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Part One

Early and Medieval English Literature

Ⅰ. Fill in the blanks. 1. In 1066, ____, with his Norman army, succeeded in invading and defeating England. A. William the Conqueror B. Julius Caesar C. Alfred the Great D. Claudius th 2. In the 14 century, the most important writer (poet) is ____ . A. Langland B. Wycliffe C. Gower D. Chaucer 3. The prevailing form of Medieval English literature is ____. A. novel B. drama C. romance D. essay 4. The story of ___ is the culmination of the Arthurian romances. A. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight B. Beowulf C. Piers the Plowman D. The Canterbury Tales 5. William Langland’s ____ is written in the form of a dream vision. A. Kubla Khan B. Piers the Plowman C. The Dream of John Bull D. Morte d’Arthur 6. After the Norman Conquest, three languages existed in England at that time. The Normans spoke _____. A. French B. English C. Latin D. Swedish 7. ______ was the greatest of English religious reformers and the first translator of the Bible. A. Langland B. Gower C. Wycliffe D. Chaucer 8. Piers the Plowman describes a series of wonderful dreams the author dreamed, through which, we can see a picture of the life in the ____ England. A. primitive B. feudal C. bourgeois D. modern 9. The theme of ____ to king and lord was repeatedly emphasized in romances. A. loyalty B. revolt C. obedience D. mockery 10. The most famous cycle of English ballads centers on the stories about a legendary outlaw called _____. A. Morte d’Arthur B. Robin Hood C. The Canterbury Tales D. Piers the Plowman 11. ______, the “father of English poetry” and one of the greatest narrative poets of England, was born in London in about 1340. A. Geoffrey Chaucer B. Sir Gawain C. Francis Bacon D. John Dryden 12. Chaucer died on October 25th, 1400, and was buried in ____. A. Flanders B. France C. Italy D. Westminster Abbey 13. Chaucer’s earliest work of any length is his _____, a translation of the French Roman de la Rose by Gaillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung, which was a love allegory enjoying widespread popularity in the 13th and 14th centuries not only in France but throughout Europe. A. The Romaunt of the Rose B. “A Red, Red Rose” C. The Legend of Good Women D. The Book of the Duchess

14. In his lifetime Chaucer served in a great variety of occupations that had impact on the wide range of his writings. Which one is not his career? ____. A. engineer B. courtier C. office holder D. soldier E. ambassador F. legislator (议员) 15. Chaucer composes a long narrative poem named _____ based on Boccaccio’s poem “Filostrato”. A. The Legend of Good Women B. Troilus and Criseyde C. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight D. Beowulf Key to the multiple choices: 1-5 ADCAB : 6-10 ACBAB 11-15 ADAAB

Ⅱ. Questions 1. What are the features of Beowulf? 2. Comment on the social significance and language in The Canterbury Tales.

Part Two

The English Renaissance

Ⅰ. Match the writer and his works. 1. Thomas More A. Apology for Poetry 2. Holinshed B. Miscellany of Songs and Sonnets 3. Hakluyt C. Utopia 4. Richard Tottel D. Discovery of Guiana 5. Philip Sidney E. Principal Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries 6. Walter Raleigh F. Chronicles The key: (1—C 2—F 3—E 4—B 5—A 6—D)

Ⅱ. Choose the best answer. 1. _____ founded the Tudor Dynasty, a centralized monarchy of a totally new type, which met the needs of the rising bourgeoisie. A. Henry V B. Henry VII C. Henry VIII D. James I 2. The first complete English Bible was translated by _______, “the morning star of the Reformation” and his followers. A. William Tyndal B. James I C. John Wycliffe D. Bishop Lancelot Andrews 3. The progress in industry at home stimulated the commercial expansion abroad. ____ encouraged exploration and travel, which were compatible with the interests of the English merchants. A. Henry V. B. Henry VII C. Henry VIII D. Queen Elizabeth 4. Except being a victory of England over ___, the rout of the fleet “Armada” (Invincible) was also the triumph of the rising young bourgeoisie over the



7. 8. 9. 10.




14. 15.


17. 18.


declining old feudalism. A. Spain B. France C. America D. Norway Those, both traders and pirates like ____, established the first English colonies. A. Francis Drake B. Lancelot Andrews C. William Caxton D. William Tyndal ____ was a forerunner of classicism in English literature. A. Ben Johnson B. William Shakespeare C. Thomas More D. Christopher Marlowe The most gifted of the “university wits” was ____. A. Lyly B. Peele C. Greene D. Marlowe Morality plays appeared after_____. A. miracle plays B. mystery plays C. interlude D. Classical plays _____ is used to say and do good things. A. Mercy B. Folly C. Vice D. Peace _____is one of the forerunners of modern socialist thought. A. Phillip Sidney B. Edmund Spenser C. Thomas More D. Walter Raleigh _____ is not a famous translator in the English Renaissance. A. Thomas North B. Thomas Wyatt C. George Chapman D. John Florio ____ had supplied Shakespeare with the material for Julius Caesar. A. Lives of Greek and Roan Heroes《希腊罗马名人传》 B. Miscellany of Songs and Sonnets C. Don Quixote D. History of the World ____ was one of the first to see the relation between wealth and poverty to understand that the rich were becoming richer by robbing the poor. A. John Wycliffe B. William Caxton C. Geoffrey Chaucer D. Thomas More Utopia was written in the form of _____. A. prose B. drama C. essay D. dialogue One of the popular morality plays was ____. A. The Shepherds B. Everyman C. The Play of the Weather D. Gammer Gurton’s Needle Shakespeare’s plays written between _____ are sometimes called “romances” and all end in reconciliation and reunion. A. 1590 and 1594 B. 1595 and 1600 C. 1601 and 1607 D. 1608 and 1612 Miranda is a heroine in Shakespeare’s ______. A. Pericles B. Cymbeline C. The Winter’s Tale D. The Tempest In _____ appeared Shakespeare’s Sonnet,Never before Imprinted( 《莎士比亚十 四行诗》“迄今从未刊印过”)which contains 154 sonnets. A. 1606 B. 1607 C. 1608 1609 Shakespeare is one of the founders of ____.

A. romanticism B. realism C. naturalism D. classicism 20. Among many poetic forms, Shakespeare was especially at home (good at) with the _______. A. dramatic blank verse B. song C. sonnet D. couplet 21. In the plays, Shakespeare used about ______words. A. 15000 B. 16000 C. 17000 D. 18000 22. _____has been called the summit of the English Renaissance. A. Christopher Marlow B. Francis Bacon C. W. Shakespeare D. Ben Johnson

Key to the multiple choices: 1-5 BCDAA 6-10 DDCBA

11-15 BDADA


Ⅲ. Fill in the blanks. 1. The ____ was universally used by the Catholic Churches. 2. The English translation of the Bible emerged as a result of the struggle between ____ and ___. 3. The Bible was notably translated into English by the ____. 4. The first complete English Bible was translated by ____, “the morning star of the _____”. 5. _____ translated the New Testament and portions of the Old Testament, which is known as Tyndale’s Bible. 6. After Tydale’s Bible, then appeared the ______, which was made in 1611 under the auspices of _____. And so was sometimes called the ____. 7. Apart from the religious influence, the Authorized Version has had a great influence on English ___ and ____. 8. With the widespread influence of the English Bible, the standard modern English has been _____ and _____. 9. A great number of ____and phrases have passed into daily English speech as household words. 10. The ____and ____ language of the Authorized Version has colored the style of the English prose for the last 300 years. 11. ____ was the first English printer. 12. William Caxton was a prosperous merchant himself, but he was fond of ___ , and his interest was turning to ____. 13. He translated The Recuyell of Historyes of Troy into English from French which was the ___ book printed in English. 14. The Recuyell served as a source for ____ Troilus and Cressida. 《特洛埃勒斯与 克雷雪达》 15. After having established his printing press, William Caxton devoted himself to the career of a ____ and _____. 16. William Caxton published about ____ books, ___ of which were translated by himself.

