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2016广东高考英语一轮复习专题完形填空解题技巧分63ppt析


近年高考完形填空题型特点
1. 以叙为主, 叙议结合;
2. 篇章短小, 意义完整;

3. 首句完整, 主题明确;
4. 结构清晰, 层次分明; 5. 考查语境, 侧重辨析; 6. 实词为主, 虚词为辅; 7. 逻辑推理, 隐于语篇; 8. 常识语法, 每年出现。

形散意不散 貌离神不离
1. 通常从一篇250词左右,夹叙夹议的文章中 设空20个,首句不挖空; 2.考点层次可分为四类:单词层次,词组层 次,句子层次与语篇层次,突出语篇的理 解,突出文化背景; 3.干扰项设计严密,一般说来,四个选项的 词性相同或属于同等或对等范畴,干扰项填 入后在语法上并不存在错误,对考生有很大 的迷惑作用。

四大要素 一个主题
词汇
逻辑 语法 常识

+

语境

完形填空解题步骤 通览------试填-----复核 1 通览----速读全文,把握大意
快速阅读一下全文,通过通览全文、领会大意, 概略地了解文章的体裁、背景、内容、结构层次、 情节、写作风格等等。

2 试填----紧扣文意,瞻前顾后
先易后难,逐层深入。紧扣全文内容,联系上下 文和语境,展开逻辑推理,注意从上下文中寻找线 索,注意词汇的意义、搭配,惯用法,语法,常识 等多个角度进行综合考虑。

3 复核----全面检查,确保语意连贯, 用词准确
试填后,要把全文再通读一遍 ,注 意看所选答案填入空白处后能否做到文 章意思通顺、前后连贯、逻辑严谨、结 构完整、首尾呼应。

完形填空的解题步骤
把握整体 具体分析

跳过空格,通读全文, 把握大意 结合选项,综合考虑,初定答案 瞻前顾后,先易后难, 个个击破 再读全文,反复检查

Today’s task:
1、掌握三种常考文体
2、掌握四种常考类型

三类常考文体:

记叙文、说明文和议论文 (主要是夹叙夹议类)

被选作完形填空的短文,有一半以上是记 叙文,所以,掌握记叙文的写作特点,会 有助于我们快速而准确地破解完形填空的 解题方法和思路。 试题特征:一般都有较为完整的六个要素, 为了便于理解,首句不挖空,所以,时间、 地点、人物和事件等要素,基本可以在这 部分找到。

例2: (NMET2000) I climbed the stairs slowly slowly, carrying with a big suitcase, my father following with two more. By the time I got to the third floor, I was 1 and the same time feeling lonely. Worse still, Dad 2 a step and fell fell,sending my new suitcase 3 down the stairs. 1. A.helpless B. lazy C. anxious D. tired 2. A. took B. minded C. missed D.picked 3. A. rolling B. passing C. dropping D. turning

说明文写作的宗旨,就是要把欲说的 或欲写的内容说得清楚、写得明白, 让读者明了事实、弄清真相,所以, 除了词汇或句型因素,相对而言,说 明文的难度不会很大,做起题来也应 该比较得心应手。

试题特征: 1、说明文直白性较强,写作脉络清晰,又 没有很多感情因素的掺入,所以就不会有 过多的情感词汇,在理解上自然不会有钻 不出的“迷宫”。 2、说明文的层次清晰,整体性强,所以, 递进性词汇和名词的设题往往出现得较多。 只要把握这些关键,做完形填空便会得心 应手,游刃有余。

★In 1990 , leader of all big nations met in Japan and agreed to reduce 1 CO2 they put into the atmosphere. Ten years 2 , in Nov. 2000, they met again in Holland to assess ( 评估 ) the situation and decided what to do next. 1, A. many B. a number of C. the amount of D. a good many 2. A. after B. late C. later D. soon

议论文就是对人、事、行为等进 行的评论或表达的看法。议论的 内容一般是无法预知的,作者的 态度和看法又是不可预知的。所 以,我们做题时,既要看事实, 又要感悟作者的态度与情感。

试题特征: 1、目前对议论文的选材主要集中在夹叙夹 议的内容上,所以,议论要依据一定的记叙 而进行。 2、议论文的设题往往多以上下文为基础, 利用承前信息或滞后信息,使读者有所依托。 3、议论文中表达作者态度或看法的词较多, 所以,试题中对形容词和副词的考查往往也 较多。

