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China and International Harmony The Role of Confucius Institutes in Bolstering Beijing's Soft Power


China and International Harmony: The Role of Confucius Institutes in Bolstering Beijing's Soft Power Author(s): James F. Paradise Source: Asian Survey, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Jul. - Aug., 2009), pp. 647-669 Published by: University of California Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27742666 . Accessed: 06/02/2011 07:32
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CHINA AND INTERNATIONAL HARMONY
The Role of Confucius Institutes in Bolstering Beijing s Soft Power

James F. Paradise

Abstract
China is setting up Confucius Institutesaround the world to spread its lan guage and culture and to increase collaboration with foreign academic insti tutions. The institutescould increase China's "soft power" and help it project an image of itself a benign country.Concerns exist about a "Trojan horse" as
effect.

Keywords: Confucius

Institute, Hanban, soft power, Chinese

language

in Amid anxiety around the world about China's creasing economic and military power, the Chinese government is at tempting to project a more favorable image of the country and reassure the world that its intentions are benign. Its approaches include espous ing theories of China's peaceful rise and development;1 boosting military cooperation with other countries through overseas naval visits and joint

__-_??_?_ cal Science Baum also

James F. Paradise at the University

and an anonymous like to thank a program director for the Office of Chinese tional, current and former directors of a number of Confucius field whom he interviewed for this article. Email:

is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Politi like to thank Richard of California, Los Angeles. He would reviewer for comments on earlier versions of this article. He would Language Council Interna in the Institutes, and others

education

<paradise@ucla.edu>.

and Evan S. is currently more in vogue. See Bonnie S. Glaser 1. The latter expression and in China: The Ascension "The Changing Ecology of Foreign-Policy Making Medeiros, Demise of the Theory of 'Peaceful Rise'," China Quarterly 190 (June 2007), pp. 291-310. Asian Survey, Vol. 49, Issue 4, pp. 647--669, ISSN 0004-4687, electronic ISSN 1533-838X. ? 2009 University of California. All rights reserved. Please direct all requests forpermis by The Regents of the sion to photocopy or reproduce article content through theUniversity of California Press's Rights and DOI: AS.2009.49.4.647. Permissions website, at http://www.ucpressjournals.com/reprintInfo.asp.

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exercises;2 and disseminating more information through white papers and websites oriented toward foreign readers.3 These activities are designed to better explain theChinese point of view and to instill confidence thatwhat is doing is non-threatening. Increased transparency is another China objective. At the same time that the Chinese government is putting out more in formation in English, it is also moving vigorously to provide more oppor tunities for people to study Chinese and to learn about Chinese culture. A principal means to this end is establishing Confucius Institutes. Over the many locations in past several years, Confucius Institutes have sprouted in Asia, Africa, North America, theMiddle East, Europe, and Oceania. As of October 2008, a total of 326 Confucius Institutes had been set up in 81 countries and regions under the guidance of theOffice of Chinese Language Council International4 (Guojia Hanyu Guoji Tuiguang Lingdao Xiaozu This is a non-profit Bangongshi, known by its abbreviation, Hanban). affiliated with theMinistry of Education that is re public organization for administering the program. Each institute has its own unique sponsible
character?some,

mitted

Confucius is back in fashion, useful for the government that needs sym bols to unify the nation and lending a basis for ideas such as the "harmo nious society," which is essentially a Confucian concept. The Confucius Institute project can be seen at one level as an attempt to increase Chinese language learning and an appreciation of Chinese culture,
2. These other measures include inviting foreign countries to observe a People's Liberation Army (PLA) drill as happened during "Warrior 2007" in September 2007. The joint military exercises have been with a number of countries including Russia, India, and France. Exercises effect or they could heighten concern as might of this type could have a confidence-building have been the case in theUnited States when China and Russia teamed up inAugust 2007 to carry out joint drills. Chinese naval ships have been to a number of overseas locations, includ 2007, a PLA ship visited a Japa ing Pearl Harbor, Guam, Singapore, and India. In November nese port for the first time ever. 3. White papers have dealt with many topics such as China's political party system, food safety, national defense, space activities, and environmental protection. 4. This information is on theHanban website, at <http://english.hanban.edu.cn/kzxy.php>. to the 'Confucius 5. Office of the Chinese Language Council International, "Introduction Institute' Project," 5, 2007. <http://english.hanban.edu.cn/market/HanBanE/412360.htm>, accessed

to the mission of "promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese [language] teaching."5 That China would be setting up Confucius Institutes in the early years of the 21st century is somewhat surprising. Only several decades earlier, during theCultural Revolution of 1966-76, Confucius was reviled, seen as an obstacle to social change and a throwback to the past. Now, however,

for example,

are

focused

on

business?but

all

are

com

March

JAMES PARADISE F.

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world8), other activities appear officially orchestrated. For example, in the realm of overseas television broadcasting, the State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television gave Chongqing TV inNovember 2006 the green light to start an international channel.9 Earlier that year the interna tional Chinese channel of government-owned China Central Television (CCTV-4) held a conference to "better coordinate the dissemination of Chinese language content, and content about China into international markets."10 The staging of an exhibition of the Qin Dynasty terracotta army warriors at the British Museum beginning had Chinese government involvement.11
6. An

ways in which China is raising its cultural profile include broadcasting television programs abroad, staging concerts overseas by Chinese popular singers,6 translating Chinese literature into foreign languages, and spread ingChinese contemporary art outside of China.7 While some of these activities are probably less the product of deliber ate government action (for example, the government does not seem to be actively promoting the spread of Chinese contemporary art around the

but at another level it is part of a broader soft power projection inwhich China is attempting towin hearts and minds for political purposes. Other

in September 2007 also

tour of the hugely popular Zhou Huajian, also example is the North American as Wakin Chau, that kicked off at the Galen Center at the University of Southern California on November 9, 2007, and also included concerts inVancouver, British Columbia, it hardly matters as people and in San Francisco. Although Zhou was born inHong Kong, known singers are from, and China is still able to reap cultural dividends. 7. See James F. Paradise, "Impressions of theContemporary Chinese Art Scene," Asia Pacific Arts, October 19, 2007, <http://www.asiaarts.ucla.edu/071019/article.asp?parentID=80006>. often misidentify where

more official, she said in a talk at theUniversity of such art under its regulation and make it California, Los Angeles, April 2008. Intel Yearbook & Directory (Hong Kong: CMM 9. CMM Intelligence, 2007 China Media ligence [HK], Ltd., 2007), p. 25. the result of "years of diplomacy" and efforts by China and Britain to improve cultural relations. An agreement paving the way for the exhibition was signed at in Beijing and witnessed by Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and the Great Hall of the People former British Prime Minister Tony Blair who had previously agreed to collaboration between institutions. The opening ceremony of the exhibition was and Chinese the British Museum 10. Ibid., p. 24. 11. The exhibition was

toMeiqin Wang, assistant professor of Art History at California State Uni 8. According the Chinese government's attitude toward contemporary art is lukewarm versity,Northridge, because it is difficult to control and open to different interpretations. However, there has been some support, e.g., at art shows in Europe, as the Chinese government has attempted to bring

attended by Chen Kuiyuan, vice chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Con to a statement from the Chi ference, and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown. According nese Embassy "Prime Minister Brown expressed his thanks to Chen in the United Kingdom, Kuiyuan and Fu Ying for attending the ceremony and to theChinese government and relevant departments of the two sides for their endeavors in the preparation of the exhibition." See

