highest peak in the world.

92. 长江黄河是中国最长的两条河流。黄河流域和长江流域是中华文明的重要发源地。 The Yangzi River and the Yellow River are two longest river in China. The Yellow River valley and Yangzi river valley are the birthplaces of the Chinese civilisation.

93. 长江全长 6300 公里,是中国第一大河流,世界第三大河流。 The Yangzi River is 6,300 kilometer long. It is the longest river in China and the third longest in the world.

94. 黄河全长 5464 公里,是中国第二大河流。 The Yellow River is 5,464 kilometer long. It is the second longest river in China.

95. 鄱阳湖,洞庭湖和太湖是中国最重要的 3 个淡水湖。
14

The Poyang Lake, the Dongting Lake and the Taihu Lake are the three largest fresh water lake in China.

96. 青海湖是中国最大的咸水湖。 The Qinghai Lake is the largest saltwater lake in China.

97. 中国气候多样,大部分地区属于温带,亚热带季风气候,四季分明。 China has a varied climate, much of the country has temperate and sub-tropical monsoon climate and has four distinctive seasons.

98. 中国年平均气温 从黑龙江漠河到海南岛在零下 5 摄氏度至 30 摄氏度之间变化。 China's annual average temperature varies from -5 degree celcius in Mohe of Heilongjiang Province to 30 degree celsius southeast on Hainan Island.

99. 中国的货币是人民币,单位是元。 The Renminbi is the official currency of China. Its principal unit is the Yuan.

100. 中国周边都 14 个国家相邻。 China has 14 neighboring countries along its land boder.

六、中国的历史 History of China

101. 中华文明历经 5000 多年没有中断,绵延至今,这在世界古代文明中是唯一的。
15

The Chinese civilisation has continued uninterrupted for over 5,000 years. This is unique among the world civilisations.

102 中国早期是三皇五帝时期。三皇距今大约七八千年左右。五帝距今大约四千多年。 The early Chinese history is composed of periods of the three "sage kings" and five "virtuous Empires". The former period was about seven thousand to eight thousand years ago. The latter period was over four thousand years ago.

103. 公元前 2000 多年至前 256 年为夏商周时期。 From over 2,000 B.C. to 256 B.C. was the peroid of the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties.

104. 公元前 770 年至公元前 221 年为战国时期。 From 770 to 221 B.C., China was in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Peroid.

105. 公元前 221 年,秦代中国形成了统一的多民族国家。 In 221 B.C., China become a unified and multi-ethnic country in the Qin dynasty.

106. 公元前 206 年至公元 220 年为中国汉代。那时中国就开通了通往西域的丝绸之路。 The peroid from 206 B.C. to 220 A.D. was the Han dynasty. China opened the silk road during this peroid.

107. 220 年开始,中国出现魏蜀吴三国争雄的局面,延续了 60 年。 Starting from 220 AD, the rivalry for a national power among the three kingdoms of Wei, Shu
16

and Wu lasted 60 years.

108. 220 年中国进入魏晋南北朝时期。 In 220 AD, China entered into the peroid of the Wei-jin and Southern and Northern dynasties.

109.581 年至 618 年是中国隋代。那时兴建了长达 1700 多公里的京杭大运河。 The Sui Dynasty lasted from 581 to 618 AD. The Grand Canal linking Beijing and Hangzhou was docked during this peroid. It was over 1700Km long.

110. 618 年至 907 年为中国唐代,那时中国就相当繁华,出现过贞观之治。 China was under the rule of the Tang Dynasty from 618 to 907 A.D.. China becomes highly prosperous in the Tang Dynasty, particularly during the reign of the second emperor known as the years of Zhenguan.

111. 唐代之后,907 年至 960 年,中国进入五代十国时期。 The years from 907 to 960 A.D. was the peroid of the Five Dynasties and Ten States.

112. 960 年,中国宋朝建立。一直延续至 1279 年。 In 960 A.D., the Song Dynasty was established. It lasted until 1279.

113. 1271 年至 1368 年为中国元代,成吉思汗的后代掌握了统治中国的权力。 From 1271 to 1368 was the peroid of the Yuan Dynasty and the descendent of Genagis Khan ruled China.
17

114. 1368 年至 1644 年为中国明代。那时中国船队远抵阿拉伯半岛和非洲东北部。 From 1368 to 1644, China was under the rule of the Ming Dynasty. During this peroid, Chinese fleets reached the Arabian peninsular and the northeast Africa.

115. 1644 年至 1911 年为中国清代,那时中国确定了近代疆域。 The Qing Dynasty ruled China from 1644 to 1911. It was during this period that the territory of modern China was defined.

116. 1840 年英国发动侵略中国的鸦片战争,中国开始进入半殖民地半封建社会。 In 1840, Braitain waged the opium war against China. And China gradually became the Semi-colonial and Semi-feudal Society.

