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大学英语综合课程4 B4-U3 writing and translation


Part Four

Writing and Translation
1. Translation
Knowing About Translation Translation Practice 2. Writing Writing Practice

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

Knowing About Translation
定语从句分限制性和非限制性两种。 定语从句分限制性和非限制性两种。 限制性 定语从句与其所修饰的先行词紧紧相连, 定语从句与其所修饰的先行词紧紧相连 , 与其关 系密切,没有它,主句的意义不完整; 系密切 , 没有它 , 主句的意义不完整 ; 非限制性 定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开,作为补充性 定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开, 叙述或者说明。在翻译限制性定语从句之前, 叙述或者说明 。 在翻译限制性定语从句之前 , 首 先要辨明引导从句的关系代词或副词, 先要辨明引导从句的关系代词或副词,如 that, which,when,as,然后要判断由这些词引导的 然后要判断由这些词引导的 从句所修饰的先行词。 从句所修饰的先行词 。 限制性定语从句的翻译方 法主要有以下几种: 法主要有以下几种:

限 制 性 定 语 从 句 的 翻 译

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

限 制 性 定 语 从 句 的 翻 译

前 置 法 置 法 法 法

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1、前 置 法 、
如果定语从句较为简短,可以把定语从句译成带“ 如果定语从句较为简短,可以把定语从句译成带“的”的 定语结构,放在其修饰词之前。例如: 定语结构,放在其修饰词之前。例如: 1) Taking inventory of progress and planning further steps can help you cope with the changes that you undergo and the changes that take place in the labor market.
评估一下自己的进步并计划下面的步骤有助于你应对自己要经历 评估一下自己的进步并计划下面的步骤有助于你应对自己要经历 变化以及劳动力市场的变化。 劳动力市场的变化 的变化以及劳动力市场的变化。

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

2) Today, growing numbers of men and women are changing careers or getting second starts in careers that have greater appeal to them.
如今,越来越多的男男女女在变换职业,或者重新开始一份对他们 如今,越来越多的男男女女在变换职业,或者重新开始一份对他们 更有吸引力的职业 职业。 更有吸引力的职业。

3) Law offers us our best hope of overcoming the differences that prevail in the world.
法律使我们最有希望去克服世界上普遍存在的分歧。 法律使我们最有希望去克服世界上普遍存在的分歧。 世界上普遍存在的分歧

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

2、后 置 法 、
如果定语从句结构复杂, 如果定语从句结构复杂,译成汉语时作前置定语会显得太长而 且不符合汉语表达习惯。这种情况下, 且不符合汉语表达习惯。这种情况下,往往可以将定语从句译成后 置的并列分句。这样译时,有时需要重复先行词,有时不需要。 置的并列分句。这样译时,有时需要重复先行词,有时不需要。例 如: 1) He made the sound of sympathy which comes so readily from those who had independent incomes.
他发出了同情之声, 他发出了同情之声,这种同情之声是那些有独立收入的人最容易脱 口而出的。 该句重复了先行词) 口而出的。(该句重复了先行词)

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

2) They like to work in free environments that allow them to express themselves in a wide variety of media - writing, music, drawing, photography-in general, any art form.
他们喜欢在自由的环境中工作, 他们喜欢在自由的环境中工作,使他们能够采用多种不同的媒 如写作、音乐、绘画、摄影——总而言之,用任何艺术形 总而言之, 介,如写作、音乐、绘画、摄影 总而言之 来表现自我。(该句没有重复先行词) 式——来表现自我。(该句没有重复先行词) 来表现自我。(该句没有重复先行词

3) He managed to raise a crop of 200 miracle tomatoes that weighed up to two pounds each.
他居然种出了200个奇迹般的西红柿,每个重达两磅。(定语从 他居然种出了200个奇迹般的西红柿,每个重达两磅。(定语从 200个奇迹般的西红柿 。( 句译成并列分句) 句译成并列分句)

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3、融 合 法 、
由于限制性定语从句与主句关系紧密, 由于限制性定语从句与主句关系紧密,有时需要把原句中 的主句和定语从句融合在一起,译成一个完整的句子。 的主句和定语从句融合在一起,译成一个完整的句子。 1) There was nothing that interested him at the show.
展览会上没有什么东西使他感兴趣。 展览会上没有什么东西使他感兴趣。 使他感兴趣

2) There are social, emotional, and moral considerations in our future that cannot be foreseen.
有一些未来的社会、情感、道德等方面要考虑的因素是无法预见 有一些未来的社会、情感、道德等方面要考虑的因素是无法预见 的。

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

3) Students who fail to think about the implications of their career choices often engage in rationalization (deceiving oneself with self-satisfying but incorrect explanations for one’s behavior) or procrastination (putting off or delaying).
有些学生没有考虑到职业抉择会产生的影响,往往采取文过饰非 有些学生没有考虑到职业抉择会产生的影响, 没有考虑到职业抉择会产生的影响 对自己的行为所作的解释虽能自我满足但却是错误的 却是错误的, (对自己的行为所作的解释虽能自我满足但却是错误的,以此来 欺骗自己)或者拖延(推迟或耽搁)的态度。 欺骗自己)或者拖延(推迟或耽搁)的态度。