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In spite of themany activities happening on the language and culture fronts inChina in recent years, there has been relatively little academic at tention given to them, particularly with regard to the impact that they may be having on China's standing in theworld and theway China is perceived by foreign countries. Although a number of newspaper or online articles have appeared and one important book has been published,12 other major writings by China scholars in recent years have had little or nothing to say

about China's soft power or its public diplomacy.13 One reason may be that development of China's soft power is still in an early stage. Another reason may be that China lacks some of the crucial elements of soft power14 such as the attractiveness of itspolitical values. The purpose of this article is to understand how the Confucius Insti tutes and other language promotion activities may be helping China promote its goodwill agenda. Among the questions I ask are the follow What are theConfucius Institutes doing? How do they fit intoChina's ing: "grand strategy," if in fact there is such a strategy? How is soft power viewed in China? How are the Confucius Institutes thought of outside of China? What theworld?
"Exhibition

impact, if any, are they having on China's

standing in

of First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army Was Formally Launched in the Brit ishMuseum," from the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, September 4,2007, <http://www.chinese-embassy.org.uk/ Guardian, September 15, 2007, <http://www. eng/sghd/t377942.htm>; "Terracotta Diplomacy," Rachel "Terracotta guardian.co.uk/leaders/story/0,2169663,00.html>; Campbell-Johnston, Army Conquers British Museum," Times (London), September 11, 2007, <http://entertainment. and Simon Baker, timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/visual_arts/article242360l.ece>; "Exhibition Marks Cultural Watershed," AOL News, <http://news.aol.co.uk/bigstorynews/

pm-opens-terracotta-army-exhibition/article/20070912055909990002>. 12. See Joshua Kurlantzick, Charm Offensive: How China's Soft Power Is Transforming the World (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2007). Among the articles that have ap peared are the following: Purnendra Jain and Gerry Groot, "Beijing's 'Soft Power' Offensive," Asia Esther Times Online, May 17, 2006, <http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/HE17Ad01.html>; on Foreign Relations, May Pan, "China's Soft Power Initiative," Council 18, 2006, <http://www.cfr.org/publication/10715/>; Gideon Rachmen, "The Hard Evidence That China's Soft Power IsWorking," Export Financial Is All other Chinese Times, February 20, 2007; and Howard the Rage: China's Language," NYTimes.com, W. French, "An January 11, 2006,

China's Grand Strategy (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005); Bates Gill, Rising Star China's New Security Diplomacy Institution Press, 2007); and (Washington, D.C.: Brookings ' Sujian Guo, ed., China's Peaceful Rise' in the21st Century: Domestic and International Condi tions (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006). and International Security 14. These Dynamics," University are given by David "The Rise of China and Asia's New Shambaugh, ed., Power Shift: China and Asia's New Dynamics Shambaugh, (Berkeley: of California Press, 2005), p. 2. reasons inDavid

<http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/ll/international/asia/llchina.html>. 13. Three examples are Avery Goldstein, Rising to the Challenge:

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The Confucius

InstituteProject

The Office of the Chinese Language Council International is governed by a group made up of members from state ministries and other organiza tions. These include the State Council, theMinistry of Education, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and theMinistry of Culture. The Confucius Institute Division is one part of Hanban, which also includes an Exami nations Division, focusing on Chinese proficiency tests; a Teaching Qual ityand Evaluation Division, which concerns itselfwith Chinese language teaching materials; and a Communications Division, which handles inter national cooperation and exchange activities.15 There are threemain objectives of the Confucius Institutes, according to a Hanban program director. These are to teach Chinese, to promote cultural exchange, and to facilitate business activity.16According to the director, Confucius Institute assistance is helping the Chongqing motor cycle industry export motorcycles to Thailand. Requests also come from companies abroad seeking to do business inChina.17 "A lot of people want to do business inChina. Now there are not enough resources to help. But our people will do their best to get them the information they need," he said in reference to the activities of the Confucius Institute headquarters

University of Foreign Studies; the Confucius Institute at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, a collaboration between Chulalongkorn Univer sity and Peking University; and the Confucius Institute at Far Eastern

start-up money for the institutes,which inmost cases are physically lo cated on university campuses. Examples of Confucius Institutes operating on the university model are: the Confucius Institute at Japan Sapporo University, a partnership between Sapporo University and Guangdong

in Beijing.18 Other activities include sending teachers from China to Con fucius Institutes that need them and preparing and supplying Chinese lan guage teachingmaterials.19 Cultural events include performances by Chinese art troupes, Chinese song competitions, and celebrations of Chinese holi days, such as the Spring Festival. Confucius Institutes typically are created through a partnership between two academic institutions, one foreign and one Chinese. Hanban provides

15. The information in this paragraph comes from Hanban's website. See <http://www. accessed November 17, 2007; and <http://www.hanban. hanban.org/en_hanban/gywm.php>, accessed November 17, 2007. org/en_hanban/jgsz.php>, 16. Interview with Hanban 17. Ibid. When asked about program director, Beijing, China, September 24, 2007. the Hanban the nature of cooperation in Thailand, director Institute, connecting 20, 2007, that it involved the Confucius a meeting.

said, in an email of November business leaders from two sides, which organized 18. Ibid. 19. Ibid.

