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广东高考英语完形填空做题奥秘


广东高考英语完形填空 答题的奥秘

一、

命题特点 完型填空综合考察学生的语言知识、阅读能力和总体语言水平,检查学生在有信息空缺的前提下理解整篇文章的能力,要求通过上下

文判断,选择恰当的单词或词组填入空格中,使之成为上下合乎逻辑、语言通顺、意义连贯的文章 。 广东卷近来年来的高考完形填空题,具有以下几个特点: 1.一个只考。只考实词,包括名词、动词、形容词和副词。 2.两种体裁。记叙文和说明文,以记叙文为主,间或夹叙夹议的内容。 3.三个相同。每小题的四个选项有以下三个相同点: (1)词类相同。要么都是名词,要么都是动词,要么都是形容词或副词;

(2)语法形式相同。名词或动词的单复数形式相同,动词-ing 或-ed 形式相同,形容词或副词的比较等级形式相同; (3)正确选项的分布基本相同。即 A、B、C、D 四个选项各自所占比例基本相同。如 15 个小题,A、B、C、D 各占 3—4 个。 4.四个不考。 (1)不考虚词,包括冠词、代词、介词、连词等; (2)不考纯语法。答案都要通过上下文理解来确定,没有纯语法考查题; (3)不考纯固定搭配。没有考查纯固定搭配记忆题,即使是搭配,也是可以通过上下文语境推知。 (4)不考词语辨析。不考查词义或用法非常相似或难以辨析的词语。一般说来,四个选项的意义相差很大。

二、五个根据 解答完形填空题,有以下五条“根据” :

1.根据首句暗示。 高考完形填空首句往往不设空,是个完整的句子,通过它可以了解全文,判断文章的大意或主题,建立正确的思维导向,对解题非常关键。 2.根据逻辑推理。 考生要懂得根据文段意思和日常生活经验及科普常识等进行简单的逻辑推理来确定答案。 3.根据语言结构。 就是根据选项所在句的对比结构、排比结构、类似结构等语言结构形式来判断和选择答案。 4.根据词语复现。 词汇复现往往会使语篇中的句子相互衔接得更紧密。利用词语的复现,对解题很有帮助。 5.根据前后语境。 高考完形填空中绝大多数题是要通过理解上下文语境才能选出正确答案。有的根据上文,有的根据下文,有的要上下文结合,甚至通篇看

完并理解才能作出正确的选择。

三、三遍阅读

完形填空的解题思路
总则:在把握整体的基础上对句子内部情况进行分析。

跳 过 空 格 , 通 读 全 文 , 把握 大 意

结合选项,综合考虑,初定答案 瞻前顾后,先易后难, 各个击破

再读全文,反复检查
四、两个技巧

1.复现 复现是一种词汇衔接手段,它通过原词、同义词、反义词、上义词、下义词、同源词或同根词等形式,重复出现来表达某一概念,使 整篇文章上下连贯,有机地衔接在一起。因此,考生可根据文章的具体情况,理解文章的结构和语境,利用文章中的复现现象来选择正确 答案。 (1)原词复现。为了表达需要,在具体的上下文中同一个单词重复出现。

All of a sudden I started to feel rather ___1___. She wondered why I was looking for this sort of ___2___. I felt even more helpless when she told me that it would be difficult to get a job without experience. 1. A. encouraged 2. A. place B. dissatisfied B. job C. helpless C. advice D. pleased D. help

(2)同义词、近义词复现。同义词、近义词复现是借助意思相同或相近的表达方式,或解释性的语言使上下文的语义得以连接起来。如: That is what a hobby means, I guess. It is something we like to do in our spare time simply for the ______ of it. The value in dollars is not important; we do it for the pleasure it gives us. A. benefit B. good C. fun D. interest

(3)反义词复现。语意的连贯有时是通过对比结构而采用反义复现的手段,或者是以反义的方式对前文加以解释,考生可以从反义的角度判 断正确的选项。如:

Forcing yourself to recall almost never helps because it doesn’t ______ your money; it only tightens it.