117. 1911 年中国民主先行者孙中山先生领导的辛亥革命,推翻清朝统治,结束在中国延 续几千年的君主专制制度。 Doctor Sun Yatsen was the forerunner of the democratic revolution in China. In 1911, he led the revolution that overthrew the Qing Dynasty and ended the autocratic monarchy, a system that lasted over thousands years in China.

118. 1937 年至 1945 年,中国人民进行八年抗日战争,付出伤亡三千多万人的巨大牺牲, 打败了日本侵略者,为世界反法西斯胜利作出了重大贡献。 From 1937 to 1945, the Chinese people fought against the Japanese agression for eight years. China made enormous sacrifice of over 30 million casualities and eventually defeated the
18

Japanese aggressors. This contributed greatly to the victory of the World anti-facist war.

119. 1945 年至 1949 年, 中国共产党领导中国人民进行解放战争, 推翻了国民党反动统治。 1949 年 10 月 1 日,中华人民共和国宣告成立。 From 1945 to 1949, the Communist Part of China led the Chinese people in fighting the war liberation. the Reactionary rule of the Kuomingtang was overthrown. The People's Republic of China was founded on Octorber the first, 1949.

120. 1978 年中国开始实行改革开放,确定要以经济建设为中心,全面推进社会主义现代 化建设。 In 1978, China started the reform and opened itself to the outside world. It decided to focuse on the economic development and promote the socialist modernization in all areas.

七、中国的文化 Chinese Culture

121. 诗经是中国历史上第一部诗歌总集。 The Book of Songs is the earliest collection of poems and songs in China.

122. 《楚辞》是中国第一部浪漫主义诗歌总集,指的是 2000 多年前以屈原为代表创作的 诗歌。 The Songs of the South is the earliest collection of romantic poems in China. The poems were written by Qu Yuan and others over 2,000 years ago.

19

123. 2000 多年前,春秋战国时期出现百家争鸣,对中国后世各种学说产生重要影响。 There were lively intellectual debates known as The Hundred Schools of Thought during the Spring and Autumn Peroid and the Warring States Period over 2,000 years ago. They had great influence on later philosophies in China.

124. 诸子百家是对 2000 多年前春秋战国以至汉初众多学派的概称, 如孔子、 老子、 墨子、 庄子等。 The Hundred Schools of Thought refers to thinkers representing various schools of thought during the Spring and Autumn Period, Warring States Period and early Han Dynasty over 2,000 years ago. The best-known thinkers include Confucius, Lao Zi, Mo Zi and Zhuang Zi.

125. 孔子是中国古代伟大的教育家和思想家,他创立的儒学讲求“仁者爱人” 。 Confucius was a great educator and thinker in ancient China. He was the founder of Confucianism which advocated benevolence.

126. 孔子主张“己所不欲,勿施于人” , 这是中国古人处理政治关系和人际关系的重要 准则。 Confucius asked people "not to do onto others what they would not have others do onto themselves". This was a key principle regulating political and human relations in ancient China.

127. 以老子、庄子为代表的道家是中国古代重要思想学派之一,崇尚自然,主张无为而 治。
20

The Taoist school of thought is represented by Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi. It is an important school of thought in ancient China. It respect nature and holds that things should be allowed to take their own course in governance.

128. 四书五经是中国儒家的经典,四书是《大学》 、 《中庸》 、 《论语》和《孟子》 ,五经是 《诗经》 、 《尚书》 、 《礼记》 、 《周易》和《春秋》 。 The Four Books and Five Classics are the main teachings of Confucianism. The Four Books are: Great Learning, Doctrine of the Mean, Analects of Confucius, and Mencius. The Five Classics are: Book of Songs, Book of History, Book of Rites, Book of Changes, and Spring and Autumn Annals.

129. 隋唐时代确立的科举制是中国历史上影响最大的选官制。 The Imperial Examination System was established in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. It has had the greatest impact on the selection of officials in China's history.

130.唐代的诗歌,宋代的词、元代的戏曲是中国古代文学史上的三座高峰。 Poetry of the Tang Dynastry, lyrics of the Song Dynastry and opera songs of the Yuan Dynastry represent three landmark achievements in classical Chinese literature.

131. 中国古代四大发明是造纸、印刷术、指南针、火药。 The Four Great Inventions in ancient China are papermaking, printing, the compass and gunpowder.

21

132. 《三国演义》 、 《西游记》 、 《水浒传》 、 《红楼梦》是中国明清小说四大名著。 Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West, Outlaws of the Marsh, and a Dream of Red Mansions were four major classical novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

133. 琴棋书画是中国古人提高文化修养所必须掌握的技能。 Qin (a musical instrument), weiqi (a board game), calligraphy and painting are the four arts that people were required to master in the old times in order to be more culturally refined.

134. 京剧产生于 19 世纪,有“国剧”之称。 Peking Opera came into being in the 19th century and is regarded as the national opera.

135. 中国武术,也成中国武术,集防身、健身、养生于一体,是中国古代文化遗产中的 瑰宝。 Kong Fu is also called Chinese martial arts. It serves the purpose of self-defense, fitness and health preservation. It is a gem of China's cultural heritage.