17. By rendering (翻译) French books into English, Caxton exercised the youthful language in the airs (曲调), the graces, the crafts of the elder and contributed to the development of the style of ___ century English ____. 18. The influence of Caxton’s publications is also great in fixing a ____ language in England. 19. As the first English printer, Caxton invented in England the profession of ____, which in fact has had a lasting significance to the development of English ___ as a whole. 20. The Renaissance started in the ______ century and ended in the ______century. 21. The word, “renaissance” means ________, which was stimulated by a series of historical events, such as ________. 22. In the Renaissance, the humanist thinkers and scholars tried to get rid of those old ____in medieval Europe, to introduce new ideas that expresses ____ of the rising bourgeoisie, and to recover the ____of the early church from the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church. 23. ____ is the theme of the English Renaissance, which emphasized the capacities of ____and the achievements of ____. 24. ____ Stanza is a verse form created by _____ for his poem, ______, in which the rhyme scheme is ____. 25. The Wars of the Roses (1455—1485) between the House of ___ and the House of ___ struggling for the Crown continued for 30 years. 26. Because of the conflict between the Roman Catholic Church and the King of England, the far-reaching movement of ___ took place in England, started by Henry VIII. 27. After ___ in England, the helpless, dispossessed peasants, being compelled to work at a low wage, became hired laborers for the merchants. These laborers were the fathers of modern English ___. 28. The introduction of ___ to England by William Caxton (1476) brought classical works within reach of the common multitude. 29. The 16th century in England was a period of the breaking up ____of relations and the establishing of the foundations of ____. 30. Because the wool trade was rapidly growing in bulk, it was a time when, according to Thomas More, “___”. 31. ____ broke off with the Pope, dissolved all the monasteries and abbeys in the country, confiscated their lands and proclaimed himself head of the Church of England. 32. Together with the development of bourgeois relationships and formation of the English national state this period is marked by a flourishing of national culture known as ____. 33. ____, in his translation of Virgil’s Aeneid, wrote the first English blank verse. 34. Richard Tottel’s Miscellany of Songs and Sonnets contained _____ poems by ______ and _____ by _____. 35. Philip Sidney thought that _____ had superiority over philosophy and history. 36. _____ is a picture of contemporary England with forcible exposure of the ___

37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59.

among the laboring classes. More points out that the root of poverty is the ____ _____ of social wealth. Sonnets contain _____ sonnets and ____ sonnets. The highest glory of the English Renaissance was unquestionably its ____. The “miracles” were simple plays based on ______stories. There are significant touches of _____ life in the play titled The Shepherds. A morality play presented the _____ of good and _____ with _____personages. Vice was the predecessor of the modern _____. Through the revival of classical literature, English playwrights came into contact with ______ and ______drama. From the contact with Greek and Latin drama, English playwrights learned all the important rules in ____ and ____, the more exact conception of ____ and ____. English comedies and tragedies on classical models appeared in the middle of the ____ century. The first English comedy is ______. The first English tragedy is _____. Miracle plays, morality plays, interludes and classical plays paved the way for the flourishing of ____. In the 16th century _____ became the centre of English drama. By ____, professional actors were organized into companies. ____ were wooden buildings, usually circular in form, with tiers(一排排) of galleries surrounding a roofless pit(楼下剧场). In the Elizabethan Theater, there were no ____ and women’s parts were always taken by ____. Shakespeare’s narrative poem, Venus and Adonis, is full of vivid images of the ______, and aphorisms (格言、警句) on life. Shakespeare was a great ____ of the English language. Shakespeare’s dramatic creation often used the method of _____. Shakespeare’s drama becomes a monument of the English ______. Shakespeare was a _____ for play-writing. Shakespeare’s _____ people represent all the complexities and implications of real life.

Key to the blanks: 1. Latin Bible 2. Protestantism; Catholicism 3. Protestants 4. John Wycliffe; Reformation 5. William Tyndal 6. Authorized Version, James I; King James Bible. 7. Language; literature 8. fixed; confirmed 9. Bible coinages

10. simple; dignified 11. William Caxton 12. Reading; literature 13. First 14. Shakespeare 15. Printer; publisher 16. 100; 24 17. 15th ; prose 18. National 19. Publisher; culture

20. 14th; 17th 21. Religious reformation 22. feudalist ideas; interests; purity 23. Humanism; human mind; human culture 24. Spenserian; Edmund Spenser; The Faerie Queene; ababbcbcc 25. Lancaster; York 26. The Reformation 27. the Enclosure Movement; proletarians 28. printing 29. feudal; capitalism 30. sheep devours men 31. William VIII 32. Renaissance 33. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey 34. 96, Sir Thomas Wyatt, 40, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey 35. poetry 36. Utopia, Book One; poverty

37. private ownership 38. Italian/Petrarchan ; Shakespearean 39. Drama 40. Bible 41. real 42. Conflict; evil; allegorical 43. Clown 44. Greek; Latin 45. Structure; style; comedy; tragedy 46. 16th 47. Gammer Gurton’s Needle 《葛顿大娘的缝 衣针》 48. Gorboduc 《高波特克》 49. Drama 50. London 51. 1567 52. Elizabethan theatres 53. actress; boys 54. countryside 55. master 56. adaptation (revision) 57. Renaissance 58. master-hand (能手) 59. full-blood

Ⅳ. Say true or false. 1. The old English aristocracy having been exterminated (wiped out) in the course of the War of the Roses, a new nobility, totally dependent on King’s power, come to the fore. 2. Absolute monarchy in England reached its summit during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 3. The progress of bourgeois economy made England a powerful state and enabled her in 1588 to inflict a defeat on the Spanish Invincible Armada. 4. The Protestant Reformation was in essence a religious movement in a political guise. 5. Before the Reformation, the English Bible was universally used by the Catholic churches. 6. Walter Raleigh wrote his History of the World in imprisonment. 7. More the man is even more interesting than More the writer. 8. Utopia, Book One, describes an ideal communist society. 9. Translations occupied an important place in the English Renaissance. 10. Philip Sidney’s collection of love sonnets is Astrophel and Stella.

11. The Miracle plays were not forbidden to perform in churches after the actors introduced secular and even comical elements into the performance. 12. The writer of Gammer Gurton’s Needle is unknown. 13. Two lawyers who wrote Gorboduc were Thomas Sackville (托马斯萨克维尔) and Thomas Norton(托马斯诺顿). 14. Shakespeare’s sonnets are divided into three groups: Numbers 1—17, Numbers 18—126, and Numbers 127—154. 15. Shakespeare’s sonnets are written for variety of virtues. 16. Engels said, “Realism implies, besides truth in detail, the truthful reproduction of typical characters under typical circumstances.” 17. Shakespeare wrote about his own people and for his own time. 18. Shakespeare’s one play contains one theme. (contains more than one theme) 19. To reproduce the real life, Shakespeare often combines the majestic with the funny, the poetic with the prosaic(散文体的) and tragic with the comic. 20. Engels called Shakespeare’s plays the “Shakespearean vivacity (活泼、快活) and wealth of (大量的) action”. 21. Utopia is More’s masterpiece, written in the form of letters between More and Hythloday, a voyage. 22. Sir Philip Sidney is well-known as a poet and dramatist. 23. Carl Marx commented highly on More’s Utopia and mentioned it in his great work, The Capital. 24. The highest glory of the English Renaissance was unquestionably its poetry. 25. The miracle plays were simple plays based on Bible stories, such as the creation of the world, Noah and the flood, and the birth of Christ. 26. Grammer Gurton’s Needle is the first English comedy, Gorboduc the first English tragedy. 27. Both the gentlemen and the common people went to the theatres. But the upper class was the dominant force in Elizabethan theatre. 28. After Shakespeare’s death, Herminge and Condell collected and published his plays in 1623. 29. From Shakespeare’s history plays, it can be seen that Shakespeare took a great interest in the political questions of his time. 30. In Shakespeare’s historical plays, historical accuracy is not strictly regarded. 31. King Lear is a tragedy of ambition, which drives a brave soldier and national hero to degenerate into a bloody murder and despot right to his doom. 32. Coming from an old Danish legend, Othello is considered the summit of Shakespeare’s art. 33. Shakespeare is one of the founders of romanticism in world literature. 34. Generally speaking, after Shakespeare, the English drama was undergoing a process of prosperity. 35. English Renaissance Period was an age of poetry and drama, and was an age of prose. 36. There are two main characters in As You Like It: Orlando and Rosalind. 37. Ben Johnson’s comedies are “comedies of humors” and every character in his

comedies personifies a definite “humor”. 38. In Ben Johnson’s later years he became the “literary king” of his time. Key to the True/False statements: 1. T 2. T 3. T 4. F. (a political movement in a religious guise) 5. F. (the Latin Bible) 6. T 7. F (Sidney) 8. T 9. T 10. T 11. T 12. T 13. F ( Book Two) 14. T 15. T 16. T 17. T 18. F 19. T 20. T 21. F (a conversation) 22. F (poet and critic of poetry) 23. F 24. F(darma) 25. T 26. T 27. T 28. T 29. T 30. T 31. F (Macbeth) 32. F (Hamlet) 33. F (realism) 34. F(decline) 35. F (not an age of prose) 36. T 37. F (ordinary people were) 38. T


Ⅴ. Questions on the English Renaissance 1. Comment on the image of Henry V and Sir John Falstaff. 2. Comment on the character of Hamlet. 3. What are the features of Shakespeare’s drama? 4. Remember Shakespeare’s major plays in each literary career. 5. Comment on Marlowe’s social significance and literary achievement. 6. Comment on The Faerie Queene.