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

4、转 换 法 、
有些限制性定语从句兼有其他语法结构的功能, 有些限制性定语从句兼有其他语法结构的功能,如状语从句 的功能,在意义上与主句有状语关系,说明原因、结果、目 的功能,在意义上与主句有状语关系,说明原因、结果、 让步或假设等关系。 的、让步或假设等关系。翻译时可以分析原文主句和从句之 间的逻辑关系,然后译成相应的汉语。 间的逻辑关系,然后译成相应的汉语。 1) He lived his life apart from the workers on whose skill he depended.
他不跟工人们生活在一起,尽管他依赖他们的技能。(译成让 他不跟工人们生活在一起,尽管他依赖他们的技能。(译成让 。( 步分句) 步分句)

2) He wishes to write an article that will attract public attention to the matter.
他想写一篇文章,以便能引起公众对这件事的注意。(译成表 他想写一篇文章,以便能引起公众对这件事的注意。(译成表 。( 示目的分句) 示目的分句)

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

Translation Practice
Directions: Translate the following amusing job interviews into English.

Words and Expressions You May Use:
telephone bill 电话费 aesthetic judgment 审美观 job-hop (v.) 跳槽 interpersonal 人际的 initiative 进取性

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

A
面试官: 面试官:你有男朋友吗? 应聘者: 应聘者:有。 M:他在本地吗? :他在本地吗? Y:不是,他在外地。 :不是,他在外地。 M:对不起,我们不能用你。 :对不起,我们不能用你。 Y:为什么? :为什么? M:你不会安心在这里长期 : 工作。另外, 工作。另外,本公司也 不希望因为你而使长途 电话费大幅度增加。 电话费大幅度增加。

Interviewer: Do you have a boyfriend? Applicant: Yes. I: Is he here, in this city? A: No, he is in another city. I: Sorry, we will not employ you. A: Why not? I: You would not be keeping your mind on your work. What’s more, we do not want to see our telephone bill increase enormously because of you.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

B
M:你有女朋友吗? 你有女朋友吗? 没有。 Y:没有。 你追过女孩吗? M:你追过女孩吗? 追过,可是没追上。 Y:追过,可是没追上。 M:你工作后准备再追 女孩吗? 女孩吗? 先努力工作, Y:先努力工作,暂不 考虑婚姻问题。 考虑婚姻问题。 对不起, M:对不起,我们不能 用你。 用你。 为什么? Y:为什么? 你公关能力欠佳, M:你公关能力欠佳, 况且缺乏自信。 况且缺乏自信。

I: Do you have a girlfriend? A: No. I: Have you ever dated a girl? A: Yes, but she didn’t want to date me. I: Do you want to date girls after you have a job? A: I will set my mind on work first. I will not consider my marriage now. I: Sorry, we will not employ you. A: Why not? I: You are lacking in the ability of dealing with interpersonal relationships. Also, you lack self-confidence.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

C
M:你有女朋友吗? 你有女朋友吗? Y :有。 她漂亮吗? M:她漂亮吗? 不算漂亮。 Y:不算漂亮。 对不起, M:对不起,我们不能用 你。 Y:难道女朋友不漂亮也 会影响贵公司的形象? 会影响贵公司的形象? 那倒不会。不过, M:那倒不会。不过,本 公司是经营艺术品的, 公司是经营艺术品的, 你的审美观似乎不适 合本公司的业务需求。 合本公司的业务需求。

I: Do you have a girlfriend? A: Yes. I: Is she pretty? A: Not quite. I: Sorry, we will not employ you. A: Can it be that a plain girlfriend will affect your company’s image? I: It’s not that. But our company engages in works of art. Your aesthetic judgment does not satisfy our company’s need.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

D
M:你有女朋友吗? 你有女朋友吗? Y :有。 她漂亮吗? M:她漂亮吗? 很漂亮。 Y:很漂亮。 她是你的初恋吗? M:她是你的初恋吗? 是的。 Y:是的。 对不起,我们不能用你。 M:对不起,我们不能用你。 因为你缺乏不断追求的进 取心。 取心。

I: Do you have a girlfriend? A: Yes. I: Is she pretty? A: Very. I: Is she your first love? A: Yes. I: Sorry, we will not employ you, because you lack the initiative in pursuing the better unceasingly.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

E
M:你有女朋友吗? 你有女朋友吗? Y :有。 M:她是你的初恋吗? 她是你的初恋吗? Y:不是,以前还谈过几个。 不是,以前还谈过几个。 M:对不起,我们不能用你。 对不起,我们不能用你。 会跳槽的。 因为你很快会跳槽的。

I: Do you have a girlfriend? A: Yes. I: Is she your first love? A: No, I had a couple of girlfriends before. I: Sorry, we will not employ you, because you would soon job-hop.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