136. 春节是中国的农历新年,是中国民间最看重的传统节日,是亲人团聚的日子。 The Spring Festival marks the start of the lunar new year in China. It is the most important traditional festival for the Chinese. It is an occasion of family reunion.

137. 中国人很重视中秋节,这一赏月佳节是大团圆的象征。 The Mid-Autumn Festival is also known as the Moon Festival. It is a special festival for the Chinese. The full moon on that day symbolizes family reunion.
22

138. 天人合一是中国古典哲学的重要观念之一。强调尊重自然, 人与自然应该和谐相处。 Unity between man and nature is a key concept in ancient Chinese philosophy. It calls for respect for nature and harmony between man and nature.

139. 中国古人就强调协和万邦,主张各国应该和平相处。 Ever since ancient times, the Chinese have held the belief that all countries should live in peace.

140. 中国是礼仪之邦,讲究尊老爱幼,礼让谦逊。 China is a country of etiquette. We respect the old and care for the young, and encourage propriety and modesty.

八、中国的世界遗产 World Heritage in China

141. 中国有 40 多处世界遗产, 包括世界文化遗产、 世界自然遗产、 文化和自然混合遗产。 China has over 40 world heritage sites including cultural, natural and mixed cultural and natural heritage sites.

142. 长城是中国古代的伟大建筑工程之一,始建于 2000 多年前,全长 8851 公里,号称 “万里长城” 。 The Great Wall was one of the greatest construction projects in ancient China. Its construction began over 2,000 years ago. It has a total length of 8,851 kilometers.
23

143. 北京故宫始建于 1406 年,是世界现存最大最完整的古建筑群。 The Forbidden City in Beijing is the largest and most complete old building complex in the world. Its construction began in 1406.

144. 北京天坛是中国古代皇帝祭天之地。 The Temple of Heaven in Beijing was the place for Chinese emperors to pray to heaven for good harvest.

145. 陕西西安的秦始皇陵是中国历史上第一个皇帝秦始皇的陵园,众多兵马俑令人叹为 观止。 The Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang is located in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. Emperor Qin Shihuang was the first emperor of China. The terracotta warriors and horses discovered there are truly amazing.

146. 泰山有五岳独尊之称,有雄伟的自然景观和丰富的人文景观。 Mount Tai is the most famous among the Five Sacred Mountain Peaks in China. It has majestic natural scenery peaks and rich cultural relics.

147. 山东省曲阜市的孔庙是包括孔子及其后裔的宗庙等在内的庞大建筑群。 The Temple of Confucius is located in Qufu City, Shandong Province. It is a huge compound housing the ancestral temples of Confucius and his descendents.

24

148. 安徽省的黄山有“天下第一奇山”的美誉。 Mount Huangshan is located in Anhui Province. It is is believed to have the most spectacular mountain scenery on earth.

149. 江西省的庐山以雄、奇、险、秀闻名。 Mount Lushan is in Jiangxi Province. It is famous for its grandeur, uniqueness, steepness and beauty.

150. 四川省的峨眉山以优美的自然风光而驰名中外,乐山大佛高 71 米,堪称世界之最。 Mount Emei is in Sichuan Province. It is well-known for its breathtaking scenery. The carved stone statue of Leshan Buddha is 71 meters high, which is the tallest in the world.

151. 福建省的武夷山一丹霞地貌著称。 Mount Wuyi is in Fujian Province. It is known for its Danxia( red sandstone) landform.

152. 湖北省的武当山是道教名山和武当拳发源地。 Mount Wudang is in Hubei Province. It is a sacred mountain in Taoism and is the birthplace of Wudang Boxing.

153. 湖南省的武陵源风景名胜区有奇特的砂岩峰林地貌。 Wulingyuan is in Hunan Province. It is famous for its unique tall quartzite sandtone pillars.

154. 四川省九寨沟因其喀斯特溶岩地貌和壮观瀑布而充满生趣。
25

The Jiuzhaigou Valley is in Sichuan Province. It is known for its karst landform and magnificent waterfalls.

155. 四川大熊猫栖息地是全球最完整的大熊猫栖息地。 The Giant Panda Sanctuaries in Sichuan Province is the largest contiguous giant panda habitat in the world.

156. 云南省的丽江市有世界文化遗产丽江古城、世界自然遗产“三江并流”保护区,还 有纳西东巴象形文字。 Both the Old Town of Lijiang, a world cultural heritage site, and the Three Parallel Rivers Protected Area, a world natural heritage site, are located in Lijiang City of Yunnan Province. Lijiang is also famous for the Dongba pictographic scripts of the Naxi language.

157. 苏州古典园林始建于 2600 多年前。 Construction of the Classical Gardens in Suzhou began over 2,600 years ago.

158. 甘肃省的敦煌莫高窟是世界上规模最大的佛教艺术圣地。 The Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, Gansu Province is the largest site of Buddhist art in the world.