应试技巧: 做议论文时,通读、试填、核检的步骤完 整更显重要。因为在这类问题上跳跃性较大, 例如,仅仅一个转折连词的使用,便可以把上 下文的意思来个180度的大转弯。 再如,形容词或副词的设置往往都无法从语法 上予以取舍,这时,我们便要感悟作者,感悟 主人公,感悟整个语境。看作者写文章的目的 是什么,是褒、是贬,还是仅仅提出问题,欲 以引发思考;看主人公是喜、怒、心态如何; 再看上下文语意所指,旨在提供什么样的信息。 如此等等,当无定式。

★They are some of the poorest people in a poverty stricken country. ____ now they have an extra source of income (收入). A. But C. However B. And D. Therefore

“It doesn’t make 1 ,” said one of he older music millionaires, who made a million dollars a year when he was popular , in the 1950s. “Performers aren’t worth this kind of money. In fact, 2 is.” 1. A. efforts B. progress C. sense D. money 2. A. everybody B. nobody C. somebody D. anybody

Know what
词汇题

高考完形 填空考什么?
篇章结构

句际关系

四种常考类型:

词语搭配 词义辨析 推断判断 主旨大意。

一、词语搭配类
The professor begins by selecting one 2 of art. After giving us a quick background on the artist , he will open up for class 3 . 2. A. book B. passage C. text D. work 3. A. discussion B. activity C. argument D. consideration

The other day I was sitting in a small restaurant 1 a quiet drink and a talk with a few friends when it suddenly 2 me that almost everyone in the restaurant was smoking. It wasn’t long 3 the whole room was filled with smoke. 1. A. have B. had C. having D. have had 2. A. seemed B. struck C. sank D. showed 3. A. ago B. after C. before D. now

二、词义辨析类
在完形填空题各空格所提供的四个选项中, 往往存在大量同义词、近义词、反义词、 同类词等等(也有一部分没有任何关系的 词汇掺在其中),这就要我们 予以严格地区分和细心地比较, 看其搭配、惯用法,尤其 看其内涵和外延,即词义的 差异,才能找出一个合乎 情理的答案。

★……. But I was going along cheerfully, thinking about the dinner I would eat when I 36 to Salisbury. 36. A. reached C. got B. arrived D. led

Dad looked at me again. “When you didn’t turn up , I called the garage to ask if there were any 1 , and they told me you hadn’t yet picked up the car.” (2004湖南) 1. A. questions C. mistakes B. problems D. faults

Dad taught me a lot about life, especially its hard times. I remembered one of his 1 , one night when I was ready to quit (退出) a political campaign(运动)I was losing, and wrote about it in my diary. Tired, feeling the months of 2 , I went up to my study to make some notes.

1. A. classes C. lessons 2. A. struggle C. battle

B. advice D. talks B. working D. defence

She noticed how nervous he was and suggested he should stand near the stage where he could watch and follow the play. It was a good 1 of getting rid of his nervousness, she said. She was right, it seemed to 2 . 1. A. idea C. path 2. A. do C. work B. way D. plan B. win D. act

三、推理判断类 根据语境分析,进行推理判断,是 做完形填空题的必备的素质。因为 完形填空中的任何一句话往往都不是 孤立存在的,而是要靠上下问作依托, 看前因后果才能确立的。更何况有些 空格中的选项都可能是搭配,但搭配 不同,则意义可能就不一样了。

Students generally appreciate these special 50 opportunities . They are almost always fun and interesting , and professors 51 them too because students learn so much in just a few short months.
50. A. working C. teaching 51. A. hold C. dislike B, living D. learning B. like D. discover

One evening Jackie was on his way home from the railway station. When he turned round a 1 he heard footsteps behind him and he thought 2 was coming near. He began to walk 3 . The footsteps became faster, too. He slowed down. The footsteps also 4 down. 1. A. corner B. park C. street D. way 2. A. no one B. someone C. anyone D. everyone 3. A. slowly B. more slowly C. fast D. faster 4. A. put B. slowed C. became D. turned

★English people seem very quiet ____ reserved (缄默的), usually. A. though B. and C. even D. but ★It was just getting dark; there was a touch of fog and I was on a lonely stretch of road. _____ I was going along cheerfully. A. But B. And C. Otherwise D. So