Part Three

The Period of the English Bourgeois Revolution

I. Choose the right answer. 1. The rhyme scheme of Milton’s L’Allkegro and Il Penseroso is _____. A. aabbccbbc B. abbacdccd C. abacdeec D. ababcdcdd 2. _____ , as a declaration of people’s freedom of the press, has been a weapon in the later democratic revolutionary struggles. A. On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity B. Comus C. Of Reformation in England D. Areopagitica 3. ____ poems can be divided into two categories: the youthful love lyrics and the later sacred verses. A. John Milton B. John Bunyan C. John Donne D. John Dryden 4. _____ expressed Donne’s own way of describing love. A. Holy Sonnets B. Witchcraft by a Picture C. The Sun Rising D. Death, Be Not Proud 5. George Herbert’s ______ is a well-known shaped poem. A. The Altar B. To His Coy Mistress C. To Daffodils D. Gather Ye Rose Buds While Ye May 6. ____ is the leading figure of Metaphysical poetry. A. John Donne B. George Herbert C. Andre Marvell D. Henry Vaughan 7. Which of the following is not a Metaphysical poet? A. Richard Crashaw B. Henry Vaughan C. Andrew Marvell D. Robert Burton 8. ____is a prose poem on death and immortality. A. The Anatomy of Melancholy B. Religio Mecici C. Holy Dying D. Urn-Burial 9. Izaak Walton’s ____ is a delightful description of the English countryside and the simple and kind people. A. The Compleat Angler B. Holy Living C. To His Coy Mistress D. To Daffadils 10. Who is the greatest figure of the Cavalier poetry?

A. John Suckling B. Richard Lovelace C. Robert Herrick D. John Dryden 11. ____was the forerunner of the English classical school of literature in the 19th century. A. John Dryden B. Richard Steele C. Joseph Addison D. Alexander Pope Key to the multiple choices: 1-5 CDCBA 6-11 ADDAAD

II. Fill in the blanks. 1. In the field of prose writing of the Puritan Age, _______ occupies the most important place. 2. The Pilgrim’s Progress is one of the most popular pieces of Christian writing produced during the _____ Age. 3. ______gives a vivid and satirical picture of Vanity Fair which is the symbol of London at the time of Restoration. 4. _____masterpiece, The Pilgrim’s Progress, is an allegory, a narrative in which general concepts such as sins, despair, and faith are represented as people or as aspects of the natural world. 5. _____ is the most excellent representative of English classicism in the Restoration period. 6. In English literature, the Restoration period is traditionally called “Age of _____. 7. In political affairs, ____ was quite changeable in attitude. 8. In his “An Essay of Dramatic Poesy”, ____ showed his famous appreciation of Shakespeare. 9. Dryden wrote about 27 plays. The famous one is _______, a tragedy dealing with the same story as Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. 10. The main literary achievements of the 17th century lies in the poetry of John Milton, in the prose writing of John Bunyan, and in the plays and literary criticism of ______. 11. Paradise Lost is one of Milton’s ______. 12. Satan is the hero in Milton’s masterpiece __________. 13. Paradise Lost took its material from ______. 14. The works of the Metaphysical poets are characterized, generally speaking, by _____in content and fantasticality in form. 15. _______ was the forerunner of the English classical school of literature in the 18th century. 16. Adam and Eve in Paradise Lost embody Milton’s belief in the powers of _____. 17. The Pilgrim’s Progress is a religious allegory and _____ is another writing feature. 18. In the second half of the 17th century we may hear the voices of the private citizens by letters and _____. Key to the blanks:

1. (John Bunyan) 2. (Puritan) 3. (The Pilgrim’s Progress) 4. (John Bunyan’s) 5. (John Dryden) 6. (Dryden) 7. (John Dryden) 8. (John Dryden) 9. (All for Love) 10. (John Dryden) 11. (epics) 12. (Paradise Lost) 13. (mysticism) 14. (the Bible) 15. (Dryden) 16. (man) 17. (symbolism) 18. (diaries)


III. Say true or false. 1. The major parliamentary clashes of the early 17th century were over land ownership. 2. After the victory of the English Revolution, the movement of the Diggers broke out. The leader of this revolt is Wat Tyler. 3. With the establishment of the bourgeois dictatorship, Charles II became the Protector of the English Commonwealth. 4. The spirit of unity and the feeling of patriotism ended with the reign of James I, and England was then convulsed (shook, quivered) with the conflict between the two antagonistic camps, the Royalists and the Puritans. 5. In 1644, James I was sentenced to death and Cromwell became the leader of the country. 6. English literature of the 17th century witnessed a flourish on the whole. 7. The Revolution Period produced one of the most important poets in English literature, William Shakespeare. 8. The Revolution Period is also called Age of Milton because it produced a great poet whole name is William Milton. 9. The main literary form in literature of Revolution Period is drama. 10. Among the English poets during the Revolution Period, John Donne was the greatest one. 11. John Milton towers over his age as Byron towers over the Elizabethan Age, and as Chaucer towers over the Medieval Period. 12. On his first wife’s death, Milton wrote his only love poem, a sonnet, on His Deceased Wife. 13. The greatest epic produced by Milton, Paradise Lose, is written in heroic couplets. 14. The poem of Samson Agonistes was “to justify the ways of God to man”, i.e. to advocate submission to the Almighty. 15. It has been noticed by many critics that the picture of Satan surrounded by his angels who never think of expressing any opinions of their own, resembles the court of an absolute monarch. 16. Izaak Walton’s The Compleat Angler becomes a “Piscatorial classic”. 17. Thomas Browne’s Religia Medici is a collection of opinions on a vast number of subjects more or less connected with religion. Key to True/False statements: 1. F (ownership: monopolies) 2. F (Wat Tyler: Gerald Winstanley) 3. F (Charles II: Oliver Cromwell) 4. F (Donne: Milton) 5. F (James I: Charles I) 6. F (flourish: decline) 7. T (William Shakespeare) 8. F (William: John) 9. F (drama: poetry)

10. F (James I: Elizabeth I) 11. F (Byron: Shakespeare) 12. F (first: second) 13. F (heroic couplets: blank verse) 14. F (Satan: God) 15. F (Samson Agonistes: Paradise Lost) 16. T 17. T

IV. Questions 1. What are the writing features of The Pilgrim’s Progress? 2. Comment on the image of Satan. 3. Comment on Samson.

Part Four The English Century
Ⅰ. Match the works and the characters. (3 points) A B 1. ( ) Tome Jones a. Friday 2. ( ) The Vicar of Wakefield b. King of Brodingnag 3. ( ) Robinson Crusoe c. Sophia 4. ( ) Gulliver’s Travels d. Mr. B 5. ( ) Pamela e. William Thornhill 6. ( ) The School for Scandal f. Charles Surface The key: (1—c, 2—e, 3—a, 4—b, 5—d, 6—f )

Ⅱ. Choose the right answer. 1. In 1701, Steele published a pamphlet, _____, in which he first displayed his moralizing spirit. A. The Funeral B. The Lying Lover C. The Christian Hero D. The Tender Husband 2. Which is the most popular newspaper published by Steele? A. The Tatler B. The Spectator C. The Theatre D. The English 3. _____ is Addison’s great tragedy. A. A Letter from Italy B. Rosamond C. The Campaign D. Cato 4. Which of the following is not the hero in The Spectator? A. Isaac Bickerstaff B. Mr. Roger C. Captain Sentry D. Andrew Freeport 5. ______ were looked upon as the model of English composition by British authors all through the 18th century. A. Jeremy Taylor’s Holy Living B. Thomas Browne’s Religio Meidic C. Samuel Pepys’s diaries D. Addison’s Spectator essays 6. The most important classicist in the Enlightenment Movement is _____. A. Steele B. Addison C. Pope D. Dryden 7. The masterpiece of Alexander Pope is ____. A. Essay on Criticism B. The Rape of the Lock C. Essay on Man D. The Dunciad 8. Essay on Man is a _____poem in heroic couplets. A. didactic B. satirical C. philosophical D. dramatic 9. ____ was an intellectual movement in the first half of the 18th century.