A.

loosen

B.

weaken

C.

decrease

D.

reduce

(4)同源词或同根词复现。对于上下文语义复现的表达,还可借助复现信息的同源词或同根词。如: Many teachers believe that the responsibilities for learning lie with the students. If a long reading assignment is given, the instructors expect students to be familiar with the information in the reading……When research is _________, the professor expects the s tudent to take it actively and to complete it with minimum guidance. A. collected B. assigned C. distributed D. finished

[解析] 该部分作者通过两个例子说明,应该有学生负责自己的学习,都是从 "布置作业"方面解释。说明布置阅读作业时要求学生如何;布 置研究作业时又该要求学生如何。 两个例子概念类似, 借助于 give 的结构。 reading assignment 的表达方式, 可以确定选 B, 构成 assign research

(5)上义词复现。上义词具有概括的作用。在篇章中,有时为了表达的需要,作者会先概述,再分述。概述时用的为上义词,分述则用比较 具体的下义词,两者为总分关系。如:

Other times, he would join student groups to discuss a variety of _______: agriculture, diving and mathematics. A. questions B. subjects C. matters D. contents

[解析] 冒号后自然是对上文的解释,从解释的内容来看,三者统一于一个概念之下,即都属 subjects。故答案为 B。 2.同现 同现指意义上相互联系的单词同时出现在同一句话或同一语篇中,以确保语篇的和谐性、得体性。由于单词意义的差别、所使用的语境不 同,因此所使用的上下文也各有差异。

(1)场所同现。如: On _______ days, she wore heavy clothes and a pair of woolen gloves. A. sunny B. rainy C. cloudy D. snowy

[解析] 有“heavy clothes” , “woolen gloves”就有“snowy days” ,所以“厚棉衣” “羊毛手套”和“雪天”是场所同现或情况(背景)同现, 故选 D。 (2)修饰同现。如: Although these wide modern roads are generally _______ and well maintained, with little sharp curves and many straight ________, a direct route is not always the most enjoyable one.

A. stable

B. smooth

C. splendid

D. complicated

A. selections

B. separations

C. series

D. sections

[解析] 本题涉及到形容词和名词的修饰同现。与高速公路同现的形容词自然应该是“平坦” ,有高速公路同现的名词自然有“路段” 。由此 来判断可知,第一空答案为 B,第二空答案为 D。 (3)因果同现。如: “Hooray!” shouted the crowd. It was the loudest _______ I had ever heard at a meet. The first-place runner was two laps ahead of me when she crossed the finishing line. A. cheer B. shout C. cry D. noise

[解析] 句中 Hooray, runner, finishing line 和 cheer, shout 为因果同现词汇,都为体育赛跑比赛中所用的词汇,尽管选项中有 shout 一词, 但由下文“two laps ahead of me when she crossed the finishing line”可知,cheer“喝彩声”最为贴切,故选 A。 (4)结构同现。如:

Sometimes he would invite a student to a game of chess. _______, he would join student groups to discuss a variety of subjects: agriculture, diving, mathematics. A. As a matter of fact C. Other times B. Later on D. In general

[解析] 如果考生熟悉 sometimes 与 other times 结构上的同现关系,就可立即选定正确答案为 C。

(5)同义同现。如: If a student has problem with classroom work, the student should either _______ a professor during office hours or make an appointment. A. greet B. attach C. approach D. annoy

[解析] 根据同义同现, make an appointment 就是 approach(接近)老师的一种方式,所以选 C。注意,同义同现是同义词出现在同一句子

中,而同义复现是同义词出现在不同的句子中。

3.真题验证

下面让我们通过 2010 年广东高考英语完形填空题来验证这两个绝招的神奇作用吧!