四、主旨大意题 同阅读理解一样,完形填空也有对主 旨大意题的考查,只是考查得更为隐 蔽,更为灵活而已。如果能破解这样 一道或两道的设题(同一篇里不会有 太多这样的设置),对于理清文章思 路,统领全篇和把握作者的态度或思 想感情,都有着不可估量的作用,否 则可能导致几个空格的选填失误。

In China students learn English at school as a 1 language, except for those in Hong Kong, where many people speak English as a 2 or a 3 language. 1. A. foreign 2. A. first 3. A. native B. native B. foreign B. second

….I raised the pistol and fired. The animal fell backwards with an angry cry. Father took the ____ smoking pistol from my hand , and fired another shot, which killed the gorilla.

A. still

B. yet

C. even

D. already

…….Finally I turned the key in the lock and pushed the door open, with Dad ______ complaining (抱怨 ) about a hurting knee or something…. A. yet C. even B. only D. still

失分原因:

know why

一、忽视行文逻辑,断章取义, 就题论题。

二、脱离语境,滥用固定搭配。 三、缺乏必要的生活常识和不了解 中西文化的差异。

解题方法: know how
总的原则: “先完意,后完形”。 八字方针: 上下求索,瞻前顾后。 三步曲: 读——填——读

灵活的解题技巧
1.瞻前顾后、左顾右盼、上下求索。 2.掌握固定搭配与同义词的辨析。

3.分清逻辑关系,注意文中分类、对比、 从属、并列等关系所用的词语。 4.充分利用你的常识。

Problem solving strategies 上下文语境(context) 常识背景(common sense) 习惯搭配(phrases & idioms) 词义辨析 (comparison) 语法分析(grammar analysis) 逻辑分析 (logical analysis ) 排除法 (exclusive method )

1、根据上下文解题
(2005NMET)My sister and I grew up in a little village in England.Our father was a struggling 36 , but I always knew he was 37 . … he never criticized us ,but used 38 (praise) to bring out our best …father said: “when I was 23, my dad persuaded me to go into law”. 36. A. biologist B. manager C. lawyer D. gardener 37. A. strict B. honest C. special D. learned

I put my head in, expecting the 42 (worst). But to my 43 (surprise), the room wasn’t empty at all. It had furniture, curtains, a TV, and even paintings on the wall. And then on the well-made bed sat Amy, my new 44 , dressed neatly.
44. A. roommate C. neighbor B. classmate D. companion

When I entered Berkeley, I hoped to earn a scholarship…… The last hurdle(障碍) was the final. No matter what 48 I got, it wouldn’t cancel three C-pluses. I might as well kiss the 49 goodbye. … I was speechless when my course grade arrived: A-plus. It was the only A-plus given. The next year I received my scholarship. I’ve always remembered Professor Jayne’s lesson : you alone must set your own standard of excellence. (2008· 北京卷) 48. A. grade B. answer C. lesson D. comment 49. A. scholarship B. course C. degree D. subject

… Then I had to walk several blocks in the increasingly heavy rain .When I finally got to my office, I was 47 through, exhaust-ed and 48 . ( 2008· 山东卷) 47). A. wet C. sick 48). A. ashamed C. surprised B. weak D. hurt B. discouraged D. puzzled

When I took the first exam, I was 38 to find a 77, C-plus, on my test paper, 39 English was my best subject. I went to Professor Jayne, Who listened to my arguments but remained 40 .
(2008· 北京卷)

38. A. shocked C. scared 39. A. but B. so 40. A. unchanged C. unfriendly

B. worried D. anxious C. for D. or B. unpleasant D. unmoved

(08天津卷) The next day Jenna went to see Mrs. Biden about being on the school 25 . Mrs. Biden wasn’t as 26 (enthusiastic ) as Jenna. “I’m sorry, but we have enough 27 (writer) for the newspaper already. A.committee B. newspaper C. radio D. team
原词重现

(08山东卷)Garth’s e-mail was short, but I learned more from that 52 message than I ever did from a textbook. A. accurate B.urgent C. brief D. humorous
同义词、近义词复现

2. 根据固定搭配、词语辨析解题
1) He was only fourteen and was not good at swimming__1_.So he shouldn’t have gone into that place. 1. A. after all B. in all C. at all D. for all 2) So I tried hard with my writing and went to college . My first novel 45 while I was at college. 45. A. came on B. came in C. came out D. came back