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University, a cooperative venture between Far Eastern National University inVladivostok, Russia, and Heilongjiang University in north eastern China. In some cases, more than two universities may be involved as partners or in the setting up of an institute (for example, the Confucius Institute at Prince of Songkla University in southern Thailand involves between Guangxi Normal University inGuilin, China; Ritsu cooperation meikan University inKyoto, Japan; and Prince of Songkla University). In some cases the Confucius Institute may include a partner other than a university (for example, at the China Institute inNew York). According toHanban, many inquiries arrive from abroad about setting up Confucius Institutes, and in some cases ithas not been able to approve applications.20 At the same time, it is clear that Hanban (or universities in China) have

been actively courting institutions, which have not always signed up.21 Much of the legwork on the Chinese side is done by the Chinese universi ties themselves. They hold field trips abroad and negotiate with foreign partners; normally, they are able to select those partners themselves, and "get married" of their own accord, says Hanban. Driving the universities' involvement has been a desire to strengthen contacts with foreign universi ties and organizations as a means to internationalizing themselves. By fos tering academic exchanges, association with a foreign university through a Confucius Institute can bolster educational globalization, which some Chinese universities are aiming for.22

Although all Confucius Institutes have certain commonalities, includ ing their pledge to abide by principles and requirements laid down by there is considerable variation among them. The Confucius Hanban, Institute for Business at the London School of Economics and Political Science, for example, has an "explicit business focus." The Confucius Institute atWaseda University is research-oriented, and the University of California, Los Angeles, Confucius Institute focuses on, among other

20.

Ibid. Institute in theU.S. by a Chinese told me, concerning the genesis of his university, and that "various Chinese have been

21. The director of a Confucius institute, that he was approached given the initiative to go out."

the overall quality of teaching, scientific research, and the training of professional manpower, so as to establish their international prestige and position among universities in the world." and Research Network, See China Education "Project 211: A Brief Introduction (II)," at accessed April <http://www.edu.cn/20010101/21852.shtml>, construed as another way inwhich educational globalization 20, 2008. The is proceeding. project can be

22. The desire to upgrade scientific research and institutional capacity was formalized in a program called Project 211. As one organization the project's goals for the summarized government's Ninth Five-Year Plan of 1996-2000, "Top priority will be given to the strength international standards for ening of universities to help them approach and reach advanced

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issues.23 This diversity may have grown out areas, health and medicine of Hanban As one person involved in negotiations with experience. Hanban said, "When Hanban developed the notion of Confucius Insti Institutes around tutes, they had a fairly rigid template for Confucius theworld. But schools were pushing back, and now there is a lot of flex side."24 Concerns about interference from China ibility on the Hanban on matters such as teaching materials have generated caution among some foreign academics who fear that those who pay the piper may call
the tune.

As of late September 2007, the countries with themost Confucius Insti tutes (either established or with agreements in hand to do so) were the United States (32), theUnited Kingdom (16), Thailand (13), South Korea (12), Japan (11), Russia (10), Germany (8), France (6), and Mexico (5).25 South Korea had the first overseas Confucius Institute, set up in Seoul in November 2004. The Confucius Institute project is very much a work in progress. Be cause the institutes are so new, many of them are still carving out an iden tity and have yet to grapple with or are doing so on things such as head-office evaluations, teaching material issues, and so on. (In evaluating is concerned with things such as quality the Confucius Institutes, Hanban of instruction, management performance, and impact on society. Specific evaluation standards are being dealt with by a new department created at the head office,whose board was planning to set up a special project com

mittee to deal with evaluation issues. People involved in Confucius Insti tute activities around theworld were to be invited to join.) Although China is said to have "sent more than 300 teachers and presented over 300,000 sets of textbooks and audio materials to Confucius Institutes with a total investment of over 26 million dollars,"26 theremay still be a shortage of resources for the fast growth of Confucius Institutes worldwide. Hanban has been giving great attention to theway inwhich the institutes develop, creating guidelines and training programs to boost the quality of manage ment and teaching.27

State Institute at Michigan 23. Other emphases are distance learning at the Confucius Institute at theUniversity of Iowa. The University and theory and pedagogy at the Confucius inNairobi offers instruction over the radio. Radio Confucius Classroom 24. Comment 25. Based 26. in an interview, September 5, 2007. by a U.S. university administrator 1 for a list of the institutes. on a list supplied tome by Hanban. See Appendix of Confucius Sound Development "Chinese Education Minister Vows toMaintain

12, 2007, <http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90782/6319838. Institute," Xinhua, December html>, accessed January 27, 2008. 27. Ibid.

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second Confucius Institute Conference inChina. People involved inChi nese language education also met in Washington, D.C., inApril 2008 for a National Chinese Language Conference, partially sponsored by Hanban. Support has also come from Chinese embassies and consulates, which have sometimes provided information on applicants or have acted as inter mediaries between the applicants and Hanban. On some occasions, Chi nese ambassadors have inked agreements on behalf of Hanban for the creation of Confucius Institutes.

Institutes has been gradually in among Confucius InMarch 2008, Chinese and foreign directors from fiveConfucius creasing. Institutes in Nordic countries came together for the first time in a forum in Stockholm to discuss ways to cooperate. Conferences have been held in Thailand, Japan, and the United States; inDecember 2007, representa tives of Confucius Institutes from around the world met in Beijing for a

Other Language and Culture Promotion Activities
Another way inwhich Hanban is promoting Chinese language learning, this time focused on theUnited States, is through a Chinese Language and Culture Initiative with theCollege Board.28 One of the components of the program, announced in 2006, is a Guest Teachers program that brings Chinese teachers to theU.S. to teach in schools at theK-12 level.29Other to China," aspects of the program include the "Chinese Bridge Delegation which enables U.S. educators to travel to China during the summer to

learn about Chinese language, culture, and education30 and another bridge program that sends U.S. high school students to China during the summer months to study Chinese language and culture.31 In 2003, College Board and Chinese officials announced that an Advanced Placement Program

Culture

the Office of Chinese Language Council and International, "Chinese Language Initiative," at <http://www.hanban.org/en_hanban/zdxm_more.php?ithd=apzwxm>, accessed November is an organization involved in assessing 15, 2007. The College Board students for college admissions such as the SAT. It also runs the through examinations Placement Board, 29. College program for high schools. "Chinese Guest Teacher Program Helps Thousands of U.S. Students," accessed Octo

28.

See

Advanced

13, 2007, <http://www.collegeboard.com/press/releases/185064.html>, August ber 14, 2007.

ture Initiative," <http://www.hanban.org/enJianban/zdxm_more.php?ithd=apzwxm>, November 15, 2007.