Every country has its own culture. Even though each country uses doors,doors may have differences. 21. A. different 22. A. national B. important B. embarrassing C. practical C. cultural D. unusual D. amazing

21

functions and purposes which lead to

22

21. A 根据近义词复现, 文章首句提到了 “每个国家都有它自己的文化” , 门也有着不同的功能。 此题也可以根据同义词复现得知, 下文 “ they had distinct functions”的 distinct 就是提示。 22. C 根据同源词复现,文章首句中提到了“文化”一词,所以门的功能不同导致了文化差异。 When I first came to America, I noticed that a public building had two different 23 and they had distinct functions. You have to push the 24 the building. This was new to me,

door with the word “PUSH” to go out of the building and to pull the door with the word “PULL” to because we use the 23. A. exits 24. A. enter 25. A. main 25

door in South Korea. For quite a few times I failed to go out of a shopping centre and was embarrassed. C. signs C. open C. front D. doors D. close D. back

B. entrances B. leave B. same

23. D 本文是讲不同国家门的不同功能和不同使用方式,根据原词复现,上下文中出现了好几个 door,再说,后半句的 they 也是指“门” 。

24. A 根据反义词复现,与 go out of the building 相对应的是 enter the building。 25. B 根据反义词复现,与前面 23 题的 different doors 相对应的是 the same door。 The way of using school bus doors was also opened both the front and back doors, on 29 28 27 26 to me. I used to take the school bus to classes. The school decided that when the driver

who were getting off the bus should get off first, and students who were getting on should get

. In South Korea, we do not need to wait for people to get off. One morning, I hurried to the bus, and when the bus doors opened, I 30 , and my face went red.

tried to get on the school bus through the front door. All the students around looked at me, I was totally B. hard B. students B. later B. patiently B. annoyed C. satisfying C. teachers C. faster C. unconsciously D. excited D. slowly D. strange D. drivers D. earlier

26. A. annoying 27. A. parents 28. A. sooner 29. A. politely 30. A. embarrassed

C. unsatisfied

26. D 根据同义词复现, 上文提到了 This (=The way of using public building doors) was new (=not familiar, strange) to me。 本句中的 also “也” 一词是提示词,表明作者对 The way of using school bus doors 也很“陌生”的,后文内容提到的不熟悉门的使用方式也有提示。 27. B 根据原词复现,下文的 and students who were getting on should get on?可得出答案。 28. B 根据反义词复现,前面提到了 get off first,这里是相反的 get on later,即要先下后上。 29. C 根据场所(情况、背景)同现,前文提到了韩国人不必等别人下了车(再上车),作者也习惯这样了,所以看到校车门打开后,就“无意 识地”上车了。 30. A 根据原词复现,文章提到了作者对 The way of using public building doors 和 The way of using school bus doors 的使用方式都感到很陌 生(new, strange),第三段末尾提到了感到 embarrassed,所以,在这里,当周围所有的同学都看着自己时,脸也红了,当然也是“感到尴尬 (embarrassed)”了。 哈哈,神奇吧?!都可以运用复现或同现做出来!

六、牛刀小试 运用复现和同现,做做下面完形填空题,看看你真正掌握了绝招没有? Passage 1 Have you ever noticed how you feel about yourself depends on whether or not you get confirmation of your value from others? I learned it from Frank who taught me to 1 dogs.

Frank always helped the guard dogs he trained feel respected, protected and by 4 them a large amount of patience as they were learning.

2

. He

3

by giving his dogs with love and respect, and

He would cut a small piece of

5

for each dog. He would place the carpet in the dog’s

6

area, for him to lie on each night. He would

also take it during the the carpet and 9

7

and sit the dog in various locations, as he praised the dog for being

8

. Whenever he went, he would pick up 10 of the dog.

it to the new place, and sit the dog down. Soon the piece of carpet took on the distinct

Next, Frank would

11

the dog to pick up the piece of carpet himself, and carry it wherever he goes. The dog learned this 13 , ” said Frank.

12

, with

Frank often praising him for being a good dog. “No matter where the dog goes, he receives my love and

If this strategy works so

14

with dogs, wouldn’t it work just as well with human beings? Ask yourself, “Wouldn’t your life be very

15

if you changed your piece of carpet to one full of love and appreciation?”