A. The Enclosure Movement B. The Industrial Revolution C. The Religious Reform D. The Enlightenment 10. The literature of the Enlightenment in England mainly appealed to the ____ readers. A. aristocratic B. middle class C. low class D. intellectual 11. ____ is a great classicist but his satire is not always just. A. Steele B. Milton C. Addison D. Pope th 12. The main literary stream of the 18 century was ____ . What the writers described in their works were mainly social realities. A. romanticism B. classicism C. realism D. sentimentalism th 13. The 18 century was the golden age of the English ___. The novel of this period spoke the truth about life with an uncompromising (unbending) courage. A. drama B. poetry C. essay D. novel 14. In 1704, Jonathan Swift published two works together, ____ and ___, which made him well-known as a satirist. A. A Tale of Tub B. Bickerstaff Almanac C. Gulliver’s Travels D. The Battle of the Books 15. In a series of pamphlets Jonathan Swift denounced the cruel and unjust treatment of Ireland by the English government. One of the most famous is ____. A. Essays on Criticism B. A Modest Proposal C. Gulliver’s Travels D. The Battle of the Books 16. “Proper words in proper places, makes the true definition of a style.” This sentence is said by ____, one of the greatest masters of English prose. A. Alexander Pope B. Henry Fielding C. Jonathan Swift D. Daniel Defoe 17. _____’s best-known pamphlet was The Trueborn Englishman—A Satire, which contained a caustic exposure of the aristocracy and the tyranny of the church. A. Alexander Pope B. Henry Fielding C. Jonathan Swift D. Daniel Defoe 18. Henry Fielding’s first novel ____ was written in connection with Pamela of Samuel Richardson. But after the first 10 chapters, Henry Fielding became so interested and absorbed in his own hovel as to forget his original plan of ridiculing Pamela. A. Tom Jones B. Joseph Andrews C. Jonathan Wild D. Amelia 19. ____ the first important work by Tobias Smollett, is based on his own experience as a naval doctor and in part autobiographical. A. Roderick Random B. Humphry Clinker C. Peregrine Pickle D. A Sentimental Journey 20. From the character Mr. Malaprop, in ___ by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, is derived the term “malapropism” which means a ridiculous misusage of big words. A. The Rivals B. The School for Scandal C. The Beggar’s Opera D. The London Merchant 21. Which of the following periodicals is edited by Samuel Johnson? _____.

A. The Review B. The Tatler C. The Rambler D. The Bee 22. Which of the following works are not written by Oliver Goldsmith? ____. A. The Traveller B. The Deserted Village C. The Vicar of Wakefield D. The School for Scandal 23. Which of the following works is written by Edward Gibbon?______. A. The School for Scandal B. She Stoops to Conquer C. The Good-natured Man D. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 24. The sentence of “The plowman homeward plods his weary way, /And leaves the world to darkness and to me” is written by ____. A. William Cowper B. George Crabbe C. Thomas Gray D. William Blake 25. ______ is not written by William Blake. A. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell B. Songs of Experience C. Auld Lang Syne D. Poetical Sketches 26. “In seed time learn, in harvest teach, in winter enjoy.” This proverb is cited from William Blake’s _____. A. Songs of Experience B. Songs of Innocence C. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell D. Poetical Sketches th 27. The 18 century witnessed that in England there appeared two political parties, ______, which were satirized by Jonathan Swift in his Gulliver’s Travels. A. the Whigs and the Tories B. the senate and the House of Representatives C. The upper House and lower House D. the House of Lords and the House of Commons 28. ____ found its representative writers in the field of poetry, such as Edward Young and Thomas Gray, but it manifested itself chiefly in the novels of Lawrence Sterne and Oliver Goldsmith. A. Pre-romanticism B. Romanticism C. Sentimentalism D. Naturalism 29. _____ compiled the A Dictionary of the English Language which became the foundation of all the subsequent English dictionaries. A. Ben Johnson B. Samuel Johnson C. Alexander Pope D. John Dryden 30. Which of the following novels is not epistolary (written in letter form) novels? A. Clarissa Harlowe B. Pamela C. Sir Charles Grandison D. Tomes Jones 31. Which play is regarded as the best English comedy since Shakespeare? A. She Stoops to Conquer B. The Rivals C. The School for Scandal D. The Conscious Lovers Key to the multiple choices: 1-5 CADAD 6-10 CBCDB 16-20 CDBAA 21-25 CDDCC Ⅲ. Fill in the blanks.

11-15 DDDDB 26-31 CACBDC

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The essays in Steele’s The Tatler were written in the form of ______ style. Steele’s appeal was made to the ____classes. The purpose of Addison and Steele’s ideas expressed in The Spectator is ______. _____ is the most striking feature in The Spectator. Addison and Steele developed the form of letter writing to the verge of the _____ novel. 6. Humor, intimacy and elegance shown in The Tatler and The Spectator essays have become the striking features of the English _____. 7. Essay on Criticism is a ______poem. 8. The Dunciad is ______a poem. 9. English enlighteners believed in the _____. 10. English enlighteners believed that social problems could be dealt with by ____. 11. Blake attacks religious ______in the poem, A Little Boy Lost. 12. Burns’s poems like The Jolly Beggars are characterized by humor and _____. 13. Sheridan’s The School for Scandal has been called a great comedy of _____, giving a brilliant portrayal and a biting satire of English high society. 14. Sameul Johnson’s ______ also marked the end of English writers’ reliance on the patronage of noblemen for support. 15. Samuel Richardson’s first novel, Pamela, is the first _____novel in English literature. 16. Tobias Smollett, a good humorist, used the form of _____ novel. His humor is better shown in Humphrey Clinker than anywhere else. 17. In describing Robinson’s life on the island, Defoe glorifies human _____. 18. Fielding thought that the stage should be the school of _____. 19. The chapter of “On Hats” in Fielding’s Jonathan Wild is full of satire and ______. 20. Laurence Sterne belonged to the school of those writers who were versed in the “knowledge of _____.” Key to the blanks: 1. conversational 2. middle 3. social reform 4. Character sketch 5. epistolary 6. familiar essay 7. didactic 8. satirical 9. power of reason 10. human intelligence

11. persecution 12. lightheartedness 13. manner 14. A Dictionary of English Language 15. epistolary 16. picaresque 17. labor 18. morality 19. symbolism 20. Heart

Ⅳ. Say true or false. 1. Addison’s The Spectator was published three times a week, having one essay for each issue. 2. Addison’s chief contribution to literature lies in his essays written for The Tatler

and The Spectator. 3. The essays published in The Tatler deal with the current topics of the time which treated in a serious manner. 4. The character sketches in The Spectator are the forerunner of the English novel. 5. Steele’s translations of Humor’s works are done in heroic couplet. 6. Isaac Bickerstaff is the major character of The Spectator. 7. The 18th century was an age of poetry. A group of excellent prose writers, such as Jonathan Swift, Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, were produced. 8. Novel writing made a big advance in the 18th century. The main characters in the novels were no longer common people, but the kings and nobles. 9. The 19th century produced the first English novelists, who fall into two groups: the sentimentalist novelists and the realist novelist. 10. In the poems of Edward Young and Thomas Gray, sentimentalism found its fine expression. 11. A Tale of a Tub is mainly an attack on pedantry in the literary world of the time, in which the reader is told the story of the Bee and the Spider. 12. Tobias Smollett gives a true picture of the evils in the British navy in the novel of Roderick Random, in which Random, like Smollett, is a Scot and a doctor. 13. The two most important of all Samuel Johnson’s literary works are the preface and comments of individual plays in his edition of Shakespeare, and his Lives of Poets, which pass judgment on a century of English poetry. 14. Classicism turned to the countryside for its material, so is in striking contrast to sentimentalism, which had confined itself to the clubs and drawing-rooms, and to the social and political life of London. 15. Robert Burns is remembered mainly for his songs written in the English dialect on a variety of subjects. 16. In The School for Scandal, Sheridan contrasts two brothers, Joseph Surface and Charles Surface. 17. My Heart’s in the Highlands is one of the best known poems written by Robert Burns in which he pored his unshakable love for his homeland. 18. Racial discrimination is expressed in Blake’s “The Little Black”. 19. Many of Goldsmith’s poems were put to music. 20. Pre-romanticism is ushered by Burns and Blake and represented by Percy, Macpherson and Chatterton.

Key to the True/False statements: 1. F (one time a day) 2. T 3. F (light and pleasant manner) 4. T 5. F(Pope’s ) 6. F (The Tatler) 7. F (prose)

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Ⅴ.

F (nobles; common people) F (18th ) T F ( The Battle of the Books) T T F ( Sentimentalism; classicism) F ( Scottish) T T T F (Burns’s) F ( Percy, Macpherson and Chatterton; Burns and Blake) Questions 1. Comment on the English classicists in the 18th century. 2. Comment on The Spectator.