30. Ibid., "Destination China: 800 U.S. Education Leaders Tour China," June 18, 2007, accessed October 14, 2007. <http://www.collegeboard.com/press/releases/180235.html>, 31. The Office of Chinese Language Council and Cul International, "Chinese Language accessed

JAMES PARADISE F. Course

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from theU.S., theU.K., and South Korea, and the provision of scholar ships for students from around theworld.33 It also administers theChinese Proficiency Test, commonly known as HSK for itsChinese name Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi.34

and Examination inChinese Language and Culture was to be cre ated with financial assistance from theChinese government.32 Hanban has also been involved inmore broad-based activities, includ ing international teacher training courses, a summer camp for students

The International Context
The promotion of Chinese language and culture is coming at a timewhen China's rise is prompting concern or alarm in some countries and regions, particularly theU.S. and Europe. Much of the alarm comes from concerns about the buildup of China's hard power, both in themilitary sphere and in the economic sphere.35 In the military sphere, the focus has been on

defense expenditures, which have been increasing rapidly in recent years. Although China says thatmore military spending is needed to pay higher salaries and to upgrade equipment and bolster defensive war fight ing capabilities, others are afraid that China might use itsmore modern military for offensive purposes. This view, in effect,downplays more mod erate explanations that see China's increased military spending as the product of domestic politics, namely, the need forChina's current political

China's

Course

32. College Board, "Chinese Officials and College Board Announce Advanced Placement in Chinese Language and Culture," December 5, 2003, <http://www.collegeboard. accessed October 14, 2007. com/press/releases/30831.html>, for Chinese Language "International Training Courses and Teachers Teaching in Shanghai," November 12,2007; idem, "Summer Camp for Foreign Students," January 10, 2007; and idem, "Chinese Bridge Fund," all on the website of the Office of Chinese Lan 33. See

Held

definition of hard power would restrict the term to activities in themilitary sphere, giving a to Kurlantzik, "When the Chinese gov broader province to soft power activities. According means all power outside themilitary ernment talks about its new soft power in the world, it sphere, including diplomacy, aid, investment, and economic tools." See his book talk-related Soft Power Is Transforming theWorld," essay, "Charm Offensive: How China's Foreign 2007, <http://www.fpri.org/enotes/200708.kurlantzick. Institute, August Policy Research plications

International, <http://www.hanban.edu.cn>. guage Council 34. See Hanban website, <http://www.hanban.org/en_hanban/content.php?id=1547>. 35. There are different ways to define "hard power" and "soft power." A more

limited

a trade surplus is used to promote a military buildup then itwould be a hard power tool; but if it is used to build bridges in a country as part of an economic aid program, then itwould be a soft power tool.

Im "China's Charm: and similar comments in his publication, chinacharmoffensive.html>; of Chinese Soft Power," Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, policy brief (June 2006). In my view, the key issue is how a resource is used. If an economic asset such as

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With China using part of its massive trade surplus with theU.S. industry. to buy U.S. Treasury securities, there is a concern that this could give China undue leverage. Things came to a head in 2005 when China Na tional Offshore Oil Corporation's attempt to buy Unocal Corp. was fromU.S. lawmakers. Another problem China faces stopped by opposition is criticism over its relationship with countries with poor human rights re cords, including Sudan and Myanmar. China is seen variously as coddling these regimes for economic benefit (energy resources, trade, and so on) or not doing enough to encourage change. What all this adds up to is the view that China is a threat?to thewell

leaders to win themilitary's support to stay in power.36 Concerns also ex tend to China's activities in space, which involved a missile test in 2007 that knocked out an old Chinese satellite. In the economic sphere, there is a perception that China is benefiting from unfair trade practices, in par ticular an allegedly undervalued currency, and government subsidies to

being of foreign companies, toU.S. security, to peace and stability, and to human rights. Worse, forChina, is that these perceptions are now translat ing into government policy. In theU.S., the Bush administration in 2007 decided on a preliminary basis to slap countervailing duties on some Chi nese paper imports; three times that year itfiled complaints against China at the World Trade Organization (WTO), once on government subsidies, once on intellectual property issues, and once on market access. Bills have also been making theirway around theU.S. Congress thatwould penalize

U.S. about the safety of Chinese products. But at a more general level, China's strategy has been of a different sort, signing onto international treaties and attempting to live up to them, hosting talks on matters such as North Korea, and negotiating the end of border disputes?all meant to reassure people of China's peaceful intentions. As Bates Gill has argued, "The Chinese leadership has since the late 1990s implemented a new secu rity diplomacy, which ismore confident, proactive, and convergent with
international norms, and

China for its alleged unfair trade practices. China has been fighting back with specific actions such as filing its own WTO, on the countervailing duty issue. complaint against theU.S. at the It has also blocked some U.S. products from entering China because of what it says are "safety" issues?this coming amid major concerns in the

Among theways thisnew securitydiplomacy has been carried out has been through "such measures as participating in regional securitymechanisms
36. Susan Shirk makes an argument of this type in her book, China: (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 73-74. 37. Gill, Rising Star, p. 203. Fragile Superpower

generally

speaking,

with

U.S.

interests."37

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and confidence-building measures, expanding its peacekeeping and coun terterrorism activities, and improving its nonproliferation and arms con trol policies at home and abroad."38 According to Avery Goldstein, who makes a similar argument, China has what amounts to a "grand strategy"

benefits of engagement with China as well as the counterproductive con sequences of attempting to threaten, isolate or contain it."39 What needs to be added to these analyses is an explicit discussion of China's use of soft power, particularly in the language and cultural realms, as an instrument of its foreign policy. As Joseph Nye, themodern exposi tor of the concept, has defined soft power, "It is the ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments. It arises from the attractiveness of a country's culture, political ideals and policies."40 China's

manifest through its "increased participation in that is multilateral forums, restrained currency policy, and active cultivation of major power partner ships [which] are designed tomute perceptions of a 'China threat,' to build China's reputation as a responsible actor, and to convince others of the

use of soft power may still be limited today, but it is growing in importance. An important question is what do Chinese think about soft power, both those persons directly associated with the Confucius Institute project and those further away? Are Confucius Institutes a part of the soft power offensive, if one can use such a description to characterize China's new cultural diplomacy?

China's Views of Soft Power
One finding is that some Chinese in the education field do not see the cre ation of Confucius Institutes as part of a soft power offensive and even bristle at the suggestion. "I don't think the creation of Confucius Insti tutes has anything to do with soft power and the rise of China. It is better to think of it academically, not politically," said one Chinese university administrator involved in the setting up of a Confucius Institute.41 The

notion thatChina wants to increase its soft power via Confucius Institutes is a "wrong idea" and "misleading," he said. "Please let us do things aca demically, peacefully. Students will benefit and teachers will benefit."42 "I don't thinkwe need to push the Said the program director at Hanban,

38.

Ibid. to Success inWorld Politics (New York: 13, 2007.

39. Goldstein, Rising to theChallenge, p. 175. 40. Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Soft Power: The Means Public Affairs, 2004), p. x. 41. 42.

Interview with a Chinese university administrator, Shanghai, China, Ibid.