3. (08安徽)There are many different ways of seeing a town for the first time. One of them is to walk around it, guide-book 36 hand. A. in B. at C. by D. on 4.(08安徽) When we 41(look at ) it as a whole, we begin to have some 42 ,which even the best guide-books do not answer. A. ideas B. opinions C. feelings D. questions

5.(08湖南)Cassie looked at me, and her glare . I laughed, She smiled… A.returned C. increased B. remained D. softened

6.(08四川)I knew she had strict sleeping habits, but I thought she ought to be able to 22 some of this strictness. A. put up B. take up C. pick up D. give up

7). A woman in her sixties lived alone in her little cottage with a pear tree at the door. She spent all her time taking care of the tree. But the children nearby drove her 21 by making fun of her. They would climb her tree and then run away with pears, 22 “Aunty Misery” at her. (2008年· 陕西卷) 21. A. hopeless C. dull 22. A. calling C. announcing B. painful D. crazy B. shouting D. whispering

8). On the road of life, the help of strangers can 37 our loads and lift our spirits…
(2008年· 重庆卷)

37. A. move B. increasing C. lighten D. carry 3). I 40 to be one of the people on the way to work that morning. I went from subway line to subway line to find that most (service) 41 had stopped. (2008年· 山东卷) 40. A. used B. promised C. deserved D. happened

3、根据逻辑推理解题
1) It was taking up a great deal of my time, and the headmaster of my school gave me a choice ; stay in school 47 leave to work on my magazine. 47. A. besides B. but C. and D. or

2). (08天津)Jenna, a popular girl from Westwood Middle School, had graduated first in her class and was ready for new challenges in high school. , high school was different. A. Therefore B. However 转折关系 C. Otherwise D. Besides
3).(08湖北)Neilson considers herself lucky ___ she suffered injuries. A. and B. but C. though D. when 让步关系

4、根据生活常识解题
1). …she was competing against very talented girls, and she knew it would be 18 for her to be selected. Two hours later, the 19 read a list of the girls for a second tryout… (08 年· 天津)
18. A. difficult C. boring 19. A. editor C. candidate B. easy D. interesting B. boss D. judge

2).I was a single parent of four small children, working at a low-paid job. Money was always tight, but we had a 36 over our heads, food on the table , clothes on our backs ,and if not a lot, always 37 … (2008年· 辽宁卷) 36. A. roof B. hat C. sky D. star 37. A. little B. less C. enough D. more

3.(08湖南卷) I made my sandwich that afternoon while waiting for Cassie. 39 the butter-cream gave me an idea. A. Spreading B. Boiling C. Baking D. Holding 4.Every morning she would give him breakfast 29 bed and bring him the papers to 30 . 29.A. to B. at C. in D. by 30.A. check B. read C. keep D. sign

5. 简化句子,突破长句。
He is a great chatter 48 (as well). If he did not know them, he would greet them with a few 49 about the weather , 50 he did know them , he would ask about their families or make 51 , always cutting his cloth 52 his customers. (MNET2005江 西卷) 49. A. Saying B. questions C. words D. speeches 50. A. and then B. and so C. even if D. but if 51. A. Preparations B. jokes C. repairs D. friends 52. A. according to B. due to C. instead of D. up to

完型填空考查内容
语篇信息 词汇手段 语法手段 逻辑手段
复 现 同 现 替 省 语 法 项 代 略 目 顺并分转解因 序列指折释果 关关关关关关 系系系系系系

语篇结构(语境理解)

巧解完形填空——高分技巧
一、研究首尾——找主题 二、上下联系——寻信息 三、左顾右盼——找搭配 四、思前想后——觅逻辑 五、语境分析——辨词义 六、集中精力——破难题 七、回读检查——补漏洞

备战完形填空——能力必备
一、快速阅读能力 二、词汇辨析能力 三、词汇搭配的理解能力 四、逻辑推断能力 五、运用常识能力 六、揣测作者意图的能力

如何提高能力技巧
一、提高阅读能力(速度、理解) 二、打好语法基础 (固定搭配)

三、扩充词汇量(动词、名词)
四、增长生活常识,培养广泛的兴趣爱好 五、多做多练,以提高实战能力

Practice makes perfect.


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