159. 河南省的洛阳龙门石窟有 1500 多年历史,现存石雕佛像 10 万余尊。 The Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang, Henan Province has a history of more than 1,500 years. It has over 100,000 Buddhist statues.
26

160. 西藏拉萨的布达拉宫是历代达赖喇嘛的东宫居所。 The Potala Palace in Lahsa, Tibet was the Winter Palace for the successive Dalai Lamas.

九、 中国的政治制度 China's Political System

161. 中国是社会主义国家。国家的一切权力属于人民。 China is a socialist country. All power in China belongs to the people.

162. 人民代表大会制度是中国的根本政治制度。 The system of people's congresses is the fundamental political system of China.

163. 中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度,民族区域自治制度以及基层群众自治 制度是中国的基本政治制度。 Multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China(CPC), ethnic regional autonomy and self-governance at the community level constitute China's basic political system.

164. 中国共产党是中国的执政党,领导和支持人民当家作主,维护和实现最广大人民的 根本利益。 The CPC is the ruling party in China. It leads and supports the people in determining their own destiny, and works to uphold and realize the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people.
27

165. 中国共产党的领导主要是政治、思想、组织领导。 The Party's leadership means mainly political, theoretical and organizational leadership.

166. 人民通过人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会形式国家权力。 The people exercise state power through the National People's Congress (NPC )and people's congresses at lower levels.

167. 全国人民代表大会是中国最高国家权力机关,地方人民代表大会分省市县乡四级, 地方各级人民代表大会是地方国家权力机关。 The NPC is the supreme organ of state power. There are local people's congresses at the provincial, municipal, county and township levels. They are the local organs of state power.

168. 全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使国家立法权。 The NPC and its Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the state.

169. 中华人民共和国主席是国家元首。 The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state.

170. 国务院是最高国家权力机关的执行机关。 The State Council is the executive body of the supreme organ of state power. It is also the supreme organ of state administration.

28

171. 中央军事委员会领导全国武装力量,实行主席负责制。 The Central Military Commission directs the armed forces of the country under the leadership of its Chairman.

172. 中国设省市县乡四级地方政府。 There are local governments at the provincial, municipal, county and township levels.

173. 人民法院是国家的审判机关,依照法律规定独立行使审判权。 The people's courts are judicial organs of the state. They exercise judicial power indendently in accordance with the law.

174. 人民检察院是国家的法律监督机关。依照法律规定独立行使检察权。 The people's procuratorates are state organs for legal supervision. They exercise procuratorial power independently in accordance with the law.

175. 中国共产党是执政党。中国国民党革命委员会、中国民主同盟、中国民主建国会、 中国民主促进会、中国农工民主党、中国致公党、九三学社、台湾民主自治同盟,八个 民主党派是参政党。 The CPC is the ruling party of China. There are eight democratic parties which participate in the deliberation and management of state affairs. They are the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang, China Democratic League, China's Democratic National Construction Association, China Association for Promoting Democracy, Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party, China Zhi Gong Dang, Jiu San Society and Taiwan Democratic
29

Self-government League.

176. 中国共产党同各民主党派合作的方针是,长期共存,互相监督,肝胆相照,荣辱与 共。 The CPC cooperates with the democratic parties under the principle of long-term co-existence, mutual supervision, treating each other with full sincerity and sharing weal and woe.

177. 中国人民政治协商会议围绕团结和民主两大主题开展工作,履行政治协商,民主监 督,参政议政职能。 The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) aims to promote unity and democracy. It conducts political consultation, exercises democratic supervision and takes part in the deliberation and managment of state affairs.

178. 中国在农村建立村民委员会、在城市社区建立居民委员会、在企业建立职工代表大 会,以保证人民依法直接行使民主权利,管理基层公共事务和公益事业,实行自我管理、 自我服务、自我教育、自我监督、对干部实行民主监督。 There are villiagers' committees in rural areas, neighborhood committees in urban areas, and workers' congresses in enterprises. They ensure that the people directly exercise their democratic rights in accordance with the law and manage public service affairs and public service programs at the community level. They also ensure that the people practice self-management, self-service, self-education and self-supervision, and exercise democratic supervision over officials.

30

179. 政治体制改革是中国全面改革的重要组成部分。我们推进政治体制改革,坚持以保 证人民当家作主为根本,扩大社会主义民主,建设社会主义法治国家,发展社会主义政 治文明。 Political restructuring is an important part of the overall reform in China. The fundamental principle guiding the political restructuring is to ensure that the people are the masters of the country. Its aim is to expand socialist democracy, build a socialist country under the rule of law and develop a socialist political culture.

180. 我们坚持中国特色社会主义发展道路,坚持党的领导,人民当家作主、依法治国有 机统一,不断推进社会主义政治制度自我完善和发展。 We keep to the path of developing the socialist political system with Chinese features. We adhere the leadership of the Party. At the same time, we ensure that the people are the masters of the country and promote the rule of law. We work to promote the self-improvement and development of the socialist political system.