Part Five

Romanticism in England

Ⅰ. Choose the right answer. 1. Romanticism fights against the ideas of ______. A. realism B. Renaissance C. Enlightenment D. feudalism 2. The main literary stream is ____. A. poetry B. novels C. prose D. periodicals 3. ____ has a another name called “The Daffodils”. A. “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” B. “Tintern Abbey” C. “Revolution” D. “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” 4. Coleridge’s _____ is a “conversation” poem. A. Frost at Midnight B. “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” C. Christabel D. Biographia Literaria 5. Byron’s ____ is regarded as the great poem of the Romantic Age. A. Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage B. Hours of Idleness C. Lara D. Don Juan 6. Prometheus Unbound is ____ masterpiece. A. Wordsworth’s B. Byron’s C. Shelley’s D. Keats’ 7. ____ lived the longest life. A. Wordsworth B. Byron C. Shelley D. Keats 8. Keats’ first poem is ____. A. O Solitude B. On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer C. Poems D. Endymion 9. Keats’ best ode is ____. A. “On a Grecian Urn” B. “To Autumn”

C. “To Psyche” D. “To a Nightingale” 10. The best works of William Hazlitt is ____. A. The Spirit of the Age B. Table Talk C. The Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays D. On the English Poets 11. The publication of ______ marks the beginning of the Romantic Movement in England. A. “Tintern Abbey” B. Lyrical Ballads C. Frost at Night D. “The Daffodils” 12. The Prelude has also been called _____. A. The Last Brazil B. The First Impression C. Growth of a Poet’s Mind D. The Spirit of the Age 13. Wordsworth’s “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” has also been called _______. A. “The Solitary Reaper” B. “The Daffodils” C. “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” D. “O Solitude” 14. _____ is considered Wordsworth’s masterpiece. A. The Prelude B. Endymion C. Don Juan D. Biographia Literaria 15. The prose writers in the English Romantic Age developed a kind of _______. A. models of classicism B. familiar essay C. rules of neo-romanticism D. ways of modernism 16. The best essayist in the English Romantic Age is _____. A. Keats B. Walter Scott C. Charles Lamb D. William Hazlitt 17. The themes of Pride and Prejudice are _____. A. pride and prejudice B. the writer’s own personalities C. love and marriage D. Both A and C 18. _____ is considered the father of historical novelist in the English Romantic Age. A. Jane Austen B. Charles Lamb C. William Hazlitt D. Waler Scott 19. Lamb’s writings are full of ______for he is especially fond of old writers. A. romanticism B. conversations C. inspirations D. archaisms 20. Lamb is a romanticist of ______. A. the city B. the countryside C. nature D. imagination 21. _____ is based on Boccaccio’s Decameron. A. Endymion B. Isabella D. Hyperion D. Lamia 22. Critics agree that ____ is a great romantic poet, standing with Shakespeare, Milton and Wordsworth in the history English literature. A. Keats B. Wordsworth C. Coleridge D. William 23. The reader can get a broad panorama of the social life of the English Romantic Age from _____. A. Dun Juan B. The Prelude C. Kubla Khan D. Isabella 24. Some critics think that some of Byron’s poems show his _____. A. individual heroism and pessimism B. love of nature and optimism C. love of old writers D. hatred for the imperialism 25. One of Coleridge’s best “conventional” poems is _____. B. Frost at Night A. Kubla Khan

C. Christabel D. Biographia Literaria 26. Coleridge’s best literary criticism is _________. A. Kubla Khan B. Frost at Night C. Christabel D. Biographia Literaria 27. ____ is Shelley’s masterpiece. A. Zastrozzi B. The Necessity of Atheism C. Queen Mab D. Prometheus Unbound 28. _____ is a joint book by Charles Lamb and his sister. A. John Woodvil B. Essays of Elia C. Mr H D. Tales from Shakespeare 29. Because of _______, Shelley was expelled from the Oxford University. A. The Masque of Anarchy B. A Defence of Poetry C. The Necessity of Atheism D. The Triumph of Life 30. ______ is Shelley’s first book written in ____. A. Zastrozzi; Eton B. The Necessity of Atheism; Italy C. Queen Mab; Greece D. Prometheus Unbound; Italy 31. The Romantic Age began in____ and came to an end in _____. A. 1789…1821 B. 1778…1823 C. 1798…1832 D. 1768…1819 32. Byron, Shelley and Keats belong to Romantic poets of ___ generation. A. the first B. the second C. the third D. the forth 33. The Examiner is a famous _____ in the English Romantic Age. A. novel B. poem C. periodical D. newspaper Key to the multiple choices: 1-5 CADAD 6-10 CACDA 16-20 CDDDA 21-25 BAAAB 31-33 CBC

11-15 BCBAB 26-30 BDDCA

Ⅱ. Fill in the blanks. 1. In a sense, in English Romantic Age, “____” equaled “_____”. 2. William Wordsworth was influenced by the _____ Revolution. 3. Many subjects of Lyrical Ballads deal with elements of ____. 4. Wordsworth’s The Prelude is an ____ poem. 5. Writing The Prelude is a process of ____. 6. Byron’s Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage is an ____ poem. 7. Shelley’s works reflect his interests both in _____ and in ____ ____. 8. The theme of Keats’ Hyperion is the ____ between the old and the new. 9. Charles Lamb’s Tales from Shakespeare is for _____. 10. ______ a joint work of Wordsworth and his friend Coleridge. 11. The publication of Lyrical Ballads in 1798 marks the beginning of the _____ in England. 12. The poems in Lyrical Ballads are characterized by a _____with the poor, simple peasants, a passionate love of nature and the _____and ____of the language. 13. The description of the book, ______ has been called a long journey home.

14. _____ was the only old romantic who never wavered in his devotion to the cause of the French Revolution. 15. All his life, Hazlitt remained loyal to the principles of____, _____ and ______. 16. Romanticism is applied to a European movement in the _____ to ____ century. 17. The publication of Lyrical Ballads marked the break with ______. 18. The Romantic Age is an age of romantic ______ and _______. 19. The Romantic Age began in 1798 when William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge published their joint work _______. 20. The Romantic Age came to an end in 1832 when the last Romantic writer _______ died. 21. Women as ____ appeared in the romantic age. It was during this period that women took, for the first time, an important place in English literature. 22. The greatest historical novelist ______was produced in the Romantic Age. 23. The English Romantic period produced two major novelists: _____ and _____. 24. ____ is regarded as the best essayist during the Romantic Age. 25. Among Wordsworth’s longer poems, the best-known one is _______. 26. ______ marked the transition from romanticism to the period of realism which followed it. 27. In 1817, _______ finished his literary criticism, Biographia Literaria. 28. At the turn of the 18th and 19th century _____ appeared in England as a new trend in literature. 29. In contrast to the rationalism of the enlighteners and classicists in the 18th century, the _____ paid great attention to the spiritual and emotional life of man. 30. Wordsworth’s poetry is distinguished by the _____ of his language. 31. Queen Mab, Pecy Bysshe Shelley’s important poem, is written in the form of a _____. 32. _____ was the first poet in Europe who sang for the working people. His political lyrics are among the best of their kind in the whole sphere of European romantic poetry. 33. After his second book Endymion appeared in 1818, _____ gave up medicine for poetry. 34. ____’s grave bears the epitaph: “Hear lies one whose name is writ in water.” 35. The Eve of St. Agnes is a narrative poem written in ______. 36. The theme of ____ is the conflict between the old and the new, and the story is derived from Greek mythology. In this work, the poet expresses the eternal law of nature—the passing of an old order of things and the coming of a new. 37. Modern essay originated from Montaigne’s _____, which were translated into English by Florio and had an extensive influence upon English literature. 38. The first poem in the collection The Lyrical Ballads is ____ ’s masterpiece. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. 39. On the death of Robert Southey in 1843, ____ was made poet laureate. 40. In 1805, Wordsworth completed ______, containing all together 14 books. 41. In 1807 George Gordon Byron published his lyric poems in a small volume called Hours of Idleness. The volume was sharply attacked in the influential Edinburgh

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58.

59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65.