September

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Western developed countries."45 descending approach and notion created by chairman of the Industrial and Wan also noted that Jiang Jianqing, Bank of China, saw soft power as very much a part of Commercial "China's thousands of years of history, culture and philosophy" and es sentially what Confucius's Analects, & compilation of his main ideas, is
concerned with.46

language and culture?it iswhat people need." He added thatmany uni versities around the world were eager to set up Confucius Institutes: "I don't like soft power. I think power is aggressive. We just do something all people like."43 In a similar vein, Wan Lixin, a columnist for Shanghai Daily, wrote in September 2007 that after a panel discussion on soft power inDalian on soft power should "be reminded that some foreigners who lecture people regard power suspiciously."44 He added that "Veteran diplomat Sha Zukang flatly rejected thewhole idea of 'soft power,' calling it a con

called for bolstering the country's soft power through cultural develop ment: "Cultural development, a main theme in building a country's soft power, plays a significant role in enhancing comprehensive national power."48 The importance of increasing soft power has also been sounded in other contexts. During the seven-nation African tour of Premier Wen Jiabao in June 2006, an article on a Chinese government website said that new opportunities existed for bolstering cultural exchanges between China

While it is understandable that people in the education field might not instead to think of the Confucius like the idea of soft power?preferring as a vehicle for academic exchange and mutual understanding?it Institutes is clear that the idea has considerable support at the highest levels of the Chinese government. In his keynote speech at the 17thNational Congress of the Communist Party of China inOctober 2007, President Hu Jintao called for increasing China's soft power through cultural enhancement for reasons of national cohesion and overall national strength.47 In July of that year, Jia Qinglin, chairman of theNational Committee of the Chi nese People's Political Consultative Conference, at a seminar on soft power

43. Hanban 44. Wan Shanghai Daily, 45. Ibid. 46. 47. Ibid. "Hu

interview. "The U.S. Is Told Hard 13, 2007. Facts about Soft Power with a 'Chinese Touch'," September

Lixin,

Jintao Calls

for Enhancing

'Soft Power'

of Chinese

15, 2007, <http://english.cpcnews.cn/92243/6283153.html>, Seminar of 48. "China's Top Advisory Body Holds <http://www.gov.cn/english/2007-07/25/content_695451.htm>,

Culture," Xinhua, October accessed October 14, 2007.

'Soft Power'," ibid., July 25, 2007, accessed November 1, 2007.

JAMES PARADISE F.

659

and African countries.49 Shortly before a Shanghai Cooperation Organiza tion (SCO) summit that same month, thewebsite quoted a Chinese scholar on how cultural cooperation could be used to strengthen relations between
member states.50

of concerns about Chinese interference in foreign academic life. In other words, great sensitivitywas needed in how to present the idea. This is an important issue worthy of further consideration.

It isworth asking why there is such a division between what some edu cation officials and some high-level political leaders think about soft power. Itmay have something to do with the fact that as Hanban and other edu cation officials ventured out into theworld, they found some resistance to the idea of setting up Confucius Institutes on university campuses because

A Chinese Trojan Horse?
The constitution and by-laws of the Confucius Institutes state that they "shall not contravene concerning the laws and regulations of China" and "shall not involve or participate in any activities that are not consistent with themissions of the Confucius Institute."51 These rules also state that Institutes are to conduct their instruction in Mandarin the Confucius

49. "China, Africa Boost Soft Power through Cultural Exchanges," ibid., June 18, 2006, accessed November 1, 2007. <http://www.gov.cn/misc/2006-06/18/content_313770.htm>, 'Soft Power' for SCO Development," 50. "Cultural Exchange Boost ibid., June 13, 2006, accessed November 1, 2007. <http://www.gov.cn/misc/2006-06/13/content_308632.htm>,

Institute 51. In December 2007, a new governing council was created for the Confucius in Beijing. Chaired by Chen Zhili, Chinese state councilor, the council also had headquarters 12 executive directors five vice-chairmen from two Chinese ministries and the State Council; from a variety of Chinese ministries, government organizations or departments; and 15 coun

By-Laws

or by-laws found at theOffice of Chinese Language Council International, "Constitution and of the Confucius Institutes (Provisional Version)," <http://www.hanban.org/en_ accessed April 17, 2008, can also be seen to have changed hanban/kzxy_list.php?ithd=xyzc>, from an earlier version accessed November 19, 2007. In that version, the constitution and

Institutes. The council agreed to a number of cilmen, including 10 from overseas Confucius changes to the constitution and by-laws, two of which were to set up a consultative committee and to employ Chinese and foreigners as senior advisors. The wording of a number of articles

Institutes "shall not contravene the laws and regulations of by-laws state that the Confucius in any political, religious, ethnic/racial, or any China" and "shall not involve or participate in Beijing "is the highest regulatory body of the such related activities"; that the headquarters Confucius

that the chair, vice chair, and executive council members will Institutes worldwide"; is be "appointed by the Chinese government"; and that a responsibility of the headquarters to be to select and appoint "deans and faculties for the Chinese partners." The conclusion articles in the new constitution and by-laws have drawn from the changes seems clear?some been considerably concerns. watered-down from the earlier version, possibly in response to foreign

660

ASIAN

SURVEY,

VOL. XLIX,

NO.

4, JULY/AUGUST

2009

sions between the headquarters and the overseas Confucius Institutes. For example, would the provisions on obeying the laws of China and not be coming involved in activities contrary to themission of the Confucius In stitutes preclude classroom discussions on topics sensitive to the Chinese government such as Taiwan or Tibet? What about the necessity of using in Beijing? Does that teaching materials supplied by the headquarters mean that teachers overseas would not be able to use any materials of their own choosing? And if they do, or engage in any activities that find them in contravention of the stated rules, does thatmean that theywould receive a negative evaluation? (Activities of great concern to Hanban, which could even be the basis for legal action, include ones that cause financial loss or

Institutes worldwide" body that provides guidelines to the Confucius and will be governed by a council whose chair, vice-chair, and executive council members "shall be recommended by the education administrative agency of the Chinese State Council and approved by the State Council" (Article 13).53 Among the responsibilities of the headquarters is "examining and ap proving the implementation plans of annual projects" and "selecting and appointing directors and faculties from the Chinese side for individual Confucius Institutes."54 One duty of theConfucius Institutes is "to accept both supervision from and assessments made by the headquarters."55 In information elsewhere, on the "Standard Model forConfucius Institutes," foreign parties that apply to establish a Confucius Institute should be will ing to "accept Confucius Institutes' operation model and teaching model and be able to accept the oversight, evaluation and certification by the Head Office once the institute is established."56 Section VIII, Item D (1) makes clear, "All institutesmust use the unified set of teaching materials supplied by theHead Office."57 One can see how some of these provisions might create problems or ten

Chinese and that simplified Chinese ing to Article 12, the headquarters

characters are to be used.5 Accord office in Beijing "is the regulatory

Language Council Institutes (Provisional Version)." in some other places, such as Hong Kong China; are not the norm. of theConfucius 53. 54. 55. fucius Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Language Council

52. The Office of Chinese

and By-Laws International, "Constitution Mainland Simplified characters are used in and Taiwan,

they are not typically used, or

56. The Office of Chinese

International,

"Standard

Model

for Con accessed

Institutes," <http://english.hanban.edu.cn/market/HanBanE/412379.htm>, September 5, 2007. 57. Ibid.