十、中国的选举制度 China's Election System

181. 中国年满 18 周岁的公民都享有选举权和被选举权。 Under the Chinese law, all Chinese citizens aged 18 and above have the right to vote and stand for election.

182. 全国和地方各级人民代表大会都由民主选举产生,对人民负责,受人民监督。 The National People's Congress and people's congresses at lower levels are instituted through
31

democratic election. They are responsible to the people and subject to their supervision.

183. 全国人民代表大会代表和省市两级人民代表由下一级人民代表大会选举,县乡两级 人民代表大会代表由选民直接选举。 Deputies to the national, provincial and munipicial people's congresses are elected by the people's congresses at the next lower level. Deputies to the people's congresses of counties and townships are elected directly by voters.

184. 全国和地方各级人民代表大会的代表的选举, 一律采用无记名投票方法,选举时设 有秘密写票处。 Election of deputies to the National People's Congress and the local people's congresses is conducted by secret ballot. Voters cast votes in private in booths at polling stations.

185. 全国和地方各级人民代表大会的代表的候选人,按选区或者选举单位选举产生。 Candidates of deputies to the National People's Congress and local people's congresses are nominated by constituencies or electoral units.

186. 各政党、各人民团体可以联合或者单独推荐代表候选人, 选民或者代表 10 人以上联 名,也可以推荐代表候选人。 Political parties or people's organizations may recommend candidates jointly or seperately. Groups each having over 10 voters or deputies may also jointly recommend candidates.

187. 由选民直接选举代表大会代表的,代表候选人由各选区选民和各政党、各人民团体
32

提名推荐。 In places where deputies to people's congresses are directly elected by voters, candidates are recommended by constituents, political parties or people's organizations.

188. 全国和地方各级代表大会代表实行差额选举。 Deputies to the National People's Congress and local people's congresses are produced through multi-candidate elections.

189. 全国和地方各级人民代表大会的代表,受选民和原选举单位的监督,选民或选举单 位都有权罢免自己选出的代表。 Deputies to the National People's Congress and local people's congresses are subject to the supervision of the voters or the units which elected them. Voters or electoral units have the power to recall the deputies they have elected.

190. 国家行政机关、审判机关、检察机关都由人民代表大会产生,对它负责,受它监督。 All the administrative, judiacial and procuratorial bodies of the state are created by the people's congresses. These bodies are responsible to people's congresses and operate under their supervision.

191. 中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举,每届任期 5 年,连续任职 不得超过两届。 The President and vice president of the People's Republic of China are elected by the National People's Congress. They have a term of office of five years and can serve no more than two
33

consecutive terms.

192. 国务院总理的人选,根据中华人民共和国主席的提名,由全国人民代表大会决定。 The choice of the Premier of the State Council is made by the National People's Congress upon nomination by the President of the People's Republic of China.

193. 国务院副总理、国务委员和各部部长等的人选由国务院总理提名,根据国务院总理 的提名,由全国人民代表大会决定。 The chioce of Vice Premiers, the State Councilors, and Ministers is made by the National People's Congress upon nomination of the Premier.

194. 全国人民代表大会选举中央军事委员会主席。 The Chairman of the Central Military Commission is elected by the National People's Congress.

195. 最高人民法院院长,最高人民检察院院长,由全国人民代表大会选举。 The President of the Supreme People's Court, and the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate are elected by the National People's Congress.

196. 地方各级人民代表大会分别选举并且有权罢免本级人民政府的领导人。 Local people's congresses elect officials of the people's governments at the same levels and have the power to recall them.

34

197. 居民委员会、村民委员会的主任、副主任和委员由居民选举。 The chairperson, vice chairpersons and members of the neighborhood committees or villagers' committees are elected by residents.

198. 中国共产党各级人民代表大会的代表和委员会选举采用无记名投票方式。 Delegates to the congresses of the Communist Party of China(CPC) and members of CPC committees at all levels are elected by secret ballot.

199. 中国共产党中央委员会由党的全国代表大会选举。党的中央政治局,中央政治局常 务常务委员会和中央委员会总书记,由中央委员会全体会议选举。 The Central Committees of the Communist Party of China is elected by the National Congress of the Party. The Political Bureau, its Standing Committee and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party are elected by the Central Committee at its plenary session.

200. 中国共产党章程明确规定,任何组织和个人不得以任何方式强迫选举人选举或不选 举某个人。 It is explicitly stipulated in the Constitution of the Communist Party of China that no organization or individual shall in any way compel voters to elect or not elect any particular candidate.

十一、中国的民主 Democracy in China

201. 在新中国成立前,中国人民深受帝国主义、封建主义、官僚资本主义的压迫,没有
35

任何民主权利可言。 The Chinese people suffered greatly under imperalism, feudalism and bureaucrat capitalism befor the founding of New China. They did not have any democratic rights to speak of.