Review. Byron responded with his first important poem, a biting satire called____. In 1824, the Revolutionary Romantic poet ___ went to Greece to help that country in its struggle for liberty against Turks. Not long, he died of fever there. George Gordon Byron is chiefly known for his two long poems: One is Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, the other is ____. The poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage contains ____ cantos. It is written in Spenserian stanza. George Gordon Byron wrote ____ in Italy. It contains sixteen cantos. George Gordon Byron’s masterpiece is ______. ____ is George Gordon Byron’s philosophical poetic drama. ____ is Byron’s poetic drama with the material taken from Biblical story. George Gordon Byron’s first volume of poems is _____. ____ was expelled after only six months at Oxford, because he had written the pamphlet The Necessity of Atheism. After the death of Percy Bysshe Shelley’s first wife, he was compelled to leave England in 1818, and spent all the rest of his life in _____. ____ is Percy Bysshe Shelley’s first long poem of importance. It was written in the form of a fairy tale dream. _____ , a lyrical drama, is Percy Bysshe Shelley’s masterpiece. The story was taken from Greek mythology. The Masque of Anarchy is one of Shelley’s political lyrics. It deals with the infamous ____ which happened on August 16, 1819. Shelley wrote an elegy ______ lamenting the early death of his fellow-poet _____. Ode to a Nightingale was written by ____. Ivanhoe is the masterpiece of the historical novelist ____. The prose-writers in the 19th century made the informal essay a pliable (flexible) vehicle for expressing the writer’s own personality, thus ringing into English literature _____. ____ had a bitter hatred of the meaningless drudgery (toil) which wasted two-thirds of his lifetime. To Charles Lamb, ____ was a side-occupation. His daily drudgery left little time for his literary work. Specimens from English Dramatic Poets Contemporary with Shakespeare was written by ____. William Hazlitt is one of the representatives of ___ criticism, in which individual taste took the place of universal reason as the foundation of literary criticism. After the defeat of Napoleon, ____ was the only old Romantic who never wavered in his devotion to the cause of the French Revolution. ____ was sentenced to two years’ imprisonment for denouncing the Prince Regent, future George IV, as a rake and a liar. The importance of Leigh Hunt lies chiefly in his development of the light miscellaneous ___.


66. In order to relieve the pains of facial neuralgia, ____ became “a regular and confirmed opium-eater.” 67. Thomas De Quincey is famous for the ornate descriptions of his fantasies and dreams. The major flow of his style is ____. 68. ____ has been universally regarded as the founder and great master of historical novel. Key to the blanks: 1. literature; poetry 2. French 3. nature 4. autobiographical 5. self-exploration 6. autobiographical 7. politics; social justice 8. conflict 9. children 10. Lyrical Ballads 11. Romantic Movement 12. Sympathy; simplicity; purity 13. The Prelude, or Growth of a Poet’s Mind 14. Hazlitt 15. liberty; equality; fraternity 16. late 18th; mid-19th 17. classicism 18. enthusiasm; poetry 19. Lyrical Ballads 20. Walter Scott 21. novelist 22. Walter Scott 23. Water Scott, Jane Austen 24. Charles Lamb 25. The Prelude 26. Scott 27. Samuel Taylor Coleridge 28. romanticism 29. romanticists 30. simplicity 31. fairy tale dream 32. Shelley 33. John Keats 34. John Keats

35. Spenserian Stanza 36. Hyperion 37. Essais 38. Coleridge 39. Wordsworth 40. The Prelude 41. English Bards and Scotch Reviewers 42. Byron 43. Don Juan 44. four 45. Don Juan 46. Don Juan 47. Manfred 48. Cain 49. Hour of Idleness 50. Shelley 51. Italy 52. Queen Mab 53. Prometheus Unbound 54. Peterloo Massacre 55. John Keats 56. John Keats 57. Scott 58. the familiar essay 59. Charles Lamb 60. literature 61. Charles Lamb 62. Romantic 63. William Hazlitt 64. Leigh Hunt 65. essay 66. Thomas De Quincey 67. discursiveness 68. Walter Scott


Ⅲ. Say true or false. 1. English Romantic literature started from mid-18th to the early 19th century. 2. Jane Austen is one of the greatest romantic woman novelists. 3. After composing the Lucy poems, Wordsworth began his The Prelude . 4. P.B. Shelley gained his nickname, “Mad Shelley” because of his independent and rebellious attitude. 5. The rhythm scheme of “The Ode to the West Wind” is aba, bcb, cdc, ded, ee. 6. Charles Lamb is a romanticist of the village life. 7. Lyrical Ballads begins with Coleridge’s long poem, “Tintern Abbey”. 8. Many of the subjects of the poems in Lyrical Ballads deal with elements of nature. 9. Coleridge wrote the majority of poems in Lyrical Ballads. 10. Wordsworth’s “I Wondered Lonely as a Cloud” has another name, Growth of a Poet’s Mind. 11. The Prelude is a long and autobiographical poem considered as Coleridge’s masterpiece. 12. Hazlitt’s life and career had been greatly influenced by the rise and fall of the French Revolution. 13. Hazlitt became a master of novels in English Romantic literature. 14. Some romantic writers stood on the side of the feudal forces and even combined themselves with those forces. 15. Wordsworth and Coleridge are revolutionary Romantic poets. 16. Byron and Shelley and Keats are known as the romantic poets of the second generation. 17. The romanticists paid great attention to the spiritual and emotional life of man. 18. The poets of the second generation described the beautiful scenes and the country people of that area in their writings. 19. Jane Austen is a writer who regards novel writing as a sophisticated art. 20. The story of Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound was taken from Roman mythology. 21. Shelley is one of the leading Romantic poets, an intense and original lyrical poet in the English language. 22. Byron’s Don Juan begins with descriptions of the hero’s childhood. 23. Byron’s literary career was closely linked with the struggle and progressive movements of his age. 24. Byron opposed oppression and slavery, and has a passionate love for liberty. 25. But some critics think Keats lacks the care for artistic finish; many of his lines are harsh, rugged and not rhythmical; 26. Byron’s leading principle is “Beauty is truth, truth beauty”. 27. Lamb’s essays are intensely personal. 28. Keats’ essays are marked by relaxed style, conversational tone and wide range of subject matter. 29. Wordsworth drew inspirations from the mountains and lakes. 30. Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey” tells a strange story in the form of ballad.


Key to True/False statements: 1. F (from late 18th to the mid-19th century) 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. T 6. F (city) 7. F (“The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”) 8. T 9. F (Wordsworth) 10. F (“The Daffodils”) 11. F (Wordsworth) 12. T 13. F (familiar essay) 14. T 15. F ( Passive Romantic poets) Ⅳ. Terms: 1. Romanticism 2. Lake Poets Ⅴ. Questions: 1. Comment on Lyrical Ballads. 2. Comment on Charles Lamb. 3. Comment on those Lake Poets. 4. What are the features of Romanticism. 5. Comment on The Prelude. 6. Comment on Endymion.

16. T 17. T 18. F (the first generation/ The Lake Poets) 19. T 20. F (Greek) 21. T 22. T 23. T 24. T 25. F (Byron) 26. F (Keats) 27. T 28. F (Lamb) 29. T 30. F (Coleridge’s “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”)

7. Comment on all the writers of the Romantic Age. 8. Tell the main idea of some representative works of the Romantic writers.

Part Six
Ⅰ. Choose the right answer.

English Critical Realism

1. ____ is the greatest representative of English critical realism. A. Jane Austen B. Thackeray

C. Dickens D. Charlotte 2. ____ is Thackeray’s one of the best known works. A. Sense and Sensibility B. The Book of Snobs C. The Pickwick Papers D. The Song of Lower Class 3. Pride and Prejudice’s first title is ____. A. First Impression B. A Book Without a Hero C. The Newcomes D. Persuasion 4. Vanity Fair has a sub-title. It is ____. A. First Impression B. A Book Without a Hero C. The Newcomes D. Persuasion 5. In the 19th century English literature, a new literary trend ____ appeared. And it flourished in the forties and in the early fifties. A. romanticism A. novel B. naturalism C. poetry C. realism D. sonnet D. critical realism 6. English critical realism found its expression chiefly in the form of ____ . B. drama 7. ______’s Vanity Fair is a satirical portrayal of the upper strata(阶层) of society. A. George Eliot C. W. M. Thackeray A. Enlightenment _____ for its rights. A. soldiers B. peasants C. bourgeoisie B. John Milton D. John Keats B. David Copperfield D. Oliver Twist D. proletariat 10. The greatest of Chartist poets was _____. A. Earnest Jones C. Thomas Hardy A. A Tale of Two Cities C. Pickwick Papers

B. Elizabeth Gaskell D. John Buyan B. Renaissance C. Chartist D. Romanticist

8. The ____ Movement appeared in the thirties of the 19th century. 9. The Chartist writers introduced a new theme into literature, the struggle of the

11. The story of ______ deals with the adventures of a retired old merchant.

12. The novel _____ exposes the terrible conditions of English private schools. A. Nicholas Nickleby C. Hard Times B. Oliver Twist D. Great Expectations

13. The story of _____ deals with the sufferings and hardships of an old man named Trent, and his granddaughter, Nell. A. Pickwick Papers C. Great Expectations A. Oliver Twist C. Great Expectations B. The Old Curiosity Shop D. Hard Times B. Hard Times D. A Tale of Two Cities

14. Which novel makes a fierce attack on the bourgeois system of education?

15. Which novel is a great satire upon the society and those people who dream to enter the higher society regardless of the social reality? A. A Tale of Two Cities C. Great Expectations sympathy for the workers. A. Great Expectations C. Hard Times A. Dombey and Son C. Little Dorrit A. David Copperfield C. Bleak House B. A Tale of Two Cities D. Oliver Twist B. A Tale of Two Cities D. Bleak House B. Wuthering Heights D. A Tale of Two Cities B. David Copperfield D. Dombey and Son