F. JAMES PARADISE

661

joke that, for once, theywant China to provide more central guidance,"60 a reference to themany uncertainties that surround the start of this new project. But there is uneasiness in some quarters of academia, and we can note that there are no Ivy League colleges in the U.S. on the list of Confucius Institutes. Regarding the absence of Harvard and Yale from the list, theHanban program director said, "Some people were inter ested, some people were opposed. We understand that."61 The establish ment of Confucius Institutes at some smaller universities may be related to the fact that, according to one Confucius Institute director, Hanban's at least its original model?was to target local communities or model?or Americans) colleges that lacked strong Chinese language programs. There are major exceptions such as theUniversity of California, Los Angeles, which has a very strong Chinese language program. With interference in academic lifebeing a concern thatHanban officials are hearing about as they interactwith educators around theworld, it seems

shown?58 One thing that can be said is that some quarters of American academia are wary. A typical comment, by a U.S. professor, is: "We need to think about how we will manage and develop China studies, rather than have China decide."59 Chinese involvement is not necessarily a cause forAmeri can alarm if it enables universities with few funds to expand, or begin, Chinese language programs. And not all are worried about Chinese gov ernment intrusion. As one news story put it, "Some program directors (all

harm the reputation of the Confucius Institutes.) Itmay be that these is sues are only now being tested, given the newness of the whole Con fucius Institute project. As is so often the case in China, there is often a big gap between formal rules and regulations and actual practice. Might not language and cultural promotion be an area where great flexibility is

58. Two telephone interviews I conducted on November 30, 2007, suggest there is flexibil Institute said she believed her institute ity. In one interview, the director of a U.S. Confucius was "not regulated to strictly use Hanban materials" and that doing so was only a "sugges tion." "Teachers decide themselves the materials most suitable for the classroom and in the best interests of the students," she said. In another interview, a person highly knowledgeable Institute said that she doubted Hanban would force Confucius about another U.S. Confucius Institutes would to use their teaching materials. "I think Hanban is very flexible. Of course, they like us to use theirmaterials, but they are not very strict about it." She said she did not likemost Hanban materials, including the textbooks, and that there was a lack of understand studies conference You in the United States in 2007.

ing of what was needed locally. 59. I heard this comment at an Asian 60. Carol Huang,

Christian Science Monitor, accessed Novem January 4, 2007, <http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0104/pl7s01-legn.html>, ber 14, 2007. "Vv^hyChina Wants 61. Hanban interview.

to Learn Chinese,"

662

ASIAN SURVEY, VOL. XLIX, NO. 4, JULY/AUGUST 2009

to theOffice of Chinese Language Council International. Regardless of the motivations, the new name does not contain theword "National." Maybe the best way to think of the Confucius Institute project is as a type of impressionmanagement, an effortby China to craft a positive image of itself in a world fraught with danger. Faced with tremendous anxiety about China in theU.S. and other major trading partners, Confucius Insti tutes help create the impression of a kinder and gentler China. In this re spect, the Confucius

sensible to think that they are giving much thought to how to sell the con cept of Confucius Institutes.Marketing itas wholly academic, as many Chi nese educators seem to see it, is likely a better approach than associating it with a soft power offensive or conscious projection of Chinese interests, which are both political considerations. Though it is unclear why it hap pened, we can note thatHanban's English-language name has been changed from theChina National Office forTeaching Chinese as a Foreign Language

Confucius Institutes, the concern has been that Hanban will have a great deal of power in influencing teaching and other language and cultural pro motion activities, either directly or indirectly. The "strings" associated with money may be fairly loose, and foreign directors and others may accepting have input into decision-making and policy issues affecting the Confucius Institutes, but there is a lingering concern among some that the project will be a way forChina to subtly expand its influence abroad. Ultimately, how ever, the success of theConfucius Institute project will be highly dependent on the attractiveness of Chinese culture, which makes it essentially a soft power activity, or an activitywith a large softpower component.

Institute project fits inwell with the notion of China's peaceful development. Itmay also be part of a grand strategy to increase the country's attractiveness as a major power. But it is not entirely a soft power strategy,as Nye defines that approach: while it may not rely on coer cion, itdoes rely on payments. In providing money for the establishment of

There are two difficulties in saying whether the establishment of Confucius Institutes is helping China win friends around the world. One is that the Confucius Institute project is so new that it is hard to know what its im pact has been; another is that it is difficult to disentangle the effects of Confucius Institutes from a variety of other cultural promotion activities. Still, one can try to get at the issue of soft power by looking at public opinion polls.62 One BBC World Service poll whose results were announced

Measuring Success

62. This Power (2004).

is an approach

used by Nye

in attempting

tomeasure

U.S.

soft power. See his Soft

F. JAMES PARADISE in March

663

2007 found that an average of 42% of people polled in 26 coun tries, excluding China, had a mainly positive view of China's influence in the world, and 32% had a mainly negative view.63 In a similar BBC poll whose results were announced in February 2006, the numbers were 45% mainly positive and 27% mainly negative,64 while a March 2005 survey found 48% of people mainly positive on China's influence and 30% mainly negative.65 One factor thatmay have affected the results was a perception thatChina had become more authoritarian.66 The impact thatChina's soft power may have had on the people's responses was not mentioned, but one poll-related director said, "Countries that related to theworld primar ily through soft power, like Japan, France and the EU in general, tend to be viewed positively."67 Another poll, this one part of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, also found a deterioration in the image of China in the world between 2005 and 2007. According to a summary of the findings, nine countries in the poll (conducted in spring 2007) had less favorable views of China over the period, one had a more favorable view, and five countries remained about the same.68 "Large majorities inmany countries think that China's grow ingmilitary might is a bad thing, and the publics of many advanced na tions are increasingly concerned about the impact of China's economic
on their own countries," a Pew statement said.69

power

63. Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), "Views of Countries, Question March 2007. PIPA, at the University of Maryland, 2007," March naire, and Methodology, an international polling carried out the poll for the BBC World Service with GlobeScan, company. See <http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/mar07/BBC_ViewsCountries_ accessed November 13, 2007. Mar07_quaire.pdf>, and Service Poll: Global Views of Countries, Questionnaire, 64. PIPA, "BBC World This survey, without China, covered 32 countries. See <http://www.worldpub Methodology." licopinion.org/pipa/pdf/feb06/ViewsCountries_Feb06_quaire.pdf>, 2007. accessed November 17,