202. 中国人民为争取民主进行了长期斗争和探索, 新中国成立后才获得当家作主的权利。 The Chinese people fought long and hard for democracy. It was only after the founding of New China they were able to determine their own destiny.

203. 我们强调没有民主就没有社会主义、就没有社会主义现代化。 We want to stress that without democracy there can be no socialism and socialist modernization.

204. 中国的民主制度不断健全,民主形式不断丰富。中国人民现在享受着历史上最广泛 的民主权利。 China has made steady progress in improving democratic institutions and expanding forms for exercising democracy. They Chinese people now enjoy more extensive democratic rights than ever before.

205. 我们从各个层次,各个领域扩大公民有序政治参与,最广泛的动员和组织人民依法 管理国家事务和社会事务、管理经济和文化事业。 We expand citizens' orderly participation in political affairs at every level and in every field. We fully mobilize and organize the people in managing state social affairs and social affairs as well as economic and cultural activities in accordance with the law.
36

206. 我们依法实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督,保障人民的知情权、参 与权、表达权、监督权。 We carry out democratic election, decision-making, administration and oversight in accordance with the law to guarantee that the people have the right to be informed of, to participate in, ot express views about and to oversee public affairs.

207. 我们坚持民主决策,制定与群众利益密切相关的法律法规和公共政策,原则上都要 公开听取意见。 We practice democratic decision making. Generally the views of the public should be sought in formulating laws, regulations and policies that are closely related to people's interests.

208. 我们不断完善政务公开,村务公开和厂务公开的制度,充分保障人民群众的民主权 利。 We are steadly improving the system for transparancy in government, villiage and factory affairs to protect the right of the people to democratic management.

209. 我们坚持民主监督号召人民监督政府和干部,确保国家权利真正为人民谋利益。 We practice democratic oversight and encourage the people to supervise the government and offiials so as to ensure the State power is used for the public good.

210. 中国共产党坚持民主执政,重视发扬党内民主,以党内民主带动人民民主。 The Communist Party of China exercises democratic governance and promote intra-party
37

democracy to enhance people's democracy.

211. 我们高度重视人权,宪法规定国家尊重和保障人权。 We take huamn rights seriously. China's Constitution clearly stipulates that the State respects and preserves human rights.

212. 我们扎实推进人权事业,中国人民现在所享有的人权是中国历史上任何时期都不可 比拟的。 We are taking concrete measures to advance China's human rights. The Chinese people enjoy more human rights today than at anytime in history.

213. 中国宪法明确规定了公民的基本权利和义务。 The fundamental rights and duties of citizens are stipulated in the China's Constitution.

214. 我们致力于促进和保障中国人民包括言论自由在内的基本自由。 We are committed to promoting and upholding fuandamental freedoms of the Chinese people including freedom of speech.

215. 作为一个有十三亿多人口,正处在改革进程中的发展中国家,中国在发展人权事业 上,还有很多工作要做。 China is a developing country with 1.3 billion people and it is in the process of reform, we still have much to do to promote human rights.

38

216. 我们承认人权的普遍性原则, 同时认为人权的普遍性原则必须与各国的国情相结合。 We recognize the principle of universality for human rights. We also believe that this principle should be applied in light of the particular conditions of each country.

217. 由于历史文化传统,经济发展水平,社会制度的不同,各国在人权领域面临的挑战 和优先任务也不尽相同。 Countries are different in history, cultural tradition, stage of economic development and social system, therefore they face different challenges and have different priorities in the area of human rights.

218. 对各国关于人权问题的不同看法或分歧,我们主张在平等和相互尊重的基础上通过 对话和合作解决。 Countries may have different views and positions on human rights issues. We believe that they should be addressed through dialogue and cooperation on basis of equality and mutual respect.

219. 中国参加了二十多项国际人权公约,并一直认真履行所承担的义务。 China is a party to over twenty international human rights conventions and takes its obligations seriously.

220. 在推进人权事业的过程中, 我们愿意在相互尊重的基础上,同各国加强交流合作。 We wish to strengthen exchanges and cooperationn with other countries on the basis of mutual respect and advancing human rights.

39

十二、中国的法治 Rule of Law in China

221. 中国宪法明确规定,中华人民共和国实行依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家。 China's constitutions stipulates that the People's Republic of China governs the country according to Law and builds the Socialist country under the rule of law.

222. 宪法具有最高的法律效力。 The Constitution has the highest legal authority.

223. 我们坚持公民在法律面前一律平等,维护社会主义法治的尊严,公平和权威。 We uphold the equality of all citizens before the law and the consistency, sanctanty and authority of the socialist legal system.

224. 我们努力使民主制度化,法律化,做到有法可依,有法必依,执法必严,违法必究。 We are working to institionalize and codify democracy to make sure that there are law in place and strictly enforced and law breakers are prosecuted.

225. 我们在全社会弘扬法治精神,树立社会主义民主法治,自由平等公平正义理念。 We promote the rule of law in the whole society and foster values of socialist democracy, rule of law, freedom, equality, equity and justice.