F
M:你有男朋友吗? 你有男朋友吗? Y :有。 M:他很有钱吗? 他很有钱吗? Y:不是。 不是。 M:对不起,我们不能用你。 对不起,我们不能用你。 因为你的工作要和钱打交 我担心你经不起诱惑。 道,我担心你经不起诱惑。

I: Do you have a boyfriend? A: Yes. I: Is he very rich? A: No. I: Sorry, we will not employ you, because your job is to work with money, I am afraid you cannot resist the temptation.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

G
M:你有男朋友吗? :你有男朋友吗? Y:有。 : M:他很有钱吗? :他很有钱吗? Y:是的,他有一家自己的公 :是的, 司。 M:对不起,你男朋友的公司 :对不起, 都不用你, 都不用你,我们就更不能 用你了。 用你了。 Y:可是,他的公司里没有适 :可是, 合我的职位呀。 合我的职位呀。

I: Do you have a boyfriend? A: Yes. I: Is he very rich? A: Yes, he has his own company. I: Sorry, we will not employ you, because even your boyfriend’s company doesn’t employ you. A: But that’s because his company doesn’t have a position suitable for me.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

M:那你是学什么专业的? :那你是学什么专业的? Y:秘书。 :秘书。 M:对不起,我们还是不能用 :对不起, 你。漂亮姑娘会影响我们 经理工作的。 经理工作的。 Y:可是,我并不漂亮呀。 :可是,我并不漂亮呀。 M:那就更不行了。如果你长 :那就更不行了。 得不漂亮, 得不漂亮,经理不会对你 有兴趣的。 有兴趣的。

I: What’s your major then? A: Secretary. I: Sorry, we still cannot employ you. Pretty girls will affect our manager’s work. A: But I am not pretty. I: That’s even worse. If you are not pretty, our manager will not be interested in you.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

Writing Practice

Writing an Application Letter
Directions: An application letter usually includes the following four parts:

1. reason for writing (including how you found out about the job) 2. relevant information about yourself 3. how to contact you 4. closing

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

Step One
Directions: Thomas Gupton applied for the teller trainee position by mail. Read his letter and see if you can identify the four parts.
May 5, _____ Apartment 2E 3465 Boulevard East Dallas, TX 75221 Fidelity National Bank P.O. Box 42B Dallas, TX 75221 Dear Sir or Madam: I would like to be considered as an applicant for the teller trainee (出纳 实习生) position listed in today's Dallas Tribune.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation I am 18 years old. I will graduate from North High School in June. Since my sophomore year, I have been taking business courses. I have taken Accounting 1 and 2, Business Law, Economics, and Word Processing. During my junior year, I participated in the Co-op Program in which I attended school one week and worked the alternate week. My work placement was at the Western Insurance Company, where I learned basic accounting procedures. I am currently employed part-time as a cashier at a Pathway Supermarket. These positions helped me to develop skills and confidence for handling large sums of money. I would be glad to come for an interview at your convenience. My telephone number is 775-2684. I look forward to hearing from you. Sincerely, Thomas Gupton

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

Step Two
Use Thomas’s letter as an example. Write a letter applying for a job that you are interested in. Remember to include the four parts listed in Step One.
Samples

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

Sample 1 Dec. 28, ______ Mailbox 352, ________ University, __________ Road,

Dear Sir/Madam: I would like to be considered as a private tutor(家庭教师) listed in today’s _______ Evening Paper.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

I am 19 years old and right now I am studying at ________ University, majoring in Energy. I am now a freshman and my high school years are still fresh in my mind. I passed the National Entrance Examination with flying colors*. So I believe that I have plenty of knowledge and rich experience in study and examinations. I am good at Chemistry and Physics in which your daughter needs help. I won the second prize in a national Chemistry contest and the third prize in a national Physics contest. And I can also help your child with her English and Math. If I become your child's tutor, I will do all I can to teach her and you will be satisfied with her progress.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

I am eager to get this job because I want to enrich my teaching experience and learn how to get along well with others. Money is my secondary consideration. I would be glad to come for an interview at your convenience. My phone number is ________. I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely Yours, XXX

*With flying colors: extremely well.

Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation

Sample 2

December, 27, ______ _______ College P.O.Box 368B

Dear Sir or Madam, I would like to be considered as an applicant for the secretary position listed in today’s ____________ Daily. I am a female student and I am now 21. In June this year I will graduate from ________ University. My major is economics. During my winter vacation last year, I worked as a typist in a company. I can type at a speed of 80 words per minute and I have taken shorthand. In my spare time, I have also worked on computer and now I can use the computer for word processing. Apart from these skills, I have high proficiency in English and I

Part Four: Translation and Writing >> Writing

can speak English fluently. I have passed CET 4 and 6 with high marks. In a word, I’m sure that I’m a suitable person for the job and I can do it well. I would be glad to come for an interview at your convenience. My telephone number is _________. I am looking forward to hearing from you. Sincerely Yours, XXX

End of Part 4

Go to Part 5


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