65. PIPA, "22-Nation Poll Shows China Viewed Positively by Most Countries Its Asian Neighbors," <http://www.globescan.com/news_archives/bbcpoll3.html>, November 13, 2007. 66. World Public Opinion.org, "Global Poll Finds Iran Viewed Negatively," php?nid=&id=&pnt= Ratings in Global worldpublicopinion. accessed November 67. Ibid., "Israel org/pipa/articles/home_page/168. 17, 2007. and Iran Share Most Negative

Including accessed

168&lb=hmpg Poll,"

<http://www. 1 >, <http://www.

worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/home_page/325.php?nid=&id=&pnt=325&lb=hmpgl>, accessed November 13, 2007. The comment is by Steven Kull, director of PIPA. 68. Pew Global Attitudes Project, "Global Unease with Major World Powers,"

released

accessed November June 27, 2007, <http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=256>, could be made 15, 2007. The 15 countries in the 2007 poll were those forwhich comparisons in a 2005 poll. 69. Ibid.

with countries

664

2009 VOL. XLIX, NO. 4, JULY/AUGUST ASIAN SURVEY,

more uphill struggle as criticism of its authoritarian system continually puts it on the defensive. Constructive behavior within international institu tions would bode well forChina in the foreign policy sphere, but its image would be wrecked by aggressive action in trouble spots, such as Taiwan. Much will also depend on how skillfullyChina can carry out public di plomacy. One could argue that inmany contentious areas, including Tai wan, Tibet, Sudan, Myanmar, the Falun Gong organization and so on,

Whether China's soft-power projection succeeds will ultimately depend on the sources fromwhich soft power derives?a country's culture, the at its political values, and its foreign policies, as Nye states.70 tractiveness of On the culture front, China may have the easiest time: there is already widespread interest inChinese food, music, art, and so on. Many people around theworld want to study Chinese, ifnot because of an intrinsic in terest in the language, which is very difficult to learn, then because of its usefulness for doing business. On the political front, China may have a

China's performance has been dismal. In other areas, such as nudging for eigners to think of China as a developing country rather than a great civi lization, it has been more successful.71 (As a developing country, China is able to insist that different standards be applied to itor that itbe cut more slack, in areas such as environmental protection.) Itmay be that whether China's soft power projection succeeds will de pend on the particular audience. China may find it easier to win friends (or solidify relationships) with developing countries with whom it shares political values. Indeed, public opinion polls show that China is generally viewed more positively in developing countries.72 The question iswhether China can build new constituencies in countries it has less in common

with, including many inEurope and also theUnited States. Only timewill tell whether the Confucius Institutes can help spark a more sympathetic understanding of China and usher in a more benign view of it. In August 2008, theworld was exposed towhat is likely to be one of the greatest soft power projections of all time, the staging of the Beijing Olympic Games.

Soft Power "Can China's 70. Nye, Soft Power, pp. 11-15. See also James F. Paradise, Offensive Succeed?" AsiaMedia, March 5, 2007, <http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/article.asp? parentid=65078>. 71. This characterization was of China?attributed to a China scholar in the United States?

JanMelissen, The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations 2005), pp. 88-105. This paragraph Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, U.K.: from a conversation with an Asian studies scholar. 72. See, for example, the BBC World Service polls.

relayed tome by Robert Adanto, director of an interesting documentary on the contem art scene entitled "Rising Tide." For a rare recent look at China's public porary Chinese in of China," in the People's Republic "Public Diplomacy diplomacy, see Ingrid d'Hooghe, (Houndmills, has benefited

JAMES PARADISE F.

665

driving forces for its economic development. Judging the Confucius Insti tutes in the terms inwhich Chinese university administrators view them, may produce a conclusion of a different sort.

it is far from clear that it is), the real winners may be China's universities, which can expand their contacts and exchanges with foreign academic in stitutions. As China attempts to become an "innovation society" and bol ster its scientific capability, increased communication and exchanges with foreign scholars facilitated by the Confucius Institutes could be a huge in a country whose opening to theworld is one of the benefit?especially

Judging theConfucius Institutes from the standpoint of expanding Chi nese soft power, however, may be thewrong standard formeasuring their success. Itmay be thatChina does not get as much "bang for the buck" as itwould like from its investment inConfucius Institutes in terms of win ning hearts and mind around theworld.73 But even if that were true (and

Hanban

Institute varies, according to the amount of money provided to each Confucius program director in an email of January 11, 2008. Funding decisions are made after Institutes are submitted to Hanban. the working plans and budgets of individual Confucius 73. The

APPENDIX

1 Confucius Institutes Worldwide (Institutes Established toBe Established), as of September 23, 2007
Country Pakistan Philippines Georgia Kazakhstan South Korea

or

Region Asia and

EnglishName
Confucius Confucius East Confucius Confucius Confucius Institute in Islamabad Institute at Ateneo Institute at Tbilisi National Institute at Bulacan Institute at Eurasian University, State University Institute of Asia and Africa University, Confucius de Manila

Middle

University Confucius Institute in Seoul, Confucius Institute atWoosong Institute at Chungnam National University, Confucius Institute at Dong-A University, University, Confucius Confucius Institute at Dongseo University, Confucius Institute at Honam University, Confucius Institute at Chunbuk Kangwon Keimyung National National University, Confucius University, Confucius Institute at Institute at

Institute at Kazakh

Institute at Daebul University, Confucius Institute at Soon Chun Hyang University, Confucius University, Confucius Institute at Daejin University Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia Bangladesh Nepal Institute at Saint-Joseph University Global Chinese Jiaotong University-Malaysia Language Center Confucius Institute at National University ofMongolia Confucius University at North South University Shanghai Confucius

Confucius Institute at Kathmandu University JapanConfucius Institute atWaseda University, Confucius Institute at Ritsumeikan, Confucius Institute at Obirin University, Confucius at Hokuriku Institute at Aichi University, Confucius Institute University, Confucius Institute at Sapporo Institute at Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific Institute at Okayama Shoka Institute at Osaka Sangyo University, of Confucius Institute at of Classroom of Kelaniya

University, Confucius University, Confucius

University, Confucius Tokyo Confucius Classroom

Ritsumeikan, Takashima Confucius Confucius Institute at Obirin Sri Lanka Thailand Confucius Confucius Institute at the University Institute at Chulalongkorn