1. A. raise

B. train

C. select

D. distribute

2. A. loved

B. existed

C. looked

D. expected

3. A. figured out

B. set out

C. started out

D. worked out

4. A. showing

B. finding

C. needing

D. cultivating

5. A. expression

B. result

C. form

D. carpet

6. A. sleeping

B. learning

C. drinking

D. playing

7. A. break

B. interruption

C. day

D. course

8. A. lovely

B. good

C. smart

D. brave

9. A. fetch

B. send

C. carry

D. lend

10. A. smell

B. shape

C. habit

D. fur

11. A. teach

B. force

C. advise

D. invite

12. A. shortly

B. hardly

C. quickly

D. willingly

13. A. money

B. help

C. contribution

D. appreciation

14. A. brilliantly

B. badly

C. easily

D. truly

15. A. careful

B. offensive

C. doubtful

D. different

[答案与解析] 这是一篇记叙文。作者向 Frank 学习怎样用爱心与赞赏培训狗,由此类推,我们人类也同样需要得到他人的爱与赞赏。

1. B 根据原词复现,下文的 the guard dogs he trained 中有提示。 2. A 根据同源复现,下文的 with love and respect 中有提示。 3. C 根据结构同现,这里讲的是 Frank 训狗的步骤,根据第四段开头的 next,此处应选 C。 4. A 根据近义词复现,与 giving 相对应的是 showing。 5. D 根据原词复现,下一句中就有 carpet,Frank 为每一条狗剪一张毯子。 6. A 根据上义词复现,后面的?for him to lie on each night 提示这里是每晚“睡觉”的地方。 7. C 根据反义词复现,上一句讲的是 each night, 所以这里讲“白天”的情况。 8. B 根据原词复现,文章两处赞扬了狗表现“好” ,都用了 good 一词。 9. C 根据近义词复现,与上文的 pick up 近义,也可以根据原词复现,下一段第一句话中再次出现 carry,这里是说,Frank 会捡起狗的毯 子,并“拿到”新的地方去。

10. A 根据因果同现,因为狗无论到哪儿都会带着自己的毯子睡觉,因此毯子上就会有狗的“气味” 。 11. A 根据反义词复现,下文说 The dog learned this,与之相反,Frank“教”狗如何捡起自己的毯子。 12. C 根据因果同现,因为狗学习接受能力“快” ,所以才会得到主人 Frank 的表扬。 13. D 根据原词复现,文章最后一句有相同的名词词组,love and appreciation。 14. A 根据同义词复现,四个选项中与 well 同义的只有答案 A。 15. D 根据同义同现,既然改变(changed?to?)了,肯定是“不同”的了。本句意思为,如果你的毯子也变成了一张充满爱与赞赏的毯子, 难道你的人生不会变得不同吗?

Passage 2 My dad had a keen imagination, and would play a little good-night game every day. He would 1 my room to talk to me and listen to the

joys and

2

of my day. As he was leaving. Dad would blow out my light like the birthday candles on a 4 5

3

.

As he did his little world is the one you

, Dad would say, “The light will be dark. As far as you’re concerned, it will be dark all over the world because your totally by yourself. The world is yours to see that way. So, keep your light 6 .”

When I was very young, I used to

7

there in bed after Dad left and try to understand what he meant. It was 9

8

as I was so young.

What Dad was trying to tell me was that when I went to 10

at night, the world came to a stop. When I woke up in the morning I could

to see a fresh new world through my own eyes. In other words, if I woke up happy, the world was happy. If I woke up not feeling well, 11 .

the world felt

My father’s

12

about self-aware and about the power of the eye of others was invaluable: “Everything depen ds on how you 14 is how you take it.”

13

what happens in life. And what matters

That good-night game with my father taught me that people’s difference.