16. In the novel ______, Dickens describes the Chartist Movement and shows his

17. In the novel ___ , Defarge and Madame Defarge represent the revolutionaries.

18. In the novel _____, Dr. Manette is a typical bourgeois intellectual.

19. _____ is often regarded as the semi-autobiography of the author Dickens in which the early life of the hero is largely based on the author’s early life. A. The Curiosity Shop C. Oliver Twist A. The Old Curiosity Shop C. Our Mutual Friend A. The Virginians C. The Newcomes A. The First Impression B. David Copperfield D. Great Expectations B. The Pickwick Paper D. Little Dorrit B. The Books of Snobs D. Vanity Fair B. A Novel Without a Hero

20. In 1864, Dickens published his last complete novel _______.

21. Which of the following is Thackeray’s masterpiece?

22. The sub-title of Vanity Fair is _____.

C. The Spirit of the Age A. The Pilgrim’s Progress C. Gulliver’s Travels A. Jane Eyre A. Germany A. optimism

D. The Daffodils B. Child Harold’s Pilgrimage D. The Canterbury Tales C. Wuthering Heights C. Paris C. irritation D. Brussels D. pessimism D. Emma

23. The title of the novel Vanity Fair was taken from Bunyan’s masterpiece _____.

24. Emily Bronte wrote only one novel entitled ______. B. Agnes Grey B. London B. excitement 25. Charlotte’s Villette is based on her sad days in_____. 26. Dickens’ third literary period shows intensifying ______. 27. ______is Dickens’ best of social satires. A. American Notes C. Dombey and Son A. 130 B. 131 B. Martin Chuzzlewit D. David Copperfield C. 132 D. 133 B. The History of Pendennis D. Morte d’Arthur.

28. Tennyson’s In Memoriam is a collection of ____ short poems. 29. The chief source of Tennyson’s Idylls of the King is taken from _____. A. The History of the King of Britain C. The History of Henny Esmond A. Romantic writers C. realistic poets A. 1837…1900 caused the ______. A. Enlightenment Movement C. Chartist Movement A. Earnest Jones C. Charlotte Brontё B. Industrial Revolution D. Romantic Movement B. Emily Brontё D. Charles Dickens

30. The Chartists refer to those _____ in the early Victorian Age B. working class writers D. bourgeois writers B. 1835…1901 C. 1832…1902 D. 1830…1903

31. The Victorian Literature began in____ and ended in _____. 32. The conflicts between the capitalists and the proletarian in industrial England

33. _____ is the greatest among the critical realists of the Victorian Age.

34. Charles Dickens was impressive for his _____. A. wide spread of critical realism B. his spirit of democracy and humanism C. his unforgettable figures with satire and simple and clear language D. including A, B and C 35. “The pride of wealth” or “purse-pride” is the theme of _____.

A. Dombey and Son C. The Old Curiosity Shop A. London and New York C. Paris and New York A. essay B. poetry

B. Nicholas Nickleby D. Martin Chuzzlewit B. London and Paris D. Brussels and Washington C. novel D. drama C. Manette D. Martin

36. The two cities in A Tale of Two Cities refer to ____.

37. ____ is the major literary form in the Victorian Period. 38. ____ is the main hero in the novel of Wuthering Heights. A. Rochester B. Heathcliff 39. Both Charlotte and Emily wrote about the ____ around them. A. familiar things C. neighbors A. Earnest Jones C. Mr. Browning A. Sketches by Boz C. Oliver Twist contradictions. A. Sketches by Boz C. Martin Chuzzlewit coloring? A. Christmas Day in the Morning C. The Chimes ( 《教堂钟声》 ) A. Great Expectations C. Bleak House A. Paris A. Fagin B. New York B. Gradgrind B. A Christmas Carol D. The Cricket on the Heart ( 灶上蟋蟀》 《 ) B. American Notes D. Barnaby Rudge (《巴纳比拉奇》) B. common people D. evils B. Elizabeth Gaskell D. Alfred Tennyson B. The Pickwick Papers D. The Old Curiosity Shop

40. The most important poet in the Victorian Age was _____.

41. ______ made Dickens famous overnight.

42. _____ is Dickens’ first novel of social history reflecting the sharp social

43. Which of the following Dickens’ works is not based on Christmas with religious

44. _____ is an autobiographical novel and loved by Dickens himself most. B. David Copperfield D. The Pickwick Papers C. London C. Pecksmiff D. Portsmoth D. Manette

45. Dickens’ writing is an encyclopedic knowledge of _____. 46. The head of the gang of thieves is _____. 47. _____ has been called “the supreme epic of English life”. A. Nicholas Nickleby C. Hard Times B. A Tale of Two Cities D. The Pickwick Papers

48. _____marked a great advance in Dickens’ art of novel-writing with closely knit and logical plot of his maturer works. A. David Copperfield C. Little Dorrit B. Dombey and Son D. The Chimes

49. In the ____ period, Charles Dickens believed that all the evils of the capitalist world would be remedies of only men who behaved to each other with kindliness, justice, and sympathetic understanding. A. first B. second C. third D. fourth B. The Chimes D. The Battle of Life 50. ____ is the most class-conscious book among the Christmas books. A. A Christmas Carol C. The Cricket on the Hearth Key to the multiple choices: 1-5 CBABD 16-20 CBDBC 31-35 CCDDA 46-50 ADBAB Ⅱ. Fill in the blanks. 1. Dickens’ writings from 1836 to 1841 show the characteristic of youthful _______. 2. Dickens’ writings from 1842 to 1850 show the character of _______. 3. Dickens’ writings from 1852 to 1870 show the feature of ______. 4. Nicholas Nickleby touches upon a burning question of the time—the education of ____ in private schools. 5. _____ is a great novel of social satire and famous for its criticism of both the British and American bourgeoisie. 6. The theme of Dombey and Son is the pride of wealth, or “_____”. 7. David Copperfield was written in the ____ person in a combination of ____, sense of ____ and artistic ______. 8. The main butt (目标) of satire in Bleak House is aimed at the abuses of the English _____. 9. In Hard Times Dickens describes the ____ movement with great artistic power. 10. Dickens used ______ as his pen name in his first book. Key to the blanks: 1. optimism

6-10 ACCDA 21-25 DAACD 36-40 BCBAD

11-15 CABBC 26-30 DBBDB 41-45 BDABC

2. excitement and irritation

3. pessimism 4. children 5. Martin Chuzzlewit 6. purse-pride 7. first; verisimilitude; familiarity;

maturity 8. courts 9. Chartist 10. Boz

Ⅲ. Say true or false. 1. Dickens’ The Pickwick Papers gives a rather comprehensive picture of early 19th century England. 2. Mr. Pickwick and Sam Weller were two major characters in The Pickwick Papers which aroused the i 3. In Oliver Twist, Dickens makes his readers aware of the inhumanity of country life under capitalism. 4. The plot of Sketches by Boz is rather formless, but the novel fascinates the reader from beginnin episodes. 5. The title Bleak House is not only the name of a house but is also an apt (贴切的) description of the so 6. Hard Times is a fierce attack on the bourgeois system of education and ethics(论理学,道德学) and 义). 7. Dombey and Son is a novel with imprisonment, both matter-o-fact or symbolic, as its central theme. 8. A Tale of Two Cities takes the Industrial Revolution as the subject. 9. The theme underlying A Tale of Two Cities is the idea “Where there is oppression, there is revolution.” 10. Pip is the major character in Dickens’ novel Our Mutual Friend. Key to True/False statements: 1-5 TTFFT 6-10 TFFTF

Part Seven

Prose Writers and Poets of the Mid and Late 19th Century

Ⅰ. Choose the right answer. 1. ____is Oscar Wilde’s only novel. A. Lady Windermere’s Fan B. A Woman of No Importance C. The Picture of Dorian Gray D. The Importance of Being Earnest 2. ____ is a description of the misery of man of letters. A. New Grub Street B. The Current C. Charles Dickens: A Critical Study D. The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft 3. A Dream of John Ball is a prose work which ____ recalled the peasants’ rising of the 14th century. A. Morris B. Gissing C. Stevenson D. Wilde 4. News from Nowhere is a prose work which ____ describes a dream of the future classless society. A. Morris B. Gissing C. Stevenson D. Wilde 5. _____is famous for his translation of Rubaiyat. A. F. Scott Fitzgerald B. William Fitzgerald