University, Confucius Institute at Kasetsart University, Confucius Institute at Khon Kaen University, Confucius Institute at Mae Fah Institute at Chiang Mai Luang University, Confucius Institute at Prince of Songkla University, Confucius University, Confucius Institute at Mahasarakham Institute at Bansomdejchaopraya University, Confucius Institute at Suan Dusit Rajabhat Rajabhat, Confucius

University at Suphanburi, Confucius Institute at Phuket, Prince of Songkla University; Confucius Institute at Betong Institute at Burapha University, Confucius Municipality, Confucius Class at Traimit Wittayalai High School (continued)

APPENDIX
Region Asia and

1 Continued
Country Turkey Middle East Uzbekistan Singapore Israel

EnglishName
Confucius Radio Classroom Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius India Confucius Confucius Institute at Middle Classroom in Istanbul Institute inTashkent Institute, Nanyang Technological Institute in Singapore University, East Technical inAnkara, Confucius University, Radio Confucius

Institute at Tel Aviv University Institute of Jawaharlal Nehru University,

Hong

Kong

Confucius

Institute at VIT University Institute of Hong Kong

(China)
Africa Egypt Confucius Institute at Cairo University, at Egypt Suez Canal University, Radio inAlexander Classroom Institute at theUniversity Institute at theUniversity inNairobi Confucius Classroom Institute at the Kigali Institute at theAntananarivo Confucius Confucius Institute

Zimbabwe Kenya Rwanda Madagascar South Africa

Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Center

of Zimbabwe of Nairobi, CRI

Institute of Education

for Chinese

University Studies at the University of

Institute at Tshwane University Stellenbosch, Confucius of Technology, Confucius Institute at University of Cape Town Nigeria Cameroon Europe Ireland Austria Belarus Bulgaria Belgium Poland Germany Confucius Confucius UCD Institute at Nnamdi Institute at University of Lagos, Azikiwe University Institute at theUniversity Institute Confucius

of Yaounde

Confucius

Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius

Institute at theUniversity of Vienna State University Institute at Belarusian Institute in Sophia Institute in Brussels, Confucius T Class at GROUP Institute inKrakow Institute at the Free University of Berlin, Institute at the University of D?sseldorf, Institute

in Liege, Confucius

at Friedrich-Alexander Confucius Institute N?rnberg Institute at Frankfurt University, University, Confucius Confucius Institute at theUniversity of Heidelberg, Confucius Institute at the University of Hamburg, Confucius theUniversity Institute inHannover, of Leipzig Confucius

Institute at

{continued)

APPENDIX
Region Europe

1 Continued
Country Russia

EnglishName
Confucius Confucius Institute at Far Eastern National Institute at Russian University, State University for the Institute at Saint-Petersburg Institute at Irkutsk State State

Confucius Humanities, State University, Confucius University, Confucius

Institute at Novosibirsk

Confucius Institute at Kazan University of Technology, State University, Confucius Institute at Blagoveshchensk National Confucius France English Confucius Pedagogical Classroom, names University, SPPU Radio two other institutes without

Institute at the University of Poitiers, Confucius Institute at Paris 7 Denis-Diderot University, Confucius Institute of the Chinese Cultural Center in Paris, Confucius Institute in Brittany, Confucius Institute in La Institute in Strasbourg of Helsinki

Confucius Norway Finland The Netherlands Republic Slovak Republic Romania Portugal Sweden Serbia Ukraine Spain Czech Rochelle, Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Nordic

Institute in Bergen Institute at the University

Institute in theHague Institute at Palacky University Institute at Slovak University of Technology Institute at theUniversity of Sibiu Institute at the University ofMinho of Lisbon, Confucius

Institute at the University Confucius Confucius Confucius

Institute in Stockholm National Pedagogical

Institute in Belgrade Institute at Luhansk

University Confucius Institute in Institute at the Madrid, Confucius Confucius Institute at the University of Granada, University of Valencia Confucius Institute at Eotvos Confucius Lorand University Institute at theUniversity of Rome La Sapienza, Confucius Institute at Oriental University of Napoli London Confucius Institute for Institute, Confucius Institute at Specialist Business, London, Confucius Institute for Schools and Academies Trust, Confucius Scotland in theUniversity of Edinburgh, Confucius Institute at theUniversity Institute at theUniversity Institute at the University ofManchester, of Nottingham, Confucius Confucius Institute Institute

Hungary Italy United Kingdom

at theUniversity ofWales, at Cardiff University, Confucius Chinese Medicine, English names London,

of Sheffield, Confucius Lampeter, Confucius

Institute for Traditional

six other institutes without

(continued)

APPENDIX
Region

1 Continued
Country The Canada

EnglishName
Confucius Americas University Confucius Institute at BCIT, Confucius Institute at the ofWaterloo, Confucius Institute inQuebec, Institute inNew Brunswick

United

States

Confucius

Institute at theUniversity ofMaryland, Confucius Institute inChicago, Confucius Institute at San Francisco

State University, Confucius Institute at China Institute at theUniversity of Kansas, Institute, Confucius Confucius Institute at theUniversity of Hawaii at Manoa, Confucius Institute at University ofMassachusetts Institute at the University of Iowa, Boston, Confucius Confucius Institute at Michigan State University, Confucius Institute at Pace University, Confucius Institute at theUniversity of Oklahoma, Confucius Institute at Purdue University, Confucius Institute at North Carolina State University, Confucius Institute at Bryant University,

Confucius Institute at the University of California, Los Institute at Portland State University, Angeles, Confucius Confucius Institute at the University of Rhode Island, Confucius Institute at the Community College of Denver, Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius Indianapolis, Mexico Institute at New Mexico Institute at theUniversity State University, of Nebraska Lincoln,

Institute at theUniversity of Pittsburgh, Institute at Arizona State University, Institute at theUniversity of Oregon, Institute at theUniversity ofMemphis, Institute atWayne State University, Confucius the State University of New Jersey, Institute at University of Central Arkansas, Institute at Valparaiso University, Confucius Institute in University, Confucius Confucius Institute at theUniversity of

Institute at Rutgers,

Institute at Miami

Confucius Classroom inDenver Wisconsin-Platteville, Confucius Institute in Mexico Institute at City, Confucius the Universidad Aut?noma de Nuevo Leon, Confucius Institute at the Universidad Confucius Aut?noma Universidad de Mexico, Aut?noma Aut?noma Institute at theUniversidad Confucius de Chihuahua de Yucatan, Nacional

Institute at the

Colombia Oceania Australia

Confucius Confucius Confucius Confucius

Institute in Medellin Institute at theUniversity ofWestern Australia, Institute at theUniversity ofMelbourne, Institute at the Institute inAdelaide, Confucius

New SOURCE:

Zealand

University of Queensland Confucius Institute inAuckland Language Council International.

The Office of Chinese


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