226. 我们坚持依法治国基本方略,推进国家各项工作法制化。 We uphold the rule of law as a fundamental principle in goverance to ensure that the actions of
40

the State are governed by law.

227. 我们坚持科学立法,民主立法,不断完善中国特色社会主义法律体系。 We are working to make law-making a scientific and democratic process to improve the socialist legal system with Chinese feasures.

228. 全国人民代表大会制定和修改刑事,民事、国家机构的和其它的基本法律。 The National People's Congress enact and amend basic laws governing criminal justice, civil affairs, state organs and other matters.

229. 全国人民代表大会常务委员会制定和修改除除应当由全国人民代表大会制定的法律 意外的其它法律。 The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress enacts and amends laws with the exception of those which should be enacted by the National People's Congress.

230. 国务院按照宪法和法律制定行政法规。 The State Council enacts administrative regulations in accordance with the Constitutions and laws.

231. 省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会及其常务委员会可以制定地方性法规。 The people's congresses in provinces, autonomous regions and municiaplities directly under the central government and their standing committees may adopt local regulations.

41

232. 国务院各部门和具有行政管理职能的机构,可以在其权限范围内制定规章。 The State Council departments and directly affiliated bodies with administrative functions may adopt regulations within their respective terms of reference.

233. 省、自治区、直辖市和较大的市的人民政府可以依法制定规章。 People's governments of provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government and other large cities may adopt regulations in accordance with the law.

234. 我们推进依法行政,加强法制政府建设。 We conduct law-based goverance and work to build a government under the rule of law.

235. 我们深化司法体制改革,建设公正、高效、权威的社会主义司法制度。 We are deepening the reform of the judiacial system and build a just, efficient and authoritative socialist judiacial system.

236. 我们积极推动在全体共民中树立法制观念。 We actively raise public awareness of the rule of law.

237. 任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须宪法和法律所规定的义务。 Every citizen is entitled to the rights prescribed by the Constitutions and laws and at the same time, must fulfill duties prescribed by the Constitution and laws.

238. 中国共产党坚持依法执政,党章明确规定,党必须在宪法和法律的范围内活动。
42

The Communist Party of China practices law-based goverance. It stpulates in the Party's Constitution that the Party must conduct its activities within the scope of China's constitutions and laws.

239. 中国是法制国家,司法机关依法独立办理各类案件。 China is a country under the rule of law. The judiacial authorities handle all cases indepedently in accordance with the law.

240. 一些人受到法律处罚,是因为他们触犯了中国法律。 Some people are penalized because they have violated Chinese laws.

十三、中国的民族和宗教 Ethnic groups and religion in China

241. 中国各民族一律平等。 All ethnic groups in China are equal.

242. 中国汉族占总人口的百分之九十以上,其它五十五个民族入口相对较少。习惯上被 称为少数民族。 The Han people accounts for ninety percent of China's population. The other fifty-five ethnic groups are commonly called ethnic minorities because they are smaller in population.

243. 国家保障各少数民族的合法权利和利益,禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫。 The State protects the lawful rights and interests of ethnic minorities and prohibits
43

discrimination against and ppression of any ethnic group.

244. 我们坚持个民族共同团结进步,共同繁荣发展,巩固和发展平等、团结、互助和谐 的社会主义民族关系。 We are committed to promoting unity and common prosperity of all the ethnic groups and strive to strengthen socialist ethnic ties of equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony.

245. 中国各民族分布的特点是,大散居,小聚居,相互交错居住。 Ethnic groups in China live all over the country, some living in compact communities while some in areas of mixed habitation.

246. 在国家统一领导下,个少数名族聚居地方,实行区域自治,行驶自治权。 Under the unified leadership of the state, regional autonamy is practised in areas where ethnic minorities live in concentrated communities.

247. 中国的民族自治地方包括五个自治区,三十个自治州,一百二十个自治县、旗。 Places of ethnic autonomy in China include five autonomous regions, thirty autonomous prefectures and one hundred and twenty autonomous counties or banners.

248. 民族自治地方自主管理本民族、本地区的内部事务。 In places of ethnic autonomy, ethnic and local affairs are managed locally.

249. 中国各民族都有发展和使用自己语言和文字的自由。
44

All ethnic groups in China have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages.

250. 中国各民族都可以保持和发展本民族的文化。 All ethnic groups in China have the freedom to preserve and develop their own culture.

251. 我们采取特殊措施,加快少数民族和民族地区经济社会发展,动员和组织发达地区 对口支援民族地区。 We take special measures to speed up the economic and social development of ethnic minority groups and the areas in which they inhabit. Economically advanced areas are encouraged to pair up with areas inhabited mainly by ethnic minorities to support their development.

252. 中国是个多宗教的国家,主要有佛教、道教、伊斯兰教、天主教、基督教。 Many religions are practised in China including Buhidism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Prostantism.

253. 中国公民有宗教信仰自由,国家尊重和保护公民的宗教信仰自由。 Chinese citizens enjoy freedoms of religious belief. The State respects and protects such freedom.