15

of me aren’t important. It’s the way I handle them that makes the

1. A. search 2. A. hesitation 3. A. card 4. A. routine

B. clean B. sorrows B. table B. order

C. enter C. pleasure C. bottle C. enquiry

D. check D. problems. D. cake D tradition.

5. A. feel 6. A. special 7. A. lie 8. A. upsetting 9. A. sleep 10. A. design 11. A. anxious 12. A. guidance 13. A. aims at 14. A. greatly

B. control B. bright B. study B. bothering B. eat B. decide B. proud B. training B. look at B. relatively

C. judge C. attractive C. play C. amazing C. dream C. choose C. angry C. experience C. points at C. gradually D. colorful

D. watch

D. cry D. confusing D. die D. continue D. sad D. method D. falls on D. suddenly

15. A. worries

B. opinions

C. signs

D. preferences

[答案与解析] 这是一篇记叙文。作者很小的时候,父亲就告诉他一个道理:别人的看法并不重要,一切都取决于自己对待生活的态度。 1. C 根据反义词复现,下文有 As he was leaving 和 after Dad left,因此父亲先是 enter 自己的房间。 2. B 根据反义词复现,与句中 joys 相反的词就是 sorrow。 3. D 根据近义词复现,由句中的 the birthday candles 可知,就像蛋糕上的生日蜡烛。 4. A 根据近义词复现,由第一段的 every day 可知,父亲每天都要做一次的事情,也就是 routine。 5. D 根据同义词复现,与下文 The world is yours to see that way 中的 see 同义的只有 watch。 6. B 根据场所同现,只有使自己的灯是“明亮的” ,人们才可以看到这个世界。 7. A 根据场所同现,父亲离开房间后,作者开始考虑他说的话的意思,因此应该是“躺”在床上。 8. D 根据因果同现,由句中的 as I was so young 可知,所以这个问题令作者感到很“困惑” 。

9. A 根据反义词复现,下文提到 When I woke up?,因此这里是指作者晚上“睡觉”后。 10. C 根据上义词复现,下文作者说,醒来后的世界是否美好,这是由他自己来选择的。 11. D 根据近义词复现,此处的 felt sad 和 not feeling well 相对应。 12. A 根据上义词复现,下文引号中的内容是父亲对作者的“引导” 。 13. B 根据近义词复现,由句末的?is how you take it 得知。 14. A 根据因果同现,因为上一句提到了“一切都取决于自己怎样看待生活中发生的事情” ,所以很大程度上 (greatly)是看自己的态度。 15. B 根据近义词复现,上文的 the eye of others 意指“别人的看法” ,父亲教育了“我”别人的看法并不重要,关键在于自己的态度。

背景常识 将文章与我们原有的生活经验、文化背景知识、科普常识等结合起来进行简单推理,从而得出正确答案。该技巧与 “逻辑推断” 常常交织在一起。例如: (1) We have been driving in fog all morning, but the fog is lifting now. The little seaside villages are pointing across the bay to a shabby old house. (改编自2013年福建省高考试题) 36 , one by one. “There is my grandmother’s house,” I say,

36. A. appearing

B. moving

C. exposing

D. expanding 29 tried to get on the

解析:A。根据生活常识可推测,当浓雾散去的时候,原来浓雾所掩盖的东西就会慢慢地显露出来,故答案为A。 (2) In South Korea, we do not need to wait for people to get off. One morning, I hurried to the bus, and when the bus doors opened, I school bus through the front door. (改编自2010年广东省高考试题) 29. A. politely B. patiently C. unconsciously D. slowly 解析:C。本题可根据文化背景知识来解答。作者是初来美国的韩国人,而根据上文介绍可知,在韩国,人们不必等别人下了车再上车。由此可推测,作者 看到校车前门打开后,就无意识地上车了。 (3) …the Nobel prizes, which would be awarded to people who made great 试题) 29. A. additions B. sacrifices C. changes D. contributions 解析:D。根据常识可知,诺贝尔奖应当是颁发给那些为世界和平、文学、科学事业作出巨大贡献的人,故答案为D。 29 to the causes of peace, literature, and the sciences. (改编自2009年广东省高考


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