C. Robert Fitzgerald D. Edward Fitzgerald 6. _____ is Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s best-known poem. A. The Blessed Damozel B. Poems by D. G. Rossetti C. The House of Life D. Ballads and Sonnets 7. ____ is considered “the Sage of Chelsea”. A. Thomas Carlyle B. John Ruskin C. Matthew Arnold D. Tomas Macaulay 8. ____introduced German literature to England with his Life of Schiller. A. Thomas Carlyle B. John Ruskin C. Matthew Arnold D. Tomas Macaulay 9. In ____, Carlyle contrasted the misery and confusion of industrial England with a certain Abbot Sampson’s admirable rule of his monastery in the 12th century. A. Past and Present B. Heroes and Hero-Worship C. Sartor Resartus D. The French Revolution 10. Thomas Macaulay’s masterpiece is ___. A. History of England B. Culture and Anarchy C. Heroes and Hero-Worship D. Modern Painters 11. Tennyson’s _____ expresses his optimistic attitude towards death when he is old. A. Break, Break, Break B. Crossing the Bar C. The Princess D. Maud 12. ____remained a poet in his painting and a painter in his poetry. A. Dante Gabriel Rosetti B. Christina Georgina Rossetti C. Edward Fitzgerald D. Algernon Charles Swinburne Key to the multiple choices: 1-5 CAAAD 6-10 AAAAA

11-12 BA

Ⅱ. Fill in the blanks. 1. Carlyle’s Sartor Resartus is a ____phrase meaning “the tailor retailored”. 2. Ruskin’s works on art expound his ______ thoughts and principles. 3. Ruskin’s The Stones of Venice is a book in the sphere of ____ criticism. 4. Tennyson’s book, ______, was written in memory of his friend A. H. Hallam. 5. Tennyson’s The Idylls of the King is based on the stories of _____ and his Knights of the Round Table. 6. Christina Georgina Rossetti was famous for her _____, her chief narrative poem. 7. The keynote of Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s love poems is the union of the body and the ______. 8. Robert Browning’s greatest contribution to literature is ____. 9. Robert Browning’s masterpiece is ____. 10. The Importance of Being Earnest is the first modern _____ of English. 11. Robert Louis Stevenson’s masterpiece is ________. 12. William Morris was a great poet, artist and _______. 13. Swinburne’s mastery of metrical skill, versatility in the use of lyric forms and unconventional choice of themes made him an _______.

14. Songs before Sunrise expresses Swinburne’s support and sympathy to the _________ revolution of independence. 15. _______is the 4-lined stanza rhyming in its first, second, and fourth lines. Key 1. Latin 2. aesthetic 3. art 4. In Memoriam 5. King Arthur 6. Goblin Market 7. soul 8. dramatic monologue

9. The Ring and the Book 10. comedy 11. Treasure Island 12. socialist 13. aesthete 14. Italian 15. “Rubaiyat”

Ⅲ. Say true or false. 1. In Carlyle’s works, archaic words and expressions are revived and new ones invented in the German manner. 2. Swinburn wrote a number of plays including a trilogy of Mary Queen of Scots. 3. Mrs. Browning’s Casa Guidi Windows written in 1851 is a support to the Irish people’s struggle for independence. 4. Mr. Browning’s Pippa Passes is the first poem in the book Bells and Pomegranates. 5. Robert Louis Stevenson’s An Inland Voyage made him famous. 6. George Gissing is a leading figure of naturalism. 7. Swinburne wrote a trilogy of Mary Queen of Scots. 8. F. Scott Fitzgerald is famous for his translation of Rubaiyat. 9. The Germ is the magazine of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Key to the True/False statements: 1. T 2. T 3. F (Italian) 4. T 5. F (Treasure Island)

6. 7. 8. 9.

T T F (Edward Fitzgerald) T

Part Eight

Twentieth Century English Literature

Ⅰ. Choose the right answer.




4. 5. 6.



9. 10. 11.




15. 16.

The Way of All Flesh written by _____gives a devastating picture of the bourgeois family and hypocrisy of the British middle class. A. Samuel Butler B. George Meredith C. Herbert George Wells D. John Galsworthy _____ is considered “the bard of imperialism”. A. Joseph Conrad B. Arnold Bennett C. Rudyard Kipling D. Sean O’Casey Arnold Bennett’s masterpiece is _____. A. Kim B. The Old Wives’ Tale C. Lord Jim D. The History of Polly Henry James is the forerunner of the _____. A. Imagism B. Chartism C. impressionism D. stream of consciousness Katharine Mansfield is a master of ____ at the turn of the century. A. short story writer B. dramatic poetry C. realistic novels D. humor After writing _____, Hardy turned to poetry. A. Under the Greenwood Tree B. The Return of the Native C. Jude the Obscure D. The Mayor of Casterbridge John Galsworthy won the Nobel Prize for Literature because of _____. A. The End of the Chapter B. The Forsyte Saga C. A Modern Comedy D. The Island Pharisees The Man of Property is taken from Galsworthy’s trilogy, _____. A. The End of the Chapter B. The Forsyte Saga C. A Modern Comedy D. The Island Pharisees The Abbey Theatre performed works by _____ dramatists. A. Irish B. British C. American D. Scottish Yeats’s fame rests chiefly on his ______, using a lot of symbols in his poem. A. novels B. poetry C. dramas D. prose ____ was a leader of the modernist movement in English poetry and a great innovator of verse technique. A. W. B. Yeats B. T. S. Eliot C. D. H. Lawrence D. G. B. Shaw ____ is a great novel spending James Joyce 7 years of hard working to complete. A. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man B. Ulysses C. Finnegans Wake D. Dubliners ____ is a collection of short stories which reflect three aspects of life in politics, culture and religion. A. A Portrait of the Artrist as a Young Man B. Ulysses C. Finnegans Wake D. Dubliners Which of the following is Not written by D. H. Lawrence? A. The Waste Land B. The Rainbow C. Lady Chatterley’s Lover D. Women in Love Which of the following is not written by Yeats? A. Four Quartets B. A Vision C. The Winding Stair D. The Tower ____ is the climax of Virginia Woolf’s experiments through the novel form of “stream of consciousness”.


A. Jacob’s Room

B. To the Lighthouse

C. Orlando

D. The Waves

Key to the multiple choices: 1-5 ACBDA 6-10 CBBAB

11-16 BBDAAD

Ⅱ. Fill in the blanks. 1. Herbert George Wells’s literary works fall into three groups: the _____ novels, ____novels and _____novels. 2. Henry James’ method of characterization is “a complete _____ of characters”. 3. Hardy’s poetry is famous for its ____ poetry. 4. Hardy’s novels are well-known for the _____ and _____. 5. _____ made Galsworthy famous as a playwright. 6. Lady Gregory is the founder of the ____Theatre. 7. Sean O’Casey is renowned for his drama of ____ slums in war and revolution. 8. Shaw’s ____ play expose the seamy side of the society. 9. Rupert Brooke is one of the “_____ poets” whose poems is The Soldier. 10. John Masefield is considered “the poet of the _____”. 11. Lawrence, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf were great ____ fiction writers. 12. Robert Tressell was a working-class ____ in the early 20th century. 13. Christopher Caudwell made great contribution to _____ literary criticism by his 2 books, Illusion and Reality and Studies in a Dying Culture. Key to the blanks: 1. realistic; scientific; discussion 2. objectification 3. Wessex 4. characters; environment 5. The Silver Box 6. Abbey 7. Dublin

8. unpleasant 9. war 10. sea 11. psychological 12. novelist 13. Marxist

Ⅲ. Say true or false. 1. George Meredith’s novels are masterpieces of satirical portrayal and psychological analysis. 2. Joseph Conrad’s novels have groups: jungle novels, sea novels and political novels. 3. Henry James’s fundamental theme was the innocence of the New World and the corruption of the Old. 4. The story of Tess is filled with a feeling of dismal foreboding and doom. 5. Fateful circumstances and tragic coincidences abound in the book of Jude the Obscure. 6. Lady Gregory, John Millington Synge and Sean O’Casey were great Irish dramatists. 7. The house in Shaw’s Heartbreak House embodies bourgeois England.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Shaw’s Saint Joan is a historical play devoted to the great daughter of the English people, Joan of Arc, and her struggle for the liberty of her country. Alfred Edward Housman, a classical scholar of the highest order and professor of Latin at London University and Cambridge wrote poetry of crystal clarity. James Joyce and Virginia Woolf are the two best-known novelists of the “stream of consciousness” school. Robert Tressell was a working class novelist whose great work is The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists. In the 1930s, British Marxist literary criticism was represented by two revolutionary writers, Ralph Fox and Christopher Caudwell. Ralph Fox’s representative book is The Novel and the People.

Key to True/False statements: 1. T 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F (Tess) 6. T 7. T

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

F (French people) T T T T T


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