254. 无论信仰宗教的公民还是不信仰宗教的公民,在法律面前,一律平等。 All citizens, religious believers or not, are equal before the law.

45

255. 我们实行宗教与政权相分离,宗教与教育相分离的原则。 Seperation of religion from government and from education is practiced in China.

256. 中国政府按照宪法和法律支持中国各宗教独立自主,自办的事业。 The Chinese government supports the independent and self-managed undertakings of religions in China in accordance with the Constitution and laws.

257. 中国的宗教事务和宗教团体不受外国势力支配。 China's religious affairs and religious organizations are not subject to control by foreign forces.

258. 中国的宗教组织在平等友好的基础上, 积极同世界上各国宗教组织进行交往和联系。 China's religious organizations maintain active exchanges and ties with foreign religious organizations on the basis of equality and friendship.

259. 我们尊重国际社会在宗教信仰领域公认的原则,认为这些原则,必须与各国具体情 况相结合,并通过各国的国内法律,来实施。 We respect principles recognized by the international community regarding the religous belief. These principles should be applied in keeping with international conditions of different countries and implemented through domestic legistation.

260. 我们反对利用宗教狂热来分裂人民,分裂国家,破坏民族团结的民族分裂主义,反 对利用宗教进行的非法活动和恐怖主义活动。 We oppose ethnic seperatism which uses religious fanaticism to split people and countries and
46

undermine ethnic unity. We oppose illegal activities and terroism carried out in the name of religion.

十四、中国的经济制度 China's Economic System

261. 中国经济制度的基础是生产资料的社会主义公有制,即全民所有制和劳动群众集体 所有制。 China's economic system is based on socialist pubic ownship of the means of production. It consists of ownership by the whole people and collective ownership by the working people.

262. 中国实行公有制为主体,多种所有制共同发展的基本经济制度。 In China's basic economic system, public ownership is the pillar and many other forms of ownership develops side by side with it.

263. 中国实行按劳分配为主体,多种分配方式并存的分配制度。 In China, distribution accordiing to work is the main mode of distribution and there are also other modes of distribution.

264. 国有经济是国民经济中的主导力量。国家保障国有经济的巩固和发展。 The State sector is the pillar of China's economy. The State ensure the strengthening and growth of State sectior.

265. 我们大力发展国有资本、集体资本和非公有资本等参股的混合所有制经济,实现投
47

资主体多元化。 We encourage the development of mixed ownership with capital from various investors including the State, collective and non-public sectors.

266. 农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础,统分结合的双层经营体制。 The rural collective economic organizations have dual management systems. It combines household operation with collective operation on the basis of household contracts.

267. 城镇中的手工业、工业、商业、服务业等各种形式的合作经济,是集体所有制经济。 The cooperative economy in various forms in the handicraft, industrial,commercial and service sectors in cities and towns falls under the collective owership.

268. 城市的土地属于国家所有。 Land in the city is owned by the State.

269. 农村和城市郊区的土地除有法律规定,属于国家所有的以外,属于集体所有。 Land in rural and surbuban areas is collectively owned except for the land in these areas which belonged to the State as prescribed by the law.

270. 个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分。 Individual economy, private economy, and non-public economy in other forms are important parts of the socialist market economy.

48

271. 我们鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展。 We encourage, support and guide the development of non-public economy.

272. 中国实行社会主义市场经济。 China practices socialist market economy.

273. 社会主义市场经济体制是同社会主义基本制度结合在一起的。 Socialist market economy is a part of the basic system of socialism.

274. 实行社会主义市场经济体制总体要求是发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用,完善 国家宏观调控。 In the socialist market economy, the market should play a basic role in resources allocation and state marcro-regulation should be enhanced.

275. 我们发挥国家发展规划,计划,产业政策在宏观调控中的导向作用。 National development programs, plans and industry policies play the guiding role in macro-regulation.

276. 我们综合运用财政、货币政策调整宏观调控政策水平。 We use both fiscal and monetary policies to make macro-regulation more effective.

277. 国有企业可以在法律的范围内,有权自主经营。通过职工代表大会和其它形式实行 民主管理。
49

State owned enterprises make independent business decisions within the scope set by law. They practice democratic management through the workers congresses and other means.

278. 集体经济组织实行民主管理,依照法律规定选举和罢免管理人员,决定经营管理的 重大问题。 Collective economic organizations practices democratic management. Their management staff are elected or moved and major business decision are made in accordance with the law.

279. 我们欢迎外国企业和其它经济组织或者个人,依照中国法律规定,在中国投资。 We welcome foreign companies and other economic organizations or individuals to invest in China in accordance with Chinese laws.

280. 在中国境内的外国企业和其它外国经济组织以及中外合资经营企业合法权利和利益 受中国法律保护。 The lawful rights and interests of all foreign enterprises, other foreign economic organizations and Chinese-foreign joint venture in China are protected by Chinese laws.

50